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EE HUI TENG 0322548
LIM HONG WEI 0322741
LOH MUN TONG 0323680
SOO YON LI 0322821
TAM ZHAO WEI 0322587
YEE JHY LIN 0322408




1.0 Abstract 3
2.0 Introduction 4
3.0 Mechanical Air-Conditioning System
3.1 Ventilation
3.1.1 Mechanical Ventilation 5
3.1.2 Mechanical Fan 5
3.2 Mechanical Ventilation System
3.2.1 Types of Air-Conditioning System 6
3.2.2 Refrigeration cycle: Vapour Compression 11
3.2.3 Zoning 13
3.2.4 Ductwork System 14
4.0 Fire Protection System
4.1 Active Fire Protection System
4.1.1 Introduction 16
4.1.2 Fire Detection System 16
4.1.3 Manual Stations 17
4.1.4 Fire Alarm System 18
4.1.5 Fire Intercom System 19
4.1.6 Fire Control Panel 20
4.1.7 Fireman Switch 21
4.1.8 External Fire Hydrant System 22
4.1.9 Fire Sprinkler System 23
4.1.10 Hand Operated Fire Fighting 24
4.2 Passive Fire Protection System
4.2.1 Introduction 29
4.2.2 Fire Rated Door 29
4.2.3 Means of Escape Fire Emergency Staircase 31 Emergency Sign 33 Emergency Escape Route 35 Assembly Point 37
5.0 Vertical Transportation System
5.1 Introduction 38

5.2 Elevator
5.2.1 Elevator in Da Men Mall 38
5.2.2 Exterior and Interior of Elevator 40
5.2.3 Components of the system Geared Traction Lift 42 Machine Room 43 Hoistway and Pit 45 Landing 47
5.3 Escalator
5.3.1 Components of the system 48
5.3.2 Escalator in Da Men Mall 49
5.3.3 Arrangement of Escalator 51
6.0 Electricity Generation and Supply System
6.1 Introduction 53
6.2 Components of the system
6.2.1 TNB Substation 54
6.2.2 High Voltage Room 55
6.2.3 Main Switchboard Room 56
6.2.4 Service Entrance 57
6.2.5 Distribution Panels 57
6.2.6 Electrical Conduits and Trunking 58
6.2.7 Electrical Riser Room 58
6.2.8 Gen-set Room 59
6.3 Electrical Generation and Supply System of Da Men Mall 61
7.0 Problems and Recommendation
7.1 Mechanical Air-Conditioning System 62
7.2 Fire Protection System 64
8.0 Conclusion 67
9.0 References 68
10.0 Appendix 71


Building services is one of a crucial role in a building because it helps to ensure the building is
comfortable, functional, efficient and safe for the users. In this assignment, the information
regarding mechanical air-conditioning system, fire protection system, vertical transportation
system, as well as electricity generation and supply system were identified and discussed. We
have chosen Da Men Mall that located in Subang Jaya as our case study project to observe and
identify the building services systems. With this assignment, we are able to illustrate the
services construction in schematic diagrams and also distinguish and differentiate the
installation of various types of services in a building which is following to Uniform Building
by Law (UBBL). Recommendation is provided for mechanical air-conditioning system and fire
protection system for improvement.


Da Men Mall is located in the bustling area of USJ 1, Subang Jaya, Selangor. It is strategically
situated at the heart of USJ. Da Men Mall was opened on January 8th, 2016 and it has 138
retailers to date.

This mall is an Asian Lifestyle Mall consisting of a variety of shops and restaurants with plenty
of parking bays for shoppers. It consists of 8 floors; 2 floors for basement parking and 6 floors
for shops. Furthermore, it is convenient to visit due to the recent development of Light Rail
Transit (LRT) station and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) station. All of which are within walking

The purpose of the building as a case study is to further observe the existing types of building
services found in a commercial building. All of the building services were then further analyzed
to gain better understanding about the systems.

3.1 Ventilation

3.1.1 Mechanical Ventilation

Mechanical ventilation is a system that aids in the process of converting the air in an enclosed
place into fresh and clean air. The dirty indoor air is withdrawn and fresh air is supplied into
the building through an external source.

3.1.2 Mechanical Fan

Ceiling Fan (Propeller Fan)

Da Men Mall utilizes ceiling fans at its open-air area to circulate the air within the space.
However, ceiling fans do not introduce fresh air and only circulates the air within the space for
the purpose of lowering the perceived temperature through evaporation of sweat on the skin of
the occupants.

Figure 3.1 Ceiling Fan

Floor Blower (Centrifugal Fan)

Floor blower is used to circulate the air throughout the toilet which aids in the drying process.
It is important to dry the toilet immediately after the toilet is cleaned to prevent the growth of
mold and bacteria. It also helps to get rid of unpleasant smell in the toilet.

Figure 3.2 Floor Blower

Hand Dryer

Hand dryer is used in all washroom in Da Men Mall. It can be classified as a green technology
device because it reduces costs and minimize the degradation of environment. They require
little maintenance and are also better for environment due to the reduction in litter and waste
in comparison with paper towel that cannot be recycled.

Figure 3.3 Hand Dryer

3.2 Mechanical Ventilation System

3.2.1 Types of Air-Conditioning System

Air conditioning system is a system that involves the process of eliminating heat and humidity
in a confined space while cooling the air. It is used to achieve thermal comfort, to cool or
dehumidify rooms occupied with heat generating devices or machineries. There are three types
of air conditioning system namely unitary system which is for domestic use only, packaged
system for two rooms or large spaces and centralized system that is incorporated in large
buildings. In Da Men Mall, packaged and centralized system is used in the building.

Packaged System

Packaged system is used in lower ground floor levels of the mall where the parking lot is. The
air-conditioners are air-cooled package as the refrigeration system is cooled by the atmospheric
air. The system comprises of outdoor unit, which are the compressor, condenser and expansion
valve and indoor unit, inclusive of fan and evaporator coil. Both of the units are connected by
insulated refrigerant pipes. The cooling load of the system ranges around 24,000 to 36,000 Btu
per hour which shows that it provides greater capacity compared to unitary system which has
a cooling load of 6,000 to 24,000 Btu per hour.

