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Learjet 35/36

Cockpit Reference Handbook

FEBRUARY 2007
Notice: This Learjet 35/36 Cockpit Reference Handbook is to be used for
aircraft familiarization and training purposes only. It is not to be used as,
nor considered a substitute for, the manufacturer’s Pilot or Maintenance
Manuals.

Copyright © 2007, CAE SimuFlite, Inc.


All rights reserved.

Excerpted materials used in this publication


have been reproduced with permission
of Learjet, Inc.

Printed in the United States of America.


Preflight Inspection
Table of ContentsTable of Contents
Power Off Inspection – Exterior Walkaround . . . . . . . . 2A-2
Left Nose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-2
Right Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-3
Right Wing Root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-4
Right Wing – Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-5
Right Tip Tank. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-6
Right Wing – Aft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-6
Right Nacelle – Aft LWR Fuselage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-7
Aft Compartment/Tailcone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-8
Empennage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-9
Left Nacelle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-10
Left Wing – Aft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-11
Left Tip Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-11
Left Wing – Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-12
Power On Checks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-15
Cabin Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2A-15

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2A-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Preflight Inspection Walkaround Path Power Off Inspection –


Exterior Walkaround
NOTE: Procedures marked with this symbol (ç) denote
through-flight checklist items.

Prior to performing the Power Off checks, remove and stow the
controls lock.

A Left Nose
Defog/Alcohol Discharge Outlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Pitot Head (FC-200)/Probe (FC-530). . . . . .REMOVE COVER/
CLEAR
Stall Warning Vane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FREE AND DOWN
Static Ports/Shoulder Static Port (FC-200) . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Pitot/Static/Shoulder Static Drain Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN
Nose Gear/Wheel Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FOR
HYDRAULIC LEAKS
Normal Operations Strut Extension . . . . . 2.5 TO 3.5 INCHES
Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURED
Nose Wheel/Tire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK CONDITION
Chine 3/4 inch minimum from ground.
Tire pressure between 104 and 114 PSI (loaded),
105 ± 5 PSI (unloaded).
Nose Gear Uplock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FORWARD
Alcohol Discharge Port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR

Radome/Erosion Shoe/Static Discharge Tapes . . . . . . .CHECK

2A-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Preflight Inspection

B Right Nose
Oxygen Bottle Supply Valve (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Pitot Head (FC-200)/Probe (FC-530). . . . . . REMOVE COVER/
........................ . . . . . CLEAR
Total Temperature Probe (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Stall Warning Vane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FREE AND DOWN
Static Ports/Shoulder Static Port (FC-200). . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Pitot Static Drain Valves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN
Pressurization Static Port. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Oxygen Discharge Disk (if installed) . . . . . CHECK IN PLACE
Defog Outlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Lower Fuselage Antennas/Rotating Beacon . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Wing Inspection Light (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2A-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

C Right Wing Root


Emergency Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK SECURE
Upper Fuselage Antennas/Rotating Beacon . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Right Engine Inlet/Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK/CLEAR

WARNING: (1) If fan is windmilling, stop by pressing on fan


spinner. Do not attempt to stop windmilling by grabbing
blades. (2) The wing, flight control surfaces and engine inlet
must be free of frost, snow, and ice.

Fuel Drains (5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN


Right Main Gear/Wheel Well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FOR
HYDRAULIC LEAKS
Normal Operations Strut Extension . . . . . 2.5 to 3.5 INCHES
Right Main Gear Landing Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Right Main Gear Wheels/Brakes/Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Loaded Tire Pressures:
17,000 lbs MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 TO 156 PSI
18,000 lbs MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 TO 167 PSI
18,300 lbs MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 TO 171 PSI

2A-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 2001
Preflight Inspection

D Right Wing – Forward


Right Wing Access Panels . . . . . . CHECK FOR FUEL LEAKS
Right Fuel Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PLUG REMOVED/CLEAR
Wing Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECT
Standard Wing:
Vortex Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Century III Wing With Softflite:
Stall Strip/Stall Fence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Boundary Layer Energizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Century III Wing Without Softflite:
Vortex Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Mark IV Wing:
Stall Strip/Stall Fences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Right Wing Heat Scupper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR

STALL BOUNDARY LAYER


VORTEX GENERATORS STRIP ENERGIZERS (BLEs)
STRAKE STRAKE

STALL
FENCE

STANDARD WING CENTURY III WING


WITH SOFTFLITE

STRAKE STALL STALL STRAKE


STRIP FENCE
VORTEX GENERATORS

CENTURY III WING RAISBECK


WITHOUT SOFTFLITE MARK IV WING

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2A-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

E Right Tip Tank


Right Tip Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Recognition Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Sump Drain Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN
Fuel Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONDITION/SECURE
Navigation/Strobe Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Fin/Static Discharge Wicks (2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Jettison Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK

F Right Wing – Aft


Access Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FOR FUEL LEAKS
Aileron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Spoiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Flap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK

2A-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Preflight Inspection

G Right Nacelle/Aft LWR Fuselage


Right Engine Oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Oil Tank/Filler Cap/Access Door . . . . . . . . . .CHECK SECURE
Engine Oil Bypass Valve Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK NOT
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTENDED
Engine Turbine Exhaust Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Thrust Reverser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Aeronca – Check condition; check blocker doors completely
stowed.
Dee Howard – Check condition of doors, hinges, strike
plates; remove safety pins and flags.
Engine Fuel Bypass Valve Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Fuel Vent Drain Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETELY DRAIN
Transfer Line Drain Valve (if FUS VALVE installed). . . DRAIN
Fuel Drains (3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2A-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

H Aft Compartment/Tailcone
Tailcone Access Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN
Tailcone Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECT
Check for fluid leaks, security and condition of installed
equipment.
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Hydraulic Accumulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .750 PSI (MIN)
Hydraulic Reservoir Sight Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Fire Extinguisher Bottles. . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK PRESSURE
(600 PSI normal/
500 PSI minimum)
Current Limiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Compressor Motor Belt. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Dee Howard Thrust Reverser Accumulator . . . . . . . CHECK
. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRESSURE
Spare Tire (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Compartment Light (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUT
Drag Chute (if installed) . . . . . . . . . CHECK FOR PROPER
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .INSTALLATION
See AFM supplement for appropriate instructions for proper
drag chute installations.
Tailcone Access Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE/SECURE

2A-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Preflight Inspection

I Empennage
Right Fuel Computer Drain Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN
Oxygen Bottle Supply Valve (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Oxygen Discharge Disk (if installed) . . . . . CHECK IN PLACE
Right VOR/LOC Antenna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Right ELT Antenna (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Vertical Stab/Rudder/Horizontal Stab/Elevator. . . . . . . .CHECK
Drain holes clear
Rudder for Freedom of Movement

WARNING: The vertical and horizontal stabilizer and flight


control surfaces must be free of frost, snow, and ice.

Static Discharge Wicks


(6 on elevators, 1 above NAV light,
and 1 on ventral fin) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Vertical Fin Navigation/Strobe Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
VLF H-Field Antenna (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Left VOR/LOC Antenna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Left ELT Antenna (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Left Fuel Computer Drain Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2A-9


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite

J Left Nacelle
Fire Extinguisher Disks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IN PLACE
Engine Oil Bypass Valve Indicator. . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK NOT
.................... . . . . . .EXTENDED
Engine Turbine Exhaust Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Thrust Reverser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Aeronca – Check condition; check blocker doors completely
stowed.
Dee Howard – Check condition of doors, hinges, strike
plates; remove safety pins and flags.
Engine Fuel Bypass Valve Indicator . . . . . . . NOT EXTENDED
Left Engine Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Oil Tank Filler Cap/Access Door . . . . . . . . . . CHECK SECURE

2A-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Preflight Inspection

K Left Wing – Aft


Spoiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Flap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Aileron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Access Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FOR FUEL LEAKS

L Left Tip Tank


Jettison Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Fin/Static Discharge Wicks (2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Navigation/Strobe Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Fuel Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONDITION/SECURE
Sump Drain Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAIN
Erosion Shoe/Recognition Light (if installed) . . . . . . . .CHECK
Left Tip Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2A-11


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite

M Left Wing – Forward


Wing Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSPECT
Standard Wing:
Vortex Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Softflite:
Stall Strip/Stall Fence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Boundary Layer Energizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Without Softflite:
Vortex Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Mark IV Wing:
Stall Strip/Stall Fences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Left Wing Heat Scupper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR
Left Wing Access Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FOR LEAKS
Left Fuel Vent. . . . . . . . . . . . .REMOVE PLUG/CHECK CLEAR
Left Main Gear/Wheel Well . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FOR LEAKS
Normal Operations Strut Extension . . . . . 2.5 to 3.5 INCHES
Left Main Gear Landing Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Left Main Gear Wheels/Brakes/Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Unloaded Tire Pressures:
17,000 lbs MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 TO 156 PSI
18,000 lbs MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 TO 167 PSI
18,300 lbs MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 TO 171 PSI

2A-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 2001
Preflight Inspection

Left Engine Inlet/Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK CLEAR

WARNING: (1) If fan is windmilling, stop by pressing on fan


spinner. Do not attempt to stop windmilling by grabbing
blades. (2) The wing, flight control surfaces and engine inlet
must be free of frost, snow, and ice.

Cabin Door Seal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2A-13


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

2A-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Preflight Inspection

Power On Checks
Landing Gear Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Battery Switches – Both . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Fuel Quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Pitot Heat Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/TEST/OFF
Exterior Light Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/TEST/OFF
Battery Switches – Both. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Stall Warning System Test (Standard Wing) . . . . . . PERFORM
See AFM for appropriate instructions for performing the Stall
Warning System Test.

Cabin Inspection
Baggage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Cabin Air Damper Control Knob/
or Cabin Blower Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
Emergency Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISLE CLEAR/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HANDLE UNOBSTRUCTED
Passenger Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETE

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2A-15


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

2A-16 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Expanded Normals
Table of Contents
Checklist Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-3
Normal Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-4
Through-Flight Procedures
(Both Engines Shut Down) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-4
Before Starting Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-5
Starting Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-28
Before Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-33
Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-37
Before Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-41
Runway Lineup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-42
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-42
After Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-43
Climb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-45
Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-46
Descent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-46
Transition Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-46
Approach. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-47
Before Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-48
Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-49
Go-Around/Missed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-49
After Landing/Clearing Runway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-50
Shutdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-51
Quick Turnaround . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-53
Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-53
Runway Lineup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-54

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-1


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite
After Takeoff/Traffic Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-54
Before Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-55
Parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-55
Mooring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-56
Towing/Turning Radius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-58
Towing/Taxiing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-59
Nose Gear Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-59
Main Gear Towing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-60
Taxiing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-62
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-63
Restoring After Storage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-72
Hot Weather Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-76
Exterior Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-76
Engine Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-76
Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-77
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-77
Shutdown and Postflight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-77
Cold Weather Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-78
Preflight Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-78
Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-81
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-82
After Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-83
Before Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-83
Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-84
Crosswind Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-84
After Clearing Runway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-85
Shutdown and Postflight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-85
Deicing Supplemental Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2B-86

2B-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

Checklist Usage
Normal Procedures
Tasks are executed in one of two ways:
• as a sequence that uses the layout of the cockpit
controls and indicators as cues (i.e., “flow pattern”)
• as a sequence of tasks organized by event rather than
panel location (e.g., After Takeoff, Gear – RETRACT,
Yaw Damper – ENGAGE).
Placing items in a flow pattern or series provides organization
and serves as a memory aid.
A challenge-response review of the checklist follows execution
of the tasks; the PM calls the item, and the appropriate pilot
responds by verifying its condition (e.g., Engine Anti-Ice
(challenge) – ON (response).
Two elements are inherent in execution of normal procedures:
• use of either the cockpit layout or event cues to prompt
correct switch and/or control positions
• use of normal checklist as “done” lists.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-3


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite

Normal Procedures
Through-Flight Procedures
(Both Engines Shut Down)
Normal preflight procedures (all checklist items) must be
accomplished prior to takeoff at the original departure point of a
flight. At each intermediate stop of flight, where both engines
are shut down, the Through-Flight Checklist may be used for
preflight provided certain criteria are met during a stop. In the
following section, procedures marked with this symbol (Á)
denote through-flight checklist items. When permitted,
accomplishment of all through-flight Checklist items fulfills a
minimum preflight requirement.
The Through-Flight Checklist may be used following an
intermediate stop with both engines shutdown provided the fol-
lowing criteria have been satisfied during that stop:
• There has been no change in flight crew personnel.
• No maintenance has been performed on the aircraft.
Routine line servicing is not considered maintenance.
• No more than three (3) hours have elapsed between
engine shutdown and engine start.
• Extreme weather conditions (heavy precipitation, ice,
snow, extreme cold, etc.) have not occurred which would
change the preflight status of the aircraft.
For intermediate stops with one or no engine shut down, com-
pletion of the Quick Turnaround Procedure (2B-53) in this sec-
tion provides the minimum preflight requirements.

2B-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

Before Starting Engines


Upon entering the cockpit, the following switch positions should
be verified before starting any checks:
Start-Gen Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Landing Gear Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Fuel Jettison Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Cabin Air Damper Control Knob/Switch . . . . . AS DESIRED
The damper must be in the closed position for the optional aux-
iliary heat to work and to allow the Freon air conditioner to re-
circulate cool air in the passenger compartment. On aircraft
with Cabin Blower switch, the OFF position diverts airflow
above headliners at all times except during auxiliary heating
operation.
Emergency Exit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AISLE CLEAR/
HANDLE UNOBSTRUCTED
NOTE: Accomplish flow pattern checks, then use the Before
Starting Engines checklist as a “done” list.

Oxygen Masks/Valves/Pressure . . . . . . . . . 100%/CHECKED


Crew Masks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADJUST/CHECK
Ensure that the mask control selector valve is set to 100%.
On Scott ATO masks, check harness inflation.
PASS MASK Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUTO
PASS OXY Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NORM
OXYGEN PRESSURE Gage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Verify that pressure is in the green band on the indicator
(1550-1850 PSI).
Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
The left and right circuit breaker panels should be checked
visually and not by rubbing the hand across the row of
breakers. Always use a flashlight at night.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-5


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite
Control Lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOWED
Remove and stow.
Seat Belts/Harnesses/Seats . . . . . . . SECURED/ADJUSTED
Adjust the seat belt for a snug fit. Ensure the shoulder har-
ness are latched to the buckle. Ensure seat is adjusted so
that full travel can be obtained to reach all controls.
Flight Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Ensure that shoes do not hinder movement of pedals during
full rudder pedal movements.
Audio Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Alternate Static Source Switch (FC 200) . . . . . . . . CLOSED
Pilot’s Altimeter (FC 200) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NORM
Static Source Switch (FC 530) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOTH
Avionics Master Switch (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Fuel Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Batteries (Main Aircraft Batteries) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Emergency Power System . . . . . . . . . . .CHECKED AND ON
EMER PWR BAT 1 SwitchSTBY
Check attitude gyro for starting and erection. Amber
EMER PWR annunciator illuminates.
EMER PWR BAT 2 Switch (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Check both amber EMER PWR annunciators illuminate
and that equipment powered by second emergency
battery is on.
EMER PWR BAT 1 Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Check attitude gyro for operation. Amber EMER PWR
annunciator and green gear LOCKED DN lights
illuminate.

2B-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Expanded Normal Procedures

Both EMER PWR Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON


Check attitude gyro for starting and erection.
Batteries (Main Aircraft Batteries) . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
AND
ON
Setting battery switches to ON also energizes the
windshield ice detect annunciators. Check turbine
temperature (ITT), fan speed (N1), and turbine speed
(N2) to ensure red OFF flags are retracted.
BAT 1 Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Check for proper voltage. Amber EMER PWR annuncia-
tor(s) extinguish.
BAT 2 Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
BAT 1 Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Check for proper voltage.

NOTE: With lead-acid batteries, do not attempt a battery


start with less than 24V DC on each battery at 70°F (21°C)
or below, or less than 25V DC on each battery at 110°F
(43°C) or above. Interpolate for temperature seen 70°F
(21°C) and 110°F (43°C).
With nickel-cadmium batteries, do not attempt a battery
start with less than 2V DC each battery.

Both BAT Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON


GPU (if desired) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECTED/CHECKED
Ensure unit is regulated to 28V DC and limited to 1,100A
maximum and 500A minimum.
Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/PRIMARY ON
PRI Inverter Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Ensure the red PRI INV annunciator is extinguished and
AC volts in green arc.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-7


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite
AC Bus Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRI THEN SEC
Check AC volts in green arc in both positions. The AC
voltage does not change if the circuit is functioning prop-
erly
SEC Inverter Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
PRI Inverter Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Check the SEC INV annunciator is extinguished and AC
volts in green arc.
Aircraft with auxiliary inverter:
AUX INVERTER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
SEC Inverter Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Ensure the AUX INV annunciator is extinguished and AC
volts in green arc.
PRI Inverter Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
SEC and AUX INVERTER Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
In Normal/Out Defog Knob (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IN
Anti-Skid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Emergency Air (1,800 PSI minimum) . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Hydraulic Pressure (1,000 PSI minimum) . . . . . . CHECKED
If less than 1,000 PSI, HYD pump switch to ON.
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Parking Brake annunciator (if installed) illuminates.
Emer Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULL/CHECKED
Pull the handle out of the recess then return. DO NOT push
the handle downward, as it may introduce emergency brake
air into the hydraulic system.
Hydraulic Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

2B-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Expanded Normal Procedures

Warning Light Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESSED


Check annunciators, MSTR WARN, ENG FIRE PULL
T-handle, ARMED, ANTI-SKID, GEN, AIR IGN, START
ENGAGED, and fuel panel lights illuminate. Check the auto-
matic warning light dimming by covering the photoelectric
cells during daylight and with a flashlight in darkness.
Landing Gear Switch/Warning . . . . . . . . . . .DOWN/TESTED
Gear Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Ensure three green lights illuminate.
Gear Warning Test/Mute Switch (if installed) . . . . . . . . TEST
The three red unsafe lights illuminate and the warning horn
sounds.
Right Thrust Lever Mute Switch (if installed) . . . . DEPRESS
If the optional horn silence switch is installed, depress it to
cut out the gear horn while holding the gear warning test
switch in TEST.
Fire Detect System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Rotary Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FIRE DET
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Check that both the left and right ENG FIRE PULL T-handle
lights flash. This indicates continuity of the detect system.
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Fuel Balance/Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Fuel Counter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ZERO
Jet Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Standby Pumps/Crossflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Left Standby Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Check that the left low fuel pressure annunciator extin-
guishes.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-9


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite
Crossflow Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN
Check that the amber disagreement light cycles properly,
the right low fuel pressure annunciator extinguishes, and
fuel crossflow annunciator illuminates.
Right Standby Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Ensure light in switch (if applicable) illuminates.
Left Standby Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Both fuel pressure annunciators remains extinguished and
light in switch (if applicable) extinguishes.
Crossflow Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE
The left fuel pressure annunciator illuminates.
Right Standby Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Right low fuel pressure annunciator illuminates.
Crossflow/XFER-FILL/FUS VAL Switches . . . . . . . CLOSED/
.................................................................... ........... OFF/OFF
If external power not used:
One Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . START
Go to Engine Start in Starting Engines checklist, page
2B-28.
Warning Systems Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETED
Test the warning system using the rotary test switch.
Cabin Altitude Warning:
Rotary Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CABIN ALT
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS/HOLD
The cabin altitude warning horn sounds.
Horn Silence Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON MOMENTARILY
The cabin altitude warning horn ceases for approximately 60
seconds.
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
Mach Warning/Stick Puller:
Rotary Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MACH

2B-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Expanded Normal Procedures

Check pitch trim within takeoff segment on pitch trim indica-


tor.
Left Stall Warning Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
An inverter must be on.
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
FC 200 Autopilot:
Hold the control column at mid-travel. The overspeed
warning sounds and the stick puller moves the control
column aft with an approximate 18 lbs force.
FC 530 Autopilot:
Control column moves aft with approximately 18 pounds
force and the aural overspeed warning sounds. After
approximately 1/2 second, the puller and overspeed warning-
ceases. After approximately 1/2 additional second, the puller
and overspeed warning activate again and then cease. On
all S/Ns through 35-670 and 36-063, after approximately
another 1/2 second, the overspeed warning sounds again to
check the 300 KIAS speed switch in the ADU.
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Mach Trim:
Rotary Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MACH TRIM
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Visually check the pitch trim indicator. Depress and hold the
test button. The pitch trim system runs nose-up for one to
three seconds and then stops. The Mach trim annunciator
illuminates and the overspeed warning horn sounds.
Release the test button. Mach trim annunciator extinguishes
and horn ceases.
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Stall Warning:
Aircraft with Standard Wing, refer to AFM for check.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-11


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite
With FC 200 Autopilot:
During heavy wind conditions, it may be necessary to head
aircraft into the wind to prevent wind from blowing stall
warning vanes up.
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
STALLWARNING Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
TEST Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L STALL
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
The pilot’s angle-of-attack indicator needle begins to sweep
from the green segment to the red segment. As the needle
passes the green-yellow margin, the shaker actuates and
the L STALL warning annunciator flashes. As the needle
advances to the red segment, the pusher activates briefly,
then stops. The L STALL warning annunciator illuminates
steadily just prior to or at pusher actuation. After pusher
stops, the needle sweeps back and remains in the yellow or
green segment. Pusher release must occur or the test has
failed.
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
TEST Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R STALL
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
The operation is identical to that of L STALL above except
needle sweeps copilot’s angle-of-attack indicator, and the
R STALL warning annunciator flashes.
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
With STALL WARNING switches in ON, steady illumination
of the L or R STALL warning annunciator indicates a
malfunction except during pusher actuation or system test.
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DN
Check that both angle-of-attack indicators shift position
three times as flaps are lowered to full down.
STALL WARNING Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

2B-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

With FC 530 Autopilot:


During heavy wind conditions, it may be necessary to
head aircraft into the wind to prevent wind from blowing
stall warning vanes up.
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
STALL WARNING Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEFT ON
Ensure L STALL annunciator extinguishes.
STALL WARNING Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEFT OFF
STALL WARNING Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RIGHT ON
Ensure R STALL annunciator extinguishes
STALL WARNING Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEFT ON
TEST Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE TO L STALL
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
The nudger monitor horn sounds for approximately one sec-
ond and then the pilot’s angle-of-attack indicator needle
begins to sweep from the green segment to the red seg-
ment. As the needle passes the green-yellow margin, the
shaker activates, the nudger actuates, and the L STALL
warning annunciator flashes. High-frequency vibration of the
control column signals shaker actuation. Low frequency for-
ward movement (if not opposed) of the control column sig-
nals nudger actuation. As the needle advances to the red
segment, the pusher activates briefly, then stops. The L
STALL warning annunciator illuminates steadily just prior to
or at pusher actuation. After pusher stops, the needle
sweeps back and remains in the yellow or green segment.

WARNING: The action of the nudger verifies operation of


the pitch torquer prior to pusher actuation. If, during ground
test, the shaker is not accompanied by the nudger (the
nudger monitor horn will sound) – do not dispatch. If, dur-
ing flight, the shaker is not accompanied by the nudger (the
nudger monitor horn will sound) – do not decelerate fur-
ther.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-13


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
TEST Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO R STALL
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
The operation is identical to that of L STALL above except
needle sweeps copilot’s angle-of-attack indicator, and the
R STALL warning annunciator flashes.
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
With STALL WARNING switches in ON, steady illumination
of the L or R STALL warning annunciator indicates a mal-
function except during pusher actuation or system test.
With either control wheel master switch (MSW) depressed:
TEST Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R STALL
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Verify that the nudger and pusher do not actuate as the
angle-of-attack indicator moves through the band. The
nudger monitor horn sounds if the needle stays in the yel-
lowsegment.
Test ButtonRELEASE
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DN
Ensure that both angle-of-attack indicator needles make at
least one significant shift in position as flaps are lowered.
STALLWARNING Switches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Current Limiter (if installed):
Rotary Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURRENT LIMITER L
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
The green indicator light illuminates if the left current limiter
is functional.
Rotary Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURRENT LIMITER R
The green indicator light illuminates if the right current limiter
is functional. Repeat the Current Limiter test after both
engines have been started.

2B-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

No Smoking/Seat Belt Sign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON


Cabin Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Pressurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUTO/ALTITUDE/RATE SET
AUTO-MAN Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUTO
The switch is normally in AUTO unless a malfunction hasoc-
curred.
Cabin Altitude Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Set controller to the cruise flight level. If on a short leg, set
cabin altitude to landing field elevation.
Cabin Rate-of-Climb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
The 9 o’clock position provides approximately a 500 FPM
cabin altitude cabin rate.
Temp Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED
Bleed Air Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Emer Pressurization Switches
(if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GUARD DOWN
TOLD Data/Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPUTED/SET
Ice Detect Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED

NOTE: Check illuminated by placing an object between the


lights and windshield. Use care to prevent scratching wind-
shield when checking ice detect lights.

Emergency Gyro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNCAGED


CVR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST
Drag Chute Handle (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOWED
Trim/Pitch, Roll, Yaw/Switches . . . . . . . . . . .CHECKED/SET/
.............................................................................. PRIMARY

NOTE: Refer to AFM for minimum trim systems preflight


check.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-15


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite
Trim Check (FC 200 Autopilot):
PITCH TRIM Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEC
Pedestal NOSE DN-OFFNOSE
UP Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOLD TO NOSE UP/
............................................................. .THEN TO NOSE DN
Check for horizontal stabilizer movement in both directions.
Stabilizer movement is at approximately one-half the rate of
PRI trim.
Either Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . OPERATE NOSE UP/
.................................................................. THEN NOSE DN
Trim motion should not occur.
PITCH TRIM Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
ACTUATE the following:
Q pilot and copilot control wheel trim
Q trim arming switches
Q pedestal NOSE DN-OFF-NOSE UP switch
Ensure that no trim motion occurs.
PITCH TRIM Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRI
Pedestal NOSE DN-OFF-NOSE UP Switch . . . . . NOSE UP/.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . NOSE DN
Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPERATE
Without depressing arming button, move switch NOSE UP,
NOSE DN, LWD, and RWD. Check that trim motion does
not occur.
Arming Button (without displacing switch . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPERATE
While depressing arming button, move switch NOSE UP,
NOSE DN, LWD, and RWD. Ensure trim motion occurs in all
directions.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . .OPERATE
Without depressing arming button, move switch NOSE UP,
NOSE DN, LWD, and RWD. Ensure trim motion does not
occur.

2B-16 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

Arming Button (without displacing switch) . . . . . . DEPRESS


Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATE
While depressing arming button, move switch NOSE UP,
NOSE DN, LWD, and RWD. Ensure trim motion occurs in all
directions.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TRIM
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . TRIM OPPOSITE
Ensure pilot’s trim overrides copilot’s trim. Repeat for each
trim position.
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOSE UP
Pilot MSW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Trim motion should cease while MSW is held.
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOSE DN
Pilot MSW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Trim motion should cease while MSW is held.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOSE UP
Copilot MSW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Trim motion should cease while MSW is held.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOSE DN
Copilot MSW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Trim motion should cease while MSW is held.
Yaw Trim Switch . . . . . . . . MOVE EACH HALF SEPARATELY
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TO NOSE LEFT AND NOSE RIGHT
Ensure that trim motion does not occur.
Yaw Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MOVE BOTH HALVES
............................SIMULTANEOUSLY TO EACH POSITION
Ensure that trim motion occurs.
Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET ALL FOR TAKEOFF
Ensure amber T.O. TRIM annunciator not illuminated.
On S/Ns 35-146 and subsequent; 36-046 and subsequent;
prior aircraft with AAK 83-8, determine Stabilizer Trim Set-
ting.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-17


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite
Trim Check (FC 530 Autopilot):
Throughout the following check, verify the trim-in-motion
audio clicker sounds approximately 1/4 second after initiating
pitch trim with the flaps up. The trim-in-motion audio clicker
does not sound when flaps are lowered beyond 3°. Ensure
that the amber PITCH TRIM annunciator illuminates when
ever either control wheel master switch (MSW) is
depressed.
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
PITCH TRIM Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SEC
NOSE DN-OFF-NOSE UP Switch . . . . NOSE UP/NOSE DN
Ensure trim motion occurs in both directions.
Either MSW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Trim NOSE UP or NOSE DN. Ensure trim motion ceases.
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . NOSE UP/NOSE DN
While depressing arming button, operate NOSE UP/NOSE
DN. Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . NOSE UP/NOSE DN
While depressing arming button, operate NOSE UP/NOSE
DN. Ensure trim motion does not occur.
PITCH TRIM Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Pedestal NOSE DN-OFF-NOSE UP Switch . . . . . NOSE UP/
.......................... NOSE DN
Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . NOSE UP/NOSE DN
While depressing arming button, operate NOSE UP/NOSE
DN. Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . NOSE UP/NOSE DN
While depressing arming button, operate NOSE UP/NOSE
DN. Ensure trim motion does not occur.

2B-18 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

PITCH TRIM Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRI


Pedestal NOSE DN-OFF-NOSE UP Switch . . . . . NOSE UP/
.......................................................................... .NOSE DN
Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATE
Without depressing arming button, move switch NOSE UP,
NOSE DN, LWD, and RWD. Check that trim motion does
not occur.
Arming Button (without displacing switch) . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Pilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATE
While depressing arming button, move switch NOSE UP,
NOSE DN, LWD, and RWD. Ensure trim motion occurs in all
directions.
Pilot MSW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure that while trimming NOSE UP and NOSE DN,
depressing pilot MSW stops trim motion.
Copilot MSWDEPRESS
Ensure that while trimming NOSE UP and NOSE DN,
depressing copilot MSW stops trim motion.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATE
Without depressing arming button, move switch NOSE UP,
NOSE DN, LWD, and RWD. Check that trim motion does
not occur.
Arming Button (without displacing switch) . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Copilot Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATE
While depressing arming button, move switch NOSE UP,
NOSE DN, LWD, and RWD. Ensure trim motion occurs in all
directions.
Copilot MSW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure that while trimming NOSE UP and NOSE DN,
depressing copilot MSW stops trim motion.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-19


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite
Trim Speed Check:
The trim speed monitor compares pitch trim rate with flap
position. During ground test, a flaps down signal is applied
to the trim speed controller and a flaps up signal applied to
trim speed monitor to simulate the high trim rate with trim
speed monitor in low rate.
On aircraft with AAK 83-2:
Either Control Wheel Trim. . . . . . . . NOSE UP OR NOSE DN
TRIM OVSP-OFF-TRIM MON Switch. . . . . . . . . TRIM OVSP
Ensure amber PITCH TRIM annunciator illuminates.
TRIM OVSP-OFF-TRIM MON Switch. . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DN
Either Control Wheel Trim. . . . . . . . NOSE UP OR NOSE DN
Ensure PITCH TRIM indicator needle moves faster with
flaps down. The trim-in-motion audio clicker does not sound.
On S/Ns 35-408, 506 and subsequent; 36-054 and
subsequent:
TEST Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRIM OVSP
Either Control Wheel Trim. . . . . . . . NOSE UP OR NOSE DN
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS WHILE TRIMMING
Ensure amber PITCH TRIM annunciator illuminates.
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Either Control Wheel Trim. . . . . . . . NOSE UP OR NOSE DN
Ensure PITCH TRIM indicator needle moves faster with
flaps down and the trim-in-motion audio clicker does not
sound.

2B-20 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2002
Expanded Normal Procedures

Trim Monitor:
During ground test, a signal simulates an electrical fault to
the trim monitor.
On aircraft with AAK 83-2:
TRIM OVSP-OFF-TRIM MON Switch. . . . . . . . . . TRIM MON
Ensure amber PITCH TRIM annunciator illuminates.
TRIM OVSP-OFF-TRIM MON Switch. . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
On S/N 35-408, 506 and subsequent; 36-054 and
subsequent:
TEST Selector Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRIM MON
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure amber PITCH TRIM annunciator illuminates.
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Either Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATE
With arming button depressed, operate the switch to move
PITCH TRIM indicator pointer through the entire T.O. seg-
ment. The amber T.O. TRIM annunciator illuminates when-
ever the pointer is outside of T.O. segment.
Rudder Trim Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Q Move each half of switch separately to NOSE LEFT and
NOSE RIGHT. Ensure trim motion does not occur.
Q Move both halves simultaneously to NOSE LEFT and
NOSE RIGHT. Check that trim motion occurs.
Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET ALL FOR TAKEOFF
Ensure amber T.O. TRIM annunciator not illuminated.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-21


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Autopilot Monitor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Autopilot Monitor (FC 200 Autopilot):
AUTOPILOT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Ensure the PWR annunciator on the Autopilot Controller
illuminates.
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Check that all annunciators on the Autopilot Controller illu-
minate.
ADI/HSI Flags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK
Ensure that all flags have disappeared to indicate that verti-
cal and directional gyros have been energized long enough
to time-out erection cycles (approximately 90 seconds).
ENG Button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
ROLL, PITCH, and LVL annunciators illuminate. The autopi-
lot then opposes movement of the flight controls.
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LWD
Without depressing arming button, move to LWD. ROLL
annunciator extinguishes and autopilot disconnect horn
sounds within five seconds. Hold wheel at wings level posi-
tion.
Trim Switch/TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
ENG Button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RWD
Without depressing arming button, move to RWD. ROLL
annunciator extinguishes and autopilot disconnect horn
sounds within five seconds. Hold wheel at wings level posi-
tion.
Trim Switch/TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
ENG Button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
ROLL, PITCH, and LVL annunciators illuminate. The autopi-
lot then opposes movement of the flight controls.

