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Maha George Zia

Assistant Professor Electrical Engineering Department

BJT AC Models The r-parameters and h-parameters

Common Emitter (CE) Amplifier

1- r-Parameters

The r-parameters for a BJT is

listed in the table

Relation of transistor symbol tor-parameter model

To calculate the approximate value of r’e which is also temperature dependent and is based on an ambient temperature of 20°C

The difference between β ac and β DC is illustrated below

2- The h- parameters

Relationship of h- parameters and r- parameters

CE amplifiers exhibit high voltage gain and high current gain The ac equivalent is obtained by:

1. Setting all dc sources to zero and replacing them by a short-circuit equivalent 2. Replacing all capacitors by a short-circuit equivalent At the beginning of analysis we will not take the effect of R L

Fig1 . CE Amplifier
C 1 ,C 3 are called
coupling capacitors
C 2 is called bypass
capacitor

Theveninizing the bias circuit and applying Kirchhoff’s voltage law to the base-emitter circuit,

DC equivalent circuit of

Fig.1

AC equivalent circuit for the amplifier in Fig.1

AC equivalent of the base circuit

If R s << R in(tot) then V b =V in , where V b is the input voltage, V in is the input to the amplifier

:

The input resistance looking in at the base is:

The base voltage is:

Since I c I e

Then substituting for v b and I b :

Cancelling I e :

Q1. Determine the signal voltage at the base of the transistor in Fig.1, with a 10 mV rms, 300 Ω signal source. I E was previously found to be 3.80 mA.

The equivalent circuit is shown below

The output resistance is:

The voltage gain of CE amplifier is show in Fig. below

but

Then

The overall voltage gain of the amplifier is:

The current gain of CE Amp. is:

The emitter bypass capacitor, which is C 2 in Fig.1, provides an effective short to the ac signal around the emitter resistor, thus keeping the emitter at ac ground, where;

The voltage gain without a bypass capacitor is:

Effect of a Load on the Voltage Gain is:

Replace R C by R c :

Q2. For the circuit show below, select a minimum value for the emitter

bypass capacitor, C2, if the amplifier must operate over a frequency range

from 200 Hz to 10 kHz. Calculate the base-to-collector voltage gain of the amplifier both without and with an emitter bypass capacitor if there is no load resistor.

The value of r’ e = 6.58 Ω, for the
amplifier of
voltage gain is:
Without C2, the

With C2, becomes:

H.W For the amplifier shown below:

(a) Determine the dc collector voltage.

(b) Determine the ac collector voltage.

(c) Draw the total collector voltage waveform and the total output voltage waveform