Figure 3.4 Packaged System

Figure 3.5 Indoor Unit

Figure 3.6 Outdoor Unit


Easy access for technicians All components placed in one unit makes it simpler for
technicians to get into the unit for repairs and maintenance.
Readily heat and cool large spaces Packaged units are made to warm and cool big
Saves space The unit can be fixed on the roof that requires no floor space.
Individual control Each unit can be switch on and off, adjust temperature and wind
speed individually hence reducing the wastage of energy consumption and electricity
bill cost.


Prone to damages the outdoor unit of the system needs to withstand harsher conditions.
This exposure may cause unit to rust and corrode faster. Small rodents can easily slip
into the unit and destroy the wires and coil inside too.

Centralized System

Centralized system in Da Men Mall can be found in the floors where the shops are located at.
The system comprises of a plant room where large compressor, condenser, thermostatic
expansion valve and evaporator are stored, cooling tower, ducting and diffuser. Several types
of diffusers had been installed namely cone, nozzle, swirl, linear and multi-direction diffusers.
Side wall inlets are also found in the building.

Figure 3.7 Centralized System

Figure 3.8 Side Wall Inlet Figure 3.9 Linear Diffuser

Figure 3.10 Cone Diffuser Figure 3.11 - Nozzle

Figure 3.12 Swirl Diffuser Figure 3.13 Plant Room


Consistent temperature The temperature is maintained same throughout building.

Filtered air Ducting in the system filters the air before diffusing cooled air out.


Higher electricity bills Centralised system consume more energy compared to other
systems as it needs to maintain the same temperature throughout building which
includes areas that does not need air conditioning.
Duct Maintenance In order for the air filters in the ducting to function efficiently, the
duct shall be maintained frequently to dispose bacteria and mould.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 41

(I) Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air- conditioning is intended, the relevant
building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be
waived at the discretion of the local authority.

(2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition
to the permanent air-conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of
ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half an hour of the air-conditioning
system failing, not less than the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be
introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air-conditioning system is not

(3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are
mechanically ventilated or air- conditioned.

(4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms

or corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Third
Schedule to these By-laws, the provisions of these By-laws relating to natural ventilation and
natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water-closets, bathrooms or corridors.

3.3.2 Refrigeration cycle: Vapour Compression
Refrigeration is the process of removing thermal energy from a lower-temperature heat source,
substance, or cooling medium and transferring it to a higher-temperature region. A combination
of components and equipment connected in a sequential order makes up a refrigeration cycle
that is used to produce refrigeration effect.

At Da Men Mall, Vapour Compression Refrigeration System is used. A refrigeration system is

a system that operates by undergoing refrigeration process which can indicate the change of
thermodynamics properties of the refrigerant and the energy transfer between the refrigerant
and the surroundings. In this system, the refrigeration effect is generated through the
evaporation of refrigerant at low temperatures. The following processes take place during the

1. Evaporation: At this stage, the refrigerant is at a lower temperature than its surroundings
hence it evaporates and absorbs its latent heat of vaporisation. Heat extraction from the
refrigerant occurs at low pressure and temperature. The low pressure is maintained by the
compressor suction effect.

2. Compression: The gaseous refrigerant enters the compressor at low pressure and
temperature. Here, the refrigerant is compressed to a higher pressure and temperature. The
compressor can be of scroll, screw, centrifugal or reciprocating types.

3. Condensation: The condenser is usually a heat exchanger. The gaseous refrigerant is

condensed into liquid form through de-superheating, then condensed, and finally sub-
cooled, transferring its latent heat of condensation to a coolant. As the refrigerant flows
through the condenser, it is in a constant pressure.

4. Throttling & Expansion: The higher-pressure liquid refrigerant is throttled to the lower
evaporating pressure and is ready for evaporation. This is because when the liquid
refrigerant enters the throttle valve, it expands and releases pressure. Hence, the temperature
drops at this stage. Usually the refrigerant leaves the throttle valve as a liquid vapour

1. Evaporation 2. Compression

High Pressure
Lower Pressure
High Temperature
Lower Temperature

Low Pressure Reduced Pressure

Low Temperature Reduced Temperature

4. Throttling &
3. Condensation

Figure 3.14 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Process

3.3.3 Zoning
Zoning in HVAC allows a building to be divided into different zones for different usages and
functions of a big space. This is to provide control of temperature for each zone. By using
electronically controlled modulating dampers and thermostats, the temperature of each zone
can be adjusted automatically. This helps to save energy by not heating or cooling zones thats
already in their optimum temperature.

The mall is zoned according to the type of business such as anchor, general retails, food &
beverages and beauty & fashion. For example, the F&B zone is mainly at Lower Ground and
Ground floor. This is because a better ventilation is needed so that the smell of food won't
circulate the entire building and causes the customers to feel uncomfortable.

Anchor General Retail Food & Beverages Beauty & Fashion

Figure 3.15 Da Men Mall Building Floor Plan

3.3.4 Ductwork System
If the HVAC equipment is the heart of a building, then the ducts will be the circulatory system.
Ductwork serves to channel conditioned air to vents, takes return air back into the system and
transports exhaust air and waste thermal energy to the exterior of a building. Ductwork system
is installed to provide ventilation for a better indoor environment.

Properly installed ductwork system can bring about benefits such as providing sufficient air
flow, higher energy efficiency, longer equipment life span, better indoor air quality and greater
comfort for occupants.

There are two types of ductwork system: concealed ductwork system and exposed ductwork
system. At Da Men Mall, both concealed and exposed ductwork system are installed to enhance
the centralised air conditioning system to ensure an optimum indoor ventilation. Most of the
ductwork system from Ground Floor to the Fourth Floor are concealed by the ceiling as most
of the stores have their own ambient design which exposed ductwork might cause
inconvenience for the design of the stores.