2B-22 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2002
Expanded Normal Procedures

TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD


Control Wheel Trim Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOSE DN
Without depressing arming button, move to NOSE DN while
holding moderate pull force on control column. PITCH
annunciator extinguishes; autopilot disconnect horn sounds
within six seconds. Normally, roll axis disengages along with
the pitch. If such disengagement does not occur, disregard
because roll axis disengagement is not required.
ENG Button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Control Wheel Master Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Check that autopilot pitch and roll disengage.
Autopilot Monitor (FC 530 Autopilot):
The ADI and HSI flags do not have to be retracted to com-
plete this check.
AUTOPILOT Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Ensure the PWR annunciator on the Autopilot Controller illu-
minates.
TST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Check that all annunciators on the Autopilot Controller illu-
minate.
ENG and TST Buttons . . . . DEPRESS SIMULTANEOUSLY/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .THEN RELEASE
MON, PITCH, and ROLL annunciators illuminate, then extin-
guish. Disengage tone sounds. The ROLL annunciator
extinguishes in approximately eight seconds and the PITCH
annunciator extinguishes in approximately 11 seconds. The
LVL ON annunciator illuminates when the ROLL annunciator
extinguishes. PWR and LVL ON annunciators remain illumi-
nated.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-23


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
If test fails: the failed axis (PITCH and/or ROLL) annuncia-
tors flash. The MON annunciator remains illuminated. Cycle
the AUTOPILOT switch to extinguish the annunciators.
Autopilot must not be used in any axis that fails the autopilot
monitor check. If it is intended to use autopilot with a failed
axis, the failed axis DC CB (AFCS PITCH or AFCS ROLL)
must be pulled.
Yaw Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Yaw Dampers (FC 200 autopilot):
Primary PWR/TEST Button. . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Check that the PWR/TEST and PRI ENG lights illuminate.
Primary PWR/TEST Button. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
Ensure the PWR/TEST remains illuminated and that the
PRI ENG light extinguishes.
Secondary PWR/TEST Button . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Check that the PWR/TEST and SEC ENG lights illuminate.
Secondary PWR/TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
Ensure the PWR/TEST remains illuminated and that the
SEC ENG light extinguishes.
Yaw Force Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
Rotate control wheel to center.
SEC ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure SEC ENG light illuminates.
Rudder Pedals . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS ONE/THEN OTHER

NOTE: Significantly lower rudder pedal force required to


overpower yaw damper.

2B-24 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

While holding the control wheel centered, depress one rud-


der pedal and then the other. It must be possible to depress
each rudder pedal against the opposition of the yaw damper
system. The Yaw Force Indicator indicates direction of input.
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO FULL LEFT
Rudder pedals should deflect to left.
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO FULL RIGHT
Rudder pedals should deflect to right.
SEC ENG OFF Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Check that the SEC ENG light extinguishes and the yaw
damper disengages.
PRI ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure PRI ENG light illuminates.
Rudder Pedals . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS ONE/THEN OTHER
While holding the control wheel centered, depress one rud-
der pedal and then the other. It must be possible to depress
each rudder pedal against the opposition of the yaw damper
system. The Yaw Force Indicator indicates direction of input.
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO FULL LEFT
Rudder pedals should deflect to left.
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO FULL RIGHT
Rudder pedals should deflect to right.
Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW) . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure that the PRI ENG light extinguishes and the yaw
damper disengages.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-25


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Yaw Dampers (FC 530 autopilot):
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
PRI and SEC PWR Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Check that the PRI and SEC ON annunciators illuminate.
Yaw Force Indicator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
Rotate control wheel to center.
TST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DEPRESS AND HOLD
Ensure PRI and SEC ENG annunciators illuminate and that
both yaw damper force indicators deflect right and then
slowly deflect left.
TST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE
If retesting is decided, wait at least five seconds for test cir-
cuit to reset.
SEC ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Check that the SEC ENG annunciator illuminates.
Rudder Pedals . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS ONE/THEN OTHER
While holding the control wheel centered, depress one rud-
der pedal and then the other. It must be possible to depress
each rudder pedal against the opposition of the yaw damper
system. The Yaw Force Indicator indicates direction of input.
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DN
Rudder Pedals . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS ONE/THEN OTHER
While holding the control wheel centered, depress one rud-
der pedal and then the other. It must be possible to depress
each rudder pedal against the opposition of the yaw damper
system. The Yaw Force Indicator indicates direction of input.

2B-26 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO FULL LEFT


Rudder pedals should deflect to left.
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO FULL RIGHT
Rudder pedals should deflect to right.
SEC ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Check that the SEC ENG annunciator extinguishes and the
yaw damper disengages. The disengage aural tone sounds.
PRI ENG Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure PRI ENG annunciator illuminates.
Rudder Pedals . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS ONE/THEN OTHER
While holding the control wheel centered, depress one rud-
der pedal and then the other. It must be possible to depress
each rudder pedal against the opposition of the yaw damper
system. The Yaw Force Indicator indicates direction of input.
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO FULL LEFT
Rudder pedals should deflect to left.
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE TO FULL RIGHT
Rudder pedals should deflect to right.
Control Wheel Master Switch (MSW) . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Ensure that the PRI ENG annunciator extinguishes and the
yaw damper disengages. Disengage aural tone sounds.
Emer Lt Switch (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . TESTED/ARMED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-27


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Starting Engines
The Starting Engines checklist is completed prior to engine
start. Both engines should be started prior to taxi.
Passengers/Baggage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BRIEFED/SECURED
Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TWO HANDLES FORWARD/
LIGHT OUT
The DOOR annunciator does not extinguish until all door
latch pins are in place and the door actuator motor is oper-
ated to back the closer hooks off the upper door catches.
The upper door is an emergency exit.
L/R Fuel Cmptr Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
L/R Fuel Cmptr Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK/OUT
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK FOR MIN VOLTAGE
Lead-acid batteries show at least 24V DC; ni-cad batteries
show at least 23V DC.
Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRI ON
Air Conditioning/Aux Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FAN OR OFF
Do not use the Freon system or auxiliary heat during start.
This step reduces voltage draw and amperage spike cre-
ated when the starter switch is placed in the generator posi-
tion.
Rotating Beacon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
External Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CUTOFF
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Hydraulic Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

2B-28 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . START
The following sequence is performed without the use of a
checklist:
Start-Gen Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .START
The red starter engaged light (if installed) comes on as long
as the starter is powered.
SPR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOLD IN L OR R
Use of SPR is recommended at ambient temperature of 0°F
(-17.8°C) or below. Do not energize SPR at any time other
than during engine start; SPR is not required when OAT is
above 0°F.
Turbine RPM (N2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10% MIN/FAN ROTATION
10% N2 takes approximately six seconds and fan rotation
appears at slightly above 10% N2.
Thrust Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE
Q AIR IGN annunciator illuminates.
Q Check Fuel Flow indicator visually for indication of fuel
flow.
Q Observe ITT indicator for indication of combustion within
five seconds after placing thrust lever in IDLE. If SPR is
used, release the switch at 300-400°C ITT. ITT must not
be allowed to exceed 860°C (on most starts, it does not
exceed 700°C).
Q Observe fan speed (N1) increasing.
Q Observe oil pressure indicator; oil pressure should begin
to register at approximately 25% N2 and within 10 sec-
onds of ignition.
Q
Observe engine parameters while engine is spooling up
to operating speed.
Q
Observe that the START and AIR IGN annunciators
extinguish at 45 to 50% turbine RPM. If the annunciators
do not extinguish and the engine is running normally,
refer to Abnormal Procedures (Starter Engaged Light
Remains Illuminated).

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-29


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite
Q If engine does not start, observe the starter cooling
requirements below:

START ATTEMPT WAIT

1 1 Minute

2 1 Minute

3 15 Minutes

4 1 Minute

5 1 Minute

6 1 Hour

This cycle may be repeated


If batteries used for start:
START-GEN Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEN AT IDLE
On S/Ns 35-002 through 147; 36-002 through 035:
Prior to START-GEN Switch to GEN
BAT 1 or 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Prior to starting second engine or if taxiing with single
engine operating and ammeter reads less than 175A, both
battery switches to ON.
(If only one engine is started at this time, return to page
2B-9 and continue with Warning Systems Check.)
If GPU used for start:
START-GEN Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF AT IDLE
The AFM does not make a distinction between battery and
GPU starts. It is widely accepted, however, to leave the gen-
erators off after starting until the GPU has been discon-
nected.

2B-30 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

A problem associated with turning the generators off occurs


during the second engine start when the GPU may drop off-
line for any number of reasons. If the use of the GPU is nec-
essary because of low battery power, start the second
engine with the operating generator on. This minimizes the
chance of a hot start occurring in the critical phase of start-
ing. If the GPU drops out during the start with low batteries,
the 275A current limiter may fail because of the demand on
the operating generator. The pilot must exercise more care
when starting the engines with low batteries, particularly by
checking the current limiters after both engines started.
After the STA RT-GEN switch is placed in GEN, check the
generator output for indication of DC volts and amps.
Engine Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Q Turbine RPM Idle 55 to 62%
Q Fan RPM Idle 26 to 32%
Q Oil Pressure L or R LO OIL annunciator extinguished and
indication in green band on oil pressure gage. In cold
temperature, an oil pressure transient above normal can
be expected.
Q FUEL PRESS annunciator extinguished to indicate nor-
mal operation of the jet pumps. If for any reason, the JET
PUMP switch is off and the engine is operating, establish
steady engine operation at or above 80% fan speed (N1)
before setting the JET PUMP switch to ON. Use caution;
this is a very high thrust setting.
Starter Disengagement Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
With COOL-FAN and AUX HT switches OFF, turn BAT
switches to OFF. If amps less than 100A, turn both BAT
switches to ON. If amps greater than 100A, shut engine
down.
Engine Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
GPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DISCONNECTED
Battery voltage is indicated after the GPU is disconnected if
the generators are off.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-31


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Generators/DC Volts and Amps . . . . . . . . . . . ON/CHECKED
Check generator output, DC volts, and amps.
Current Limiters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
CUR LIM Annunciator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHED
If CUR LIM annunciator not installed:
Rotary Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURRENT LIMITER L
Test Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
The green indicator annunciator illuminates if the left current
limiter is functional.
Rotary Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURRENT LIMITER R
The green indicator annunciator illuminates if the right cur-
rent limiter is functional. Repeat the Current Limiter test after
both engines have been started.
On early model aircraft not equipped with CUR LIM annun-
ciator or rotary test switch CURRENT position:
Main Bus Tie CB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULL
Left Generator Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Check ammeter indications; right amp indication should
double.
Left Generator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Right Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Left ammeter indication should double.
Right Generator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Main Bus Tie CB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESET
If ammeter indications do not change during test, a current
limiter has failed. Do not fly the aircraft until corrected.

2B-32 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Before Taxi
Next, complete a flow pattern using exactly the same path used
with Before Starting Engines checklist. The objective of the
second flow pattern is to turn on the aircraft equipment in prep-
aration for flight and to test each system or component that was
not tested previously.
Beginning at the anti-ice switch panel, the flow progresses
across the lower switch panel, from left to right, to the right
audio panel. The right, center, and left instrument panels are
checked up to the annunciator and T/R control panel. Lastly,
the pedestal is checked from the thrust lever quadrant down to
the bottom.
All the equipment is turned on, and systems are tested as
encountered in the flow pattern. When completed, all aircraft
systems have been checked and set for the taxi phase of flight
and nearly all tests have been completed.
The PF calls for and the crew completes the Before Taxi check-
list. Very little is done while reading the checklist because it
was accomplished during the flow.

NOTE: On aircraft with auxiliary inverter, turn all three


inverters on during normal operations to obtain maximum
inverter life.

Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALL ON
Avionics/Avionics Master. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STANDBY
Radio Altimeter/Autopilot/Emer Power . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
UNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/PROGRAMMED
GPWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TESTED
TCAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TESTED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-33


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite
Windshield Heat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PURGED
Aircraft with 450 pressurization:
In-NORMAL/Out-DEFOG Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULL OUT
WSHLD HEAT-MAN-AUTO Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUTO
Until water has cleared.
WSHLD OV HT Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MONITOR
When moisture has cleared:
WSHLD HEAT AUTO-MAN Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MAN
WSHLD HEAT ON-OFF Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Hold until airflow stops.
In-NORMAL/Out-DEFOG Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUSH IN
Aircraft with 510 pressurization:
WSHLD HEAT ON-OFF Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Until water has cleared.
WSHLD OV HT Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MONITOR
When moisture has cleared:
WSHLD HEAT ON-OFF Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Fuel Control Governors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Left Thrust Lever. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE
If the engine accelerates uncontrolled during the following
steps, turn fuel computer on until engine stabilizes at idle,
then shut down and correct the problem.
L Fuel Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
L FUEL CMPTR annunciator illuminates. Engine RPM may
increase or decrease slightly and then stabilize.
When RPM stabilizes:
Left Thrust Lever. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ADVANCE AND RETARD
Advance thrust lever and watch for an increase in turbine
RPM and that turbine speed follows the thrust lever. If tur-
bine speed fails to respond to thrust lever, shut down engine
and correct the problem

2B-34 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Expanded Normal Procedures

L Fuel Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
L FUEL CMPTR annunciator extinguishes and engine RPM
stabilizes.
Right Thrust Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE
The right fuel control governor check is the same as the left.
Anti-Skid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/LIGHTS EXTINGUISHED
Spoileron/Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/RET
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DN
Aileron Augmentation Check:
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
Spoileron Reset Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOLD IN RESET
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE LEFT
Apply left aileron until AUG AIL annunciator illuminates, then
hold the control wheel stationary. Observe the deflection
angle.
Spoileron Reset Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .RELEASE
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CENTER
Spoileron Reset Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOLD IN RESET
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ROTATE RIGHT
Apply right aileron until AUG AIL annunciator illuminates,
then hold the control wheel stationary. Observe the deflec-
tion angle; it should be approximately the same angle as the
left.
Spoileron Reset Switch . . . . . . . . . . . RESET AND RELEASE
Control Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ROTATE LEFT AND RIGHT
The controls should be rotated full deflection left and right;
the AUG AIL annunciator should not illuminate.
Spoiler Check:
Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXTEND

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-35


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
The SPOILER annunciator illuminates and flashes and
spoilers extend in one to two seconds. If possible, check the
spoilers visually.
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
The SPOILER annunciator stops flashing at 13° and stays
on steady.
Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACT
The spoilers retract in approximately six seconds and the
SPOILER annunciator extinguishes.
Spoiler Slamdown Test (S/Ns 35-002 through 142; 36-002
through 035 without SB35/36-27-7):
Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTEND
The SPOILER annunciator illuminates.
Spoiler CB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULL
The spoilers should slam down (retract in less than one sec-
ond) and the annunciator extinguishes.
Spoiler CB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESET
The spoilers extend; the annunciator illuminates.
Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACT
The spoilers retract in approximately four seconds and the
annunciator extinguishes.
Flaps (8° or 20°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Hydraulic Press/Low Hydraulic Light . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/AS REQUIRED
Do not use strobe lights when taxiing in the vicinity of other
aircraft. Navigation lights should be on for all night opera-
tions.
Coffee/Oven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED IN
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED

2B-36 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Taxi
Brakes and Steering . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/ENGAGED
Wheel Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Rudder Pedals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STEER LEFT AND RIGHT
Operation is smooth and prompt; no stepping or growling
occurs.
Steer Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .AS REQUIRED
Toe Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECK
Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Aeronca Thrust Reversers:
Thrust Reverser Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS

The BLEED VALVE annunciators illuminate. If the optional


blocker door switches have been installed, the UNLOCK
annunciators flash after a three second delay. If the
UNLOCK annunciators flash, the operational check may be
performed. If the annunciator(s) do not flash, the operational
check should be accomplished after landing. The reverser
must be visually inspected after use to determine that they
are properly stowed.
Thrust Reverser Operational Check
L Thrust Reverser Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE DEPLOY
The thrust reverser does not respond; the engine acceler-
ates slightly.
L Thrust Reverser Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOW
R Thrust Reverser Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE DEPLOY
The thrust reverser does not respond; the engine acceler-
ates slightly.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-37


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite
Both Thrust Reverser Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE DEPLOY
The UNLOCK annunciators illuminate first. Next, the
DEPLOY annunciators illuminate and the UNLOCK annun-
ciators extinguish.
Emergency Stow Switch . . . . . . . . . . . .EMERGENCY STOW
The thrust reversers should stow and EMER STOW light
illuminates.
Both Thrust Reverser Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STOW
Emergency Stow Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NORMAL
EMER STOW light extinguishes.
Both Thrust Reverser Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE DEPLOY
When the reversers are deployed, check that the thrust
reverser levers are free to pull into reverse past a lock-out
pin that retracts when both reversers are deployed.
Both Thrust Reverser Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STOW
The reversers should stow and the annunciators extinguish.
BLEED VALVE Annunciators . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHED

2B-38 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Expanded Normal Procedures

Dee Howard TR4000 Thrust Reversers:


Warning Lights Test Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
The ARM and DEPLOY annunciators illuminate. If any
thrust reverser annunciators fail to operate during test,
repairs must be accomplished or CBs for both thrust revers-
ers must be pulled prior to flight.
Thrust Reverser Control Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEST
ARM annunciators illuminate.
Thrust Reverser Control Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARM
ARM annunciators illuminate.Thrust Levers. ADVANCE
SLIGHTLY
ARM annunciators extinguish.
Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE
ARM annunciators illuminate.
Thrust Reverser Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IDLE DEPLOY
Both DEPLOY annunciators illuminate, the reversers
deploy, and the lever lock-out pins pull.
Thrust Reverser Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .STOW
Both DEPLOY annunciators extinguish.
Thrust Reverser Control Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
ARM annunciators extinguish.
Flight Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Flight Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO FLAGS/
ALT,HEADING,VERIFIED
Nav Equipment/Radios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/SET
Spoilers/Flaps/Trim . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED, 8° OR 20°
SET/CHECKED
Pressurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-39


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite
Cabin Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NORM OR ON
Anti-Ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/AS REQUIRED
Engine Anti-Ice Check:
Nacelle Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
The left and right engine ice annunciators illuminate
momentarily and then extinguish. The ITT rises slightly.
L/R Engine Ice Annunciators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
If the annunciators do not go out, increase thrust. The
annunciators must go out by 60% fan RPM.
Nacelle Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Wing and Stabilizer Anti-Ice Check:
Stab and Wing Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
The cabin rate-of-climb indicators shows a climb in cabin
altitude.
Stab and Wing Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
The cabin rate-of-climb indicators shows a descent in Cabin
altitude.

WARNING: The wings, vertical and horizontal stabilizers,


flight controls surfaces, and engine inlets must be free of frost,
snow, and ice.

NOTE: Anti-ice systems should be turned on prior to flight


into visible moisture with OAT of 50°F (10°C) or below. If
anti-ice systems are required during takeoff, they should be
turned ON prior to setting takeoff power.

Cabin Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETED

2B-40 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

Before Takeoff
The Before Takeoff checklist is accomplished with the aircraft
stopped.
Crew Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPLETED
Review takeoff data and bugs set.
Fuel Balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Cabin Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NORM OR ON
Anti-IcE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED

WARNING: The wings, vertical and horizontal stabilizers,


flight controls surfaces, and engine inlets must be free of frost,
snow, and ice.

NOTE: Anti-ice systems should be turned on prior to flight


into visible moisture with OAT of 50°F (10°C) or below. If
anti-ice systems are required during takeoff, they should be
turned ON prior to setting takeoff power.

Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED
Transponder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TA/RA
Dee Howard Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARMED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-41


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite

Runway Line-Up
Pitot Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/ON
The PITOT HEAT annunciators extinguish.
Air Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
The AIR IGN annunciators illuminate.
Stall Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
The STALL annunciators should extinguish. In gusty wind
conditions, it may be necessary to turn on stall warnings
after initiating the takeoff roll.
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Landing/Taxi Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/AS DESIRED
Recognition/Strobe Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Steer Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Warning Lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTINGUISHED/
OR AS APPROPRIATE
The annunciator panel is scanned and all annunciators
should be extinguished except possibly the STEER ON,
NAC HT (if installed), and DH annunciator.

Takeoff
Nosewheel Steering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASE AT FIRST
INDICATION OF AIRSPEED
Use as required for heading control.

2B-42 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

After Takeoff
The After Takeoff checklist is not accomplished until the aircraft
is safely airborne and the crew has had time to clear the area
for traffic. It is accomplished after the aircraft is at least 1,500 ft
AGL (if workload permits). Should the aircraft remain within the
airport traffic area, complete the After Takeoff checklist after
establishing the aircraft in level flight. Each pilot should advise
the other when the checklist is begun so that visual traffic sepa-
ration is maintained.
After safely airborne, the PF calls for gear retraction and yaw
damper engagement. At the appropriate speed, the PF calls for
flap retraction and for the After Takeoff checklist.
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
When the gear is retracting, monitor the annunciators for
proper indications to detect a hydraulic failure.
Yaw Damp PRI or SEC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENGAGED
S/Ns with FC 200 autopilot: The yaw damper must be on
for all operations after lift-off until just prior to touchdown.
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
The flaps may be retracted at V2 +30 and must be retracted
prior to VFE.
Dee Howard Thrust Reversers (prior to 200 KIAS) . . . . OFF
Anti-Ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Anti-ice systems should be turned on prior to flight into visi-
ble moisture and RAT of 10°C or below. If the anti-ice sys-
tems are activated, monitor for proper indications mentioned
previously during systems check.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-43


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

CAUTION: Even small accumulations of ice on the wing


leading edge can cause aerodynamic stall prior to activation
of the stick shaker and/or pusher. These ice accumulations
can also cause AOA indicator information to be unreliable.

Air Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED OR OFF


Before turning the ignition off, visually scan the area for birds. If
in rain or icing conditions, turning off air ignition may be
delayed. The AIR IGN annunciators extinguish.
Landing/Taxi Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Pressurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONITORED
Autopilot APPR Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUT
Hydraulic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NORMAL
Angle-of-Attack Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . CROSS CHECKED

2B-44 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Climb
At 10,000 ft:
No Smoking/Seat Belt Sign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
At FL 180 or Transition Level:
Altimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29.92
Cool/Fan Switch (if applicable). . . . . . . . . . . . . FAN OR OFF
The air conditioner should not be used above 18,000 ft to
prevent arcing in the compressor motor (except for S/Ns
with FCN89-1, which increase altitude to FL 350).
Emer Press Switches (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . NORMAL
Recognition Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Leaving FL 250:
Crew Masks . . . . . . . . . . 100% OXY/QUICK DON POSITION
S/Ns 35-002 through 112 except 107; 36-002 through 031:
ZMR100 Series: one crew member must wear oxygen mask
around neck.
6600214 Series: crew masks must be in quick-donning posi-
tion to allow donning within five seconds.
S/N 35-107, 113 and subsequent; 36-032 and subsequent:
Crew masks must be in quick-donning position to allow don-
ning within five seconds.
At FL 350:
Cool/Fan Switch (with FCN 89-1) . . . . . . . . . . . FAN OR OFF
Above FL 410:
S/Ns 35-002 through 112 except 107; 36-002 through 031:
Crew/Passenger Oxygen Masks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON
Ensure lanyards have been pulled on passenger masks in
use.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-45


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite

Cruise
Pressurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONITORED
Engine Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONITORED
Autopilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED
Windshield Heat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED
Fuel Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONITORED

Descent
Windshield Heat/Windshield Defog/
Aux Defog. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Pressurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SET FOR LANDING
Anti-Ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED

FL 180/Transition Level
Altimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET/CROSS CHECKED
Air Conditioner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED
Use of the air conditioner may reduce the amount of internal
windshield fogging that occurs at low altitude.
Hydraulic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Recognition Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
TOLD Card/Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPUTED/SET
Cabin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Swivel Seats . . . . . . . . . . . . FORWARD OR AS PLACARDED
Work Table and Toilet Doors
(if installed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK STOWED
Emergency Exit . . . . . . CHECK ISLE CLEAR AND HANDLE
UNOBSTRUCTED
Seat Belt/No Smoking Sign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON

2B-46 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2004
Expanded Normal Procedures

Approach
Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Aeronca Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TESTED
TEST Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPRESS
Hydraulic/Emergency Air Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Radio/Barometric Altimeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINSSET/
........................ CROSS CHECKED
Fuel Balance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Avionics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET FOR APPROACH
Crew Briefing/Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .COMPLETED/SET

It is recommended that if turbulence is anticipated due to


gusty winds, wake turbulence, or wind shear, the approach
speed be increased. For gusty wind conditions, an increase
in approach speed of one half the gust factor is recom-
mended.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-47


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite

Before Landing
Spoilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED 8° or 20°
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Engine Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
If the engine sync is on and gear extended, the ENG SYNC
annunciator illuminates when nose gear is down and locked.
The ENG SYNC annunciator is wired through the downlock
switch.
Anti-Skid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/LIGHTS EXTINGUISHED
Landing/Taxi Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Dee Howard Thrust Reversers
(below 200 KIAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARMED
Cabin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Hydraulic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Air Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Autopilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISENGAGED
Yaw Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISENGAGED
FC 200 autopilot: The yaw damper should be disengaged
in the landing flare.
FC 530 autopilot: With full flaps, the yaw damper disen-
gages through the squat switch relay at touchdown. With
flaps other than full down, disengage the yaw damper prior
to landing.

2B-48 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Landing
After touchdown:
Spoilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTENDED
Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Thrust Reversers or Drag Chute . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED
Below 45 kts:
Nosewheel Steering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED

WARNING: When the Fuel Quantity gage indicates 600


pounds or less remaining in either wing tank, prolonged
nose-up attitude of 10° or more may cause fuel to be
trapped in the aft area of the wing tank outboard of the
wheel well. Fuel starvation and engine flameout may occur.
For go-around conditions with low fuel, on first steady indi-
cation by the LOW FUEL warning light, reduce climb atti-
tude and thrust to minimum required.

Go-Around/Missed Approach
Autopilot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISENGAGED
Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . T.O. POWER OR AS REQUIRED
SPOILER Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20°
Landing Gear Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
Climb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPROACH CLIMB SPEED
When clear of obstacles:
Airspeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VREF + 30
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-49


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite

After Landing/Clearing Runway


Anti-Ice System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Air Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Stall Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Landing/Taxi Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED
Cabin Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Recognition/Strobe Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Unnecessary Avionics/Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
UNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Transponder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STANDBY OR OFF
Spoilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Hydraulic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Trims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESET
Dee Howard Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

2B-50 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Expanded Normal Procedures

Shutdown
Chocks/Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Anti-Ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Emer Power/Standby Gyro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF/CAGED
Panel Switches/Avionics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Crossflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED
Close the crossflow valve. If valve is left open, the fuel may
gravity flow to the lowest wing and cause the aircraft to tip
over on the ramp.
Fuel Tank XFER-FILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Always stop the fuel transfer process while batteries are on.
If the battery switches are turned off before the fuel transfer
switch is place in OFF, the crossflow valve may remain
open.
Fuel Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED
Emergency Lights (if installed). . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISARMED
If emergency lights are left armed and main batteries turned
off, the lights come on and drain the emergency light system
batteries.
Coffee/Oven Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Thrust Levers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CUTOFF
When shutting down the engines, check the hydraulic
pumps. Operate a hydraulic load (spoilers or flap) after shut-
ting down one engine. If operating pressure is maintained,
the pump on the operating engine is functioning.
External Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Inverters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-51


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Hydraulic Pressure (if applicable) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ZERO
If the parking brake is set, use of flaps to bleed hydraulic
system pressure does not affect parking brake pressure.

CAUTION: On S/Ns without SB 35/36-32-4, failure to


bleed hydraulic pressure from the system before setting
Battery switches off could result in nose gear retraction if
landing gear selector valve malfunctions.

Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Control Lock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

2B-52 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Expanded Normal Procedures

Quick Turnaround
(One or No Engine Shutdown)
Cabin Door-Closed and Locked . . . . . . . DOOR LIGHT OUT
No Smoking/Seat Belt Switch. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Cool Fan/Aux Heat Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF OR FAN
Engine (if shut down) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . START
Start-Gen Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GEN
DC Volts/Amps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Starter Disengagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Current Limiters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Circuit Breakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IN
Avionics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Coffee/Oven Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Anti-Ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED

Taxi
Fuel Panel/Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
TOLD Card/Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Nav Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Transponder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TA/RA
Radar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Spoilers/Flaps/Trim . . . . . . . . RETRACTED, 8° OR 20° SET/
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHECKED
Pressurization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Cabin Air. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NORM OR ON

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-53


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite
Dee Howard Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARMED
Cabin Check/Passenger Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETED
Crew Takeoff Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETED

Runway Lineup
Pitot Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED/ON
Air Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Stall Warnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Landing/Taxi Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/AS DESIRED
Recognition/Strobe Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Steer Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Warning Lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . .OUT OR AS APPROPRIATE

After Takeoff/Traffic Pattern


Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
Yaw Damper PRI or SEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENGAGED
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UP
Dee Howard Thrust Reversers (below 200 kts). . . . . . . OFF
Air Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Landing/Taxi Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Fuel Panel/Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Radio/Barometric Altimeters . . . . . SET/CROSS CHECKED
Approach Briefing/Bugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETED/SET

2B-54 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Before Landing
Spoilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS DESIRED (8° OR 20°)
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Engine Sync . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Anti-Skid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON/LIGHTS EXTINGUISHED
Landing/Taxi Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AS REQUIRED
Aeronca Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TESTED
Dee Howard Thrust Reversers
(below 200 KIAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ARMED
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOWN
Hydraulic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Yaw Damper (FC 200 autopilot) . . . . . . . . . . . DISENGAGED

Parking
Under normal weather conditions, the aircraft may be parked
and headed in a direction to facilitate servicing without regard
to prevailing winds. For extended parking, head aircraft into the
wind.
Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARK ON HARD, LEVEL SURFACE
Nose Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENTERED
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Main Gear Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED
Flaps and Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED
Static Ground Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONNECTED
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Tail Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CLOSED and LOCKED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-55


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Mooring
If extended parking plans or impending weather necessitates
mooring the aircraft, 7/16-inch polypropylene ropes (or equiva-
lent) are attached to the nose gear and the main gear struts
(Figure 2B-1). This procedure requires that tie-down eyelets
be set into the apron; there is no procedure for mooring at
unprepared facilities.
Parking Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORM
Ropes . . . . . . . ATTACH TO NOSE GEAR AND MAIN GEAR/
SECURE TO PARKING APRON

MAIN GEAR

NOSE GEAR

Figure 2B-1. Mooring Points on Landing Gear

2B-56 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Nose Steering Turning Radius

33’ 9"
26’ 6"
37’ 8"

21’ 2"

Figure 2B-2. Nose Steering Turning Radius

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-57


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Tow Bar Turning Radius

25’ 10"
22’ 9"

20’ 3"
4’ 1"

Figure 2B-3. Tow Bar Turning Radius

2B-58 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Towing/Taxiing
On hard surfaces, the aircraft can be towed or pushed back-
wards using a tow bar attached to the nose wheel. The turning
angle of the nose wheel with tow bar is 90°, either side of cen-
ter. When the aircraft is not on a hard surface, (such as sand,
soft ground, or mud), cables or ropes must be attached to each
main gear for towing; in such an event, steering is accom-
plished with the rudder pedals.
For taxi operations, directional control is accomplished utilizing
the nosewheel steering system. The maximum turning radius
for the nosewheel steering system is 45° either side of center.