For exposed ductwork system, they are installed at Lower Ground Floor and the basement
carparks. The exposed ductwork system installed at Lower Ground Floor is only at the centre
of the floor, which is part of the Food & Beverages zone. This is because the Lower Ground
Floor is mostly of F&B zone, hence a better indoor air ventilation is needed so that the smell
of food and beverages won't circulate around the entire mall and causes the customers to feel


General Retail

Food & Beverages

Zone with Exposed Ductwork System

Figure 3.16 Da Men Mall Lower Ground Floor Plan

The exposed ductwork is wrapped with an external wrapping namely asbestos paper wrap for
insulation purposes. With the wrapping, it provides a better condensation control and thermal
benefit and it reduces vibration which results in minimum acoustical benefit.

Figure 3.17 & 3.18

Exposed Ductwork System at Lower Ground Floor

On the other hand, the exposed ductwork system is installed at the basement carparks because
the floor height for the levels are shorter than the upper ground floors. Hence, it is not
recommended to conceal the ductwork with ceiling.

Figure 3.19 & 3.20

Exposed Ductwork System at Basement Carparks

4.1 Active Fire Protection System
4.1.1 Introduction
Active Fire Protection (AFP) is a set of systems which required an amount of action or motion
to work efficiently and effectively in the event of a fire. The actions may be manually handled
or automatic.

4.1.2 Fire Detection system

The main function is to quickly identify a developing fire and alert building occupants and
emergency response personnel before extensive damage occurs. Da Men Mall has incorporated
air sampling detection system.

Air Sampling Detection System

This system samples air throughout the protected space by aspiration and brings it to the
detector for testing. The aspiration and air conduction system is simply a piping system with
holes at sampling points, and is powered by a fan. The advantage of the system is that air
throughout the space is sampled, thus, in effect, converting each sampling opening into a highly
sensitive laser-beam detector.

Figure 4.1 Air Sampling Detection System

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 153
Smoke detectors for lift lobbies
(1) All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors.
(2) Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by
light beam or photo-detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature which after
thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a present time.

4.1.3 Manual Stations

Manual stations are operated by hand and can serve to spread an alarm that has already been
detected by other means, either human or automatic.

Manual Fire Alarm activation

The advantage of manual fire switch is that they provide occupants with a readily identifiable
means to activate the building fire alarm system. Manual key switch is installed at a height of
1.34m above floor level and can be found on all exit routes including car park.

Figure 4.2 Manual Fire Alarm Activation

4.1.4 Fire Alarm system
A fire alarm system serves primarily to protect life and secondarily to prevent loss. A fire alarm
system has three basic parts: signal initiation, signal processing, and alarm indication. Da Men
Mall contains both signal initiation which are the manual (telephone) and automatic (fire and
smoke detectors). The alarm signal is processed by computer control equipment, which in turn
activates audible and visible alarms.

Alarm Gong
An alarm gong mounted on the wall warns of water flow through the alarm valve upon
activation of a sprinkler head. This warning gives the building personnel an opportunity to
make additional firefighting arrangements that can minimize loss and speed the termination of
the fire.

Figure 4.3 Alarm Gong

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 237

Fire Alarms
(1) Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.
(2) All premises and buildings with gross floor area excluding car park and storage areas
exceeding 9290 square metres or exceeding 30.5 metres in height shall be provided with a
two-stage alarm system with evacuation (continuous signal) to be given immediately in the
affected section of the premises while an alert (intermittent signal) be given in adjoining
(3) Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action of a master

4.1.5 Fire Intercom system
Fire intercom system provides reliable communication between the Master Console (Fire
Command Centre) and the remote Handset stations. When buildings are outfitted with fireman
intercom systems, it allows our firefighters to instantly change their plans to fight a fire. The
intercom handset stations are located at staircase at every level.

Figure 4.4 Fire Intercom System

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 239

Voice communication system
There shall be two separate approved continuously electrically supervised voice
communications systems, one a fire brigade communications system and the other a public-
address system between the central control station and the following areas:
(a) Lifts, lift lobbies, corridors and staircases;
(b) In every office area exceeding 92.9 square metres in area;
(c) In each dwelling unit and hotel guest room where the fire brigade system may be
combined with the public-address system.

4.1.6 Fire Control Panel
Fire control panel is a component which offers to control through a fire alarm or notification
system. The sensors are installed throughout the building. These sensors would redirect
information to the control panel. They include environmental changes that could detect the
presence of a fire. The panel receives notifications for potential operational issues with
equipment that could cause a fire and alert the employees inside the building if a potential fire
was detected or predicted.

In Da Men Mall, each fire control panel is connected with a manual fire key switch and an
alarm ring bell.

Figure 4.5 Fire Control Panel

4.1.7 Fireman switch
Fireman switch is a specialized switch disconnector or isolator. They are used by firemen to
turn off high voltage or other electrical equipment in case of fire to prevent overheated
equipment from exploding.

Figure 4.6 Fireman Switch

4.1.8 External Fire Hydrant System
Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 133
Fire hydrant means an installation of pipes, water tanks, pumps and hydrant outlets in a
building to provide a ready means by which a jet of water can be delivered in any part of the
building for the purpose of firefighting.

Figure 4.7 External Fire Hydrant System

Da Men Mall consists of 2 ways fire hydrants which each located beside a fire hose box. All
fire hydrants are situated at 9.45m from building and spaced 29.3m apart along access road.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 225

Detecting and extinguishing fire
(1) Every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with
fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as
specified in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.
(2) Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5
metres from the nearest point of fire brigade access.
(3) Depending on the size and location of the building and the provision of access for fire
appliances, additional fire hydrant shall be provided as may be required by the Fire

4.1.9 Fire Sprinkler System
Water sprinklers provide an automatic spray dedicated to the area of fire outbreak. Sprinkler
heads have temperature-sensitive elements that respond immediately to heat, discharging the
contents of the water main to which they are attached. Da Men Mall has incorporated the
recycling pre-action system.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 228

Sprinkler Valve
(1) Sprinkler valves shall be in a safe and enclosed position on the exterior wall and shall be
readily accessible to the Fire Authority.
(2) All sprinkler systems shall be electricity connected to the nearest fire station to provide
immediate and automatic relay of the alarm when activated.

Recycling pre-action system

Recycling pre-action system is designed as a damage-limiting installation. After sprinklers,
have subdued a fire, a heat detector responds to a lower temperature and disengages the water
supply after a five-minute delay. If the fire restarts and temperature rises, the detector re-
engages a motorised valve on the water supply.

Figure 4.8 - Sprinkler System

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 226

Automatic System for hazardous occupancy
Where hazardous processes, storage or occupancy are of such character as to require
automatic sprinklers or other automatic extinguishing system, it shall be of a type and
standard appropriate to extinguish fires in the hazardous materials stored or handled or for the
safety of the occupants.

4.1.10 Hand Operated Fire Fighting Equipment
Portable Fire Extinguisher
Portable fire extinguishers are colour-coded cylinders containing compressed liquids and gases
appropriate to various source of fire. It is a standard fire-fighting equipment in all commercial
and public buildings. They are rated and classified based on the type of fire they are designed
to fight. Da Men Mall comprises two classes of portable fire extinguishers, they are Class A:
B: C and Class D.

Class A: B: C
Multipurpose dry chemical extinguishers filled primarily with ammonium phosphate and
suitable for use with all three classes of fire.

Figure 4.9 Portable Fire Extinguisher Class A: B: C

Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher
Contain carbon dioxide in liquid form. When the extinguisher is let off, the liquid is released
into the air neutralising the oxygen that the fire is feeding on, disabling the fire from spreading.
It can prevent fire from reoccurring because of the lack of oxygen and ice cold temperature of
the carbon dioxide.

Figure 4.10 Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 227

Portable Extinguisher
Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with the relevant codes of practice and
shall be sited in prominent positions on exit routes to be visible from all directions and similar
extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

Hose Reel System
Hose reel is a first aid to firefighting, intended for use by the building occupants. Each hose
reel delivers considerable more water than several portable extinguishers, and with continued
replenishment can be an important fire resource capable of saving lives and the building.

Da Men Shopping Mall has installed the SRI Fire Hose Reel system with nozzle box and they
are located along the fire escape path and escape routes for easy access.

Figure 4.11 Hose Reel System

Specification for Hose Reel System Specification for Nozzle Box

Code Number: HRS056-MS-722-RD Dimension: 130mm (W) x 130mm (H) x 55mm (D)

Drum Size: 22 (559mm) Thickness: 0.9mm

Hose Diameter: 25mm Installation: Wall Mounted

Hose Length: 30mm Material: Mild Steel / Aluminum Alloy

Depth of Hose Reel: 240mm

Type: Fixed Automatic

Material: Rubber Hose

Location of Hose Reel, Fire Extinguisher A: B: C and Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher

Hose Reel
Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher CO2

Figure 4.12 Floor Plan of Basement 2

Hose Reel
Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher CO2

Figure 4.13 Floor Plan of Basement 1

Hose Reel

Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher CO2


Figure 4.14 Floor Plan of Lower Ground Floor

Hose Reel
Fire Extinguisher Fire Extinguisher

Figure 4.15 Floor Plan of Ground Floor


4.2.1 Introduction

Passive Fire Protection systems that compartmentalize a building with fire-resistance rated
walls and floors, keeping the fire from spreading quickly and providing time to escape for
occupants in the building. Also, this system will be made during the planning design stage of
a building.

4.2.2 Fire Rated Door

Fire rated doors used for emergency exits or staircase are door which has thicker protection
than normal door. They are used to separate compartments to prevent fire from spreading. It
slow down the fire by restricting the flow of oxygen and prevent the fire from spreading.

In Da Men Mall, the single and double leaf fire rated doors are used. They are found in walls
of corridors and room partitions in the building. All the doors in the building are openable from
the inside out. When escaping, the door must be swing at the exit direction of the room as it
allows user to exit with ease, allowing smoother and safe escapes.

Figure 4.16 & 17 Fire Rated Door

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 162
Fire doors in compartment walls and separating walls

(1) Fire doors of the appropriate FRP shall be provided.

(2) Openings in compartment walls and separating walls shall be protected by a fire for
having a FRP in accordance with the requirements for that wall specified in the
Ninth Schedule to these By-Laws.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 164 (1)

Fire doors in compartment walls and separating walls

All fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers of the hydraulically spring operated type
in the case of swing doors and of wire rope and weight type in the case of sliding door.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 173 (1)

Exit Doors

All exit doors shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or any special knowledge
or effort.
4.2.3 Means of Escape Fire Emergency Staircase

Fire emergency staircase are a crucial part of any building because it is an escape route for users
to evacuate out of the building safely. In Da Men Mall, there are several fire emergency
staircases to accommodate the size of the mall and the number of users. The fire emergency
staircases are made accessible for users in case of an event of a fire outbreak. The dimensions of
the staircase are uniform and consistent throughout the flight of stairs. Also, there are no winders
on the staircase as it would be dangerous for emergency staircases.

Figure 4.18- Fire Emergency Staircase

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 110

No obstruction in staircases

(1) There shall be no obstruction in any staircase between the topmost landing thereof and the
exit discharge on the ground floor.
(2) There shall be no projection, other than handrails in staircases, in any corridor, passage or
staircase at a level lower than 2 metres above the floor or above any stair.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 111

Lighting and ventilation of staircases

All staircases shall be properly lighted and ventilated according to the requirements of the local

Figure 4.19 Placement of Fire Emergency Staircase

33 Emergency Exit Signs
Emergency exit signs are important to direct users to use the shortest escape route if an event of
fire or any emergency. It easily alerts users to escape out of the building which will lead them to
safety, which is the assembly point. In Malaysia, the exit signage is known as KELUAR. The
KELUAR signage is required to be lit permanently and must be visible to users always.