CAUTION: If aircraft is off runway and mired in soft ground,


do not attempt nosewheel towing. Cables or ropes
attached to the main gear must be used to prevent damage
to the aircraft. See Main Gear Towing section

Nose Gear Towing


Tow Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED TO NOSE WHEEL
Insert tow bar into nose wheel axle and secure.
Control Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Tow Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED TO TOWING VEHICLE
Wheel Chocks/Mooring Ropes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Parking Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Wing/Tail Walkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . STATIONED (OPTIONAL)
Aircraf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOW
Use smooth starts and stops.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-59


February 2004
CAE SimuFlite
When Towing Operation Completed:
Nosewheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENTERED
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Controls Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED
Tow Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED

CAUTION: When pushing aircraft backward with a towing


vehicle, perform all braking with the towing vehicle. Brake
application while the aircraft is being pushed backward,
other than by hand, may cause damage to the brake com-
ponents. Ensure that battery switches are set to OFF while
towing to avoid damage to the electric nosegear steering
actuator. If it is necessary to tow with power on the aircraft,
pull both AC and DC NOSE STEER CBs on the pilot’s CB
panel.

Main Gear Towing


Pilot’s Seat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OCCUPY
Main Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACH ROPES OR CABLES
Position large ropes or belt straps on main gear strut as low
as possible.
Wheel Chocks/Mooring Ropes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Control Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED

2B-60 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Ropes, Chains or Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED TO


TOWING VEHICLE
Towing ropes, chains or cables should be of sufficient length
to allow towing vehicle to be at least 50 to 100 ft from air-
craft.
Parking Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Wing/Tail Walkers . . . . . . . . . . . . . STATIONED (OPTIONAL)
Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOW
Use smooth starts and stops.
When Towing Operation Completed:
Nose Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENTERED
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Controls Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED
Parking Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACHED
Ropes, Chains or Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-61


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Taxiing
During taxi, the aircraft is controlled via nosewheel steering,
brakes, and selected engine thrust through rudder pedal.
Taxiing can be accomplished with one or both engines oper-
ating.

CAUTION: Ensure personnel and equipment are clear of


engine inlet and exhaust when engine is operating.

Pilot Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOTH OCCUPIED


Wheel Chocks/Mooring Ropes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Control Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Engine Inlet and Exhaust Covers. . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Area. . . . . . . . . .CLEAR OF PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT
Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . START
Start one engine according to engine starting procedure.
Parking Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Release the parking brake and start taxi roll using only suffi-
cient thrust to start roll.
After taxiing:
Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SET
Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SHUT DOWN
Shut the engine down according to engine shutdown proce-
dure.
After the engine has cooled, install engine inlet and
exhaust covers.
Parking Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORM

2B-62 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Storage
Aircraft storage practices vary depending upon the length of
the storage period. There are, however, several general pol-
icies to observe. If the aircraft is to be stored outside, adhere
to parking and mooring requirements. All protective covers
should be installed. Do not set the parking brake. In all other
cases, the following are generally performed:
Parking (0 to 7 Days)
If the engines are in a sheltered environment (i.e., not exposed
to excessive humidity or temperature changes), no action need
be taken beyond installing protective covers.

Flyable Storage (7 to 30 Days)


Parking
Aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PARK
Park aircraft in hangar, if possible. If aircraft is parked out-
side, position on flat surface, facing into the prevailing wind.
Main Gear Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED
Nose Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENTERED
Parking Brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RELEASED
Moor aircraft if necessary.

Fuel System
Aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FUELED
Fuel aircraft to capacity using approved fuel with anti-ice
additive mixed in normal proportions.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-63


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Flight Control System
Controls Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALL
Flaps and Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED
Engines
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Electrical System
Grounding Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ATTACHED
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DISCONNECT LEADS
Exterior Fuselage
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED ON PITOT TUBES
AND DORSAL FIN INLET
Tail Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Access Doors and Panels. . . . . . . CLOSED AND SECURED
Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED AND LOCKED
Attach red tag to cabin door handle with the following nota-
tion: “AIRCRAFT PREPARED FOR FLYABLE STORAGE (7
to 30 Days) (DATE OF STORAGE).”

2B-64 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Prolonged Storage (31 Days to 6 Months)


Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WASHED AND WAXED
Interior
Interior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANED
Seat Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Install protective seat covers on all seats.
Parking Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
Perform parking procedure as described for Flyable Stor-
age.
Engines
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESERVED
Preserve engines in accordance with “Engine Preservation
Instructions (Six Months or Less)” in the TFE731-2-2B
Engine Light Maintenance Manual. When preserving
engines, follow the special environmental preservation
instructions, if applicable.
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Fuel System
Fuel System Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
Perform fuel system procedure as described for Flyable
Storage.
Fuel Vents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COVERED
Cover fuel vents with barrier material and secure with tape.
Make a 0.10 inch diameter hole in barrier material to allow
venting.
Electrical System
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE AND STORE
Standby Battery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE AND STORE
Emer. Power Supply Battery . . . . . . . REMOVE AND STORE

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-65


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Nav. and Avionic Emer. Batt. Supply Pks . . . . . . . . .STORED
Store all battery packs in accordance with manufacturer’s
procedures.
Oxygen System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPLETE
Deplete oxygen from oxygen supply cylinder and aircraft
oxygen lines (refer to Maintenance Manual for details).
Ensure that oxygen supply valve is closed.
Alcohol Anti-Ice System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TANK EMPTIED
Refrigeration System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPERATE
Connect an external power source and operate refrigeration
system every 30 days.
Hydraulic System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Fill hydraulic system to operational level and check for
leaks. Repair all leaks prior to storage.
Windshield and Windows

CAUTION: Use extreme care not to scratch or gouge


windshield or windows.

Windshield and Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANED


LH Windshield Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Place LH windshield cover over LH windshield. Using black
tape, secure and seal protective cover to fuselage. Do not
tape center of windshield.
RH Windshield Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Place RH windshield cover over RH windshield. Using black
tape, secure and seal protective cover to fuselage and LH
windshield cover.

2B-66 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Expanded Normal Procedures

Cabin Window Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED


Place a window protective cover over each of the cabin win-
dows; secure and seal the covers around the edges with
black tape.
Avionic Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED AND STORED
Remove and store avionic equipment in accordance with
manufacturer’s recommended procedures.
Pitot/Static System
Pitot Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURED
Tape a small piece of barrier material around pitot tube and
install pitot tube cover.
Static Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURED
Cut small pieces of barrier material and place them over the
static ports. Secure and seal them from the atmosphere by
taping around the perimeter of barrier material.
Landing Gear
Tires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPLACED
Replace serviceable tires with unserviceable tires.
Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED AND PRESERVED
Remove brakes and preserve in brake preservative accord-
ing to procedure outlined in Maintenance Manual.
Anti-Skid Wheel Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Remove anti-skid wheel transducer and apply brake preser-
vative inside the hub. Re-install anti-skid wheel transducer.
Landing Gear Strut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LUBRICATED
Main and Nose Gear
Shock Struts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED EVERY 30 DAYS

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-67


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite
Main and Nose Gear
Tire Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED EVERY 30 DAYS
Wheel Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURED
Install barrier material over wheel wells; secure and seal
from atmosphere with black tape.
Toilet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SANITIZED
S/Ns equipped with Monogram toilet: Remove toilet tank
assembly and empty. Back flush tank assembly and disin-
fect. Disinfect toilet to prevent bacterial growth during stor-
age. Install toilet tank assembly; do not precharge.
S/Ns equipped with Sherwood or Alamo toilet: Follow
manufacturer’s instructions to pump reservoir fluid into
waste tank. Empty and sanitize waste tank. Disinfect toilet to
prevent bacterial growth during storage.
Emergency Air Bottle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPLETED
Deplete emergency air bottle air charge; ensure that charg-
ing valve is turned off.
Engine Fire Extinguisher System
Fire Extinguisher Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Gain access to fire extinguisher container and install a wire
jumper between the ground stud and cartridge insulated ter-
minal. Attach a red tag to the jumper wire with the notation:
“REMOVE JUMPER WIRE BEFORE STA RTING ENGINE.”
Flight Control System
Flight Control System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LUBRICATE
Lubricate flight control system in accordance with mainte-
nance manual.
Controls Gust Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Flaps and Spoilers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED

2B-68 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Expanded Normal Procedures

Exterior Fuselage
Tail Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Dorsal Fin Inlet CoveR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Access Doors and Panels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK CLOSED
AND SECURED
Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED AND LOCKED
Attach red tag to cabin door handle with the following nota-
tion: “AIRCRAFT PREPARED FOR PROLONGED STOR
GE (31 DAYS TO 6 MONTHS) (DATE OF STORAGE).”

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-69


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Indefinite Storage (More than 6 months)


Prepare aircraft for storage as described under Prolonged
Storage (31 Days to 6 Months). The following areas require
additional preparation:
Engines
Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PRESERVED
Preserve engines in accordance with “Engine Preservation
Instructions (More Than Six Months)” in the TFE731-2-2B
Engine Light Maintenance Manual.
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED
Ensure that protective covers are installed after the engines
have been preserved. When preserving engines, follow the
special environmental preservation instructions, if applica-
ble.
Engine Fire Extinguisher System
Engine Fire Extinguisher. . . . . . . .REMOVED AND STORED
Remove engine fire extinguisher container and cartridge
and store in accordance with the manufacturer’s recom-
mended procedures.
Fuel System
Sumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRAINED
Anti-Ice Additive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Remove a pint of fuel from the wing filler and check that anti-
ice additive concentration in fuel meets minimum Airplane
Flight Manual requirements (see FAA Approved Airplane
Flight Manual). If anti-ice additive concentration does not
meet minimum requirements, defuel the aircraft and fuel air-
craft with fuel and anti-ice additive in proper proportions.
Anti-ice additive concentration should be checked every six
months; more often if the aircraft is stored outside in high
temperature and high humidity environment.

2B-70 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Fuel Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOPPED OFF AS REQUIRED


Cabin Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSED AND LOCKED
Attach red tag to cabin door handle with the following nota-
tion: “AIRCRAFT PREPARED FOR INDEFINITE STORAGE
(MORE THAN SIX MONTHS) (DATE OF STORAGE).”
Landing Gear
Struts and Actuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
After aircraft has been stored for 12 months, remove barrier
material from landing gear struts and actuators. Wipe
hydraulic fluid off struts and actuators and apply a fresh light
coating of hydraulic fluid and wrap struts and actuators with
new barrier material. Secure and seal with black tape.
Replace tape that attaches barrier material to aircraft every
six months.
Windshield and Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REPLACE TAPE
Every Six Months
Replace tape that attaches protective covers to the aircraft
every six months. Use care when servicing not to gouge or
scratch the windshield or windows.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-71


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Restoring After Storage


After an aircraft has been stored for a period, it must be
restored to an airworthy state. Based on the length of storage,
the following are generally performed.
Restoring from Flyable Storage (7 to 30 Days)
Aircraft ExterioR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAN, IF REQUIRED
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Tail Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Controls Gust Locks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Batteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SERVICED AND CONNECTED
Servicing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Check the following items and service if required:
Q hydraulic accumulator
Q hydraulic reservoir
Q nose and main landing gear and struts
Q tires
Q refrigeration system
Q emergency air bottles
Q alcohol anti-ice system
Q oxygen system
Q engine oil system.
Preflight Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED

2B-72 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Restoring from Prolonged Storage (31 Days to 6


Months)
In addition to procedures required for restoring from Flyable
Storage, the following are performed:
Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PREPARE FOR SERVICE
Prepare the engines for service in accordance with “Engine
Depreservation Instructions” in TFE731-2-2B Light Engine
Maintenance Manual.
Fuel System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Electrical System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Oxygen System . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED AND CHECKED
FOR LEAKS
Alcohol Anti-Ice System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Environmental Systems . . . . . . . . OPERATIONAL CHECKS
PERFORMED
Hydraulic System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED FOR LEAKS
Repair any leaks prior to flight.
Windshield and Windows . . . . . . . . PROTECTIVE COVERS
REMOVED AND STORED
Avionic Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Install all avionic equipment removed for storage. Prepare
for service in accordance with manufacturer’s recom-
mended procedures.
Pitot/Static System . . . . . . . . . . . . COVERS AND BARRIER
MATERIAL REMOVED
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-73


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Toilet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Service toilet in accordance with manufacturer’s recom-
mended procedures.
Emergency Air Bottle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Engine Fire Extinguisher System. . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Remove electrical power from the aircraft. Remove red tag
and jumper between ground stud and fire extinguisher car-
tridge insulated terminal. Restore electrical power to aircraft.
Flight Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SERVICED
Remove controls gust locks, lubricate flight control system
and perform operational systems checks. See Maintenance
Manual for details.
Exterior Fuselage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Interior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEANED, IF REQUIRED
Preflight Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED

2B-74 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 2001
Expanded Normal Procedures

Restoring from Indefinite Storage


(More than 6 Months)
In addition to procedures required for restoring from Prolonged
Storage, the following are performed:
Engine Fire Extinguisher System. . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Hydrostatically test and service engine fire extinguisher con-
tainers and install engine fire extinguisher containers and
cartridges (See Maintenance Manual for details).
400-Hour Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
Perform 400-hour inspection as described in Maintenance
Manual.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-75


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Hot Weather and Desert Operations


Observe airplane performance limitations computed from Sec-
tion V of the AFM. Temperature affects engine thrust, braking,
takeoff distance and climb performance.
In areas of high humidity, non-metallic materials are subject to
moisture absorption and increase the weight of the aircraft. In
very dry areas, protect the airplane from dust and sand.
Exterior Inspection
Preflight Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVED
Q Clean dust and dirt from landing gear shock struts. Check
gear doors, position switches and squat switches for con-
dition and operation. Check tires and struts for proper
inflation.
Q Check and remove dust and sand from engine inlet duct,
tail pipe, and the visible components of the thrust revers-
ers.
During the inspection, be particularly conscious of dust and
sand accumulation on components that are lubricated with
oily or greasy lubricants.
Be careful of other personnel and equipment behind the air-
craft during engine starts.
Engine Start
During engine starts at high outside temperatures, engine ITT
is higher than normal but should remain within limits.

2B-76 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Taxi
If the airport surfaces are sandy or dust covered, avoid the
exhaust wake and propwash of other airplanes.

Takeoff
Ensure takeoff performance is adequate for the conditions and
runway length.

Shutdown and Postflight


Install all aircraft protective covers.
Do not allow sand or dust to enter fuel tanks while refueling.
Do not leave reflective objects in the cockpit or on the
glareshield; reflected heat can distort the windshield optical
properties.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-77


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Cold Weather Operations


Preflight Inspection
Aircraft Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FREE OF SNOW,
ICE AND FROST
Failure to remove snow, ice, or frost accumulation on the
aircraft prior to flight may result in serious aerodynamic dis-
turbances and unbalanced flight loads that may cause struc-
tural damage in flight. Takeoff distance and climb
performance also can be adversely affected to a hazardous
level.
Q Ice may be removed by spraying with suitable deice fluid
such as isopropyl alcohol. Do not spray deicing fluid in
areas where spray or fluid may enter the engine air inlets.
Deicing fluid may be used to clean these areas providing
it is thoroughly wiped clean before starting.
Q Remove ice, snow, and dirt from landing gear shock
struts and wheel wells. Check gear doors, position
switches, squat switches, wheels, and tires.
Q Carefully inspect the engine inlet, outlet, and fan for ice
buildup from freezing precipitation. Look closely at the
fan; ice can form on the back of the blades, causing an
imbalance if it is not removed.
Control Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK FREE OF SNOW,
ICE AND FROST
Snow removal from the control surfaces must be complete
to ensure proper travel. Special attention must be given to
control the refreezing of water resulting from deicing with
heated air.
Pitot/Static Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLEAR OF ICE
Ice formations in the proximity of the static ports or on the
pitot tube can cause erroneous instrument indications.

2B-78 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Landing Gear/Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED


Check for fluid leaks and for proper inflation of struts and
tires.
Ramp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECKED
Check the ramp area around the engines for loose
encrusted snow or ice that could be ingested during engine
start or blown at personnel or other aircraft when taxiing.
Preheating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMED
Interior – The cabin and cockpit should be preheated for
crew and passenger comfort and also for proper operation
of the instruments.
Engines – The engines should be preheated prior to starting
when the engines have been cold soaked at temperatures
below -40°F (-40°C). Two 850 watt electric blowers can be
used; one in the inlet and one in outlet duct, or a BT-400
ground heater unit (NSN 4520-00-219-7969) or equivalent is
recommended. If the temperature is between -40°F and
-65°F, direct warm air into each engine for a minimum of 30
minutes prior to engine start.

WARNING: Even small accumulations of ice on the wing


leading edge can cause aerodynamic stall prior to activa-
tion of the stick shaker and/or pusher. These ice accumula-
tions can also cause AOA indicator information to be
unreliable.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-79


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Starting
Use of a GPU for an engine start is recommended at tempera-
tures of 32°F (0°C) or below. Ensure the GPU is regulated to
28V DC and has an amperage rating between 500 and 1,100
amps.
SPR can be used for starts at temperatures below 0°F (-17°C).
During a start using SPR, release the SPR switch at 300-400°C
turbine temperature (ITT). Do no energize SPR at any time
other than engine start.
Engine fan acceleration is much slower than normal and the
ITT increases rapidly due to the slower engine spool up. If fan
speed (N1) does not rise with turbine speed (N2) or stops dur-
ing the start attempt, or if ITT is rising rapidly and appears likely
to exceed the start limit, abort the start.
Oil pressure can be expected to exceed the maximum allow-
able transients. Do not exceed idle power with oil temperature
below 30°C. However, if the outside temperature prevents the
oil temperature from reaching 30°C, idle power may be
exceeded as required to further warm the oil to normal operat-
ing limits prior to takeoff.
If the outside temperature is below -13°C, operate the engines
for at least 3 minutes to bring the hydraulic system up to normal
operating temperature prior to takeoff.

2B-80 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Taxi
If Airport Surfaces Are Contaminated with Ice, Wet Snow or
Slush:
Engines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . START BOTH FOR TAXI
Use the brakes to build up the temperature of the disks to
prevent them from freezing when the aircraft is stopped.
Allow greater stopping distances on the ramp and taxiways.
Anti-Ice Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . USE AS REQUIRED
Flaps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETRACTED UNTIL REACHING
THE RUNWAY
Avoid the exhaust wake or propwash of other aircraft and be
alert for loose ice or crusted snow that can be ingested into
the engines.
Many pilots use thrust reversers to aid directional control
while taxiing on slick surfaces. This is very risky and can
easily cause foreign object damage to the engine.
Slick surfaces can cause nosewheel steering to be mar-
ginal. Differential braking can be used to aid directional con-
trol. However, be careful not to make turns too sharp and
damage the steering system. Also, be alert for slick spots
causing the nose wheel to spin, possibly coming 180° out of
alignment with the direction of travel.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-81


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Takeoff
Check takeoff distances carefully; the distances in the Perfor-
mance section do not account for runway contamination for
takeoff.

WARNING: Do not takeoff with runway water or slush


accumulation of 3/4 inch or more.

WARNING: Even small accumulations of ice on the wing


leading edge can cause aerodynamic stall prior to activa-
tion of the stick shaker and/or pusher. These ice accumula-
tions can also cause AOA indicator information to be
unreliable.

Parking Brake. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK RELEASED


Air Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
If the use of anti-ice systems is planned for takeoff, turn
them on prior to setting takeoff thrust. Windshield heat is
rarely used on takeoff because of the noise. Wing anti-ice
should be used if freezing precipitation is present. The take
off distance and V1 speed is dramatically affected with full
anti-ice operating.

2B-82 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

After Takeoff
After takeoff, accelerate to 200 KIAS and leave the gear
extended to allow slush and wet snow to blow and spin off.
Retract the gear before exceeding 200 KIAS and turn anti-skid
switch off.
Before Landing
If taxi or takeoff was accomplished on an ice, slush or snow
covered runway, use the following procedure to crack any ice
that may have formed between the brake disks and wheels.
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTEND NORMALLY
Anti-Skid Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUMP HEAVILY 6 TO 10 TIMES
Anti-Skid Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
Anti-Skid Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OUT
Landing Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .INCREASE
Multiply the dry runway landing distance by 1.4 for a wet
runway; 1.7 for freezing runway.
If operating under FAR 135, multiply the 135 landing dis-
tance by 1.15 for a wet runway. For an icy runway, multiply
the FAR 91 distance by 1.7 and divide the result by 0.6 to
obtain the factored 135 distance.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-83


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Landing
Slick Runway Landing Procedure:
Approach Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VREF
Touchdown. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .FIRM
Spoilers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EXTEND
Nosewheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON THE RUNWAY
Brakes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPLY REQUIRED BRAKING
Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DEPLOY AND APPLY
Drag chute may be used in place of reversers.
The nosewheel on the runway improves directional control.
Spoilers should be deployed immediately after touchdown.
The anti-skid system automatically controls the brakes to
prevent skids and provides maximum braking for the runway
condition. Consider the use of the drag chute, if installed.
High reverse thrust can result in directional control difficul-
ties. Be prepared to reduce power to idle reverse if direc-
tional control is adversely affected. If snow or ice is present
while applying moderate to heavy braking, do not use nose-
wheel steering above 10 knots ground speed.
Crosswind Consideration
On a slick runway, directional control can become a problem in
crosswinds much lower than the maximum demonstrated. The
thrust reversers may be preferable to the drag chute. Nose-
wheel steering is more effective if forward control pressure is
applied; however, the brakes are more effective if the controls
are held more aft.

2B-84 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

After Clearing Runway


After landing on slush or snow, retract the flaps to 20°. Do not
retract the flaps fully. Ice or snow can build up on the flap struc-
ture and damage the airplane on retraction.
Shutdown and Postflight
If the airplane is to be left outside in cold conditions, perform
the following in addition to the normal securing procedures.
Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .INTO THE WIND IF POSSIBLE
Main Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHOCKED
Do not set the parking brake.
If a large accumulation of snow fall is possible, do not leave
the aircraft with a full fuselage tank, particularly if the wings
are not full. Snow accumulation on the tail can cause the air-
craft to fall back on its tail.
Remove ice and snow from the flap structure and retract.
Remove ice, snow and dirt from the landing gear struts,
inboard doors, gear microswitches, and wheel assemblies.
Remove water and beverages from the aircraft. Remove the
flushing toilet tank or add ethylene glycol base anti-freeze
containing an antifoam agent.
If temperature is below 0°F (-17.8°C), remove aircraft batter-
ies and store in a warm location.
Protective Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALLED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-85


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Deicing Supplemental Information


This section provides supplementary information on aircraft
deicing, anti-icing/deicing fluids, deicing procedures, and air-
craft operating procedures. Consult the AFM, Maintenance
Manual Chapter 12 – Servicing, and FA A Advisory Circulars
for deicing procedures, fluid specifications, recommendations,
and hazards.
Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) prohibit takeoff with snow,
ice, or frost adhering to the wings and control surfaces of the
aircraft. It is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command to ensure
the aircraft is free of snow, ice, or frost before takeoff.
Failure to adequately deice the aircraft can result in seriously
degraded aircraft performance, loss of lift, and erratic engine
and flight instrument indications.
Following extended high-altitude flight, frost can form at ambi-
ent temperatures above freezing on the wing’s underside in the
fuel tank areas. Refueling the aircraft with warmer fuel usually
melts the frost.

CAUTION: Type I and Type II/ IV fluids are not compatible


and may not be mixed. Additionally, most manufacturers
prohibit mixing of brands within type.

NOTE: The first area to be deiced/anti-iced should be eas-


ily visible from the cabin/cockpit and should be used to pro-
vide a conservative estimate for unseen areas of the aircraft
before initiating takeoff roll.

2B-86 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Deicing
When necessary, use the following methods to deice the air-
craft:
Q
placing the aircraft in a warm hangar until the ice melts
Q mechanically brushing the snow or ice off with brooms,
brushes, or other means
Q
applying a heated water/glycol solution (one-step proce-
dure)
Q applying heated water followed by an undiluted glycol-
based fluid (two-step procedure).
Deicing Fluids
Two types of anti-icing/deicing fluids are in commercial use:
SAE/ISO Types I and II/IV. Type I fluids are used generally in
North America. Type II/IV fluids, also referred to as AEA Type
II/IV, are used generally in Europe.
Type I fluids are unthickened glycol-based fluids that are usu-
ally diluted with water and applied hot; they provide limited
holdover time.
Type II/IV fluids are thickened glycol-based fluids that are usu-
ally applied cold on a deiced aircraft; they provide longer hold-
over times than Type I fluids.
Many factors influence snow, ice, and frost accumulation and
the effectiveness of deicing fluids. These factors include:
Q ambient temperature and aircraft surface temperature
Q
relative humidity, precipitation type, and rate
Q
wind velocity and direction
Q operation on snow, slush, or wet surfaces
Q operation near other aircraft, equipment, and buildings
Q
presence of deicing fluid and its type, dilution strength,
and application method.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-87


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite

NOTE: Holdover time is the estimated time that an anti-


icing/deicing fluid protects a treated surface from ice or frost
formation.

CAUTION: Deicing and use of holdover times remains the


responsibility of the pilot-in-command.

CAUTION: Type II/IV FPD generally should not be applied


forward of the wing leading edges. If used for deicing, do
not apply forward of cockpit windows. Ensure that radome
and cockpit windows are clean.

Deicing Procedures
One-step deicing involves spraying the aircraft with a heated,
diluted deicing/anti-icing fluid to remove ice, snow, or frost. The
fluid coating then provides limited protection from further accu-
mulation.
Two-step deicing involves spraying the aircraft with hot water
or a hot water/deicing fluid mixture to remove any ice, snow, or
frost accumulation followed immediately by treatment with anti-
icing fluid (usually Type II/IV FPD fluid).
Deice the aircraft from top to bottom. Avoid flushing snow, ice,
or frost onto treated areas. Start the deicing process by treating
the horizontal stabilizer followed by the vertical stabilizer. Con-
tinue by treating the fuselage top and sides. Finally, apply deic-
ing fluid to the wings.
Deicing fluid should not be applied to:
Q
pitot/static tubes, static ports, temperature probes, AOA
vanes, or TAT probe
Q gaps between control surfaces and airfoil

2B-88 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 1998
Expanded Normal Procedures

Q cockpit windows
Q
passenger windows
Q air and engine inlets and exhausts
Q vents and drains
Q
wing and control surface trailing edges
Q brakes

CAUTION: If engines are running when spraying of deicing


fluids is in progress, turn cabin and crew conditioning
switches to OFF.

CAUTION: Do not use deicing fluid for engines. After deic-


ing engine, start engine(s) immediately to prevent any reic-
ing condition. Select engine anti-ice on after engine start.

During deicing observe the following.


Q Avoid excessive use of deicing fluid to prevent flushing of
slush into areas forward of control surfaces.
Q When applying fluid, avoid pressures 300 PSI or greater.
Q Exercise extreme caution when moving deicing equip-
ment around aircraft. Maintain adequate separation
between equipment and aircraft.
Q
A fine mist of deicing fluid applied two or three times pro-
vides better anti-icing protection than a single heavy
application.
Q
Apply deicing fluid to lower surfaces if anticipating taxi
and takeoff through snow.
Q Follow all deicing fluid manufacturer’s recommendations
and procedures.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-89


December 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Q Do not use diluted deicing fluid for anti-icing. Melting
snow will further dilute the solution and refreezing can
occur.
Q After deicing the aircraft nose, wipe all remaining traces
of fluid from area in front of windshield.
Deicing fluid sprayed into an operating engine can introduce
smoke or vapors into the cabin and cockpit and pose a serious
fire hazard.
Do not use deicing fluid to deice engines. Mechanically remove
snow and ice from the engine inlet. Check the first stage fan
blades for freedom of movement. If engine does not rotate
freely, deice engine with hot air.

CAUTION: After deicing wings and empennage, check flap


wells for slush and/or ice accumulations. Ensure that all
drain holes are clear.

CAUTION: Check all primary flight control surfaces by


hand movement through full travel stop before any move-
ment is attempted with control wheel, yoke, or rudder ped-
als. Trim and control tabs should be operated through full
travel range.

2B-90 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


December 2001
Expanded Normal Procedures

Post Deicing Procedures


Deicing Inspection
After deicing, the following areas should be free of snow, ice,
or frost:
Q wing leading edges, upper and lower surfaces, ailerons,
balance bays, flaps, ground spoilers, speedbrakes, and
fuel vents. A “hands on” inspection may be necessary.
Q
horizontal and vertical stabilizer leading edges, side pan-
els, upper and lower surfaces, elevators, rudder, balance
bays, and trim tabs
Q fuselage, windshields, windows, radome, pitot tubes,
static ports, AOA probes/vanes, air inlets and exhausts,
and antennas
Q engine inlets and exhausts
Q landing gear wheels, brakes, tires, wheel wells, and
doors.
Taxi
During taxi on ice or snow covered surfaces, observe the fol-
lowing.
Q Maintain a greater than normal distance between aircraft.
Q Do not use reverse thrust. If reverse thrust used, rein-
spect the aircraft for snow, ice, and frost accumulations.
Q Taxi with the flaps up. Do not perform Taxi/Before Takeoff
checklist until flaps are extended.
Q
Periodically conduct engine run-ups to as high a thrust
setting as practical.
Q Turn ENGINE and WING ANTI-ICE switches ON immedi-
ately after engine start.
Q
Conduct final pre-takeoff inspection five minutes before
takeoff.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 2B-91


February 2002
CAE SimuFlite
Pre-takeoff Inspection
Within five minutes of takeoff, conduct an exterior aircraft
inspection from within the aircraft to:
Q note any loss of anti-icing fluid effectiveness
Q
examine visible aircraft surfaces for ice and snow accu-
mulation
If uncertain of current aircraft condition, conduct an exterior
“hands on” inspection or deice the aircraft again before flight.
Takeoff
During takeoff observe the following.
Q Do not use reduced thrust.
Q Accomplish an engine run-up to highest practical thrust
and observe stable engine operation before brake
release.
QAfter setting takeoff throttle, verify that LP RPM and other
engine indications are normal.
Approach and Landing
During the descent approach observe the following.
Q Anticipate use of engine and wing anti-icing.
Q After the ground spoilers and thrust reversers are actu-
ated, immediately lower nose wheel to runway.
Q With the anti-skid system operational, apply normal brak-
ing smoothly and symmetrically to maintain direction con-
trol.
Q Do not use asymmetric thrust on icy or slippery runways.
Q
Be prepared for possible downwind drift on icy or slippery
runways with crosswind when using reverse thrust.
Q Do not attempt to turn off runway at too high speeds.

2B-92 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2002
Limitations
Table of Contents
General Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Authorized Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Certification Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Maneuvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Minimum Flight Crew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3
Noise Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Operational Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Airspeed/Mach Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Standard Wing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Century III Wing/FC-200 Autopilot/RAS-AAK 76-4 . . . . . . 3-8
Century III Wing/FC-530 Autopilot/AAK 83-2 . . . . . . . . . . 3-7
Weight Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12
Center-of-Gravity Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15
Takeoff and Landing Operational Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20
Enroute Operational Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21
Systems Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Avionics and Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-23
Drag Chute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24
Electrical and Lighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25
Environmental System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Flight Controls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28
Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-31
Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35
Ice and Rain Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35
Landing Gear and Brakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-36
Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-36
Powerplant – Garrett TFE731-2/B Turbofan . . . . . . . . . . 3-37
Thrust Reversers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-42
AFM Supplement Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45
United Kingdom Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-51

3-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

General Limitations
Authorized Operations
• Day and night
• VFR and IFR flight
• Icing conditions

Certification Status
FAR, Part 25

Configuration
The aircraft configuration must be as presented under Stan-
dard Performance Conditions in AFM Section V.

Maneuvers
No aerobatic maneuvers, including spins, are approved.
Intentional stalls (pusher actuations) are prohibited above
18,000 feet with flaps and/or landing gear extended.

Minimum Flight Crew


Pilot and Copilot

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Noise Levels
The noise levels are in compliance with the requirements of
FAR 36 which are equal to or more severe than the require-
ments outlined in ICAO Annex 16.
Noise Level in EPNdB
Stage WEIGHT STANDARD CENTURY III MAXIMUM
LBS WING WING ALLOWABLE
Takeoff 17,000 84.0 — —
(no thrust 18,000 — 83.6 93
cutback)
18,300 — 83.9 93
Takeoff 18,000 — 78.7 93
(thrust 18,300 — 79.2 93
cutback)
Sideline 17,000 86.9 — —
18,000 — 87.4 102
Approach 18,300 — 86.7 102
14,300 92.2 91.3 102
15,300 — 91.4 102
No determination has been made by the FAAthat the noise levels in the AFM
are or should be acceptable or unacceptable for operation at, into, or out of
any airport. These noise values are stated for reference conditions of stan-
dard atmospheric pressure at sea level, 77°F (25°C) ambient temperature,
70% relative humidity, and zero wind.
Takeoff and sideline noise levels were obtained at the maximum takeoff
weight listed, V2 + 10 kts climb speed, anti-ice system off, and all engine
takeoff with takeoff thrust setting. Thrust cutback was not required for compli-
ance. Flap setting was 8° on aircraft
Thrust cutback noise levels were obtained by initiating cutback at approxi-
mately 2,800 ft above runway for 18,000 lb (8,165 kg) takeoff weight and
approximately 2,750 ft for 18,300 (8,300 kg) takeoff weight. Thrust cutback
power settings were 85.5% N1 and 85.9% N1 respectively.
Landing approach noise levels were established on a 3° glideslope, gear
down, maximum landing weight listed, approach speed of 1.3 VS + 10 kts,
and 40° flaps. No special noise abatement procedures were used.