In Da Men Mall, the emergency exit signs are placed on top of the fire emergency staircase door
and along the escape routes.

Figure 4.20 Dimensions of KELUAR Signage

UBBL 1984 Section 172

Emergency exit signs

(1) Storey exits and access to such exits hall be marked by readily visible signs and shall not
be obscured by any decorations, furnishings or other equipment.
(2) A sign reading KELUAR with an arrow indicating the direction shall be placed in every
location where the direction of travel to reach the nearest exit is not immediately apparent.
(3) Every exit sign shall have the word KELUAR in plainly legible letters not less than 150
millimetres high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 18 millimetres wide.
The lettering shall be red against a black background.
(4) All exit signs shall be illuminated continuously during periods of occupancy.
(5) Illuminated signs shall be provided with two electric lamps of not less than fifteen watts

Figure 4.21 Emergency Exit Signs placed on top of every Emergency Exit Door

Figure 4.22 Emergency Exit Signs placed along the Emergency Escape Routes

35 Emergency Escape Routes
Emergency escape routes play an important role to direct users an easy route out of the building to
a safe outdoor assembly point if a fire outbreak occurs in the building. There are no obstructions
throughout the emergency escape routes. This allow users to escape through the fastest and safest
route in the building. In Da Men Mall, the emergency escape routes plans are placed beside the
elevators. As such, it is convenient for users to read and understand the emergency escape routes.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 165

Measurement of travel distance to exits

(4) The maximum travel distance to exits and dead end limits shall be as specified in the
Seventh Schedule of these By-Laws.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 169

Exit route

No exit route may reduce in width along its pathway of travel from the story exit to the
final exit.

Figure 4.23 Emergency Escape Route Plan

Figure 4.24 Emergency Escape Route Plan placed near the elevators

37 Assembly Point
Assembly point is a location designated as the place for people to gather in the event of an
emergency such as a fire outbreak. All the escape routes must be able to lead occupants from the
building to a safe open assembly point. In Da Men Mall, the assembly point is located outside the
building at the ground floor near the main entrance.

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 Section 178

Exits for institutional and other places of assembly

In buildings classified as institutional or places of assembly, exits to a street or large open space,
together with staircases, corridors and passages leading to such exits shall be located, separated or
protected as to avoid any undue danger to the occupants of the place of assembly from fire
originating in the other occupancy or smoke therefrom.

Figure 4.25 Fire Assembly Point Sign

5.1 Introduction

Mechanical Transportations System is a platform or cabin to transport loads or passengers up and

down from one level of a building to another. There are several types of mechanical transportation
system which includes elevators and escalators. These systems are generally powered by electric
motors that either drive traction cables or counterweight systems such as hoist, or pump hydraulic
fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack.

Mechanical Transportation System is a system where it is needed in most modern buildings for
users to travel vertically from one floor to another. It is also a huge help to the disabled and elderlies.
According to UBBL 1984 Clause 124 [ACT 133], any building that exceeds 4 storeys and above
or below the main access must provide an elevator, or less when wheelchair movement. The
minimum standard of service for one lift is each four storeys, with a maximum walking distance
of 45m to the lift lobby. For all buildings, elevators should be placed at the source of traffic flow,
which means providing easy means of access to all building users.

5.2 Elevator

An elevator is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors, levels
and decks of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are generally powered by electric
motors that either drive traction cables, or counterweight systems like a hoist. Besides elevator can
also be classified into Hydraulic type as well where the elevators are powered by piston that travels
insides a cylinder, an electric motor pumps oil into the cylinder to move the piston.

5.2.1 Elevator in Da Men Mall

Both passenger lift and cargo lift in Da Men Mall uses electric lifts only. The reason why Hydraulic
lift were not implemented in Da Men Mall is due to having 8 storey high which Hydraulic lift were
not recommended in this case.

Figure 5.1 Introduction of Figure 5.2 Cargo Lift Figure 5.3 Passenger Lift
each floor and number of

The electric lift that were used in Da Men Mall consists of 4 lifts per floor. Below is the location
of the elevators.

Figure 5.4 Basic Directory Graphic with Location of Elevators and Escalators

5.2.2 Exterior and Interior of Elevator

Figure 5.5 & 5.6 & 5.7 Elevators in Da Men Mall

From the figure above, the location of the elevator is not too obvious because Da Men Mall main
mechanical transportation is the escalator and travelator. The exterior of the lift consists the basic
information about each floors detail as well as number of floors in the mall. A well detailed floor
plan for each level is also displayed at the top of the call button.

The elevator is relatively big as it is able to fit up to 24 persons and a capacity of 1635KG. The
touch buttons are clearly displayed out with each floor levels as well as having a touch button for
the disabled.

Figure 5.8 Interior of the Lift Figure 5.9 Touch Button of the Lift

Figure 5.10 LED Display Screen with Figure 5.11 Touch Button for Disable
General Specification of the Lift

5.2.3 Components of Systems

Since only electric system is applied in Da Men Mall, they are exclusively driven by geared
traction lift. The design is mean the power from an electric motor is transmitted to the multiple
rope suspension of the car and a counterweight by friction between the specially shaped grooves
of the driving traction sheave of the machine and ropes. Geared Traction Lift

Geared traction lifts are driven by AC or DC electric motors. The electric motor in this design
drives a worm-and-gear-type reduction unit, which turns the hoisting sheave. While the lift rates
are slower than in a typical gearless elevator, the gear reduction offers the advantage of requiring
a less powerful motor to turn the sheave.

The major components of a Geared Traction Lift are machine room, cabs and hoist way.
Machine rooms for traction elevators generally located directly above the hoist way.

Figure 5.12 Components of a Geared Traction Lift

Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 - Section 153

1. It is stated in the UBBL clause that all lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors.
2. Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by
light beam or photo-detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature after thirty
seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a preset time. Machine Room

Traction Machine

Figure 5.13 Traction Machine

It is powered by AC-DC electrical motor. It functions to turn the sheave which then moves the
elevator car. It used in high-rise applications whereby the drive motor and drive sheave are
connected in line on a common shaft. It requires minimal space requirement by eliminating the
traction machine gearbox. Not only that, this machine is equipped with a highly efficient
permanent magnet synchronous motor. It moves the car by ropes and incorporates a motor and a
brake. The traction sheave is connected directly to the motor shaft and the motor rotation (speed)
directly regulated the traction sheave.


Figure 5.14 - Governor

A governor is an elevator device acting as a stop device in case the elevator runs beyond the
rated speed, an overspeed governor must be installed in the traction elevators which function as
activates the safety gears by the governor ropes when the car speed has exceeded its limit. When
an elevator reaches a predetermined overspeed, the switch located in a governor opens and
power is removed from the machine motor and brake.

45 Hoistway and Pit

Polyurethane-coated steel belt

Figure 5.15 Hoistway and Elevator Steel Belt

Machine room-less system uses these steel belts that replace the heavy woven steel cables. There
are several advantages to using these belts which are make sheave possible, they are only 3mm
thick, yet they are as strong as woven steel cables and far more durable, flexible and space-
saving. In terms of space saving, the flexible flat belt enables a more compact, energy-efficient
machine, which can be contained in the hoist way.


Figure 5.16 - Counterweight

The counterweight and the car are perfectly balanced to conserve energy. With equal loads on
each side of the sheave, it only takes a little bit of force to tip the balance one way or the other.
Basically, the motor only has to overcome friction -- the weight on the other side does most of
the work. Both the elevator car and the counterweight ride on guide rails along the sides of the
elevator shaft. The rails keep the car and counterweight from swaying back and forth, and they
also work with the safety system to stop the car in an emergency.


Figure 5.17 - Buffer

A buffer functions as an emergency stop if the lift car in case over travel into the lift pit. The
buffer located directly below the centre of gravity car and counterweight. The buffer needed in
case the lift do over travel, the spring of the buffer would be able to absorb the landing impact of
the lift to minimize injury passenger in the lift.

47 Landing

Landing Doors

Landing Door prevents objects from entering the path of the lift while it is travelling as it can cause
great problem or injury to the passenger if a landing door is not installed. It is usually made from
steel with either applied skin finish. As for Da Men Mall, the landing door uses the conventional
single speed centre opening.

Figure 5.18 Landing Door of Da Men Mall

5.3 Escalator

An escalator is a transport system in terms of moving staircase, connected to the endless belt that
helps to circulate the stair steps driven by a motor. It is to transport person from one floor to
another conveniently. The moving escalator can be reversible if theres a huge traffic flow in the

A standardized escalator speeds up its stairs at a speed of 0.45-0.60 metres per second. The angle
of the moving staircase is usually 30 degrees. The width of the steps are approximately 0.6
metres to 1.2 metres and each metre can include 2 people to stand.

5.3.1 Components of the System

Figure 5.19 Components of Escalator

7 Electric Control 1 Steps

8 Drive 2 Steps Chains

9 Main Shaft 3 Handrail Compensation

10 Handrail Drive 4 Chain Tensioning Drive

11 Balustrade 5 Comb Plates

12 Main Truss 6 Handrail Return

5.3.2 Escalator in Da Men Mall

Da Men Mall has a total of 7 floors. 2 underground floors mainly are the car park zone which is
the lowest floor level and LG where some shops are located. Moving on the ground floor, above
ground floor are 1F, 2F, 3F and 4F. There are few ways to travel from levels to levels, one of the
systems used is the escalator. Heres an example of how the escalator in Da Men looks like.

Figure 5.20 An elevator that moves occupants from the car park level to the lower
ground (LG) and from lower ground (LG) to the ground floor (GF).

Figure 5.21 - Picture taken from the ground floor (GF).

Figure 5.22 - The front view of the escalator in Da Men Mall.

Figure 5.23 - An escalator at the highest floor of the mall.

Comparing the escalators from Figure 5.22 and 5.23, there is a slight difference between them. In
Figure 5.23, the name of the vertical transportation system is travelator; whereas Figure 5.22 is
escalator. Both have the same function but the travelator provides a flat platform not only for
people but also for trolleys be transported from one floor to another. The main reason why they
install a travelator from the lower ground (LG) to the ground floor (GF) is because there is a
supermarket on the ground floor. It eases the customers to push their trolleys from the supermarket
to the car in the basement car park.

5.3.3 Arrangement of Escalator

There are few arrangements for the escalator. The escalator arrangement that is used in Da Men
is the Two-Way Traffic Parallel. This type of escalator arrangement can help to reduce the slow
moving heavy traffic because there is no waiting intervals and customers can spend less time
walking to the other desired flow escalator.

Figure 5.24 An example of how the escalator in Da Men Mall are arranged,
which is Two Way Traffic (Parallel).

Figure 5.25 Two Way Traffic (Parallel)


6.1 Introduction

Figure 6.1 Illustration of Electrical Supply System

Electricity is generated from the generating station or power plant. Firstly, the electricity will pass
through the step-up transformer to increase the voltage to a suitable level for transmission and pass
through HV transmission lines. It will then go through a step-down transformer substation, thereby
passing through the distribution grids that works to divide electric power into networks. This leads
to the distribution of electricity to every building in the vicinity for customer usage. Electricity is
transmitted at a very high speed, close to the speed of light.

6.2 Components of the System

6.2.1 TNB Substation

TNB substation in Damen Mall is an indoor substation located at the basement. It receives
electrical power generated from power plant through the distribution grid and convert, transform
and control it. The controlled power will then transferred to the high voltage room for further

Figure 6.2 TNB Substation

6.2.2 High Voltage Room
The high voltage room consists of electrical components such as transformers, bus bars, high
tension switch gear, circuit breakers and more.