3-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


September 2005
Limitations

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Airspeed Mach Limits


Standard Wing

Figure 35-1. indicated Airspeed - Knots

3-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Operational Limitations
Airspeed/Mach Limitations
Standard Wing
MMO , Maximum Operating – Mach:
MMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.83 M I
Mach Trim/Autopilot
Disengaged or Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.74 M I
Stick Puller Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.74 M I
V MO, Maximum Operating – Airspeed:
Sea Level to 14,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 KIAS
Above 14,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 KIAS
V A, Maximum Maneuvering (See Figure 3-1
VLE, Maximum Landing Gear Extended . . . . . . . . . 266 KIAS
VLO, Maximum Landing Gear Operating . . . . . . . . 202 KIAS
V FE, Maximum Flaps Extended:
Flaps 1° to 20° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 KIAS
Flaps 21° to 40° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 KIAS
V MCA , Minimum Control – Air:
0°F (-18°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 KIAS
V MCG , Minimum Control – Ground:
0°F (-18°C) at Sea Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 KIAS
Turbulent Air Penetration:*
Airspeed* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 KIAS OR 0.73 M I,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WHICHEVER IS LESS
*Avoid flight through severe turbulence.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

AirspeedMach Limits
Century III Wing and FC-200 Autopilot

Figure 35-2. Century III Wing and FC-200 Autopilot- Indicated Airspeed – Knots

3-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Century III Wing/FC-200 Autopilot/RAS-AAK 76-4


MMO , Maximum Operating – Mach:
MMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.83 M I
S/N 35-279 and subsequent; 36-045 and subsequent;
prior aircraft with AAK 79-10 or AMK 83-5:
With Missing BLEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.78 MI
Mach Trim/Autopilot
Disengaged or Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.74 MI
Stick Puller Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.74 MI
V MO, Maximum Operating – Airspeed:
Sea Level to 14,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 KIAS
Above 14,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 KIAS
V A, Maximum Maneuvering (See Figure 3-2)
V LE, Maximum Landing Gear Extended . . . . . . . . . . 265 KIAS
V LO , Maximum Landing Gear Operating . . . . . . . . . . 202 KIAS
V FE, Maximum Flap Extended:
Flaps 1° to 8° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 KIAS
Flaps 9° to 20° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 KIAS
Flaps 21° to 40° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 KIAS
V MCA , Minimum Control – Air:
0°F (-18°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 KIAS
V MCG , Minimum Control – Ground:
0°F (-18°C) at Sea Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 KIAS
Turbulent Air Penetration:*
Airspeed* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 KIAS OR 0.73 M I,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WHICHEVER IS LESS
*Avoid flight through severe turbulence.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Airspeed/Mach Limits
Century III Wing and FC-530 Autopilot

Figure 35-3. Century III Wing and FC-530 Autopilot- Indicated Airspeed – Knots

3-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Century III Wing/FC-530 Autopilot/AAK 83-2/RVSM1


MMO, Maximum Operating – Mach:
MMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.81 MI
With Missing BLEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.77 MI
Mach Trim/Autopilot
Disengaged or Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.74 MI
Stick Puller Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.74 MI
VMO, Maximum Operating – Airspeed:
Sea Level to 8,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 KIAS
Above 8,000 Ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 KIAS
VA, Maximum Maneuvering (See Figure 3-3)
VLE, Maximum Landing Gear Extended . . . . . . . . . . 260 KIAS
VLO, Maximum Landing Gear Operating . . . . . . . . . . 200 KIAS
VFE, Maximum Flap Extended:
Flaps 1° to 8° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 KIAS
S/Ns 35-408, 447, 462, 473, 496, 506 to 603 without
FCN 85-6; S/Ns 36-025 and 055 without FCN 85-6:
Flaps 9° to 20° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 KIAS
All other S/Ns and aircraft with FCN 85-6:
Flaps 9° to 20° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 KIAS
Flaps 21° to 40° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 KIAS
VMCA, Minimum Control – Air:
0°F (-18°C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 KIAS
VMCG, Minimum Control – Ground:
0°F (-18°C) at Sea Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 KIAS
continued

1. RVSM installations Vary. Consult your AFM for specific infor-


mation.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-11


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite

Turbulent Air Penetration:1


Airspeed* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 KIAS OR 0.73 MI,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .WHICHEVER IS LESS
Weight Limitations
Maximum Ramp Weight
WEIGHT LBS UNITS
17,250 35-001 and subsequent without ECR 1495;
ECR 2234, AAK 77-8, or AAK 80-2; Model 36
– Not Applicable
18,250 35-001 to 044 with ECR 1495 or AAK
77-8; 36-002 to 045 without AAK 80-2
18,500 35-002 to 344 with AAK 80-2; 35-345 and
subsequent with ECR 2234; 36-002 to 045
with AAK 80-2; 36-046 and subsequent

Maximum Certified Takeoff Weight


WEIGHT LBS UNITS
17,000 35-002 and subsequent without ECR 1495,
ECR 2234, AAK 77-8, or AAK 80-2; Model 36
– Not Applicable
18,000 35-002 to 066 with AAK 76-4 and AAK 77-8;
35-067 and subsequent with AAK 77-8; 35-
001 to 344 with ECR 1495; 36-002 to 045
without AAK 80-2
18,300 35-002 to 066 with AAK 76-4 and AAK 80-2;
35-067 to 344 with AAK 80-2; 35-345 and
subsequent with ECR 2234; 36-002 to 017
with AAK 76-4 and AAK 80-2; 36-018 to 045
with AAK 80-2; 36-046 and subsequent

Ramp weight to not exceed maximum allowable takeoff weight by more than
250 lbs (113 kg).

1.Avoid flight through severe turbulence.

3-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Limitations

Maximum Allowable Takeoff Weight


Takeoff weight limited by most restrictive of following:
Q maximum certified takeoff weight
Q
maximum takeoff weight (climb or brake energy limited)
for altitude and temperature as determined from the
applicable figure entitled Takeoff Weight Limits in AFM
Section V
Q maximum takeoff weight for the runway and ambient con-
ditions as determined from the applicable figure entitled
Takeoff Distance in AFM Section V
Q maximum takeoff weight for obstacle clearance as deter-
mined from the applicable Takeoff Flight Path and Climb
Gradient figures in AFM Section V (FAR 121 and 135 as
applicable to U.S. registered aircraft).

Maximum Certified Landing Weight

WEIGHT LBS UNITS

14,300 35-002 to 355 without AAK 80-3;


36-002 to 046 without AAK 80-3
15,300 35-002 to 355 with AAK 80-3; 35-356 and
subsequent; 36-002 to 046 with AAK 80-3;
36-047 and subsequent

Perform Hard or Overweight Landing Inspection (Chapter 5, Main-


tenance Manual) if maximum certified landing weight is exceeded.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-13


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Maximum Allowable Landing Weight


Landing weight limited by most restrictive of following:
Q maximum certified landing weight
Q
maximum landing weight for the runway and ambient
conditions as determined from the applicable Landing
Distance chart in AFM Section V
Q
maximum landing weight (approach climb or brake
energy limited) for altitude and temperature as deter-
mined from the applicable figure entitled Landing Weight
Limits in AFM Section V.

Zero Wing/Tip Fuel Weight


Maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13,500 LBS
................... . . . . . .(6,124 KG)
All weights in excess of 13,500 lbs must consist of wing and tip
tank, except as follows:
Q Maximum zero wing and tip fuel weight may be increased
to 14,000 lbs by adding up to 500 lbs of additional fuse-
lage fuel.
Q Additional fuselage fuel must be transferred prior to
reaching a total wing quantity of 2,250 lbs. In the event
the fuselage fuel cannot be transferred, VMO must be
reduced to 325 KIAS.

3-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Center-of-Gravity Envelope
17,000 lb takeoff weight
Forward CG limit is fuselage station (F.S.) 366.31 (5% MAC) for
all weights up to and including 10,000 lbs; tapers through F.S.
375.96 (16.66% MAC) at 17,000 lbs to F.S. 376.31 (17.09%
MAC) at 17,250 lbs. The aft CG limit is F.S. 387.00 (30% MAC)
for all weights.

Figure 35-1. 17,000Lbs Center-of-Gravity Envelope Chart

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-15


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

3-16 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Center-of-Gravity Envelope
18,000 lb takeoff weight
Forward CG limit is F.S. 366.31 (5% MAC) for all weights up to
and including 10,000 lbs; tapers through F.S. 377.34 (18.83%
MAC) at 18,000 lbs to F.S. 377.69 (18.76% MAC) at 18,250 lbs.

Figure 35-2. 18,000Lbs Center-of-Gravity Envelope Chart

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-17


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

3-18 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Center-of-Gravity Envelope
18,300 lb takeoff weight
Forward CG limit is F.S. 366.31 (5% MAC) for all weights up to
and including 10,000 lbs; tapers through F.S. 377.75 (18.83%
MAC) at 18,300 lbs to F.S. 378.03 (19.17% MAC) at 18,500 lbs.
The aft CG limit is F.S. 387.00 (30% MAC) at all weights.

Figure 35-3. 18,300Lbs Center-of-Gravity Envelope Chart

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-19


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Takeoff and Landing Operational Limits


Demonstrated Crosswind Component . . . . . . . . 24.7 KTS

Nosewheel Steering Speed:

Maximum Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 KTS GROUNDSPEED

With any 2 of the right 3


anti-skid lights illuminated . . . . . 10 KTS GROUNDSPEED

Maximum (Pressure) Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10,000 FT

Maximum Tailwind Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 KTS

Temperature Limits
(at Sea Level). . . . . . . . . . . . -54°TO +50°C (-65.2° TO +122°F)

Main Tires Limiting Speeds . . . . 182 KTS GROUNDSPEED

Do not operate if water and/or slush accumulation on the run-


way exceeds 3/4 inch (19 mm).

Do not take off or land with the cabin pressurized.

Maximum tip tank fuel for landing is 925 lbs (420 kg) each tip
tank.

Minimum 600 lbs (272 kg) fuel in each wing are required for
takeoff and intentional go-around.

Seat belts and shoulder harnesses must be worn during takeoff


and landing.

When OAT is below -25°C (-13°F), engines should be operated


for three minutes prior to takeoff to bring the hydraulic system
up to normal operating temperature.

No more than three vortex generators can be missing from


each wing.
Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations chapter.

3-20 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Enroute Operational Limits


Flight Load Acceleration Limits:
Flaps Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +3.0 G to -1.0 G
Flaps Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+2.0 G to 0.0 G
These acceleration values limit the bank angle in a level coordi-
nated turn to 70° (flaps up) and 60° (flaps down). In addition,
pullups and pushovers must be limited to these values.
Maximum Operating Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45,000 FT

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-21


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

3-22 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Systems Limitations
Avionics and Communications
J.E.T. FC-200 Flight Control System
(Autopilot/Flight Director)
Maximum operating speed is VMO/MMO.
When using autopilot, pilot or copilot must be in respective seat
with seat belts fastened.
Autopilot pitch and roll axis must not be used for takeoff or
landing.
Do not extend spoilers with autopilot engaged.
If heavy precipitation or severe turbulence is encountered, dis-
engage SPD, V/S, ALT, and G/S modes and engage yaw
damper, LVL and SOFT modes.
Autopilot may not be used unless the pitch and roll monitors
are checked and operational.
If, upon retraction of flaps after takeoff, APPR light stays on or
illuminates in the clean configuration, do not use the roll or
pitch modes. In maneuvers that involve the flaps beyond 13°
(ILS), the complete autopilot may be used.

J.E.T. FC-530 Autopilot/Flight Director


Maximum operating speed is VMO/MMO.
Autopilot/flight director system approved for Category I ILS
approaches.
When using autopilot, pilot or copilot must be in respective seat
with seat belts fastened.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-23


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Autopilot pitch and roll axis must not be used for takeoff or
landing.
Minimum altitude for autopilot use is 200 ft AGL on approach
and 1,000 ft AGL in cruise.
Maximum lateral fuel imbalance for autopilot use is 200 lbs.
If severe turbulence encountered, use attitude hold mode with
SOFT mode engaged.
Autopilot may not be used in any axis that fails Autopilot Moni-
tor check.
Autopilot must be disengaged before switching static sources.
For VOR approach, the flaps must be lowered to 8° or more.

Drag Chute
Do not deploy:
Q in flight
Q at speeds in excess of 150 KIAS
Q simultaneously with thrust reversers (if installed).
Demonstrated crosswind velocity is 20 knots. The drag chute
may not be used to supersede runway length requirements
published in the AFM.

3-24 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Electrical and Lighting


Batteries
Lead-acid batteries – do not attempt a battery start with less
than 24V DC each battery at 70°F (21°C) or below, or less than
25V DC each battery at 110°F (43°C) or above. Interpolate for
temperatures between 70°F (21°C) and 110°F (43°C).
Ni-cad batteries – do not attempt a battery start with less than
23V DC each battery.
Current Limiter and Starter Disengagement Checks
S/Ns 35-002 to 389 except 370 without AMK 80-17 or AAK
81-1; 36-002 to 047 without AMK 80-17 or AAK 81-1: The
Battery Charging bus, current limiter, and starter disengage-
ment checks must be accomplished whenever an engine start
using a starter has been performed. Both engines must be
operating to perform the check.
External Power
Maximum amperage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,100 AMPS
Generator Limits
Generator output is limited as follows:
Q 320A maximum for ground operations
Q 400A maximum for flight operations.

Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations


chapter.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-25


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Environmental System
S/Ns 35-002 to 505 and 36-002 to 053 without FCN 89-1:
The Freon cooling system must be off above FL 180.
S/Ns 35-506 and subsequent; 36-054 and subsequent;
prior aircraft with FCN 89-1: The Freon cooling system must
be off above FL 350.
After start, do not turn on air conditioner or auxiliary heater until
one of the following conditions is met:
Q both engines operating, each ammeter reads below 250
amps
Q one engine operating, one ammeter reads below 200
amps on 35-002 to 147; 36-002 to 035
Q one engine operating, one ammeter reads below 150
amps on 35-148 and subsequent; 36-036 and subse-
quent.

Pressurization Limit
Maximum differential pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.0 PSI

CAUTION: Do not select MAX position of CABIN AIR switch


while on the ground. Do not perform extended engine oper-
ation above IDLE with CABIN AIR switch in NORM. With the
aircraft static, there is no ram air flow through the heat
exchanger; possible damage to air conditioning components
could result. Cabin overheating and damage to cabin com-
ponents may also occur. (35-002 to 112 except 107; 36-002
to 031).

Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations chapter.

3-26 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

CAUTION: S/Ns 35-107,113 and subsequent, 36-032


and subsequent: With the aircraft sitting statically on the
ground, do not perform extended engine operation above
IDLE with CAB AIR switch on. There is no ram airflow
through the heat exchangers; possible damage to air condi-
tioning components may occur.

CAUTION: If not already operating, do not turn on cooling


system during landing with anti-skid system operating. Initial
voltage drop may cause false signals in the anti-skid system
and dump brake pressure for two to three seconds.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-27


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Flight Controls
Spoilers
Do not extend spoilers with flaps extended while airborne.
Do not extend spoilers or operate with spoilers deployed at
speeds above VMO/MMO.
On aircraft with FC-200 autopilot, do not extend spoilers with
autopilot engaged.

WARNING: Do not extend spoilers, or operate with spoilers


deployed, at speeds above VMO/MMO due to significant
nose-down pitching movement that is associated with
spoiler deployment.

Stall Warning System


Both stall warning systems must be on and operating and
remain on throughout flight. (Please note that warning lights for
both stall warning systems are inoperative when the generator
and battery switches are off). The systems may be turned off
per emergency and abnormal procedures in AFM Sections III
and IV and for stall warning system maintenance per Mainte-
nance Manual procedures.
To ensure proper stall warning system operation, the Before
Starting Engines and After Takeoff stall warning system opera-
tion and comparison checks must be accomplished in accor-
dance with AFM Section II.

3-28 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

WARNING: On aircraft with FC-530 autopilot, the action of


the stick nudger verifies operation of the pitch torquer prior
to pusher actuation. If, during ground test, the shaker is not
accompanied by the nudger (the nudger monitor horn
sounds), do not dispatch. If, during flight, the shaker is not
accompanied by the nudger (the nudger monitor horn
sounds), do not decelerate further.

Trim Systems
On aircraft with FC-200 autopilot, pitch trim runway training
that actually involves running the trim in flight to simulate mal-
functions is prohibited. The Before Starting Engine trim sys-
tems checks must be successfully completed before each
flight.
On aircraft with FC-530 autopilot, the Before Starting
Engines trim systems checks must be successfully completed
in accordance with AFM Section II. The complete Trim Sys-
tems Operational check in AFM Section II must be successfully
completed a minimum of once every 10 hours of aircraft flight
operation.

WARNING: Failure to conduct a complete pitch trim preflight


check prior to each flight increases the probability of an
undetected system failure. An additional single failure in the
trim system could result in a trim runaway. In certain critical
flight conditions, an unrestricted runaway could result in high
speeds, severe buffet, wing roll off, loads in excess of struc-
tural limit, and extremely high forces necessary for recovery.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-29


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Yaw Damper
To ensure proper yaw damper operation, the Before Taxi yaw
damper operational check in AFM Section II must be success-
fully completed before each flight.
Yaw damper should be turned off while using rudder trim.
Reengage yaw damper after trim is established.
On aircraft with FC-200 autopilot, both yaw dampers must be
operative. One yaw damper must be on and operative for all
flight conditions except takeoff, landing touchdown, and for
trimming rudder. For a normal landing, the following proce-
dures apply:
Q aircraft shall be configured for landing at least 500 ft AGL
Q yaw damper shall be disengaged during the landing flare.
On aircraft with FC-530 autopilot, one yaw damper must be
on and operative for all flight conditions except takeoff and for
trimming rudder. For landing, one yaw damper must be on
except as permitted in Abnormal Procedures (AFM Section IV).
For anticipated turbulence due to gusty winds, wake turbu -
lence, or wind shear, increase the approach speed. In gusty
wind conditions, an increase in approach speed of 1/2 the gust
factor is recommended.

CAUTION: During landings in turbulent air conditions with


the yaw damper off, the aircraft may exhibit undesirable lat-
eral-directional (Dutch-roll) characteristics. These character-
istics improve as the wing/tip fuel is consumed. Observe the
following relative to turbulence contained in the Approach
procedure (AFM Section II) and increase airspeed as
required.

Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations chapter.

3-30 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Fuel
Anti-Icing Additive
Fuel anti-icing additive meeting the requirements of MIL-I-
27686 or MIL-I-85470 is required. The additive concentration,
by volume, shall be as follows.

Concentration by Volume
Additive Type Minimum Maximum
MIL-I-27686 0.06% 0.15%
MIL-I-85470 0.10% 0.15%

Use not less than 20 fluid ounces (1 can) of MIL-I-27686 per


260 gallons (984.2 liters) nor more than 20 fluid ounces (1 can)
per 105 gallons (397.4 liters) of fuel. Use not less than 20 fluid
ounces (1 can) of MIL-I-85470 per 155 gallons (586.7 liters) nor
more than 20 fluid ounces (1 can) per 105 gallons (397.4 liters)
of fuel.

CAUTION: Lack of anti-icing additive may cause fuel filter


icing and subsequent engine flameout.

Fuels having the required anti-icing additive blended at the


refinery need no additional treatment. However, some fuels do
not have the required additive blended at the refinery. Prior to
refueling, check with the fuel supplier to determine if the fuel
contains the required anti-icing additive. Any approved or
emergency fuels not containing the required anti-icing additive
must have it blended during refueling.
The following products have been qualified for blending MIL-I-
27686 additive over-the-wing:
Q
Hi-Flo Prist 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.
Q Quell 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.
Q D-Ice 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-31


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

CAUTION: Ensure that anti-icing additive is directed into the


fuel stream and that additive flow starts after fuel flow starts
and stops before fuel flow stops. Do not allow concentrated
additive to contact interior of fuel tank or aircraft painted sur-
faces.

WARNING: Anti-icing additive may be harmful if inhaled or


swallowed. Use adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with
skin and eyes. If sprayed into eyes, flush with large amounts
of water and contact a physician immediately.

The following products have been qualified for blending MIL-I-


85470 additive over-the-wing:
Q Hi-Flash Prist 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.
Q D-Ice Flash 190, 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.
Biocide Additive
BIOBOR JF is approved for use as a biocide additive when pre-
mixed in the fuel supply facility. Concentration is not to exceed
270 ppm.

CAUTION: Drain all sumps prior to refueling with fuel con-


taining Biobor JF.

Aviation Gasoline
Aviation gasoline (MIL-D-5572D, Grades 80/87, 100/130, and
115/145) may be used as an emergency fuel and mixed, in any
proportion, with various approved jet kerosene-based fuels.
Aviation gasoline may not be used in excess of 500 gallons per
100 hours of operation per engine.

3-32 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Approved Fuels

EMS 53111 (Jet A) EMS 53112 (Jet A-1/JP-8)


AMOCO Jet Fuel Type A ASTM Jet A-1
AMOCO Turbine Fuel Boron Oil Company Jet A-1
ASTM Jet AAircraft Turbine British Fuel D ENG RD
Fuel 2492 AVTUR 50
B.P. Oil Inc. Jet A Canadian Fuel 3-GP-23
Boron Oil Company Jet A Chevron Jet Fuel A-1
Chevron Jet Fuel A Exxon Turbo A-1
Chevron Jet Fuel A-50 Jet A-1 Kerosene
Conoco Jet 50 Mobil Jet A-1
Exxon Turbo A NATO F-34 (Jet A-1)
Gulf Jet A NATO F-35 (Jet A-1)
Jet A Kerosene Richfield Jet A-1
Mobil Jet A Shell Jet A-1
NATO F-30 (Jet A) Texaco Avjet A-1
Philips Philjet A-50 Union Jet A-1
Richfield Jet A MIL-T-83133 (JP-8)
Standard Oil of Ohio Jet A
Shell Jet A
Texaco Avjet A
Union Turbine Fuel A

EMS 53113 (Jet B/JP-4) EMS 53116 (JP-5)


ASTM Jet B Aircraft Turbine British Fuel D ENG R.D
Fuel 2498 AVCAT 48
British Fuel D ENG RD Chevron Turbine Fuel JP-5
2486 AV TA G MIL-T-5624G (JP-5)
Canadian Fuel 3-GP-22 Mobil JP-5
Chevron Jet Fuel B NATO F-42 (JP-5)
Chevron Jet Fuel JP-4 NATO F-44 (JP-5)
Conoco (JP-4) Texaco JP-5
Exxon Turbo B ENG RD 2494
MIL-T-5624G (JP-4) British Fuel D
Mobil JP-4
NATO F-40 (JP-4)
NATO F-45 (JP-4)
Richfield Jet B
Richfield JP-4
Texaco Avjet-B
Texaco JP-4
Union JP-4

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-33


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Fuel Temperature
Do not take off with fuels other than JP-4 or equivalent at fuel
temperatures below -29°C (-20°F).
Do not take off with fuel temperature lower than -54°C (-65°F).

CAUTION: When using any aviation gasoline in the fuel


mixture, limit operation as follows:
Q Do not take off with fuel temperature lower than -54°C
(-65°F).
Q
Restrict aircraft flights to below 15,000 ft.
Q Both jet pumps and both standby pumps switchesmust
be on and the pumps must be operating.

Pitch Attitude Limits

WARNING: When the fuel quantity gage indicates 600 lbs or


less remaining in either wing tank, prolonged nose up atti-
tude of 10° or more may cause fuel to be trapped in the aft
area of the wing tank outboard of the wheel well. Fuel star-
vation and engine flameout may occur. Reducing pitch atti-
tude and thrust to the minimum required prevents this

For go-around conditions with low fuel (first steady indication


by the LOW FUEL annunciator) reduce climb attitude and
thrust to a minimum required.
Unusable Fuel
The fuel remaining in the fuel tanks when the fuel quantity indi-
cator reads zero cannot be used safely in flight.

Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations chapter.

3-34 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Hydraulics
Approved Fluid
Only hydraulic fluid conforming to MIL-H-5606 is approved:
Q Mobil Aero HFE
Q
Aeroshell Fluid 41
Q Texaco Aircraft Hydraulic 15.

Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump


Do not exceed auxiliary hydraulic pump duty cycle of 3 minutes
on, then 20 minutes off.

Temperature
When OAT is below -25°C (-13°F), engines should be operated
for three minutes prior to takeoff to bring the hydraulic system
up to normal operating temperature.

Ice and Rain Protection


Windshield and Radome Anti-Ice Fluid
Methyl alcohol (methanol) per Federal Specification O-M-232,
Grade A is required.

Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations chapter.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-35


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Landing Gear and Brakes


Contaminated Runways
Chine on nose tire must be a minimum of 3/4 inch (19 mm) from
ground to operate safely with an accumulation of 3/4 inch (19
mm) water on runway surface.

Oxygen
The following aircraft certification requirements are in addition
to the requirements of applicable operating rules. The most
restrictive requirement (certification or operating) must be
observed.
Aircraft 35-067 through 35-112 except 35-107 and aircraft 36-
018 through 36-031:
Above Flight Level 250 –
Q Aircraft with ZMR 100 Series Crew Masks – One crew
member must wear oxygen mask around his neck.
Q Aircraft with 6600214 Series Crew Masks – Crew
masks must be in the quick-donning position which
allows donning within 5 seconds.
Above Flight Level 410 – Pilot, copilot, and passengers must
wear oxygen masks.
Aircraft 35-107, 35-113 and subsequent and aircraft 36-032
and subsequent:
Above Flight Level 250 – Crew masks must be in the quickdon-
ning position which allows donning within 5 seconds.

WARNING: Smoking is prohibited while the oxygen system


is in use.

3-36 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Powerplant – Garrett TFE731-2/B


Turbofan
Electronic Fuel Computer Specific Gravity
Clockwise trim (corresponding to a decrease in specific gravity
setting) on the fuel computer without a change in fuel specific
gravity results in higher turbine temperatures in start, accelera
tion, and deceleration.
The engine electronic fuel computer must be adjusted to the
recommended specific gravity position listed in the engine log
book for the type of fuel used. If no entry made, the following
settings are to be observed.
Jet A/Jet A-1/JP-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSITION 5
Jet B/JP-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSITION 6
50% or more Aviation Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSITION 7

WARNING: Engine surge may occur if recommended spe-


cific gravity adjustment is not adhered to for the type of fuel
being used. If surge is encountered, refer to the engine
maintenance manual.

Fuel adjustment knob may be rotated one “click” either direc-


tion from the recommended fuel adjustment of positions 5, 6,
and 7 to compensate for individual engine characteristics or
installation effects.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-37


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Engine Operating Temperatures


If start ITT limit (Figure 3-4) is exceeded, abort start. Refer to
engine maintenance manual for corrective action.
If takeoff limit is exceeded, reduce power setting to bring ITT
within limits. Enter maximum temperature and duration in
excess of limit in engine log.
If takeoff transient limit is exceeded, reduce power setting to
bring ITT within limits. Make electronic computer N1 adjustment
prior to next flight. Observe takeoff ITT limit. An ITT overshoot
resulting from application of takeoff power not exceeding take-
off transient limit is allowable and does not require an engine
log entry.

CAUTION: If a takeoff ITT of 870°C or more is attained for


more than 10 seconds or 930°C is attained or exceeded,
refer to the engine service manual for corrective action.

Maximum continuous limit is 832°C; however, for greatest


engine life under normal conditions, reduce engine power to an
ITT of 795°C or less after 30 minutes of maximum continuous
operation.

Engine Overspeed Limits


The maximum overspeed limits of the engines are as follows.
100% to 103% Turbine or Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 MINUTE
103% to 105% Turbine or Fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 SECONDS
If 105% turbine or fan is exceeded, contact nearest Garrett
AiResearch Field Service Propulsion Engine Representative
prior to engine removal for overspeed inspection.

Engine SPR
Do not energize SPR switch at any time other than engine
start.
Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations chapter.

3-38 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Engine Operating Temperatures

Figure 35-1. Engine Operating Temperatures

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-39


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Engine Synchronizer
The engine synchronizer must be off for takeoff, landing, and
single-engine operation.
Starter Cooling Periods
If engine does not start, adhere to the following cooling periods
between start attempts.

After Start Attempt Wait


1 1 Minute
2 1 Minute
3 15 Minutes
4 1 Minute
5 1 Minute
6 1 Hour
This cycle may then be repeated.

Oil Temperature
Maximum Oil Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140°C
Approved Oils
The following Type II oils conforming to Honeywell Specification
EMS 53110, are approved for use:
n Aeroshell/Royco n BP Turbo Oil 2380
Turbine Oil 500 n
Exxon 2197
n Aeroshell/Royco n BP Turbo Oil 2197
Turbine Oil 560 n Mobil Jet Oil II
n
Castrol 5000 n
Mobil 254
n Exxon (Enco/Esso)
2380 Turbo Oil
Engines modified by AlliedSignal Service Bulletin TFE731-72-
3596 require specific oil use. Refer to the Honeywell Engine
Light Maintenance Manual for engine oil service instructions.
Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations chapter.

3-40 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Limitations

Engine Operating Limitations

Condition Time Limit ITT Temp. °C N 1 % RPM

Start Indication
— 860 3 — — Within 10 Secs. 30 to 140
After Lightoff

Idle — — — — 25 to 46 30 to 140

Takeoff See chart in


5 Minutes 860 2 AFM Section V
100 38 to 46 30 to 140

Recommended-
Maximum Unrestricted 795 — — 38 to 46 30 to 140
Cruise

Maximum See chart in


Continuous Unrestricted 832 AFM Section V 100 38 to 46 30 to 140

Overspeed
1 Minute — 100 to 103 100 to 103 55 30 to 140
Transient

Overspeed
5 Seconds — 103 to 105 103 to 105 — 30 to 140
Transient

Overspeed — — Over 105 Over 105 — 30 to 140

1 Normal oil operating temperatures for all conditions.


2 If a takeoff ITT of 870°C or more is attained for more than 10 seconds, or 930°C is attained or exceeded, refer to the engine service manual for corrective action.
3 If start ITT is exceeded, abort start and refer to engine maintenance manual.

CAUTION: Mixed oil use in an ASE SB TFE731-72-3596 modified engine is


limited to 25 operating hours. Any of the Type II oils conforming to Honeywell
EMS 53110 listed (page 3-40) are approved for mixed oil use. Refer to the Hon-
eywell Engine Light Maintenance Manual for corrective action.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-41


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Thrust Reversers
Aeronca Thrust Reversers
Operational procedures in the AFM Supplement are manda-
tory.
n Do not attempt to deploy thrust reversers in flight.
n Do not use thrust reversers to back up the aircraft.
n Do not pull thrust reverser CBs while in flight except as
specified in Emergency and/or Abnormal Procedures.
n Do not deploy drag chute (if installed) while using reverse
thrust.
n Thrust reversers are limited to ground operations on
paved surfaces.
Maximum reverse thrust usable at 60 KIAS or above is limited
to fan speed (N 1) equal to takeoff power setting. At 60 KIAS,
smoothly and deliberately return the thrust reverser levers to
the reverse idle/deploy position.

CAUTION: If full reverse power is maintained below 60 KIAS,


reingestion of exhaust gases in the engine may occur.

S/Ns 35-001 to 153 and 36-001 to 038 with P/N 210 1142-1
fuel computers : Minimum turbine speed (N 2) above 40,000 ft
is 86% RPM when the N2 placard is installed on the instrument
panel. Otherwise, turbine speed (N 2) is limited by the fuel com-
puter (turbine speed may be slightly less than 86%).

3-42 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Dee Howard TR4000 Thrust Reversers


Maximum Demonstrated Crosswind Velocity . . . . . . . . 20 KTS
Minimum Airspeed with Full Reverse Thrust . . . . . . . . . 50 KTS
Maximum Fan Speed (N1) in Reverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75%
Deployment restricted to ground operation only.
Disarm reversers immediately after takeoff; leave disarmed
until final approach to landing.
Do not use the reversers to back up the aircraft.
Simultaneous use of reverse thrust and a drag chute (if
installed) is prohibited.
Thrust reversers are limited to ground operations on paved sur-
faces.
Engine starts with reversers deployed are prohibited.
Time limit in reverse thrust is 30 seconds for each deployment.

WARNING: When landing on snow-covered runways, apply


reverse thrust with caution because visibility may be
impaired.

CAUTION: Operation under OAT conditions below 20°F can


cause N1 speeds in excess of 75% limit. Observe N1 when
operating thrust reversers in cold temperatures to ensure that
the 75% limit is not exceeded.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-43


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

3-44 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

AFM Supplement Limitations


The following items originate in selected AFM supplements.
For the supplements applicable to a specific aircraft, refer to
the Supplements section in the AFM for that aircraft.
Pointer Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
Model 3000-1 with 3004-1 HV Dual Antenna Array: As plac-
arded, operation of the ELT system in the RESET position is
not to exceed five (5) seconds.
Landing Gear Tire Substitution
When 10-ply tires are substituted for 12-ply tires on the main
landing gear, refer to Figure 3-5 (page 3-47) for takeoff weight
limits. In no case is takeoff weight to exceed that as listed in
AFM Section I.
Electrically Heated Windshield
350-Knot (ECR 2498)
VMO, Maximum Operating Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 KIAS
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(Figure 3-6, page 3-49)

Information shown in italics is not included in the AFM Limitations chapter.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-45


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

3-46 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Landing Gear Tire Substitution

Figure 35-1. Landing Gear Tire Substitution Chart

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-47


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

3-48 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations

Electrically Heated Windshield


350-Knot (ECRT 2498) S/Ns 35-671 and Subsequent and 36-064 and Subsequent)

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-49


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

3-50 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations – U.K.

United Kingdom Limitations


The following material is selected from information strictly appli-
cable to U.K. registered aircraft. For a complete summary of
the limitations applicable to an aircraft registered in the United
Kingdom, refer to that aircraft’s AFM.

General Limitations
Certification Status
The Gates Learjet Models 35A and 36A are eligible for certifi-
cation in the United Kingdom in the Transport Category Pas-
senger. This aircraft may, however, be restricted to another
category and to a particular use and this is stated in the Certifi-
cate of Airworthiness.

Maximum Number of Occupants


The total number of occupants must not exceed the lesser of
13 and the number of seats approved for takeoff and landing.
Children under the age of three years who are carried in the
arms of the passengers may be left out of this count.

Performance Group
For compliance with UK Air Navigation (General) Regulations,
these aircraft are certified in Performance Group A.

Type of Operation
Approved for day, night, VFR, IFR, and icing conditions.
For purpose of compliance with Air Navigation legislation gov-
erning flight over water, the true airspeed to be assumed is 440
knots.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-51


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Speed Limitations
VFE, Flap Extended Speed:
Flaps – Full Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 KIAS/157 KCAS
Flaps – T.O./APP (20°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 KIAS/180 KCAS
Flaps – T.O. (8°) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 KIAS/194 KCAS
VLE, Maximum Landing Gear
Extended Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 KIAS/260 KCAS
VLO, Maximum Landing Gear
Extension Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 KIAS/200 KCAS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EXCEPT DURING
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EMERGENCY DESCENT
VMCA, Minimum Control Speed Air . . . . . . 112 KIAS/112 KCAS
VMCG, Minimum Control
Speed Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 KIAS/101 KCAS
VMCL, Minimum Control
Speed Landing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 KIAS/105 KCAS
VMO/MMO, Maximum Operating Speed:
Below 8,000 ft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 KIAS/300 KCAS
Above 8,000 ft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 KIAS/350 KCAS
MMO with any BLEs Missing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.78 MI

Weight Limitations
Maximum Zero Wing and Tip Fuel Weight . . . . 13,500 LBS
Maximum ramp weight shall not exceed maximum allowable
takeoff weight by more than 250 lbs.
All weights in excess of 13,500 lbs must consist of wing and tip-
tank fuel.

3-52 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations – U.K.

Operational Limits
General
Temperature Limits:
Maximum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +50°C (ISA + 35°C)
Minimum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -54°C (ISA - 69°C)
Maximum Altitude Limit
(Pressure Altitude) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45,000 FT

Do not operate above:


Q 43,000 ft at weights in excess of 15,000 lbs
Q 40,000 ft at weights in excess of 16,500 lbs.
With one fuel computer inoperative, the aircraft shall not be
flown for public transport or for any purpose except positioning.
Do not take off or land with the cabin pressurized.

Takeoff
When OAT is below -35°C, engine should be operated for three
minutes prior to takeoff to bring hydraulic system up to normal
operating temperature. If OAT is below the lowest temperature
shown on the performance charts, use performance at the low
est temperature shown.
Maximum Altitude Limit (Pressure Altitude) . . . . . . 10,000 FT
Maximum Tailwind Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 KTS

Do not operate if water and/or slush accumulation on runway


exceeds 1/2 inch.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-53


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Enroute
Flight Load Acceleration Limits:
Flaps Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +3.00 TO -1.0 G
Flaps Down . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .+2.00 TO 0.0 G
These acceleration values limit the bank angle in a coordinated
turn to 70°, flaps up; and 60°, flaps down. In addition, pullups
and pushovers must be limited to these values.

Systems Limitations
Avionics and Communication
The autopilot must not be engaged below 1,000 ft above the
terrain enroute and not below 190 ft above runway threshold
elevation when coupled to the ILS glideslope.

Electrical System
Whenever an engine start using a starter has been performed,
accomplish the Battery Charging bus current limiter and starter
disengagement checks as outlined in Starting Engines, Starter
Assist Airstarts, and/or Before Takeoff procedures in AFM Sec-
tions II and III. These checks require that both engines be oper-
ating to perform the check.

3-54 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Limitations – U.K.

Flight Controls
Modified Control Wheel Configuration with Stick Pusher
Cutout (U.K., Canadian aircraft)
Do not operate stick pusher cutout above 0.74 MI.
If the stick pusher cutout is engaged (PITCH SERVO DISABLE
illuminated), do not exceed 0.74 MI (Refer to AFM Section I,
Stick Puller).
If stick puller inoperative, maximum Mach number is 0.74 MI.
Both yaw dampers must be operative. One yaw damper must
be on and operative for all flight conditions except takeoff and
landing touchdown. For a normal landing, the following proce-
dures shall apply.
Q The airplane shall be configured for landing at least 500 ft
AGL.
Q On aircraft with the FC-200 autopilot, the yaw damper
shall be disengaged during the landing flare.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 3-55


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Fuel
When using aviation gasoline (50% or more by volume), restrict
airplane flights to below 15,000 ft. Both electric standby boost
pumps must be on and operating when using aviation gasoline.
Aviation gasoline, MIL-D-5572D, Grades 80/87, 100/130 and
115/145 not in excess of 500 gallons per 100 hours of opera-
tion per engine may be used an emergency fuel and may be
mixed in any proportion with various listed kerosene-base fuels
as long as the rate usage of aviation gasoline does not exceed
500 gallons per 100 hours of operation per engine.
Maximum tip tank fuel for landing is 925 lbs each tip.
Jet A, Jet A-1, and Jet B conforming to ASTM ES-2-74 (Emer-
gency Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels) may
be used as temporary fuels until further notice.

CAUTION: During landings in turbulent air conditions with


the yaw damper off, the airplane may exhibit undesirable lat-
eral-directional (Dutch-roll) characteristics. These character-
istics improve as the wing/tip fuel is consumed. See Before
Landing procedure in AFM Section II and increase airspeed
as required.

Powerplant
Starting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860°C ITT FOR 1 SECOND
Takeoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .870°C ITT FOR 30 SECONDS
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .860°C ITT FOR 5 MINUTES
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .832°C ITT (UNLIMITED)
Maximum Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . 832°C ITT OR 100% N1
Overspeed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103% N1 OR N2 FOR 1 MINUTE
. . . . . . . . . . . . .105% N1 OR N2 FOR 5 SECONDS

If 105° N1 or N2 is exceeded, remove engine.

3-56 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Avionics

Avionics
Pitot/Static System Pitot/Static System
(without FC-530 Autopilot) (withFC-530 Autopilot)

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4A-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4A-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Avionics

Pitot/Static System
(Typical RVSM)

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4A-3


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite

4A-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Avionics

Pitot/Static System
On aircraft with an FC-200 autopilot, an electrically heated
pitot probe on the left and right nose supplies pitot pressure to
the flight instruments and airspeed warning systems. The left
pitot probe only supplies the pilot’s airspeed indicator. The right
pitot probe supplies the copilot’s airspeed indicator, Mach trim,
Mach warning and overspeed, switches, and air data sensor.
The left forward and right center static ports supply the pilot’s
altimeter and airspeed indicator. A selectable alternate static
source supplies these instruments if the normal static source
fails.
The left aft and right forward static ports supply the copilot’s
altimeter, airspeed indicator, and vertical speed indicator (VSI).
These static sources also supply the Mach trim, Mach warning
and overspeed warning, altitude pressure, and airspeed
switches.
The unheated right aft static port and a static port in the nose
compartment supply the pressurization module assembly.
Two shoulder static ports forward of the windshield supply
static pressure to autopilot air data sensor.
On aircraft with a typical RVSM1 FC-530 autopilot, an elec-
trically heated pitot/static probe on the left and right nose sup-
plies pitot and static pressure to the pilot’s and copilot’s pitot/
static systems. The left pitot/static probe supplies the pilot’s air-
speed indicator. The right pitot/static probe supplies the copi-
lot’s airspeed indicator, air data unit (ADU), and the 0.74 Mach
switch.

1.RVSM installations vary. Consult your AFM for specific informa-


tion.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4A-5


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite
The left No. 1 and right No. 2 static sources supply the pilot’s alt
imiter, airspeed indicator, and VSI. The right No. 1 and left No.
2 static sources supply the copilot’s altimeter, airspeed indica-
tor, and VSI. These static sources also supply the ADU, 0.74
Mach switch, and optional equipment.
Electrically controlled isolation valves in the pilot’s and copilot’s
static source supply lines can be closed to isolate parts of the
static system.
An unheated static port and an alternate static source supply
the pressurization module.

Additional Instrumentation
Airspeed/Mach Indicator
Pitot/static inputs operate the pilot’s and copilot’s identical air-
speed indicators. The instruments utilize a single rotating nee-
dle and dual scales for accurate Mach and airspeed indication.
The indicator face consists of a circular airspeed scale reading
0 to 400 kts, a movable circular Mach scale reading 0.4 to 0.9
Mach, an airspeed/Mach pointer, and a maximum allowable
marker (barber pole).
On S/N 35-506 and subsequent; 36-054 and subsequent; or
aircraft with AAK 83-2, the airspeed/Mach indicators also con-
tain airspeed and altitude switches used by the stick puller, stall
warning system, and overspeed warning system.

4A-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Avionics

Altimeter
FC-200 autopilot only without Rosemont probe: the pilot’s
encoding altimeter system consists of an encoding altimeter, an
altitude alerter, and a static defect correction (SDC) module.
The pilot’s encoding altimeter is a servo-driven counter/pointer
display that follows an input from the SDC module when in Nor-
mal mode. When in Standby mode, the altimeter reverts to an
uncorrected servo-driven altimeter.
The SDC module measures pitot and static pressures and pro-
vides static pressure correction for the pilot’s encoding altime-
ter.
The copilot's altimeter is a conventional, barometric (servo-
driven) indicator that uses static pressure to indicate aircraft
altitude.

Vertical Speed Indicators


FC-200 autopilot without Rosemont probe: two vertical
speed indicators show vertical velocity, up or down, from 0 to
6,000 fpm.
On early aircraft, the pilot’s altimeter drives the single pointer,
rate of climb indicator. Output from the altimeter is amplified
and demodulated to operate a torque motor in the indicator that
drives the indicator pointer through gearing. In later aircraft, an
instantaneous vertical speed indicator (IVSI) is used.
The copilot’s vertical speed indicator uses pressure differential
to show vertical velocity.

Clock
The Learjet 35/36 has a standard eight-day clock with a 12-
hour dial on the left panel.
As an option, a Davtron 811B multifunctional digital clock can
be installed on the right panel.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4A-7


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite

Ram Air Temperature Gage


The ram air temperature system consists of a temperature indi-
cator and a resistance-type temperature bulb.
The RAM AIRTEMP indicator on the center instrument panel
displays existing outside temperature in degrees Celsius.

Magnetic Compass
A standard liquid-filled magnetic compass is on the windshield
center post.

Flight Hour Meter


The optional flight hour meter, located on the lower right instru-
ment panel, displays total flight time on the aircraft in hours and
tenths of hours.

Optional True Airspeed Indicator


The optional true airspeed (TAS) indicator displays true air-
speed in knots and static air temperature (SAT) in degrees Cel-
sius. The indicator receives data from the air data sensor/unit,
a heated temperature sensor probe, and an SAT/TAS com-
puter.

Emergency Attitude Gyro


The emergency attitude gyro on the left instrument panel indi-
cates visual pitch and roll attitude information. The No.1 emer-
gency battery powers the emergency attitude gyro in the event
of DC failure. The gyro is powered when the emergency EMER
PWR BAT 1 switch is in standby or on. A red OFF warning flag
appears if one or more phases of power is interrupted or the
caging/pitch knob is pulled out.

4A-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Avionics

Communications
VHF Communication Transceivers
The Learjet 35/36 has dual Collins VHF-20 or Triple Wulfsberg
WT-200 transceivers in the nose compartment; their control
heads are in the central instrument panel. The Collins VHF-20A
and Wulfsberg WT-200 are 700-channel VHF receiver-trans-
mitters with a frequency range of 118.000 to 135.975 MHZ in
25 kHz steps. The Collins VHF-20B has an extended range of
118,000 to 151.975 MHZ in 25 kHz steps.

Audio Control Panel


Two audio control panels provide individual audio selection by
each pilot. A three-position switch (SPKR-PHONE/PH/EMER)
enables audio inputs to be selected. Audio inputs from all com
munications and navigation receivers can also be selected.

HF Communication Receiver
The Learjet may have a single Collins HF-220 HF transceiver in
the nose compartment and a CTL-220 control head on the cen-
tral pedestal or a single Collins 718-U-5 HF transceiver. The
HF-220 system covers the 2.0 to 22.9999 MHZ frequency
range with single-sideband (SSB), AM, and split-channel,
reduced-carrier telephone modes.

Radio Telephone
A Wulfsberg Flitephone III C radio telephone allows pilots and
passengers to communicate with the ground through the public
telephone system. It also operates as an intercom for cockpit to
cabin communications.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4A-9


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite

Navigation
The aircraft navigation system includes components and sys-
tems that provide attitude, altitude, direction, speed, flight guid-
ance, and en route navigational information.

VHF Navigation Receivers


Dual Collins VIR-30A navigation receivers provide VOR, locali
zer, glideslope, and marker beacon capability. The receivers
are in the nose compartment.
Each system has 200 VOR/LOC operating channels, 40 glides-
lope channels, and automatic DME channeling. The receiver
provides 200, 50 MHZ spaced VHF frequencies from 108.00 to
117.95 MHZ and 40 paired glideslope frequencies from 329.15
to 335.00 MHZ. Multiple outputs drive the flight director HSI,
RMIs, autopilot, course deviation indicator, and R-NAV (if
installed). All the basic functions have built-in test features.

Marker Beacon Receiver


The Collins VIR-30A marker beacon receiver operates at a fre-
quency of 75 MHZ. It indicates passage of marker beacon facil-
ities visually and aurally. The system is an integral part of the
VOR/ILS receiver.

VLF Navigation Receiver


The Global GNS-500A is a very low frequency (VLF/Omega)
radio navigation system. It provides great circle point-to-point
navigation on a worldwide basis. The pilot need only supply
departure coordinates and verify Greenwich date and time; the
system then computes and displays all pertinent navigation
data on the center pedestal.

4A-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Avionics

Automatic Direction Finder


The Collins ADF-60 receiver and 614L-13 control head are part
of the automatic direction finder (ADF) system providing rela-
tive bearing between the aircraft and the selected ground sta-
tion. It operates in the 190 to 1749.5 kHz frequency range with
0.5 kHz frequency spacing. This range and spacing allows
3,120 possible, distinct frequencies.
Radio Magnetic Indicator
Two radio magnetic indicators, pilot’s and copilot’s, display air-
craft heading by a rotating compass card. Also, VOR and ADF
bearing information is displayed.
The pilot’s RMI receives heading information from the copilot’s
compass system and from navigational information from both
VHF navigational receivers, as well as, the No.1 and No.2 ADF
receiver, if installed. The copilot’s RMI receives heading infor-
mation from the pilot’s compass system and from navigational
information from both VHF navigational receivers, as well as,
the No.1 and No.2 ADF receiver, if installed.

Automatic Flight Control System


Automatic flight control systems (AFCS) combine the functions
of an autopilot, flight director, yaw damper, and elevator trim
system to provide automatic flight path and attitude control
through the pitch, roll, and yaw axes. Various subsystems of a
typical AFCS include:
Q
autopilot system
Q flight director system
Q flight instrumentation
Q
navigation sensors.
Supplied with inputs from these subsystems, the AFCS gener-
ates the appropriate pitch, roll, and yaw commands or cues to
fly the aircraft from its actual attitude to a desired attitude.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4A-11


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite

Autopilot
Available autopilot systems on the Learjet 35/36 aircraft include
the J.E.T. 200 or J.E.T. 530. The autopilot provides automatic
control and stabilization of the aircraft about the pitch and roll
axes. The mode of operation includes the ability to automati-
cally maintain desired altitude, pitch attitude or heading, and to
automatically capture and track localizer, glideslope, and VOR
signals.
The autopilot can be physically over-powered by the flight
crew; however, the forces can be quite high.
Aircraft with FC-200: Depressing the wheel master switch dis-
engages the autopilot and yaw damper, and interrupts the pri-
mary pitch trim.
Aircraft with FC-530: Depressing the wheel master switch dis-
engages the autopilot and yaw damper, and interrupts the pri-
mary and secondary pitch trim, stick pusher, puller, and nudger.
The autopilot is integrated with the flight director to automati-
cally control and direct aircraft flight.

Flight Director
The flight director system consists of:
Q Collins FD-108 Integrated Flight System
Q Collins ADI-85A Attitude Director Indicator
Q Collins HSI-85 Horizontal Situation Indicator
Q flight guidance control panel.
These components and information from navigation and
marker beacon receivers, the radio altimeter, and distance
measuring equipment provide an easily read display of aircraft
attitude, navigational situation, and steering commands. Steer-
ing commands enable the pilot to capture and fly selected
heading, radio courses, and an ILS down to decision altitude.

4A-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Avionics

The ADI-85A attitude director displays:


Q
attitude and steering commands
Q localizer and glideslope deviation
Q rate of turn
Q
aircraft slip or skid
Q radio altitude
Q decision height
Q speed deviation.
The HSI-85 horizontal situation indicator displays:
Q position and heading with respect to magnetic or true
north
Q selected heading and selected course
Q DME slant range
Q groundspeed or elapsed time
Q deviation from selected VOR, localizer, or other naviga-
tion course
Q vertical deviation from glideslope
Q TO/FROM and bearing/track pointer information.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4A-13


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite

Miscellaneous Avionics Equipment


Transponder
ACollins TDR-90 transponder with 4096 individual Mode A
capability is standard on the Learjet. It is transceiver-operated
with a transmitter frequency of 1090 MHZ and a receiver fre-
quency of 1039 MHZ. The code selector shares the control
head with the No.2 VHF transceiver frequency selector on the
center instrument panel.
The transponder contains altitude encoding (Mode C) and
operates from the pilot’s encoding altimeter. The system
includes self test, monitoring, and ident functions.

Distance Measuring Equipment


The Collins DME-40 provides the pilot with slant range distance
information to the selected VORTAC as well as time to destina-
tion and ground speed readouts. Two rotary switches select the
desired information displayed by light bar readouts.

Weather Radar
Standard equipment for the Learjet 35/36 is the RCA Primus 3
00S L weather radar. The RCA Primus 400SL color radar is
available as an option. The digital radar indicator is on the cen-
ter instrument panel.
The Primus 300SL and 400SL systems consist of a digital
radar indicator, a transceiver operating in the X band, and an
antenna radiator unit.

Angle-of-Attack Indicators
The angle-of-attack indicators take signals from the stall warn-
ing computer and translate them into a visual indication. The
indicator face is divided into green (safe), yellow (caution/
shaker), and red (danger/pusher) segments.

4A-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Avionics

Directional Gyros
The directional gyros are in shock-mounted racks in the nose
compartment. They provide a full 360° of heading information.
The directional gyros provide inputs to the RMI, autopilot, HSIs,
and flight directors.

Vertical Gyros
Two JET VG-206D vertical gyros in the nose compartment pro-
vide 360° of roll information and ±85° of pitch information to the
attitude and flight director indicators.

Radio Altimeter
A single radio altimeter on the pilot’s panel provides a precise
indication of altitude from zero to 2,500 ft. The system consists
of an indicator, transceiver, and dual antennas. Continuous alti-
tude output signals are provided to the pilot’s and copilot’s flight
director indicator and the radio altimeter.

Ground Proximity Warning System


Some Learjet 35/36 aircraft have a ground proximity warning
system (GPWS) installed to warn the crew of possible terrain
danger. The system receives navigation data from the encod-
ing altimeter, radio altimeter, navigation receiver, nose wheel,
flaps and air data computer. This data, compared against pre-
set data in the GPWS, provides visual and aural warnings to
the crew.

TCAS
Some Learjet 35/36 aircraft have a Traffic Alert and Collision
Avoidance System (TCAS) installed. The TCAS monitors the
airspace around its ownaircraft by interrogating “intruder” tran-
sponders in a radius of approximately 40nm. The TCAS utilizes
this information to provide traffic alerts and resolution adviso-
ries to the pilot.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4A-15


February 2007
CAE SimuFlite

4A-16 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Electrical System
DC Electrical System
S/Ns 35-002 to 147; 36-002 to 035

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4B-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

DC Electrical System
S/Ns 35-148 to 201, 205; 36-036 to 040

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4B-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

DC Electrical System
S/Ns 35-202, 206 to 369, 371 to 389;
36-041 to 047; prior aircraft with AMK 78-13

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4B-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

DC Electrical System
S/Ns 35-370, 390 to 508;
36-048 to 053

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4B-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

DC Electrical System
S/Ns 35-509 and subsequent;
36-054 and subsequent; prior aircraft with AMK 85-1

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4B-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

AC Electrical System

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-11


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4B-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

DC System
DC power sources include:
Q two 400A, 30V engine-driven generators regulated to
28.5V DC
Q
two 24V or 25V ni-cad or two 25V lead acid batteries
Q 28V external power system. Electrical buses distribute
power from these sources to the various systems requir-
ing DC power. Thermal circuit breakers between the bus
and the using system protect the aircraft electrical sys-
tem and equipment from electrical faults.
On aircraft 35-002 to 35-201, 35-205 and 36-002 to 36-040
without AMK 78-13, the DC buses include:
Q Battery Charging bus
Q Left and Right Battery buses
Q Left and Right Main Power buses
Q Left and Right Main buses
Q Left and Right Generator buses
Q Left and Right Essential buses.
On aircraft 35-202 to 35-204, 35-206 and subsequent, 36-
041 and subsequent, and prior aircraft with AMK 78-13, the
DC buses include:
Q Battery Charging bus
Q
Left and Right Battery buses
Q
Left and Right Main Power buses
Q Left and Right Main buses
Q Left and Right Generator buses
Q
Left and Right Essential A buses
Q Left and Right Essential B buses.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-13


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Generators
After engine start, placing a starter/generator switch in the GEN
position energizes the generator circuit relay and extinguishes
the GEN light. Energization of the relay completes a circuit to
energize the respective DC regulator power and positive sense
relay, Freon compressor relay, and a circuit for the voltage reg-
ulator equalizer.
On S/N 35-083 and subsequent, 36-021 and subsequent,
and earlier aircraft with AMK 76-6A, placing a starter/genera-
tor switch in the GEN position energizes a circuit to energize
the DC regulator power and positive sense relay, parallel 28V
DC circuit, regulator power, and the Freon compressor.
When both generators come on-line, the voltage regulator
equalizer circuit energizes. Both voltage regulators then work
together to regulate their generator’s output. Each adjusts its
generator field until a balanced condition exists between the
generators. If both generator ammeters are within 25A, both
generators are operating in parallel.
If generator output exceeds 31 ± 0.5V, the voltage regulator
trips the generator off-line through the overvoltage relay and
the respective GEN light illuminates. After a generator overvolt-
age, holding then releasing the generator RESET switch resets
the generator circuit. The generator switch must be in the GEN
position for the reset to work.
The generator also goes off-line if an undervoltage condition
occurs and the respective GEN light illuminates.

4B-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

Batteries
With the BAT 1 and BAT 2 switches in the on position, the bat-
tery relays close to direct battery power to the Battery Charging
bus. From the Battery Charging bus, power flows to the rest of
the electrical system through current limiters.
Ni-cad battery installations have a temperature monitoring sys-
tem consisting of BAT 140 and BAT 160 annunciators and a
battery temperature gage. If battery temperature reaches
140×F ( 6 0×C), the amber BAT 140 annunciator illuminates. If
battery temperature continues rising to 160×F (71×C), the red
BAT 160 annunciator illuminates.

Emergency Battery
Single or dual emergency ni-cad or lead-acid battery packs
provide 24V and 5V DC power for essential equipment (i.e.,
emergency gyro, lighting, etc). Depending on the module
installed, the battery pack’s module provides 24V DC, 115V
AC, and 26V AC power (DC to AC inverter module) or 24V and
5V DC (DC to DC converter module). The module used
depends on the electrical requirements of the equipment
requiring emergency power.
With the EMER PWR BAT switch(es) in the STBY position,
only the emergency gyro receives power. If there is a power
failure, placing the EMER PWR BAT switch(es) in the on posi-
tion supplies power to the emergency gyro, to landing gear
control and indication, and to flap control. Normally, with a fully
charged battery, emergency power is available for approxi-
mately 30 minutes.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-15


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

AC System
Two 1,000VA static inverters (primary and secondary) supply
115V AC, 400 Hz power to the Left and Right AC buses. An
auxiliary 1,000VA inverter (if installed) supplies 115V AC, 400
Hz power if one of the primary inverters fails.
Autotransformers, powered by the Left and Right AC buses,
supply 26V AC power for avionics equipment, the oil pressure
gages, and the anti-skid system.
With the Left and Right Generator buses powered, placing the
INVERTER PRI and INVERTER SEC switches in the ON posi-
tion energizes the primary and secondary inverters’power
relays through overload sensors. After the power relays close,
28V DC from Left and Right Generator buses power the pri-
mary and secondary inverters. Inverter output then flows
through the inverter paralleling control box to the Left and Right
AC buses.
With both inverters operating, the inverter paralleling control
box equalizes the loads and frequency balance between the
two inverters.
If an overload condition occurs, the associated inverter’s over-
load sensor circuit breaker opens to de-energize the power
relay. When the power relay opens, the inverter loses its 28V
DC power input. Resetting the circuit breaker restores DC input
to the inverter by closing the power relay.
On aircraft with the optional auxiliary inverter installed, if the pri-
mary or secondary inverter fails (PRI INV or SEC INV annunci-
ator illuminated), placing the auxiliary inverter switch in the ON
position energizes the auxiliary inverter’s power relay. The
relay closes so that 28V DC from the Battery Charging bus
powers the auxiliary inverter. Placing the AUX INVERTER
switch in L BUS or R BUS position directs 115V AC from the
auxiliary inverter to the respective AC bus.

4B-16 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

External Power
With a ground power unit (GPU) connected to the external
power receptacle, placing either BAT switch in the on position
closes the external power control relay. External power ener-
gizes the external power relay through the external power over-
voltage cutout circuit; power then flows to the Battery bus.
If an overvoltage condition occurs and GPU voltage exceeds
approximately 33V, the cutout circuit energizes the overvoltage
cutout relay. The cutout relay closes and disconnects external
power from the aircraft by opening the external power relay.
On S/N 35-618 and subsequent, 36-056 and subsequent,
and previous aircraft with AMK 86-5, a five amp fuse pro-
vides additional external power protection. If an electrical fault
occurs, the fuse opens and causes the external power control
relay to open. When the control relay opens, the external power
relay opens to disconnect external power from the aircraft.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-17


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Lighting
LIGHTING SYSTEM CONTROL P{OWER SOURCE
Cockpit
Instrument Panel INSTR & CTR PNL Left Essential bus
Right Essential bus
Electroluminescent EL PNL Left AC bus
Right AC bus
Glareshield Flood FLOOD Left AC bus
DOME (if installed) ON/OFF/REMOTE Left Main bus
Entry Light Switch Left Battery bus
(i.e., REMOTE) (REMOTE)
MAP ON-OFF Rheostat Left Essential bus
Right Essential bus
Cabin
Passenger Individual Switches Various
General BRT/OFF/DIM Left Main bus
Depressurization
relay
Entry LH forward cabinet Left Battery bus
switches
No Smoking/Fasten NO SMOKE/ Left Main bus
Seatbelts FASTEN SEAT
BELT
Baggage Compart- LH forward cabinet Left Battery bus
ment switches
Maintenance Light Door Switches Right Battery bus
Exterior
Navigation NAV LT Laft Main bus
Strobe STROBE LT Left Main bus
Landing and Taxi L LDG LT/TAXI Left Main bus
R LDG LT/TAXI Right Main bus
Recognition RECOG LT Right Main bus
Anti-Collision BCN LT Right Main bus
Wing Inspection/ WING INSP
Emergency Egress WING INSPEC-
TION

4B-18 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Electrical System

Electrical Systems Data


Power Source Generators (28.5V DC output)
Air: 400A air max load
Ground: 320A ground max load
Main aircraft batteries (24V DC output)
Ni-cad or lead-acid
Static inverters (two or three)
110 – 130 AC output
Emergency battery(s)
Ground Power Unit (28V DC, 1,100A out-
put)

Distribution DC with battery switches in BAT 1/2 and/


or generators operating:
Battery/Battery Charging bus
LH/RH Hot Battery buses
LH/RH Generator buses
LH/RH Main buses
LH/RH Essential (A/B) buses
AC with main inverter switches in PRI/
SEC and/or auxiliary inverter switch in
ON:
LH/RH AC bus, 115V AC bus:
Spoileron
Floodlights
Flight director
Direct gyro
Vertical gyro
Radar
Yaw damper
26V AC bus:
Mach indicator
SAT TAS
RMI
NAVs
ADF
Oil pressure indicator

Distribution (cont.), Control, Monitor and Protection on following page.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4B-19


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Electrical Systems Data (cont.)


Distribution Emergency battery 1 operating:
(continued) Standby gyro
Landing gear
Flap solenoid
Landing gear lights
Emergency battery 2 operating:
Optional equipment

Control Starter/generator switches


Main aircraft battery switches
Main inverter switches
Auxiliary bus switches (if installed)
Emergency power switch(es)

Monitor L/R Gen annunciators


L/R DC ammeters
DC voltmeter
Battery temperature indicator (if installed)
BAT 140/BAT 160 annunciators
Starter engaged lights (if installed)
PRI/SEC INV annunciators
AUX INV annunciator (if installed)
AC voltmeter
EMER PWR or EMER PWR 1/
EMER PWR 2 annunciators
CUR LIM annunciator (if installed)
Current limiter functional test lights
(if installed)

Protection Circuit breakers


Current limiters
Generator control unit (GCU)
Overload control sensors

4B-20 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems
450 Pneumatic System
S/Ns 35-002 to 35-106; 35-108 to 35-112;
36-002 to 36-031 without AMK 76-7

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4C-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems

450 Pressurization System

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4C-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems

510 Pneumatic System


S/Ns 35-107, 35-113 and subsequent;
36-032 and subsequent

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4C-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems

510 Pressurization System

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Freon Air Conditioning/


Auxiliary Heating System

4C-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems

Environmental System
The pneumatic, air conditioning, and pressurization systems
comprise the environmental system.