- Transformer
Transformer is an equipment used to reduce or increase the voltage from one level to another.
Transformers are classified into two categories which are power transformers and distribution
transformers. In high voltage room, distribution transformers are used for lower voltage
distribution networks. More than one transformers are used to step down the high voltage
received from substation. The transformers step down the voltage from 11kV to 480V which
is usable level of power supply to the building. Stepped down electricity will then transmit for

- Bus Bars
Bus bars is a metallic strip or bar with 1 inch wide function as a conductor to supply and
distribute electric power. It able to carry heavier load and split electric power to smaller load
for distribution. It is economical as the arrangement of it is simple and easy in maintenance.

- High Tension Switchgear

High tension switchgear functions to show the incoming voltage from TNB substation and to
ensure the incoming voltage is stable. It also provide protection against overload current and
short circuit. High voltage circuit breaker is the main component of it. As the switchgear
operate for a long period, the high voltage circuit breaker must be reliable enough to ensure
safe operation.

6.2.3 Main Switchboard Room
The main switchboard room also located at the basement of Damen Mall. The main switchboard
room is an assembly of switches and circuit protection devices that help to distribute electricity to
every part of the building. Each switchboard in the room has its own assigned zones of distribution.
Other than main switchboard, the room also consists of circuit breaker, sub switchboard, MCCB
capacitor bank and more.

- Main Switchboard
The main switchboard is necessary for any electrical installation and is generally located with
service protection device and supply authority metering equipment. It is a major component
used in power distribution process.

Main switchboard is a switchboard directly supplied by the main source of electrical power
and intended to distribute electrical energy to the units services. It is made up of several
electric panels and enclosed and fabricated with steel sheet. Each electric panel contains
switches that redirect electricity. The meters on main switchboard are used to monitor the
electricity supply and ensuring the incoming current is supply as required, or else the breaker
in main switchboard will trip.

In precise, the main function of the switchboard is to control the flow of power by dividing
the main current supplied into several smaller chunks and distributes it to the devices.

Figure 6.3 Main Switchboard Room Figure 6.4 Main Switchboard

6.2.4 Service Entrance
Service entrance is a point where electricity enter a building. It has
metering equipment and devices for overcurrent protection and
electrical control. The figure shows the Damen Mall service entrance
equipped with metering equipment and electrical control panel.

Figure 6.5 Service Entrance

6.2.5 Distribution Panels

Distribution panel is also known as consumer unit. It is a smaller panel board compared to main
switchboard and has similar function as a main switchboard but is a smaller sub division, and it
just control a specific part of a building electricity distribution.

The figure shows the distribution panels in Damen Mall. It is usually positioned in strategic
locations all around Damen Mall and fixed to the wall. The distribution boards are protected by
Main Circuit Breaker (MCB) and Miniature Current Circuit Breaker (MCCB), which MCB is only
used for three phase, current more than 100A; while MCCB is used for single phase, for very small
voltage below 100A. When the power oversupply, the circuit breaker is activated to trip.

Figure 6.6 & 6.7 & 6.8 Distribution Panels

6.2.6 Electrical Conduits and Trunking
Electrical conduits and trunking function to run electrical wiring in exposed locations and protect
it from physical damage. It also provides continuous support to the cables. Electrical conduits are
made of metal, plastic or fiber and could be rigid or flexible. Damen Mall using rigid metal
electrical conduits and trunking as shown in the diagram. The secure installation of both the
components can protect the wiring from extreme condition areas for both indoor and outdoor.

Figure 6.9 Electrical Trunking Figure 6.10 Electrical Conduits

6.2.7 Electrical Riser Room

Electrical riser room located at every floor of Damen Mall and stacked straight up from the lowest
floor to the highest floor. It is used to house the vertical cable ducts that carry electricity supplies
to the upper floors of the buildings and to the plants and machines at the rooftop. Besides that, the
room also house the electrical panels that serve the final circuit wiring at each floor.

Figure 6.11 Electrical Riser Room

6.2.8 Gen-set Room
Gen-set room located just beside the main switchboard room. It consist of generator-sets that will
automatically run as backup source to provide emergency power to the mall when the utility supply
has failed. This backup generator set is an important line of defense for business owners as a lot
of devices in the Damen Mall is electrical powered.

The generator set used in this room is diesel generator. A diesel generator is made up of a
combination of a diesel engine and an alternator for converting the mechanical energy into
electrical energy. The electric current generated will then transmit through a transmission cable
which connect the generator to the common areas.

Figure 6.12 Gen-set Room

UBBL By laws Section 253 Emergency Power Supply

Section 253 (1)
Emergency power system shall be provided to supply illumination and power automatically in the
event of failure of the normal supply or in the event of accident to elements of the system supplying
power and illumination essential for safety to life and property
Section 253 (2)
Emergency power system shall provide power for smoke control systems, illumination, fire alarm
systems, fire pumps, public address systems, fire lifts and other emergency system.

Section 253 (3)
Emergency systems shall have adequate capacity and rating for the emergency operation of all
equipment connected to the system including the simultaneous operation of all fire lifts and one
other lift
Section 253 (5) (b)
Generator set
A generator set driven by some form of prime mover and of sufficient capacity and proper rating
to supply circuit carrying emergency lighting or lighting and power with suitable means for
automatically starting the prime mover on failure of the normal service.

Figure 6.13 Ground Floor Plan of Damen Mall to indicate

location of Electrical Rooms

6.3 Electrical Generation and Supply System of Damen Mall

The electrical generation and supply system have a unique layout for each individual building. It
will not always find every type of electrical components in every building that examined.
However, the key to identify it is to begin with the incoming source and identify each
components location as it distributes electrical power through the buildings. The chart below
shows the electrical generation and supply system of Damen Mall.