Pneumatic System
The system consists of two independent distribution systems
connected to a common distribution point. Two L/R BLEED AIR
switches on the copilot’s lower panel control the system; two
red BLEED AIR annunciators on the glareshield monitor sys-
tem operation.
On S/Ns 35-002 to 35-106, 35-108 thru 35-112, and 36-002 to
36-022 (i.e., 450 Pneumatic System); low pressure (LP) and
high pressure (HP) bleed air is regulated by the bleed air shut-
off and pressure regulator valve for use by:
! nacelle inlet anti-ice
! cabin air conditioning and pressurization
! windshield anti-ice
! wing leading edge anti-ice
! stabilizer leading edge anti-ice
! Aeronca TFE731 thrust reversers (if installed).
On S/N 35-107, 113 and subsequent; 36-032 and subse-
quent (i.e., 510 Pneumatic System); the pneumatic system
also provides bleed air for alcohol anti-ice, temperature control,
and the emergency pressurization valves operation.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Bleed Air Conditioning System


Conditioned air is the result of engine bleed air routed through
a heat exchanger and distributed to the cabin and cockpit
through ducting. Cabin heating and cooling is accomplished by
controlling the amount of bleed air allowed to bypass the heat
exchanger by the hot air bypass valve (i.e. ‘H’ valve).
On aircraft (S/Ns 35-002 to 081, 083 to 086; 36-002 to 022),
with the BLEED AIR switches on and the cabin air switch set to
NORM, engine bleed air is routed through the flow control valve
to the heat exchanger. The cooled air is then routed through
ducts to the cabin.
On aircraft (S/Ns 35-082, 087 to 106, 108 to 112; 36-023 to
031), engine bleed air is routed directly to the heat exchanger
where it is precooled in the heat exchanger by the passing ram
air from the dorsal inlet. The precooled air is then routed
through the flow control valve and venturi into the cabin.
On aircraft (S/Ns 35-107, 113 and subsequent; 36-032 and
subsequent), with the BLEED AIR switches on and with the
cabin air switch in ON, engine bleed air is admitted through the
flow control valve to the heat exchanger. The engine bleed air
is precooled in the heat exchanger by passing ram air through
the heat exchanger from the dorsal inlet.
The temperature control system regulates the amount of hot
bleed air necessary to maintain the desired temperature. The
temperature control indicator in the cockpit shows H-valve posi-
tion relative to full hot and full cold. With the BLEED AIR
switches in EMER, temperature control is unavailable.

4C-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems

Pressurization System
Conditioned air entering the cabin through the air distribution
ducts pressurizes the cabin. Cabin pressurization is then con-
trolled and limited by exhausting the air through the cabin air
exhaust and safety valve.

450 Pressurization System


On aircraft with the 450 pressurization system, normal pressur-
ization is controlled with the altitude controller and rate selector
on the copilot’s lower panel. Prior to takeoff, the AUTO-MAN
switch is set to AUTO, the cabin air switch to NORM, the air-
craft altitude selector knob to cruise altitude, and the IN NOR-
MAL/OUT DEFOG knob pushed in. The cabin rate-of-climb
may be set by varying the rate knob toward INCR or DECR.
Cabin altitude is monitored with the cabin altimeter, which
includes a cabin pressure differential scale.

510 Pressurization System


On aircraft with the 510 pressurization system, normal pressur-
ization is controlled with the cabin pressure controller that
includes the rate controller. Prior to takeoff, the AUTO-MAN
switch is set to AUTO, the cabin air switch to ON, and the air-
craft altitude selector knob to cruise altitude. The cabin rate-
ofclimb may be set by varying the rate knob toward INCR or
DECR and is monitored by the cabin rate-of-climb indicator.
Cabin altitude is monitored with the cabin altimeter that
includes a cabin pressure differential scale.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-11


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Cabin Altitude Warning


(510 Pressurization System)
If the cabin climbs above 8,750 ±250 ft, the manual pressure
aneroid turns on the CAB ALT light, the pressurization system
automatically switches to manual, and the mini-controller is iso-
lated from the outflow valve. The cabin can only be controlled
by the manual control valve (i.e., cherry picker) until the system
is reset at 7,200 ft. If the cabin continues to climb, at 9,500
±250 ft emergency pressurization is actuated. At 10,100 ±250
ft, the cabin altitude warning horn sounds; if the cabin should
climb further, at 11,500 ±1,500 ft, the cabin altitude limiters
cause both outflow valves to close.

Cabin Altitude Warning


(450 Pressurization System)
If the cabin climbs above 10,000 ±500 ft, the cabin altitude horn
sounds and the pressurization system automatically switches
to manual.
If the cabin continues to climb, at 11,500 ±1,500 ft the cabin
altitude limiters cause both outflow valves to close.

Emergency Pressurization
On S/N 35-002 to 106, 108 to 112; 36-002 to 031, windshield
defog air can be routed to the cabin for emergency pressuriza-
tion.
Pushing the IN NORMAL/OUT DEFOG knob in, setting the
windshield heat switch to AUTO, and moving the cabin air
switch to OFF routes windshield defog bleed air into the cabin.
If automatic pressurization fails to maintain cabin altitude, the
outflow valve is controlled by using the manual UP/DN switch.

4C-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems

On S/N 35-107, 113 and subsequent; 36-032 and subse-


quent, the emergency pressurization valves automatically
route LP engine bleed air into the cabin to maintain cabin alti-
tude.
Emergency pressurization can be activated in three ways (one
manually; two automatically). Manually, it is activated by plac-
ing the bleed air switches in EMER; it activates automatically
by an electrical system failure or by the aneroid switches as
cabin altitude passes 9,500 ±250 ft. The emergency pressur-
ization valves reset at 8,300 ft.
When the emergency pressurization valves open, LP bleed air
is routed into the cabin. With this event, windshield, wing, and
stabilizer anti-ice bleed air is not available.

Freon Air Conditioning


A Freon-charged refrigeration system provides ground cooling,
in-flight cooling at lower altitudes, and cabin dehumidification. A
GPU or an engine-driven generator must be used to power the
system.
The COOL/FAN switch on the copilot’s lower panel controls the
operation of the cooling system. The cabin blower can operate
independently of the cooling system by placing the cooling sys-
tem switch in FAN.

Auxiliary Heating System


An electric auxiliary cabin heater in the cooling system ducting
provides additional heating for the cabin. The heater operates
independently of the engine bleed air system and must be pow-
ered by a GPU or an engine-driven generator. The cooling duct
diverter doors must be fully closed for proper operation.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-13


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
With the AUX HT switch set to HI, both heating elements in the
ducts energize. With the switch set to LO, only one heater ele-
ment energizes and the blower runs at 10% speed. The cooling
system blower runs at 100% after the heater elements heat to
150×F.
Each heating unit has a thermal switch that cycles the elements
on at 125×F and off at 150×F.

4C-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems

Environmental Systems Data


Pneumatic System

Power L/R engine HP and LP bleed air


Source DC power – DC LH/RH Main buses

Distribution Aeronca TFE731 thrust reversers


Alcohol anti-ice reservoir
(35-107, 113, and subsequent;
36-032 and subsequent)
Pressurization control system
Modulating shutoff control valve
Nacelle heat
Emergency pressurization valves
(35-107, 113, and subsequent;
36-032 and subsequent)
Bleed air manifold
Air conditioning and heating system
Windshield defog
Wing and stabilizer leading anti-ice

Control L/R modulating control valves


L/R BLEED AIR switches
Cabin air switch
510 Pressurization system
L/R 9,500 ft cabin altitude aneroid switches
L/R emergency pressurization valves

Monitor L/R BLEED AIR annunciators


Pylon/duct temperature sensors
Duct pressure switch (removed by S/B)
9,500 ft cabin altitude –
emergency pressurization

Protection RH/LH MOD VAL CB

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-15


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Pressurization System

Power Source Engine bleed air: regulated vacuum jet


pump
Cabin air
Ambient air
DC power: RH DC ESS A bus

Distribution Safety valve


Automatic cabin altitude controller
Cabin altitude limiter
Outflow valve

Control Squat switches


Cabin air switch
AUTO/MAN switch
UP/DN altitude control
Cabin altitude aneroid switch
‘ Emergency pressurization valves
9,500 ft cabin altitude pressure switches
(35-107, 113 and subsequent
36-032 and subsequent)

Monitoring L/R BLEED AIR annunciators


CAB ALT annunciator
Cabin altitude warning
Cabin climb gage
Cabin altitude gage

Protection CAB PRESS CB


Safety valve
Exhaust and safety valve
Cabin altitude limiter

4C-16 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Environmental Systems

Air Conditioning System

Power Source Engine bleed air


DC power – DC RH ESS B bus

Distribution Flow control valve


H-valve
Heat exchanger
Air distribution ducts

Control Cabin air switch


Climate control AUTO/MAN
COLD/HOT selector

Monitoring Cabin temperature indicator


TEMP CONTROL indicator

Protection CAB BLOW CB


CABIN TEMP CB

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4C-17


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Freon Air Conditioning System

Power Source Engine bleed air


DC power – DC RH ESS B bus
DC BATTERY/BATTERY Charging bus
DC LH MAIN bus

Distribution Freon compressor


Condenser
Expansion valve
Evaporator
Air distribution system

Control COOL/OFF/FAN switch


Generator control circuits

Monitoring Cabin temperature indicator

Protection FREON CONT CB


CABIN FLOW CB
Compressor current limiter

Auxiliary Heating System

Power Source DC power – DC RH MAIN bus

Distribution Elements in aft cabin blower duct

Control AUX HEAT HI/OFF/LOW switch


Generator control circuits

Monitoring Thermal switch

Protection AUX CAB HT CB


FREON CONT CB
CABIN BLOW CB
Thermal switches

4C-18 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Fire Protection
Fire Protection System

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4D-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4D-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Fire Protection

Fire Protection
The fire protection system is composed of a detection system
and an extinguishing system. The detection system gives a
visual warning in the cockpit if it senses an overheat condition
or a fire in either nacelle. The engine fire extinguishing system
includes two independent fire bottles; these can be discharged
to either nacelle, or one bottle can be discharged to each
nacelle.
A portable fire extinguisher is stowed inside the aircraft.

Fire Detection
Three sensing elements connected to a detection unit monitor
temperature around the engine accessory gearbox, firewall,
and tailcone areas.
At normal operating temperatures, the resistance of the sens-
ing elements is high and current does not flow across the sens-
ing element’s core. If the temperature in the accessory gearbox
or firewall area reaches 410×F (210×C) or 890×F (477×C) in
the tailcone area, resistance of the affected sensing element
decreases until current flows across its core. Current flow then
triggers the detection unit to illuminate the associated FIRE
PULLor ENG FIRE PULL T-handle. Illumination of the T-handle
also triggers the Master Warning lights.
Pulling an illuminated FIRE PULL or ENG FIRE PULL T-handle
closes the engine’s main fuel, hydraulic, and bleed air shutoff
valves. It also illuminates the fire extinguisher bottle ARMED
lights above the T-handle.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4D-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Fire Extinguishing
Two dual-head single-shot fire extinguisher bottles contain
Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane) pressurized to 600 ±75
PSI at 70×F (21×C) with nitrogen. Each bottle has a thermal
relief valve and a pressure gage.
Pressing an illuminated ARMED switchlight supplies 28V DC
from the Left or Right Essential (Essential B) bus to the associ-
ated bottle’s squib. The squib detonates to break the bottle seal
and release fire extinguishing agent to the affected engine
nacelle. Bottle discharge blows out the yellow discharge indica-
tor disc on the left rear fuselage. After bottle discharge, the
selected ARMED switchlight extinguishes.
If fire warnings persist, pressing the other illuminated ARMED
switchlight discharges the second fire extinguisher bottle into
the same engine.

Thermal Relief
If bottle temperature reaches 217×F (102.8×C), a thermal dis-
charge valve opens to vent bottle contents to atmosphere,
thereby blowing out the red colored discharge indicator disc.

4D-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Fire Protection

Fire Protection Data


Power Source DC LH/RH ESSENTIAL B buses

Distribution Each bottle can discharge to either engine

Control FIRE PULL/ENG FIRE PULL T-handle


ARMED switchlights

Monitoring FIRE PULL/ENG FIRE PULL T-handles


ARMED switchlights
Red thermal discharge indicator disk
Yellow manual discharge indicator disk
Fire bottle pressure gage

Protection Thermal discharge valve on each bottle


for overpressure relief
Two one-way check valves prevent
extinguishing agent of one bottle from
entering the other

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4D-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4D-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Controls
Flaps

PRESELECT
OR 530 AUTOPILOT

FLAP
SWITCH UP FLAPS
F
L
A R ESS B BUS
P
DN S GEAR
EMER BATT

VALVE ENERGIZED VALVE IN NEUTRAL


TO UP POSITION POSITION

RETURN
VALVE ENERGIZED
FLAP CONTROL TO DOWN POSITION
VALVE FLAP CONTROL VALVE

RESTRICTOR
RELIEF VALVE
FLAP BLOW UP
PRESSURE 1,650 PSI

FLAPS & TAB POSN


R ESS B BUS

FLAP POSITION SWITCHES


FLAP CONTROL
DOWN UP SWITCHES UP DOWN
CABLE
INTERCONNECT
ACTUATOR ACTUATOR

UP

LEFT FLAP 8¡
F
L RIGHT FLAP
A
20¡ P
30¡
DN

FLAP POSITION SWITCH FUNCTION NOTE: EARLY LEAR 35/36 WITHOUT CENTURY III
L & R SWITCHES: WINGS HAVE AN ADDITIONAL VALVE AND
3¡ STALL WARNING BIAS PLUMBING FOR FLAP LOAD LIMIT.
AUTOPILOT APPROACH BIAS (FC530 AUTOPILOT)
TRIM SPEED / AUDIO CLICKER (FC530 AUTOPILOT)
13¡ STALL WARNING BIAS
AUTOPILOT APPROACH BIAS (FC200 AUTOPILOT)
SPOILER LIGHT FLASH
25¡ STALL WARNING BIAS PRESSURE
SPOILER AILERON AUGMENTATION
AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH 530 AUTOPILOT: RETURN
25¡ YAW DAMPER FORCE REDUCTION
LEFT GEAR SWITCH:
25¡ GEAR WARNING AURAL TONE
530 AUTOPILOT / PRESELECT HAVE ADDITIONAL
SWITCHES AT 7¡, 9¡, AND 19¡, 21¡ FOR FLAP
CONTROL

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4E-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Spoilers/Spoilerons
SPOILER SELECTOR
VALVE (ENERGIZED)

RESTRICTOR BYPASS
SOLENOID (DE-ENERGIZED)
10M
FILTER
PRESSURE IN
RETURN
TORQUE TORQUE
MOTOR MOTOR

MANIFOLD
LEFT SERVO VALVE RIGHT SERVO VALVE

15¡ LIMIT
AUGMENTATION
SWITCH SPOILER
FOLLOW-UP
DOWN AND
LOCKED SWITCH

ACTUATOR ACTUATOR

LEFT SPOILER RIGHT SPOILER

SPOILERON
COMPUTER
AMPLIFIER
FLAP 13¡ SWITCH RET S
FLAP 25¡ SWITCH P
O
(FC200) I
SPOILER WARNING L
LIGHT E
EXT R
CONTROL
OR
SPOILER
SPOILER (FC530) R ESS B BUS 28V DC
SQUAT
SWITCH SPOILERON
AUG
AIL R AC BUS 115V AC

LEFT RIGHT
AILERON AILERON
FOLLOW-UP FOLLOW-UP

NOTE: THIS DRAWING IS IN A LEFT AILERON


PRESSURE FILTER AUGMENTATION MODE
RETURN RESTRICTOR

CHECK VALVE

4E-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Controls

Flight Controls
The flight control system in the Learjet 35/36 is separated into
primary flight controls and secondary flight controls.
In addition to primary and secondary flight controls, stall warn-
ing, Mach trim, stick puller (i.e., overspeed), autopilot (AFCS),
and yaw damper systems also affect control of the aircraft.

Primary Flight Controls


Primary flight controls are actuated mechanically through a
system of cables, bellcranks, and pushrods connected to the
control yoke and rudder pedals. These controls permit com-
mand of the aircraft through the roll, pitch, and yaw axes. The
automatic flight control system (AFCS) moves the correspond-
ing control surface by electric servos through clutch pulleys and
cables connected directly to the primary control system.

Ailerons
Ailerons on the outboard trailing edge of each wing provide roll
control of the aircraft mechanically through the control wheel or
automatically by the autopilot roll servo.
The ailerons incorporate balance tabs to reduce the forces
required to position the control surface and an aileron-rudder
interconnect spring system to aid in coordination.
Full range of travel for the ailerons is 18×( ± 1×) up and (±2×)
down. An aileron’s effectiveness is augmented by spoilers that
move in conjunction with the ailerons (i.e., spoileron mode)
when the flaps are fully extended for landing.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4E-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Roll Trim
The aileron roll trim is actuated by a combination trim and trim
arming switch on each control wheel. Moving the trim switch
left or right while depressing the arm button electrically oper-
ates the trim tab attached to the trailing edge of the left aileron.
Atrim indicator on the center pedestal, labeled AIL TRIM,
shows position of the aileron trim tab in units left wing down
(LWD) or right wing down (RWD). The pilot’s trim switch has
authority over the copilot’s trim switch during any trim action.

Elevators
The elevators on the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer
provide pitch control of the aircraft mechanically through fore
and aft movement of the control column or automatically by the
autopilot pitch servo.
A closed loop cable assembly from the control column to the
tail section and push-pull tubes drive the elevators through a
range of 16×(+0×,-30’) up and 15×(±30’) down.
Pitch Trim
Pitch trim is accomplished by repositioning the horizontal stabi-
lizer electrically with a dual-motor stabilizer actuator. The pri-
mary motor is controlled by the primary pitch trim and the Mach
trim system, while the secondary motor is controlled by the sec-
ondary pitch trim switch or the autopilot. The primary and sec-
ondary pitch trim systems are selected with the pitch trim
selector switch on the center pedestal. The switch positions are
PRI/OFF/SEC.

4E-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Controls

Fore and aft movement of the trim switch on the control wheels
while depressing the ARM button provides nose-up or nose-
down movement of the stabilizer actuator. An indicator on the
center pedestal, labeled PITCH TRIM, shows the position of
horizontal stabilizer trim in degrees nose-up or nose-down or
the position of the horizontal stabilizer itself in degrees; on air-
craft (S/Ns 35-146 and subsequent; 36-036 and subse-
quent), the indicator has the T.O. TRIM position (5-7.6×)
markings. Depressing the wheel master switch stops the pri-
mary trim and disengages the autopilot and yaw damper.
Aircraft with the FC-530 autopilot have a two-speed primary
trim system. The primary trim operates at slow speed with the
flaps retracted and at high speed with the flaps extended
beyond 3×.
The trim-in-motion audio “clicker” sounds with all trim inputs
(i.e., horizontal stabilizer movement) when the flaps are
retracted above the 3× flap switch. Depressing the wheel mas-
ter switch stops or interrupts all pitch trim or servo inputs (i.e.,
primary and secondary trim, autopilot, stick pusher/puller).

Mach Trim
The Mach trim system provides automatic pitch trim compensa-
tion when the aircraft is operated at airspeeds in the range of
0.694 to 0.83 Mach.
The Mach trim computer is temporarily bypassed if the pilot
elects to manually trim the aircraft, and a synchronous standby
mode is maintained if the autopilot is engaged.
A MACH TRIM warning light indicates a system failure and acti
vates the 0.74 Mach warning horn switch when the autopilot is
not engaged.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4E-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Rudder
The rudder is mechanically positioned by cables connected
directly to a dual set of rudder pedals. Full range of motion is
30×(+2×,-1×) left and right of center. Rudder control is provided
manually by either set of interconnected rudder pedals or auto-
matic damping through the primary or secondary yaw damper
servos.

Rudder Trim
The rudder trim is accomplished by an electric motor-driven
trim tab on the rudder and controlled by the dual-segmented
trim-tab switch on the center pedestal. The switch is labeled
NOSE LEFT/ OFF/NOSE RIGHT; it consists of an upper and
lower half, and both halves must be turned simultaneously to
effect rudder trim tab movement.
The rudder trim indicator on the center pedestal shows the
position of the rudder in units of travel right or left.

Yaw Damper
The yaw damper provides automatic stabilization about the
yaw axis by controlling transient yaw motion with rudder move-
ment. A dual (primary and secondary) yaw damper system is
installed on the Learjet 35/36. Both must be operational and
one must be engaged for flight.
The yaw damper is engaged by depressing the PRI or SEC
engage (ENG) button and can be disengaged by depressing
the control wheel master switch, depressing the associated
OFF switch, or engaging the opposite yaw damper. Disengag-
ing the autopilot with the wheel master also disengages the
yaw damper. The yaw damper should be disengaged while
using rudder trim. Be sure to re-engage yaw damper after trim
is established.
On aircraft with FC-200, the yaw damper must be disengaged
for landing during the landing flare. On aircraft with FC-530,
the yaw damper disengages at touchdown through the squat
switch relay box during full flap landings.

4E-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Controls

Secondary Flight Controls


Secondary flight controls include the flaps and spoilers, which
are electrically controlled and hydraulically operated.

Flaps
The single-slotted Fowler flaps are electrically controlled and
actuated by dual hydraulic actuators.
Full flap travel is from 0 to 40× ( + 5×, - 0×), and interconnecting
cables and pulleys synchronize flap movement (within 2× of
each other) throughout the range of flap travel. The standard
flap switch, labeled UP/OFF/DN, allows the pilot flap control to
any desired setting throughout their range of motion. After
attaining the desired flap setting, placing the switch in the cen-
ter (OFF) position, de-energizes the control valve, which cre-
ates a hydraulic lock holding the flaps in position. A flap
position indicator on the instrument panel provides a visual ref-
erence of flap position.
A pre-select flap control, installed on all FC-530 equipped air-
craft and some FC-200 aircraft, allows the pilot to position the
flaps at 8 or 20× without continuously holding the select switch
up or down. Additional flap control switches deenergize the flap
control valve when the flaps reach the pre-selected position.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4E-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Spoiler/Spoileron
The spoilers, on the upper side of each wing forward of the
flaps, are raised either symmetrically as spoilers (Spoiler
mode) or asymmetrically as augmentation to the up aileron for
improved lateral control when the flaps are extended beyond
25× (Spoileron mode).
Normal spoiler extension and retraction is accomplished by set-
ting the spoiler switch to EXT or RET.
The spoilers are hydraulically actuated and electrically con-
trolled by the spoiler switch on the center pedestal to the right
of the throttles. Spoilers have a maximum extension of 47× (-
7×, +0×) and have a maximum travel differential of 6×. A red
(FC-200) or amber (FC-530) SPOILER annunciator on the
glareshiel indicates spoiler extension.
In the event of a malfunction in the augmentation mode and/or
a mismatch of 6× between the aileron and spoileron, a monitor
circuit automatically disengages the augmentation system, illu-
minates the amber AUG AIL annunciator on the glareshield,
and causes the spoilers to slam down. When the AUG AIL
annunciator is on, the spoilers are inoperative in flight. On the
ground, a squat switch on the landing gear overrides the moni-
tor circuit and allows the spoilers to be operated. A reset switch
is provided to reset the computer in flight and for testing the
system on the ground.

4E-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Controls

Additional Flight Control Systems


Stall Warning System
The Learjet 35/36 incorporates a dual, independent, stall warn-
ing system that provides an indication of an impending stall; it
also commands an aircraft nose-down attitude as corrective
action.
During flight, should the AOA indicator needle cross over the
green/yellow border, the computer actuates the stick shaker
and the red STALL light flashes. If AOA continues to increase,
and the aircraft nears aerodynamic stall (indicator needle
reaches yellow/ red border), the computer actuates the stick
pusher to reduce the angle-of-attack and the red stall light illu-
minates steady.
On FC-530 aircraft, a nudger is activated with the shaker. If
the nudger is inoperative, a warning tone sounds to warn the
pilot not to decelerate further.
Both stall warning systems must be on and operational for
flight. The stall warning system can be tested using the rotary
test switch on the test switch panel. The test circuit operates
only with the squat switches in ground mode and the stall warn-
ing switches on.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4E-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Overspeed Warning System


Overspeed warning is activated when the aircraft exceeds
maximum operating speeds (MM O/ VM O). The overspeed horn
sounds and the stick puller may actuate (approximately 18 lbs
pitch servo pull force).
The system on aircraft equipped with the FC-200 autopilot
activates an overspeed warning horn if the aircraft exceeds
0.74M with the Mach trim system inoperative and the autopilot
not engaged. Below 14,000 ft, the overspeed horn sounds if the
aircraft exceeds 307 KIAS. If the aircraft exceeds 359 KIAS
(above 14,000 ft) or 0.83M, the overspeed horn sounds and the
stick puller activates.
On aircraft with a typical RVSM1, or the FC-530 autopilot,
the overspeed horn also sounds if the speed exceeds 0.74M
with the Mach trim system inoperative and the autopilot not
engaged. Additionally, the overspeed horn sounds if the air-
speed is greater than 300 KIAS below 8,000 ft or 350 KIAS /
0.81M above 8,000 ft. The stick puller activates if the aircraft
exceeds 354 KIAS or 0.82M.

1.RVSM installations vary. Consult your AFM for specific


information.

4E-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Flight Controls

Flight Controls Data


Basic Flight Controls

Power Source Trim – DC LH ESSENTIAL B bus


Autopilot – DC LH ESSENTIAL B bus
Dual yaw damper computers –
115V AC actuator and
DC LH ESSENTIAL B bus

Control Trim – yoke/pedestal switch


Autopilot – yoke switch
Dual yaw dampers – pedestal buttons

Monitor Trim – pedestal trim gages


Autopilot – autopilot force gages
Dual yaw dampers – pedestal lights
and force indicators

Protection Left CB Panel


Pitch (PITCH) – Primary STAB ACT
Roll (ROLL) – Aileron TRIM TAB
Yaw (YAW) – Rudder TRIM TAB
Left stall warning (L STALL WRN)
Primary yaw damper (PRI YAW
DAMPER)
Mach trim (MACH TRIM)
Right CB Panel
Tab and flap position (TAB & FLAP
POSN)
Spoilers (SPOILER)
Flaps (FLAPS)
Test system (TEST SYSTEM)
Secondary pitch trim (SEC STAB
ACT)
Right stall warning (R STALL WRN)
Secondary yaw damper (SEC YAW
DAMP)

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4E-11


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Spoilers
Power Source Engine-driven hydraulic pump

Control DC RH ESSENTIAL B bus


Spoileron computer – RH 115V AC bus
Aileron augmentation – flap 25° switch
Flashing spoiler light – flap 13° switch

Monitor AUG AIL annunciator – split condition


SPOILER annunciator:
Steady – not locked down
Flashing – flaps and spoilers
extended

Flaps
Power Source Electrically controlled,
hydraulically operated

Control Flap switch

Monitor Flap indicator

Protection Mechanical flap interconnect

Stall Warning
Power Source Left stall warning –
DC LH HOT BATTERY bus
Right stall warning –
DC RH HOT BATTERY bus

Control Mach overspeed


Nudger (530 autopilot)
Nudger monitor (530 autopilot)
Puller (left side only)
Pusher
Stick shaker

Monitor L/R stall – annunciator lights


L/R stall – stall margin indicators

4E-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Controls

Pitch Trim – Horizontal Stabilizer


Power Source Primary Trim – power battery
Control power DC LH ESSENTIAL
Secondary Trim –
Power and control DC
ESSENTIAL B bus

Control Primary:
L/R yoke switch
Trim switch (pedestal)
PRI-OFF-SEC switch
L/R wheel master (cutout)
L yoke overrides R yoke
Two speed (530 autopilot only)
Flaps up – slow
Flaps 3° – fast
Mach trim computer
above 0.69 MI
RH 115V AC bus
Secondary:
Secondary trim switch (pedestal)
Trim switch (pedestal)
PRI-OFF-SEC switch
Autopilot
Wheel master cutout (530 autopilot)

Monitor TO TRIM annunciator


Trim indicator
530 autopilot
TRIM OV SPEED annunciator
Audio trim in motion “clicker”

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4E-13


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4E-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2007
Fuel System
Fuel System
S/Ns 35-002 to 507

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4F-1


December 2001
CAE SimuFlite

4F-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Fuel System

Fuel System
S/Ns 35-508 and subsequent and
36-002 and subsequent

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4F-3


December 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Fuel Vent System

4F-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Fuel System

Fuel System
The fuel system is comprised of three subsystems:
! a fuel storage system that includes the integral wing
tanks, tip tanks and bladder fuselage tank; in addition, the
fuel vent system is considered part of the storage sys-
tem.
! a fuel distribution system that includes the pumps, valves
and plumbing required to move the fuel through the air-
craft to the engines; fuel filtration and jettison are part of
the distribution system.
! a fuel quantity indication system that consists of fuel indi-
cators and annunciators, and probes and sensors that
provide them with data.

Fuel Storage
Each tip tank holds approximately 175 U.S. gallons (approxi-
mately 1,200 lbs) or fuel (refer to Servicing). Baffles restrict fuel
movement to prevent fuel sloshing that might cause sudden
center-of-gravity shifts during maneuvering. Each tip tank also
has a fuel filler cap and an electrically operated fuel jettison
valve. A jet pump, supplied with motive flow fuel from the
engine-driven fuel pump, transfers fuel from the tip tank into the
wing tank.
Formed by the #1 and #7 wing spar, the wing tanks (i.e., main
fuel tanks) extend from the aircraft centerline bulkhead to the
wing tip rib. Each tank holds approximately 187 gallons
(approximately 1,254 lbs).
Wing ribs with one-way flapper valves and vent openings divide
the wing tanks into compartments. The flapper valves permit
fuel flow inward but restrict outward flow to prevent sudden
shifts in the aircraft’s lateral balance.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4F-5


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite
The fuselage fuel tank consists of two (Learjet 35) or four
(Learjet 36) bladder-type cells aft of the rear pressure bulk-
head. During fueling, the wing tank standby pumps are used to
fill the fuselage tank. As the engines consume fuel, an electric
transfer pump in the fuselage tank can transfer fuselage fuel
forward into the wing tanks. Each tank holds approximately 200
(Learjet 35) or 379 (Learjet 36) gallons.
A ram air scoop on the underside of the left and right wing pres-
surizes the fuel tanks during flight to ensure positive fuel flow to
the fuel pumps. Wing tanks are vented through vent tubes into
the tip tanks. As fuel level in the tip tanks rise, float valves in the
vent lines close to prevent fuel from entering the fuel venting
system. Vacuum and pressure relief valves in the tip tanks
assist the normal venting system if a negative pressure exists
or a tank overpressurizes because of fuel expansion.

Fuel Distribution
There are two distribution systems: one for each engine. The
fuel supply to the engine always comes from its respective
main wing tank. Fuel distribution is managed by the fuel control
panel on the center pedestal.
Each wing tank has two pumps: a jet pump and a standby elec-
tric pump. The jet pump uses motive flow fuel from the
enginedriven fuel pump to draw fuel from the tip tank to the
wing tank.
The standby pump provides fuel pressure to the engine-driven
pump during start and provides pressure during crossflow and
fuselage fill operations. The standby pump is also a backup for
the jet pump should it fail. The engine-driven fuel pump suction
feeds from its respective tank below 25,000 ft altitude.
In the event of an engine fire, pulling the FIRE PULL or ENG-
FIRE PULL T-handle on the glareshield provides DC power to
close the firewall shutoff valve. Power is also provided to open
the valve when the handle is pushed in.

4F-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Fuel System

Fuel filtration is accomplished by in-line filters that are


equipped with either paper or metal elements designed to allow
fuel bypass in the event that the filters should become clogged.
Fuel filter bypass will be indicated by a single amber fuel filter
annunciator light.
Fuel jettison is achieved through an electrically operated con-
trol valve in the aft end of each tip tank. Setting the guarded
FUEL JTSN switch to ON opens the valves and permits fuel to
gravity flow from each tip tank. Only the tip tank contents can
be jettisoned; approximately 5 minutes are required to jettison
full tip tanks.

Control/Indicating System
The fuel control panel installed in the center pedestal provides
the pilot with control and management of the fuel system; lights
and annunciators are provided for verification of system opera-
tion. Nine fuel probes supply information to the fuel quantity
indicator through the six-position fuel quantity selector switch.
Fuel quantity is compensated for by fuel temperature and indi-
cates most accurately in the TOTAL position. A red LOW
FUELannunciator illuminates when a float switch senses the
fuel level in either wing is below 400 to 500 lbs.
A transfer and crossflow system provides movement of fuel
between the wing tanks and the fuselage tanks. A wing fuel
imbalance may be corrected by opening the crossflow valve
and turning on the standby pump in the heavy wing.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4F-7


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite
The fuselage XFER/FILLswitch is used to manage the fuselage
fuel. The FILL position opens the transfer valve (and fuselage
valve on aircraft with the gravity flow line installed), opens the
crossflow valve, and turns on the standby pumps. When the
fuselage tank is full, the standby pumps are turned off, the
transfer (and fuselage) and crossflow valves close, and the
fuselage full (green) light illuminates.
When the XFER/FILL switch is placed in the XFER position, the
transfer and crossflow valves open and the fuselage transfer
pump turns on to transfer fuel to both wing tanks. If the wing
tanks are full, fuel overflows through the vent tubes into the tip
tanks. When the fuselage tank is empty, a pressure switch
turns on the white EMPTY light to remind the crew to turn off
the XFER/FILL switch.

Operation
Placing the START-GEN switch to START energizes the
standby pump. This action moves fuel from the respective wing
tank through the fuel filter and firewall shutoff valve to the
enginedriven pump (refer to Powerplant chapter). When the
enginedriven fuel pump output pressure is sufficient, the
motive-flow valve opens and allows motive flow fuel to flow to
the jet pumps. The fuel computer turns off the standby pump at
45% N2 and the jet pump then provides fuel pressure for the
engine-driven fuel pump. If the fuel pressure to the associated
engine drops below 0.25 PSIG, a red FUEL PRESS annuncia-
tor illuminate.

4F-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Fuel System

Fuel System Data


Tips Fuselage
Capacities Wings
Both Both Model 35 Model 36

Usable
357 352* 374 200 379
Gallons

Pounds
2,390 2,360* 2,508 1,340 2,542
Kerosene
*Recognition light in both tip tanks.

Power Source DC power: LH & RH ESSENTIAL B buses


Engine-driven fuel pressure

Distribution Tip tanks


Wing tanks
Standby pumps
Transfer pump
Optional gravity transfer line
Engine motive flow
Fuel jettison valves
Jet or standby pump

Distribution Motive flow valve, JET PUMP switch


STANDBY PUMP switches
START/GEN switch
XFER-FILL switch: standby pumps
XFER-FILL switch: transfer valve,
crossflow valve, optional fuselage valve
Right wing pressure switch
Fuselage full float switch
FUSE VALVE OPEN/CLOSE switch
(gravity flow) (optional Learjet 35)
CROSSFLOW OPEN/CLOSE switch
FUEL JTSN switch
ENG FIRE PULL T-handle

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4F-9


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Fuel System Data (cont.)


Monitoring L & R FUEL PRESS annunciator lights
FUEL XFLO annunciator
FUEL FILTER annunciator
L & R fuel jettison lights
EMPTY light
FULL light
Valve disagreement lights
FUEL LOW level light

Protection Firewall shutoff valve


Fuel vent
Negative pressure relief
Two tip tank overpressure relief
Wing tank overpressure relief
(center bulkhead)
Right wing pressure switch
Left CB panel:
FUEL COMPTR – A
L JET PMP VAL – B
L STBY PMP – B
FUEL JTSN – B
Right CB panel:
R JET PMP VAL – B
R STBY PMP – B
FUEL QTY – B
FUEL JTSN – B
FUEL COMPTR – A
FILL/XFER – Main

4F-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Hydraulic System
Hydraulic System
FILTER 17 PSI 20 PSI
OVERBOARD
BLEED AIR
REGULATOR VACUUM
RELIEF
-0.5 PSI

L ESS B BUS ENG FIRE


PULL
HYDRAULIC
RESERVOIR
R ESS B BUS ENG FIRE
PULL

0.4 GAL

1 GROUND
50A SERVICE
BATT CHARGING PORTS
BUS
ACCUMULATOR

LOW
HYD

CHARGE
VALVE
1700
PSI PRESSURE
SWITCH OFF

ON
HYDRAULIC PUMP

LANDING LANDING
FLAP DOOR GEAR BRAKE SPOILER
SYSTEM SELECTOR SELECTOR SYSTEM SYSTEM
VALVE VALVE

AIR
SUPPLY 1 AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED
PRESSURE WITH DEE HOWARD
RETURN THRUST REVERSERS

FILTER

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4G-1


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

4G-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Hydraulic System

Hydraulic System
Hydraulic fluid is supplied from a reservoir through supply lines
and shutoff valves to the engine-driven pumps and an auxiliary
pump.
The engine-driven hydraulic pumps provide fluid under pres-
sure through lines, check valves and a filter to the hydraulically
operated systems upon demand.
Systems using hydraulic pressure include:
Q
landing gear
Q spoilers (engine-driven only)
Q flaps
Q brakes
Q thrust reversers (Dee Howard TR4000, if installed).

Normal Operation
With the engines running, each engine-driven hydraulic pump
draws fluid from the pressurized reservoir through an electri-
cally operated firewall shutoff valve. Pulling the associated
FIRE PULL or ENG FIRE PULL handle electrically closes the
shutoff valve.
Regulated bleed air pressurizes the reservoir to approximately
17 PSI to ensure positive fluid flow to the pumps and prevent
pump cavitation. If reservoir pressure exceeds 20 PSI, a relief
valve opens to vent excess pressure. If negative pressure over
0.5 PSI exists in the reservoir, a vacuum relief valve opens to
vent the reservoir to atmosphere.
Each variable-volume constant-pressure engine-driven hydrau-
lic pump supplies fluid at a regulated pressure of 1,450 to 1,550
PSI to the systems through check valves and filters.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4G-3


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite
An accumulator, pressurized to 850 PSI with nitrogen, damp-
ens pressure surges developed during system operation.
A pressure relief valve opens to bypass fluid from the pressure
line to the return line if the system exceeds 1,700 PSI.
After supplying the various systems, hydraulic fluid returns
through check valves and a filter to the reservoir.

Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump


The auxiliary hydraulic pump can be used for ground operation
of the parking brake and flaps. In flight, if the normal hydraulic
system fails, the auxiliary pump may be used for emergency
operation of the flaps or brakes (with anti-skid) upon landing.
The auxiliary pump does not operate the spoilers.
All of the fluid in the reservoir is available to the auxiliary
hydraulic pump. The bottom 0.4 gallons is not available to the
engine-driven pumps.
Placing the HYD PUMP switch to the ON position energizes the
electric hydraulic pump. The pump, controlled by a pressure
switch, cycles on at 1,125 PSI and off at 1,250 PSI. On aircraft
35-647 and subsequent, and 36-059 and subsequent, the
pump cycles on at 1,000 PSI and off at 1,125 PSI.

4G-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Hydraulic System

Hydraulic System Data


Power Source Hydraulic fluid in reservoir
L/R hydraulic pumps
Auxiliary hydraulic pump

Distribution L/R engine-driven pumps


Auxiliary hydraulic pump

Control FIRE PULL/ENG FIRE PULL T-handles


HYD PUMP switch
Pressure switch
System CBs

Systems Landing gear


Powered Spoilers
Thrust reversers – Dee Howard
Flaps
Brakes

Monitor Direct reading pressure gage (cockpit)


Accumulator precharge direct reading
gage
(aft compartment)
LO HYD annunciator

Protection Check valves


Hydraulic fuses in brakes lines
Auxiliary pump current limiter

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4G-5


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

4G-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


October 2001
Ice and Rain Protection
Nacelle and Engine Spinner Anti-Ice

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4H-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Wing and Horizontal Stab System

4H-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Ice and Rain Protection

Early Windshield Defog and


Anti-Ice System – Without AMK 76-7
S/Ns 35-002 to 081, 083 to 086; 36-002 to 022

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4H-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Late Windshield Defog and


Anti-Ice System
S/Ns 35-107, 113 and subsequent;
36-032 and subsequent

4H-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Ice and Rain Protection

Early Alcohol System

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4H-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Late Alcohol System

4H-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Ice and Rain Protection

Ice and Rain Protection


Anti-icing protection is provided for the:
Q wing leading edges
Q horizontal stabilizer leading edges
Q
engine inlet and Pt2/Tt2 probe
Q pitot tubes, static ports, and stall warning vanes
Q
windshield
Q total temperature probe (if installed).

Wing and Horizontal Stabilizer Leading


Edges
When the STAB WING HEAT switch is in the on position, 28V
DC from the Right Main bus powers open the normally closed
pressure regulator shutoff valve. Hot bleed air from the bleed
air manifold, at approximately 16 PSI, flows through the open
valve to the wing and horizontal stabilizer leading edge diffuser
tubes. After warming the leading edges, bleed air exhausts
overboard through scuppers underneath the wing and through
the horizontal stabilizer tips.
Temperature sensors in the wing leading edge and horizontal
stabilizer transmit a signal to the temperature indicators and
thermoswitches located in the right wing and left horizontal sta-
bilizer leading edge areas provide the inputs for the WING OV
HT and STAB OV HT annunciators.
The indicator scales are divided into three zones: red, green,
and yellow. Red indicates temperatures below 35×F where
icing is possible or a failure of the anti-icing system. Green
denotes temperatures above 35×F or normal system operation.
Yellow indicates a system overheat or malfunction. The WING
OV HT and STAB OV HT annunciators illuminate if tempera-
ture in the associated leading edge area reaches 215×F
(102×C).

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4H-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Engine Anti-Ice
With the NAC HEAT switches in the OFF position, 28V DC
fromthe Left and Right Main buses powers the normally open
engine anti-ice solenoid valves closed. Placing the switches in
the ON position de-energizes valves to the open position.
Hot bleed air flows through the open valves and enters the
nacelle inlet diffuser tubes. After warming the inlet, bleed air
exhausts overboard. A pressure switch in each engine bleed
air supply line closes when bleed air pressure reaches 2 PSI
and turns off the ENG ICE annunciators.
Placing the NAC HEAT switches in the on position also sup-
plies 28V DC from the Left and Right Main buses to the engine
Pt 2/ Tt 2 probes.

Pitot/Static Anti-Ice
With the BAT switches in the on position, 28V DC from the Left
and Right Essential buses powers the static port heating ele-
ments.
Placing the PITOT HEAT switches in the on position supplies
28V DC from the Left and Right Essential buses to the pitot
tube and stall warning vane heating elements and total temper-
ature probe (if installed). The PITOT HT annunciator(s) illumi-
nate if:
Q one or both PITOT HEAT switches are in the OFF posi-
tion
Q one or both pitot heat systems fail
Q
either pitot heat system fails (dual annunciator configura-
tion).

4H-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Ice and Rain Protection

Windshield Anti-Ice
Windshield anti-ice operations can be controlled in either the
Automatic or Manual modes.
On S/N 35-002 to 081, 083 to 086 and 36-002 to 022 without
AMK 76-7, engine bleed air is directed through ducting and
control valves to external outlets forward of the windshield.
With the WSHLD HEAT ON/OFF switch in ON and the AUTO/
MAN switch in AUTO, hot bleed air from the bleed air manifold
flows through a fully open shutoff valve. It then continues
through the windshield overheat shutoff valve. In MAN, the
shutoff valve can be fixed at any desired setting by manipulat-
ing the WSHLD ON/OFF switch. Pulling the IN NORMAL/OUT
DEFOG knob positions the manual control valve to direct
engine bleed air to the external outlets or foot warmers.
S/N 35-082, 087 to 106, 108 to 112; 36-023 to 031; prior air-
craft with AMK 76-7, precooled engine bleed air is directed
through ducting and control valves to the external outlets for-
ward of the windshield. Operation of the system is the same as
earlier aircraft (see above description).
S/N 35-107,113 and subsequent and 36-032 and subse-
quent, precooled engine bleed air is directed through ducting
and control valves to the external outlets forward of the wind-
shield. Control is with a three position switch labeled ON/
HOLD/OFF. Holding the switch in the ON position drives a
motor-operated shutoff valve toward the fully open position,
allowing bleed air into the anti-ice heat exchanger, and illumi-
nates the green WSHLD HT light. Moving the switch to the
HOLD position stops the motor, and the valve stays in its last
position. Placing the switch to the OFF position drives the shut-
off valve to the fully closed position, and the WSHLD HT light
extinguishes.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4H-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
All configurations incorporate two low-limit and two high-limit
thermoswitches that monitor the temperature of the air in the
nozzles. On the ground, if any of the four thermoswitches
detect a temperature that reaches its limit, power is removed
from the overheat shutoff valve, which closes, and airflow to the
windshield is stopped. Should this occur, the red WSHLD OV
HT light illuminates and the green WSHLD HT light extin-
guishes.
When the thermoswitch cools, the system is reset, the overheat
shutoff valve opens, and the airflow to the windshield resumes.
Also, the red WSHLD OV HT light extinguishes and the green
WSHLD HT light illuminates.
In flight, the low-limit thermoswitches are disabled. However, if
either of the high-limit thermoswitches detects an overheat, the
same sequence of events described previously occurs.

Radome and Windshield Alcohol


Methanol protects the radome and serves as a backup for the
pilot’s windshield bleed air system.
On S/N 35-002 to 106, 108 to 112, and 36-002 to 031 when
the system switch is set to RADOME, a motor-driven pump
supplies methanol from a 2.2 gallon reservoir to the radome at
a constant rate of flow. A normally closed shutoff valve pre-
vents any methanol from reaching the pilot’s defog nozzle. If
the normal defog system malfunctions, selecting WSHLD/
RADOME allows methanol to flow to the radome and energizes
(open) the shutoff valve, which results in methanol flow to the
pilot’s defog nozzle.
A low-pressure switch in the radome alcohol line actuates
when the alcohol supply is depleted or when the pump mal-
functions. The actuated switch completes a ground to illumi-
nate the amber ALCAI annunciator.

4H-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Ice and Rain Protection

On S/N 35-107, 113 and subsequent; 36-032 and subse-


quent when the WSHLD RADOME/RAD/OFF system switch is
set to RAD, a 1.7 gallon reservoir is pressurized by regulated
engine bleed air and supplies methanol to the radome. In
WSHLD RADOME, operation of the system is the same except
the control valve directs methanol to the windshield and
radome.
When the methanol supply is depleted, a float switch com-
pletes a ground circuit energizing the ALC AI annunciator.

Ice Detection
Ice detection is performed by monitoring the wing heat indica-
tor, horizontal stabilizer heat indicator, windshield ice detection
lights, and wing inspection lights (if installed).
Whenever the BAT switches are on, 28V DC from the Left and
Right Essential buses illuminates a small red light in each
inboard corner of the glareshield that shines upward through
the windshield. As ice accumulates on the windshield a small
red circle appears on the windshield above the light.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4H-11


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4H-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Ice and Rain Protection

Ice and Rain Protection Data


Power Source 28V DC
Bleed air

Distribution 28V DC
Pt2 Probe
Pitot-static
Stall warning vanes
Bleed air
Nacelle inlet and engine
Windshield
Wing and horizontal stabilizer
leading edges
Methyl alcohol (Methanol)
Pilot’s windshield
Radome

Control BAT/BAT 2 switches


L/R NAC HEAT switches
L/R PITOT HEAT switches
STAB/WING HEAT switch
WING INSPECTION ON/OFF pushbutton
On S/N 35-002 to 081, 083 to 086 and
36-002 to 022 without AAK 76-7
WSHLD AUTO/MAN switch
IN-NORMAL/OUT-DEFOG knob
On S/N 35-082, 087 to 106, 108 to 112;
36-023 to 031; prior aircraft with AAK 76-7
WSHLD AUTO/MAN switch
IN NORMAL/OUT-DEFOG knob

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4H-13


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Ice and Rain Protection (cont.)


Control (cont.) On S/N 35-107, 113 and subsequent;
36-032 and subsequent
WSHLD HEAT ON/HOLD/OFF switch
On S/N 35-002 to 106, 108 to 112;
36-002 to 031
WSHLD & RADOME/OFF/
RADOME switch
On S/N 35-107, 113 and subsequent;
36-032 and subsequent
WSHLD RADOME/RAD/OFF switch

Monitoring ALC AI annunciator


Horizontal stabilizer temperature indicator
L/R ENG ICE annunciators
PITOT HT annunciator(s)
STAB OV HT annunciator
WSHLD HT annunciator
WING OV HT annunciator
Wing temperature indicator
WSHLD OV HT annunciator

4H-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Landing Gear and Brakes
Landing Gear Up

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4I-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4I-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Landing Gear and Brakes

Landing Gear Extended

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4I-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Landing Gear Emergency Extension

4I-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Landing Gear and Brakes

Brake System

TO RESERVOIR

FROM NOSE GEAR


DOWN LINE

PILOT PILOT COPILOT COPILOT


BRAKE BRAKE BRAKE BRAKE
VALVE VALVE VALVE VALVE
R
M
A
I
N
PARKING EMERGENCY AIR
B BOTTLE
U BRAKE
S
PARKING
2 BRAKE VALVE FILTER
SEE NOTE:
CHECK VALVE TEE 1
ON ANTI
SKID
OVERBOARD
ANTI-SKID PRESS
OFF DISCONNECT EMERGENCY AIR
GAGE BRAKE VALVE
SWITCH ELECTRICAL HYDRAULIC
FUSES

HYDRAULIC FUSES
SERVO SERVO
TO
RESERVOIR
ANTI-SKID ANTI-SKID
VALVE VALVE

SOLENOID SOLENOID
SHUTOFF SHUTOFF
SERVO SERVO
LH SQUAT SW RH SQUAT SW

OUTBOARDS INBOARDS

ANTI-SKID
CONTROL BOX

TRANSDUCER
WARNING
TRANSDUCER LIGHT
ANTI-SKID GEN RH GEAR DOWN CONTROL
PRESSURE SAFETY SW

RETURN SEE NOTE

EMERGENCY AIR

1 EFFECTIVE S/N 35-231 AND SUBSEQUENT; 36-045 AND SUBSEQUENT.

2 EFFECTIVE S/N 35-034 AND SUBSEQUENT; 36-017 AND SUBSEQUENT.

NOTE: S/Ns 35-626, 627, 630 AND SUBSEQUENT; 36-059 AND SUBSEQUENT,
A PARKING BRAKE ANNUNCIATOR HAS BEEN ADDED TO THE LIGHT
ASSEMBLY ACTIVATED BY A MICRO-SWITCH ON THE AFT PARKING BRAKE VALVE.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4I-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Nosewheel Steering System

RH OUTBOARD ANTI-SKID GEN.


RH INBOARD ANTI-SKID GEN.
LH INBOARD ANTI-SKID GEN.

NOSE GEAR
UP LOCK
CONTROLS STEER
ON ANTI-SKID
NOSE ENGAGE GEN
L STEER FUNCTION L R
M
A
I
N STEER LOCK
COMPUTER
AMPLIFIER
WHEEL MASTER
LEFT MAIN BUTTONS
DOWN LOCK
CONTROLS
28V DC
CLUTCH
POWER

SQUAT
SWITCH
RELAY
BOX FOLLOW UP

L
NOSE STEER
A
C PEDAL
SYNCHRO
B
U
S MOTOR &
GEAR
SQUAT SWITCH
RELAY BOX
CONTROLS AC
TO RUDDER
PEDAL SYNCHRO

COPILOT’S
INBOARD
RUDDER NOSE
PEDAL GEAR

4I-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Landing Gear and Brakes

Landing Gear and Brakes


The aircraft has a tricycle-type landing gear with a single wheel
nose gear and dual wheel main landing gear. A chined nose-
wheel tire deflects slush and rain away from the engine intakes.
Each landing gear strut is an air/oil type that absorbs taxi and
landing shocks. Normally, hydraulic pressure retracts and
extends the landing gear. If the normal system fails, an emer-
gency air bottle supplies pressurized nitrogen to pneumatically
blow the gear down.
On the ground, an electrically powered nosewheel steering
system positions the nosewheel in response to rudder pedal
movement.
The main landing gear has hydraulically operated disc brakes
with electrically operated anti-skid protection. The anti-skid sys-
tem provides maximum braking efficiency on all runway sur-
faces while minimizing wheel skid.

Landing Gear
Squat switches on the main landing gear actuate with weigh-
ton-wheels, completing a circuit that prevents the landing gear
selector valve from energizing to the up position. This ener-
gizes the squat switch relay panel which supplies an air/on
ground indication to the following:
Q cabin pressurization and temperature control systems
Q autopilot
Q generator load limit system
Q
spoilers/spoilerons
Q windshield anti-icing
Q
nosewheel steering
Q
Mach trim and overspeed/stick puller test
Q hour meter
Q
air data computer (FC-530 autopilot)
Q yaw damper (FC-530 autopilot)
Q thrust reverser (if installed)

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4I-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
The left squat switch also connects to the left stall warning test,
the outboard wheel anti-skid generators, and the landing gear
control. The right squat switch connects to the right stall warn-
ing test, the inboard wheel anti-skid generators, and the land-
ing gear control.
The main gear and the nose gear down-and-locked switches
have several functions in addition to controlling the respective
green LOCKED DN lights.
If the main down-and-locked switch does not sense a down-
andlocked condition, the aural warning system is enabled, the
inboard gear doors will not close, and the landing/taxi light for
the respective gear will not operate.
If the nose gear down-and-locked switch does not sense a
downand-locked condition, the aural warning system is
enabled, the nose gear UNSAFE light will not extinguish, and
the amber ENG SYNC light will not illuminate if the engine sync
is on.
The landing gear aural warning horn sounds and the three red
UNSAFE lights illuminate if the landing gear is not down-and-
locked, if the aircraft altitude is below 14,000 ±500 ft, and either
throttle lever is retarded below approximately 55 to 60% N1. On
aircraft with the FC-530 autopilot, airspeed must also be
below 170 KIAS.
If the flaps are extended beyond 25× and the gear is not
downand- locked, the horn sounds and cannot be silenced.

4I-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Landing Gear and Brakes

Retraction
When the aircraft lifts off, the left and right squat switches actu-
ate to the airborne mode and allow the landing gear selector
valve to be energized to the retract mode when the gear select
switch is moved from the DN to the UP position. This begins
the retraction sequence by energizing the door control valve to
the down position.
Hydraulic pressure flowing through the door control valve
unlocks the main gear doors through the door uplock actuators
and drives the doors to the open position. This illuminates the
two red UNSAFE main gear lights. When the doors are fully
open, the door down switches energize the landing gear selec-
tor valve to the up position.
Through the landing gear selector valve, hydraulic pressure
flows to the nose and main landing gear actuators. The gear
actuators unlock, the green LOCKED DN lights extinguish, the
red UNSAFE nose gear light illuminates, and the landing gear
begin to retract. When all three retract completely, the gear up
switches actuate to energize the door control valve to the up
position. The main landing gear doors close; the door uplock
actuators lock the doors closed. The nose gear uplock and
main gear door uplock switches then extinguish the red
UNSAFE lights.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4I-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Extension
Placing the landing gear selector to the DN position energizes
the main gear door control valve to the down position. Hydrau-
lic pressure is directed to the door uplock actuators and door
actuators. When the doors unlock, the two main gear red
UNSAFE lights illuminate. Hydraulic pressure drives the main
gear doors to the open position. The door down switches then
actuate to energize the landing gear selector valve to the down
position.
The selector valve directs hydraulic pressure to power the nose
and main landing gear actuators. When the nose gear
unlatches, the red UNSAFE light for the nose gear illuminates.
The landing gear extends then locks. When the landing gear
locks, the the green LOCKED DN lights illuminate and the nose
gear UNSAFE light extinguishes. The door control valve ener-
gizes to the up position, the main landing gear doors close,
extinguishing the main gear UNSAFE lights.

Emergency Extension
If the hydraulic system fails or an electrical fault occurs in the
landing gear system, an emergency air bottle supplies pneu-
matic pressure to extend the landing gear. The landing gear
selector should be in the DN position to prevent inadvertent
gear retraction after emergency extension.
Depressing the emergency extension handle directs pressur-
ized nitrogen from the emergency air bottle to the nose gear
uplatch actuator, main gear door uplatch actuators, and the
nose and main gear actuators. Shuttle valves in the landing
gear hydraulic supply lines then shift to isolate the hydraulic
system from the pneumatic system. Pneumatic pressure drives
the landing gear to the down and locked position.
During emergency extension, the green LOCKED DN lights illu-
minate. The red main gear UNSAFE lights remain illuminated
because the main gear doors do not close after gear extension.

4I-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Landing Gear and Brakes

Nosewheel Steering
With the aircraft on the ground and the squat switch relay panel
energized, pressing the STEER LOCK switch energizes the
nosewheel steering system; the green STEER ON light illumi-
nates. Momentarily depressing either control wheel master
switch (i.e., red button) disengages the nosewheel steering.
Holding either master switch depressed engages the nose-
wheel steering; releasing the switch disengages the nosewheel
steering.
Rudder pedal movement, with the master switch depressed,
drives a rudder pedal sensor to initiate nosewheel steering.
The sensor then supplies an electrical signal proportional to
pedal displacement to the computer/amplifier. The computer/
amplifier, in turn, applies a clockwise or counterclockwise sig-
nal to the steering actuator. The steering actuator clutch then
engages; the actuator gear train moves the nosewheel in the
desired direction.
As groundspeed varies, wheel speed inputs from the anti-skid
system modifies nosewheel steering authority. At ground
speeds less than 10 kts, the system provides up to 45× of
travel left or right from neutral. At approximately 45 kts, steering
authority decreases to approximately 8× left or right from neu-
tral.

Wheels and Brakes


The nosewheel carries a chined 18 x 4.4, 10 PR, type VII, tube-
less tire inflated to approximately 105 PSI. Each main gear
wheel carries a tubeless 17.5 x 5.75-8, 12 PR, type VII tire. On
aircraft with SSK-931, each main wheel has an 18 x 5.5, 10
PR, type VII tire. Depending on the aircraft’s MTOGW, main
wheel tire inflation varies from approximately 145 to 160 PSI.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4I-11


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Normal Braking
Applying pressure against the toe brakes mechanically opens
the brake valves that direct hydraulic pressure to the brake
assemblies through the anti-skid valves, hydraulic fuses, and
shuttle valves. The brake assembly pistons extend to force the
rotating disks and stationary disk together. Braking pressure is
proportional to the effort applied through the toe brakes.
During braking with the ANTI-SKID switch in the ON position,
the output signal from each wheel transducer is compared by
the anti-skid control box. If one wheel transducer decelerates
faster than the other, a rate-of-change voltage is measured. If
this voltage exceeds a preset level as determined by the anti-
skid control box, a signal is sent to the respective pressure con-
trol valve to release braking pressure for that wheel. This pre-
vents a possible skid. When the wheel spins up and the rate-of-
change voltage falls below the predetermined level, the system
reapplies braking pressure.
If a fault occurs in any of the anti-skid system components, the
respective ANTI-SKID GEN light illuminates to indicate the affe
cted wheel(s).

Emergency Braking
If the normal braking fails, pull the emergency brake control
handle out of its locking detent and apply downward pressure
to activate the emergency brake system. As the handle is
pushed down, air flows from the emergency air bottle, through
the control valve, to the shuttle valves. The shuttle valves then
shift to isolate the pneumatic system from the hydraulic system
and pneumatic pressure applies the brakes. The anti-skid sys-
tem is inoperative during emergency braking operation. Raising
the handle releases pressure and the brakes release. Each
time the handle is raised, the nitrogen pressure is vented over-
board.

4I-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Landing Gear and Brakes

Parking Brake
Pulling the PARKING BRAKE handle out with the toe brakes
applied closes the mechanically operated parking brake valves.
Pressure trapped between the closed valves and the brake
assemblies applies the parking brake. During operation, the
antiskid disconnect switch opens to disable the anti-skid sys-
tem.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4I-13


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4I-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Landing Gear and Brakes

Landing Gear Data


Power Source Hydraulic system
Emergency air bottle
DC power

Control Landing gear control handle


Emergency gear extension handle
TEST/MUTE switch on landing gear panel
SQUAT SW, NOSE STEER and GEAR
CBs

Monitor LOCKED DN lights


UNSAFE lights
Landing gear horn
Hydraulic pressure gage
Emergency air pressure gage
during pre-flight

Protection Circuit Breakers


GEAR
SQUAT SW
NOSE STEER

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4I-15


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Brakes/Anti-Skid Data
Power Source Hydraulic system
Emergency air bottle
DC power

Control Brake pedals


ANTI-SKID switch
Parking brake handle
Emergency brake handle
WRN LTS CB

Monitor ANTI-SKID GEN lights


Hydraulic pressure gage
Emergency air pressure gage
during pre-flight

Protection Hydraulic fuses


ANTI SKID CB

4I-16 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Oxygen System
Oxygen System

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4J-1


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

4J-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Oxygen System

Oxygen System
A typical oxygen system installation consists of a single 38
cubic foot cylinder in the nose compartment or in the dorsal fin.
An optional long range system adds two 76 cubic foot cylinders
in the baggage compartment. There is also an optional installa-
tion that has a 38 cubic foot cylinder in the nose compartment
and a 38 cubic foot cylinder in the vertical stabilizer dorsal fin.
A fully serviced system should read between 1,550 and 1,850
PSI on the direct reading cockpit gage. If cylinder pressure
exceeds approximately 2,500 PSI, the oxygen cylinder pres-
sure relief valve opens to release cylinder contents overboard.
A contents discharge dislodges the green burst disc located on
the right side of the nose or right side of the dorsal fin. Mainte-
nance is required before flight if the disc is dislodged.

Distribution
Oxygen flows under pressure from the oxygen cylinder(s)
through the cylinder’s pressure regulator and shutoff valve. The
regulator reduces normal cylinder pressure to approximately 60
to 80 PSI before it reaches the crew and passenger oxygen
distribution systems.
After oxygen flows through the pressure regulator and shutoff
valve, it then flows directly to the pilot and co pilot mask outlets.
Oxygen flow to the passenger distribution system first flows
through a manually operated shutoff (PASS OXY) valve, alti-
tude controlled oxygen solenoid valve, and the manual bypass
(PASS MASK) valve. Placing the PASS OXY knob in the OFF
position isolates the passenger oxygen system from the oxy-
gen supply.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4J-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Crew Masks
Crew oxygen masks consist of various quick-donning, diluter-
demand oxygen masks. Regardless of the mask installed, each
allows the selection of oxygen diluted with cabin air or 100%
oxygen. In the normal position, the typical mask provides oxy-
gen diluted with cabin air depending on cabin altitude. As cabin
altitude increases, the mask regulator increases the oxygen
content until it provides 100% oxygen. In the 100% position, the
mask provides 100% on-demand oxygen, regardless of alti-
tude. In the emergency position, the mask regulator supplies
100% oxygen at positive pressure. Each mask incorporates a
microphone controlled by the OXY/MIC-ON/OFF switch on the
jack panel.

Passenger System
With the PASS OXY knob in the NORM position and the PASS
MASK knob in the AUTO position, oxygen does not flow to the
passenger oxygen masks at normal cabin altitudes.
If cabin altitude exceeds 14,000 ±750 ft, the aneroid switch
closes to supply 28V DC power to the oxygen solenoid valve.
The valve opens and oxygen flows at 60 to 80 PSI to the pas-
senger oxygen distribution system. The initial pressure surge to
the door actuator valves releases door latches that allow the
masks to fall and hang by their lanyards. Pulling on a lanyard
releases a pin and oxygen flows to the associated mask.
Placing the PASS MASK knob in the MAN position bypasses
the oxygen solenoid valve to supply oxygen to the passenger
oxygen masks regardless of cabin altitude. The masks drop
and oxygen is made available to the passengers.

4J-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Oxygen System

Actual Time of Useful Consciousness

Actual Altitude Time

15,000 to 18,000 ft 30 Minutes or More

22,000 ft 5 to 10 Minutes

25,000 ft 3 to 5 Minutes

28,000 ft 21/2 to 3 Minutes

30,000 ft 1 to 2 Minutes

35,000 ft 30 to 60 Seconds

40,000 ft 15 to 20 Seconds

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4J-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Oxygen Duration Chart


Available Time in Minutes
Cabin 2 Crew
Altitude 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 11
2 Pass 4 Pass 6 Pass 8 Pass 9 Pass
Pass
40,000 251 80 48 35 28 25 22
35,000 182 71 45 33 26 24 20
30,000 135 63 42 32 26 23 20
25,000 105 56 39 30 25 23 20
20,000 175 73 47 35 29 26 23
84 51 37 29 25 23 20
15,000 124 63 44 34 28 26 23
67 45 34 28 24 23 20
10,000 91
54
8,000 82
50 Passenger Oxygen Not Required
(See Note Below)
7,000 78
48

Bold-faced numbers indicate 100% oxygen.