Power Station Electrical Riser Distribution Panels

TNB Substation Main Switchboard

High Tension


7.1 Mechanical Air-Conditioning System

Problem 1

Figure 7.1 & 7.2 Ductwork System in Da Men Mall

The basement car park of Da Men mall utilizes traditional ducted way for ventilation. The exhaust
fans circulate the air via ductwork and exhaust fans. If the air supply is uncontrolled, it causes a
poor air ventilation to occur. The ventilation system is still running even when the car park is
unused resulting in high running costs. Moreover, ducted system does not provide fire or smoke
isolation capability.

Recommendation for Problem 1

We would like to recommend that management to

replace the distribution ducting with several ceiling-
mounted impulse fans, Jet Thrust fan. They are placed
within the basement car park aiding in the distribution
of the air. It is used to generate steady flow of air which
results in more efficient use of air. It is controlled by a
carbon monoxide sensor and only functions when the
pollution threshold is met. The cleaner and lighter
Figure 7.3 Jet Thrust Fan as appearance of the Jet Thrust fan is able to provide more
recommendation parking space as it does not need clearance for

ductwork. Therefore, it can lower the requirement height of basement car park which lowers the
overall construction costs. The system also enhances the environment of the car park due to the
better air distribution while decreasing the external noise levels.

Problem 2

Cleanliness of ducting system of centralized air conditioning system in Da Men mall.

Recommendation for Problem 2

It is the responsibility of the management team to ensure clean air is always flowing into the mall.
Frequent duct maintenance is required to prevent the growth of bacteria and mold which affects
the well-being of all occupants. They will need to maintain the cleanliness of the ducting system
in the centralized air conditioning system. They should professionally clean the ducting system at
least twice a year.

7.2 Fire Protection System

Problem 1

There is no visible fire signal installed inside the mall. The purpose of the visible fire signal is to
alert hearing-impaired people.

Recommendation for Problem 1

Visible fire signal can be installed according to the standard requirements, All of the standard
require that the visible alarm be a strobe light, where is usually is xenon flashtube. It should be
flashing at less than 2Hz to minimize problem for persons with photosensitive epilepsy.

Figure 7.4 Visible fire signal

Problem 2
Portable fire extinguisher.

Figure 7.4 & 7.5 shows that inside Da Men Mall, only fire host are present in the mall not portable
fire extinguishers which is more important when small fire are present they need not use a fire
host instead. In the mall we only manage to find the extinguisher which is inside the service room
that is not noticeable at all.

Figure 7.5 & 7.6 Fire Protection System of Da Men Mall

Recommendation for Problem 2

More fire extinguishers at proper location in Da Men Mall is recommended. It is because

portable fire extinguishers are essential equipment that must be installed in every building for
safety purposes. During this site visit, we found that Da Men Mall placed most of the fire
extinguishers in the fire service room. For this aspect, we highly recommend Da Men Mall to
install the fire extinguisher in the location where would not be obstructed or obscured from view
and signs to indicate where the portable fire extinguishers are located. According to UBBL
1984, the fire extinguisher must be provided at the conspicuous location where it is easily
spotted and not more than 20m from a potential hazard. As an example, the fire extinguisher in
Da Men Mall should locate near the fire escape door, stairways and escape route, where they are
properly indicated and seen. Besides that, fire extinguisher in Da Men Mall shall be installed on
the hangers or in the brackets supplied, mounted in cabinets, or set on shelves.

Figure 7.7 show how proper fire Figure 7.8 show an example of how fire
extinguisher sign should be indicated and extinguisher can be stored inside a
placed shopping mall


A building is built to provide shelter for people, while building services are installed to ensure
the building is comfortable, functional, efficient and safe to use. Building services includes a
wide range of utilities and services systems. All of the systems plays significant roles in order to
allow a building to function properly.

At Da Men Mall, all the stated building services systems are professionally installed according to
the Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL) 1984. This ensures and guarantees the personal safety
and comfort of all occupants.

The mechanical ventilation system which includes a centralised air-conditioning system and
packaged system installed in Da Men Mall assures that the indoor air quality is always hygienic
and healthy. Next, the fire protection system which includes a complete sprinkler system, evenly
distributed fire alarms, hose reels, fire extinguishers and etc. helps to minimise the damage of
any possible fire accidents. Moreover, in a mall of two basement carparks and 6 floors, sufficient
vertical transportation such as lifts and escalators of approved quality are installed to ease the
mobility of the occupants. Lastly, the electricity supply and distribution system makes all system
functional as all systems requires electricity to generate.

All in all, building services are said to be the organs of a building. Without building services, a
building is nothing but an empty shelter. In order to maintain the quality of building services,
regular maintenance has to be carry out. By doing so, the peak condition of a building can be
achieved and hence provide the best comfort for all occupants.




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1 Abstract Leong Li Jing

2 Introduction Yeap Phay Shian

3 Mechanical Air-Conditioning System Tam Zhao Wei

Ee Hui Teng
Vivian Chin Kha Yee

4 Fire Protection System Adelu Lu

Loh Mun Tong
Yeap Phay Shian

5 Vertical Transportation System Lim Hong Wei

Soo Yon Li

6 Electrical Generation & Supply Leong Li Jing

System Yeap Phay Shian
Yee Jyh Lin

7 Problems & Recommendation Loh Mun Tong

Adele Lu
Vivian Chin Kha Yee

8 Conclusion Tam Zhao Wei

9 Presentation Slides ALL
10 Compilation of Report Leong Li Jing

Date of Site Visit: 5th May 2017


1 Mechanical Air-Conditioning System Tam Zhao Wei
Ee Hui Teng
Vivian Chin Kha Yee

2 Fire Protection System Adelu Lu

Loh Mun Tong

3 Vertical Transportation System Lim Hong Wei

Soo Yon Li

4 Electrical Generation & Supply System Leong Li Jing

Yeap Phay Shian
Yee Jyh Lin

For each building services system, 2 to 3 group members are in charge of observing as well as
analyzing the system in the building. Information, ideas and opinions regarding each building
services are shared with every group member to enhance learning and to gain a better
understanding of the functionality of the existing services in Damen Mall.