Light-faced numbers indicate diluter demand.
Prior to overwater flights, plan flights so that enough oxygen will be
available for all occupants, in the event of pressurization failure.
For cabin altitudes of 10,000 ft and above, oxygen duration includes
cabin altitude ascent time from 8,000 ft to final stabilized cabin alti-
tude.
The oxygen duration for the 7,000-ft and 8,000-ft cabin altitude pro-
vides information for flight planning when supplemental oxygen is
required.
To calculate oxygen duration for a less than fully charged system,
the following formula may be used: Duration = Duration from chart x
(system pressure ÷ 1,850).

4J-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Oxygen System

Oxygen Duration Chart


Aircraft with 6600214 Series Crew Masks (Fully Charged)
Available Time in Minutes
Cabin
Altitude 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew
2 Pass 4 Pass 6 Pass 8 Pass 9 Pass 11 Pass
40,000 267 84 51 36 29 26 22
251 79 47 34 27 24 21
35,000 195 76 48 35 28 26 22
182 71 45 33 26 24 21
30,000 219 79 49 36 29 26 22
135 64 42 32 26 23 20
25,000 252 83 50 37 29 26 22
105 56 39 30 25 23 20
20,000 228 81 51 37 30 27 24
84 50 37 29 25 23 20
15,000 192 77 50 37 31 28 24
67 45 34 28 24 23 20
10,000 163
54
8,000 153
50 Passenger Oxygen Not Required
(See Note Below)
7,000 148
48

Bold-faced numbers indicate 100% oxygen.


Light-faced numbers indicate diluter demand.
Prior to over water flights, plan flights so that enough oxygen will be
available for all occupants, in the event of pressurization failure.
For cabin altitudes of 10,000 ft and above, oxygen duration includes
cabin altitude ascent time from 8,000 ft to final stabilized cabin alti-
tude.
The oxygen duration for the 7,000-ft and 8,000-ft cabin altitude pro-
vides information for flight planning when supplemental oxygen is
required.
To calculate oxygen duration for a less than fully charged system,
the following formula may be used: Duration = Duration from chart x
(system pressure ÷ 1,850).

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4J-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Oxygen Duration Chart – Dual Bottle


Aircraft with 6600214-1, -2, -3, -4, and -9 Crew Masks
Available Time in Minutes
Cabin
Altitude 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew 2 Crew
2 Pass 4 Pass 6 Pass 8 Pass 9 Pass 11 Pass
40,000 558 172 102 74 58 52 44
524 160 96 70 54 50 42
35,000 392 152 96 70 56 52 44
366 144 90 66 52 48 42
30,000 436 158 98 72 58 52 44
274 128 84 64 52 48 40
25,000 504 166 100 74 58 52 44
210 112 78 60 50 46 40
20,000 456 162 100 74 60 54 46
164 100 72 58 48 44 40
15,000 384 154 100 74 62 56 48
132 90 68 56 48 46 40
10,000 326
108 Passenger Oxygen Not Required (See Note Below)
8,000 302
102
7,000 296
96

Bold-faced numbers indicate 100% oxygen.


Light-faced numbers indicate diluter demand.
Prior to over water flights, plan flights so that enough oxygen will be
available for all occupants, in the event of pressurization failure.
For cabin altitudes of 10,000 ft and above, oxygen duration time
includes cabin altitude ascent time from 8,000 ft to final stabilized
cabin altitude.
The oxygen duration for the 7,000-ft and 8,000-ft cabin altitude pro-
vides information for flight planning when supplemental oxygen is
required.
To calculate oxygen duration for a less than fully charged system,
the following formula may be used: Duration = Duration from chart x
(system pressure ÷ 1,850).

4J-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Oxygen System

Oxygen System Data


Power Source LESS B BUS OXY VAL CB
28V CB

Controls Oxygen pressure regulator


Oxygen shutoff valve
Manual passenger shutoff valve
Oxygen solenoid valve
Oxygen aneroid bypass shutoff valve
Check valve (long range and dorsal systems)
Crew mask NORM/EMER selector
Crew mask DILUTE/100% selector
Crew mask NORMAL/100% selector

Monitor Oxygen pressure gage(s)


Overboard discharge indicator(s)
Visual scan of passengers/masks
Crew oxygen flow indicator
Visual monitoring of pressurization system
Depressurization lighting
Protection circuit breaker

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4J-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4J-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Garrett TFE731-2-2B Engine

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4K-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4K-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Powerplant

Garrett TFE731-2-2B Engine Oil System

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4K-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4K-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Powerplant

Powerplant
Two Garrett TFE731-2-2B turbofan engines power the Learjet
35/36 aircraft. At sea level on a standard day, each engine pro-
duces 3,500 lbs of static thrust. The engine has a bypass ratio
of approximately 2.8 to 1.0. Each engine consists of:
Q
geared single-stage fan (N1)
Q four-stage axial flow low pressure compressor (N1)
Q single-stage centrifugal high pressure compressor (N2)
Q annular combustion chamber
Q
single-stage axial flow high pressure (HP) turbine (N2)
Q three-stage axial flow low pressure (LP) turbine (N1)
Ten chromel-alumel thermocouples extending into the gas path
between the HP and LP turbines measure the interstage tur-
bine temperature (ITT) and provide ITT data to the electronic
engine control (EEC) and the turbine temperature gauge.

Lubrication
The engine-driven oil pump’s pressure element draws from the
reservoir and provides it to the oil cooler under pressure
through a pressure regulator and filter. The pressure regulator
maintains oil pressure at approximately 42 PSI. The filter
includes a bypass valve that opens at 30 to 40 PSID across the
filter. Filter bypass is indicated by a red pop-out pin forward of
the filter housing on the engine.
After flowing through the filter, oil passes through the three sec-
tion air/oil cooler in the engine’s bypass duct. A temperature-
controlled bypass valve regulates oil temperature by controlling
oil flow through the cooler. At an oil temperature below 65°C
(149×F), the oil bypasses the cooler. As oil temperature
increases to 65×C, the bypass valve opens to route oil through
the coolers. If the air/oil cooler clogs, the spring-loaded bypass
valve opens to allow oil to bypass the air/oil cooler.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4K-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
After the air/oil cooler, the oil flow splits. One flow continues to
the No. 6 bearing sump and the No. 4 and 5 bearing cavity; the
other goes to the accessory drive gearbox assembly and the
fuel/oil cooler.
In the fuel/oil cooler, a bypass valve opens and closes to pro-
vide additional cooling above a temperature of 99×C (210×F).
Downstream of the fuel/oil cooler, pressure and temperature
transmitters provide inputs for the oil and temperature gages.
After flowing through the fuel/oil cooler, oil then flows to the
engine’s No. 1, 2, and 3 bearings and the fan planetary gear
case.
After the oil lubricates, cools, and cleans the engine, the oil
pump scavenge elements draw oil from the bearing sumps,
cavities, and casings and return it to the oil tank.

Ignition System
With the STA RT/GEN switch in STA RT, advancing the throttle
levers out of the cutoff position supplies 28V DC to the ignition
exciter box through the throttle quadrant switch. The ignition
exciter box operates and supplies 18,000 to 24,000 volts to fire
the two igniter plugs.
As the engine reaches idle speed, the EEC terminates ignition
at approximately 45% N2 RPM by opening the start relay.
Placing the AIR IGN switches in the on position supplies 28V
DC for continuous ignition system operation. During ignition
system operation, the light above the AIR IGN switch illumi-
nates to indicate power to the ignition system; the light does not
indicate system operation.

4K-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Powerplant

Fuel Control System


The fuel system consists of:
Q fuel pump assembly
Q hydro mechanical fuel control
Q
electronic fuel computer
Q fuel flow divider assembly
Q fuel atomizers.
Fuel is pumped by the engine fuel pump, filtered by the fuel fil-
ter, metered by the hydro mechanical fuel control in conjunction
with the fuel computer, delivered by the fuel manifold, and
atomized by the fuel nozzles.
The two-stage fuel pump contains a filter element and a filter
bypass valve. If the filter becomes blocked and a bypass
occurs, a red indicator pin on the pump housing pops out.
The fuel computer provides the following functions:
Q start scheduling
Q fuel scheduling
Q ultimate overspeed protection
Q surge valve control.
SPR (manual fuel enrichment) is a function of the fuel computer
and is controlled by the SPR switch labeled Land R. It is not
available if the computer is in manual mode or is turned off.
Although SPR is not required for normal starts, it should be
used for starts at temperatures below 0×F and during airstarts.
The SPR switch must be released when the engine ITT
reaches 400×C.
The fuel control unit modulates the metering valve to limit
engine RPM to 105%. The fuel computer provides ultimate
overspeed protection; if N1 exceeds 109% or N2 exceeds
110%, the fuel computer energizes the ultimate overspeed
solenoid valve to shut off the fuel.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4K-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
If the fuel computer fails and reverts to manual mode, ultimate
overspeed protection is regained by setting the cockpit control
switch to FUEL CMPTR and the switch on the fuel computer to
MANUAL.
The opening of the surge bleed valve is controlled by the fuel
computer to minimize the possibility of engine stall and surge.
With a failed fuel computer or when in Manual mode, the surge
valve stays in the 1/3 open position.

Engine Controls
The throttle levers are connected directly to the fuel control unit
by flexible cable. When the throttle is moved from CUTOFF to
IDLE, it mechanically opens the rotary shutoff valve in the fuel
control unit. The engine is also shut down in the same manner
by moving the throttle lever from IDLE to CUTOFF. With the
fuel computer failed or in manual mode, movement of the throt-
tle lever directly controls engine thrust through the fuel control
unit. With the fuel computer operating normally, movement of
the throttle lever indirectly controls engine thrust through the
fuel computer.

4K-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Powerplant

Powerplant – Garrett TFE731-2-2B


Monitor Fan speed (N1)
Turbine speed (N2)
Interstage turbine temperature (ITT)
Oil pressure indicator
Oil temperature gages
Fuel flow indicator
Annunciators
LO OIL PRESS
ENG CHIP
FUEL CMPTR
ENG SYNC light
Starter engaged lights

Protection Circuit breakers

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4K-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4K-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Thrust Reversers
Thrust Reverser System
Aeronca TFE731

BLOCKER DOOR

YOKE
ASSEMBLY
INBOARD
PNEUMATIC OUTBOARD
LATCH OPERATING PINION
ROD GEARBOX

SEQUENCING
LATCH
GEAR
RACK

OUTBOARD
PNEUMATIC
TRANSLATING LATCH
BEAM
GEAR
RACK
FOLLOW-UP
(NULLING
CABLE)

TRANSLATING
BEAM
SPUR FOLLOW-UP
GEARBOX (NULLING CABLE)

PNEUMATIC
ACTUATOR FLEXIBLE
ASSEMBLY DRIVE SHAFT
BLEED
VALVE PRESSURE
SWITCH
HP BLEED AIR
PNEUMATIC LATCH
VALVE

HP BLEED AIR

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4L-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4L-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Thrust Reversers

Thrust Reverser System


Dee Howard TR4000

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4L-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4L-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Thrust Reversers

Thrust Reverser
Two different thrust reverser systems are available on the Lear-
jet 35/36: the Dee Howard TR4000 and the Aeronca TFE731.
The Dee Howard TR4000 system is a target-type reverser that
is electrically controlled and hydraulically operated. The
Aeronca TFE731 is a cascade-type reverser that is electrically
controlled and pneumatically operated.

Dee Howard TR4000


Control of the TR4000 system is accomplished by the ARM-
OFF-TEST switches and the thrust reverser levers. System
operation is monitored by the ARM and DEPLOY annunciator
lights.
The system is checked by moving the ARM switches to the
TEST position. Illumination of the ARM annunciator indicates
that the hydraulic isolation valve is operating correctly and
hydraulic pressure is available to the control valve.
The system is armed when the aircraft is on the ground, the
throttle levers are at IDLE, and the ARM switches are in the
ARM position. If these conditions are met, pulling the thrust
levers up and aft initiates the deploy sequence. When the
thrust reverser doors are fully deployed, the DEPLOY lights illu-
minate and the thrust reverser lever locks are released. The
thrust reverser levers can then be pulled further aft for maxi-
mum reverse thrust.
When the reverser levers are returned to the stowed position,
the hydraulic stow actuator moves the reverser doors to the
overstow position. The doors are held closed by four mechani-
cal latches on each engine.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4L-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Autostow
When the ARM switch is in the OFF position, if any one of the
latch switches shows unlatched, the DEPLOY light flashes. If
any two door latches on the same side (inboard or outboard),
move toward the unlock position, the ARM light illuminates to
indicate activation of the autostow cycle. The DEPLOY annun-
ciator flashes to indicate a malfunction in the latches. During
the autostow cycle, the hydraulic selector valve positions to
STOW and applies hydraulic pressure to the thrust reverser
door actuator to hold them closed. The steady ARM light and
the flashing DEPLOY light continue until one of the latches
returns to a safe position or power is removed from the
reverser system.

Automatic Throttle Retard


The automatic throttle retard system is designed to minimize
the effect of asymmetrical thrust should a thrust reverser
deploy inadvertently in flight. Anytime the stow solenoid valve
is energized, hydraulic pressure from the stow line operates a
springloaded actuator that moves the thrust lever and the fuel
control unit to the IDLE position.

Accumulator
The thrust reverser system incorporates an air-hydraulic accu-
mulator that provides enough hydraulic fluid and pressure for
one full deploy cycle in the event of a hydraulic system failure.
The accumulator precharge is 900 to 1,000 PSI.

4L-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Thrust Reversers

Aeronca TFE731
With the NORM/EMER STOW switch in NORM, aircraft weight
on the wheels, and the throttle levers in IDLE, the thrust
reverser system arms and is ready for deployment.
Placing the reverse thrust levers in the idle position releases
interlocks; this allows the crew to lift the levers up and aft to
complete a circuit through the idle arming switches in the throt-
tle quadrant to the deploy side of the reverser control relay.
The control relay then routes DC power to the pneumatic latch
control, directional control, and air-on valves. The latch control
valve opens; bleed air pressure then actuates the pneumatic
latches to the open position. The UNLOCK lights illuminate.
Bleed air flows to the pneumatic actuator through the open
directional control valve. The pneumatic actuator operates and
drives the pinon gearboxes through a flexible drive shaft. The
pinon gearboxes then move the translating structure aft. The
reverser begins deploying. When the translating structure
reaches the full deployed position, sequence latches disen-
gage from the gear racks. The gear racks travel within the
beam assemblies and are driven 5.5 inches farther aft. The
gear racks actuate the blocker doors to the closed position
through yoke assemblies.
A nulling cable, attached to the outboard gearbox, mechani-
cally repositions the pneumatic actuator and shuts bleed air off
to the system. Once the thrust reversers are fully deployed, the
deploy limit switches actuate and complete an electrical circuit
to release the throttle release solenoid, extinguish the
UNLOCKED annunciator, and illuminate the DEPLOY annunci-
ator.
A pressure switch in the thrust reverser is actuated when
engine bleed air reaches 50 PSIAduring reverse thrust applica-
tion. The BLEED VALVE annunciators illuminate. The
DEPLOY and BLEED VALVE annunciators remain illuminated
until the thrust reversers are commanded to stow.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4L-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Stow
Placing the thrust reverser levers in stow (full forward and
down) operates reverser control switches that energize the
reverser control relays to the stow position. As engine RPM
decreases and bleed air pressure decreases below 40 PSIG,
the bleed air valves close to enable the actuator to reverse
direction. The bleed air valves open, the DEPLOY light extin-
guishes, and the UNLOCK light illuminates. An interlock pre-
vents thrust reverser lever movement while the thrust reverser
is in transit.
When the pneumatic actuator begins moving the gear rack, the
blocker doors move to the full open position. As the gear racks
enter their sequencing latches, the latches engage to lock the
translating beams and gear racks together. The translating
structure then continues moving forward toward the fully
stowed position.
The latches engage and the nulling cable turns off bleed air to
the pneumatic actuator. The UNLOCK annunciators extinguish;
the thrust reverser returns to the armed condition.

Automatic Stow Cycle


If a pneumatic latch disengages with the thrust levers above
the idle thrust position, the UNLOCK light illuminates. The
thrust reverser system automatically routes bleed air to the
pneumatic actuator to drive the translating assembly toward the
stow position. The actuator continuously applies torque to the
translating assembly until the thrust reverser pneumatic latches
re-engage.

4L-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Thrust Reversers

Emergency Stow Cycle


Placing the NORM/EMER STOW switch in the EMER STOW
position removes electrical power from the normal thrust
reverser electrical system and applies power directly to both
air-on valves. The valves open to supply bleed air pressure to
the pneumatic actuators. The pneumatic actuators then drive
the translating structure to the stowed position.
With thrust levers in CUTOFF or above 70% power lever angle
(PLA), the emergency stow system is inoperative.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4L-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

4L-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Thrust Reversers

Dee Howard TR4000 Data

Power Source Hydraulic pressure


Thrust reverser accumulator
28V DC

Control Thrust reverser levers


Thrust reverser position and sequence
switches
Thrust reverser control valve
ARM/OFF/TEST switches
Squat switches

Monitor Thrust reverser ARM and DEPLOY lights


Reverse thrust lever position

Protection Squat switches


Thrust lever reverse idle deploy switches
Thrust lever lockout solenoid
ARM/OFF/TEST switches
T/R control and power CBs

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 4L-11


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Aeronca TFE731 Thrust Reverser Data

Power Source Engine bleed air


28V DC from LH/RH ESS A BUS

Control Thrust reverser levers


Squat switches
Thrust lever switches
Thrust reverser panel NORM/EMER
STOW and TEST switches
Unlatched and deployed switches
Bleed pressure switch
Sequencing latches
Follow up (nulling) cable

Monitor BLEED AIR, UNLOCK and DEPLOY


lights
Reverse thrust lever position

Protection Squat switches


Circuit breakers:
T/R CONT
T/R EMER STOW
T/R POSN IND

4L-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Planning
Table of Contents
Data for Frequent or Planned Destinations. . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Flight Planning General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Takeoff Weight Determination Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
Minimum Climb/Obstacle Clearance
(One Engine Inoperative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6
Maximum Allowable Landing
Gross Weight Determination Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7
Maximum Allowable Landing Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
Aircraft Loading Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9
Weight and Balance Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10
International Flight Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
Frequently Used International Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11
International Operations Checklist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13
ICAO Flight Plan Form Completion – Items 7-19 . . . . . . 5-19
FAA Flight Plan Form Completion Instructions . . . . . . . . 5-29
ICAO Weather Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-33
Sample TAF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-35
Decoding TAFs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-38
Sample METAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-40

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 5-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

5-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Planning

Frequent or Planned Destination Record


Airport ________________________ Ident. ___________
FBO ________________ Freq.______ Tel: (___)_______

Hotel __________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Catering _______________________ Tel: (___)_______

FSS ___________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Airport ________________________ Ident. ___________


FBO ________________ Freq.______ Tel: (___)_______

Hotel __________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Catering _______________________ Tel: (___)_______

FSS ___________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Airport ________________________ Ident. ___________


FBO ________________ Freq.______ Tel: (___)_______

Hotel __________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Catering _______________________ Tel: (___)_______

FSS ___________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Notes: ___________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
______________________________________________

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 5-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Airport ________________________ Ident. ___________


FBO ________________ Freq.______ Tel: (___)_______

Hotel __________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Catering _______________________ Tel: (___)_______

FSS ___________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Airport ________________________ Ident. ___________


FBO ________________ Freq.______ Tel: (___)_______

Hotel __________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Catering _______________________ Tel: (___)_______

FSS ___________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Airport ________________________ Ident. ___________


FBO ________________ Freq.______ Tel: (___)_______

Hotel __________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Catering _______________________ Tel: (___)_______

FSS ___________________________ Tel: (___)_______

Notes: ___________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
______________________________________________

5-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Planning

Flight Planning General


Takeoff Weight Determination Procedures
Charts in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Performance Section
5 provide the means to determine the maximum takeoff
gross weight permitted by FAR 25 as well as associated
speeds and flight paths. The aircraft may be limited in
takeoff gross weight by the most restrictive of aircraft con-
ditions, airport conditions, and atmospheric conditions.
The flow chart below illustrates the steps to determine
appropriate takeoff weight.

AIRPLANE CONDITIONS
AIRPORT CONDITIONS
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

T.O. WEIGHT T.O. FLT PATH


MAX CERTIFIED AND CLIMB
T.O. WEIGHT LIMIT CLIMB OR T.O. DISTANCE
BRAKE ENERGY PERFORMANCE GRADIENT
LIMITATIONS (OBSTACLE)
SECTION 1 PERFORMANCE SECTION 5
SECTION 5 SECTION 5

MAX LANDING
COMPARE AND SELECT WEIGHT PLUS
LOWEST WEIGHT FUEL BURN TO
DESTINATION

TAKEOFF SPEEDS,
PERFORMANCE
SECTION 5

FINISHED

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 5-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Minimum Climb/Obstacle Clearance


(One Engine Inoperative)

TOTAL TAKEOFF PATH

TAKEOFF DISTANCE TAKEOFF


FLIGHT PATH

TRANSITION FINAL
(ACCELERATION) SEGMENT
1.25 VSI
1st SEGMENT 2nd
SEGMENT 1.25 VSI

REFERENCE
ZERO

GROUND ROLL
GEAR
BRAKE UP 1500 FEET 1500 FEET
RELEASE V1 VR VLOF V2 400 FEET MINIMUM
MINIMUM
35 FEET

ENGINES BOTH ONE INOPERATIVE

THRUST TAKEOFF THRUST MAX CONT. THRUST

AIRSPEED VARIABLE V2 VARIABLE 1.25 VSI

LANDING
GEAR DOWN RETRACTED
RETRACTION
FLAPS TAKEOFF SETTING RETRACTION RETRACTED

MIN. T.O.
FLIGHT PATH 2.4% LEVEL 1.2%
CLIMB POSITIVE
GRADIENTS

5-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Planning

Maximum Allowable Landing Gross


Weight Determination
Charts in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Performance Section
facilitate determination of approach and landing climb perfor-
mance, landing field length requirements, and approach speed
values. The flow chart below illustrates the steps to determining
maximum allowable landing gross weight.

AIRPLANE CONDITIONS
AIRPORT CONDITIONS
ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

MAXIMUM LANDING LANDING WEIGHT


WEIGHT (DESIGN LIMITS (APPROACH LANDING DISTANCE
STRUCTURAL LIMIT) CLIMB, BRAKE ENERGY) PERFORMANCE
LIMITATIONS PERFORMANCE SECTION 5
SECTION 1 SECTION 5

COMPARE AND SELECT


LOWEST WEIGHT

FINISHED

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Maximum Allowable Landing Weight

APPROACH—CLIMB
(ENGINE—OUT
2.1% MIN GRADIENT)

VREF = 1.3 VSO


50’

LANDING DISTANCE
THRESHOLD

EFFECTIVE RUNWAY LENGTH

Landing Weight Limitation: The maximum allowable


landing weight is limited by the most restrictive of the fol-
lowing:
Structure
Landing weight limit (approach climb, brake energy)
Landing distance.

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Flight Planning

Aircraft Loading Form


Interior Configuration:______________________________
Model 35/36 Weight F.S. MOM/1000 % MAC
BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT
Missing/Additional
Equipment

Crew —
Provisions – Fwd —
Provisions – Mid —
Provisions – Aft —
Provisions – Toilet —
Water —
Miscellaneous —

BASIC OPERATING
WEIGHT
Baggage – Fwd —
Baggage – Aft —
Passenger – Fwd
Sidefacing

Passenger – Fwd Swivel —
Passenger – Aft Swivel —
Passenger – Divan —

ZERO FUEL WEIGHT


Fuel (Fuselage Tank) —
ZERO WING & TIPFUEL
WEIGHT
— — —
Fuel (Wing Tanks) —
Fuel (Tip Tanks) —
RAMP WEIGHT
*Taxi Burnoff Out of Tips —
TAKEOFF WEIGHT
ZERO FUEL WEIGHT
Fuel Remaining – Tips —
Fuel Remaining – Wings —
Fuel Remaining – Fuselage —
LANDING WEIGHT

*Fuel for Start/Taxi/Takeoff is normally 3.5 pounds per engine per


minute.
C.G. in % MAC is [(Fuselage Station (C.G.) - 362.17 / 82.75] x100

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Weight and Balance Procedure


The following is a step-by-step guide to determine that an air-
craft with a given load is within and remains within the gross
weight and center of gravity limitations. Check that the pro-
posed aircraft is within CG limits at the operational zero fuel or
wing bending weight. This ensures that the aircraft remains
within limits as fuel is burned.
The following page numbers apply to Learjet 35A/36AAFM 102
and are only approximate for the 019 and 108 AFMs.

Action Where

Record manufacturer’s AFM, Weight and Balance, page


empty weight and moment/ 1, or aircraft records
1,000 from aircraft weighing
record

Enter payload weights and AFM Payload Moments Charts,


moment Weight and Balance, 25-33A

Enter fuel weights and AFM Fuel Moments Charts,


moments Weight and Balance, 14-17

Aircraft CG Takeoff Weight AFM CG Limits Chart, Weight and


and Moment Balance, 10-13

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Flight Planning

International Flight Planning


Frequently Used International Terms
International Term Explanation
ACC Area Control Center
ADCUS Advise Customs
AFIL Advise Customs
ARINC Aeronautical Radio Inc.
ATS Air Traffic Services
BERNA Swiss Radio Service
DEC General Declaration (customs)
ETP Equal Time Point (navigation)
FIC Flight Information Center
FIR Flight Information Region
GCA Ground Controlled Approach
GEOMETER A clear plastic attachment to a
globe that aids in making surface
measurements and determining
points on the globe
IATA International Air Traffic Association
IACO International Civil Aviation Organi-
zation
MET See METAR
METAR Routine Aviation Weather Reports
MNPS Minimum Navigation Performance
Specifications
NAT North Atlantic

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CAE SimuFlite

International Term Explanation


NOPAC North Pacific
OAG Official Airline Guide
OKTA Measure of cloud cover in eighths
(five OKTAs constitute a ceiling)
OTS Organized Track Structure
PPO Prior Permission Only
PSR Point of Safe Return (navigation)
QFE Used in some nations; an altimeter
setting that causes the altimeter to
read zero feet when on the ground
QNE Altimeter setting used at or above
transition altitude (FL 180 in U.S.);
this setting is always 29.92
QNH Altimeter setting that causes altime-
ter to read field elevation on the
ground
SITA Societe Internationale de Telecom-
munications Aeronautiques; inter-
national organization provides
global telecommunications network
information to the air transport
industry
SPECI Aviation selected special WX
reports
SSR Secondary Surveillance Radar
TAF Terminal Airdrome Forecast
UIR Upper Information Region
UTA Upper Control Area
WWV/WWVH Time and frequency standard
broadcast stations

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Flight Planning

International Operations Checklist


Aircrews are required to carry all appropriate FAA licenses and
at least an FCC Restricted Radio Telephone Operations
license. In addition, passport, visas, and an International Certif-
icate of Vaccination are often required. The International Flight
Information Manual (IFIM) specifies passport, inoculation and
visa requirements for entry to each country.
The IFIM is a collection of data from Aeronautical Information
Publications (AIP) published by the civil aviation authorities
(CAA) of various countries.
The following detailed checklist should be helpful in establish-
ing international operations requirements and procedures. You
may want to use it to prepare your own customized checklist for
your organization’s planned destinations.

I. DOCUMENTATION
PERSONNEL, CREW
Airman’s certificates
Physical
Passport
Extra photos
Visa
Tourist card
Proof of citizenship (not driver’s license)
Immunization records
Traveler’s checks
Credit cards
Cash
Passenger manifest (full name, passport no.)
Trip itinerary
International driver’s license

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AIRCRAFT
Airworthiness certificate
Registration
Radio licenses
MNPS certification
Aircraft flight manual
Maintenance records
Certificates of insurance (U.S. military and foreign)
Import papers (for aircraft of foreign manufacture)

II. OPERATIONS
PERMITS
Flight authorization letter
Overflights
Landing
Advance notice
Export licenses (navigation equipment)
Military
Customs overflight
Customs landing rights

SERVICES
Inspection
Customs forms
Immigrations
Agricultural (disinfectant)

Ground
Handling agents
FBOs

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Flight Planning

Fuel (credit cards, carnets)


Maintenance
Flyaway kit (spares)
Fuel contamination check

Financial
Credit cards
Carnets
Letters of credit
Banks
Servicing air carriers
Handling
Fuelers
Traveler’s checks
Cash
COMMUNICATIONS
Equipment
VHF
UHF
HF SSB
Headphones
Portables (ELTs, etc.)
Spares

Agreements
ARINC
BERNA (Switzerland)
SITA
Stockholm

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NAVIGATION
Equipment
VOR
DME
ADF
Inertial
VLF/OMEGA
LORAN
GPS
Publications
Onboard computer (update)
En route charts (VFR, IFR)
Plotting charts
Approach charts (area, terminal)
NAT message (current)
Flight plans
Blank flight plans
III. OTHER PUBLICATIONS
Operations manual
International Flight Information Manual
Maintenance manuals
Manufacturer’s sources
World Aviation Directory
Interavia ABC
Airports International Directory
MNPS/NOPAC
Customs Guide

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Flight Planning

IV. SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT


o Area survival kit (with text)
o Medical kit (with text)
o Emergency locator transmitter
o Flotation equipment
o Raft
o Life Jackets

V. FACILITATION AIDS
o U.S. Department of State
o U.S. Department of Commerce
o U.S. Customs Service
o National Flight Data Center (FAA) Notams
o FAA Office of International Aviation
o FAA Aviation Security

VI. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS


o Pre-flight planner
o Aircraft locks
o Spare keys
o Security devices
o Commissary supplies
o Electrical adapters (razors, etc.)
o Ground transportation
o Hotel reservations
o NBAA International Feedback cards
o Catering
o WX service
o Reservations
o Slot times

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IACO International Flight Plan Form

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Flight Planning

ICAO Flight Plan Form Completion –


Items 7-19
Complete all ICAO flight plans prior to departure. Although the
ICAO flight plan form is printed in numerous languages, the for-
mat is always the same.
Always enter cruising speed and cruising level as a group. In
the body of the flight plan form, if one item changes, the other
item must be re-entered to keep speed and level a matched
pair.
Always enter latitude and longitude as 7 or 11 characters. If
entering minutes of one, enter minutes of the other as well,
even if zeros.
Significant points should not be more than one hour apart. Con-
sider entering overflight/landing permissions after RMK/ in Item
18.
Item 7: Aircraft Identification
(7 characters maximum)
Insert (A) the aircraft registration marking or (B) aircraft operat-
ing agency ICAO designator followed by the flight identification.
A. Insert only the aircraft registration marking (e.g., EIAKO,
4XBCD, N2567GA) if one of the following is true:
the aircraft’s radiotelephony call sign consists of the air-
craft registration marking alone (e.g., OOTEK)
the registration marking is preceded by the ICAO tele-
phone designator for the aircraft operating agency (e.g.,
SABENA OOTEK
the aircraft is not equipped with radio.

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B. Insert the ICAO designator for the aircraft operating agency
followed by the flight identification (e.g., KL511, WT214,
K7123, JH25) if the aircraft’s radiotelephony call sign consists
of the ICAO telephony designator for the operating agency fol-
lowed by the flight identification (e.g. KLM 511, NIGERIA 213,
KILO UNIFORM 123, JULIETT HOTEL 25).
Item 8: Flight Rules and Type of Flight
(1 or 2 characters)
Flight Rules: Insert one of the following letters to denote the
intended flight rules category:
I if IFR
V if VFR
Y if IFR first*
Z if VFR first*
NOTE: Specify in Item 15 (Route) the point(s) where a flight
rules change is planned.
Type of Flight: Insert one of the following letters to denote the
type of flight when so required by the appropriate ATS author-
ity:
S if scheduled air service
N if non-scheduled air transport operation
G if general aviation
M if military
X if other than the above
Item 9: Number (1 or 2 characters) and Type of
Aircraft (2 to 4 characters) and Wake
Turbulence Category (1 character)
Number of Aircraft: Insert number of aircraft if more than one.
Type of Aircraft : Insert the appropriate designator as speci-
fied in ICAO Doc 8643, Aircraft Type Designators. If no such
designator has been assigned, or in case of formation flight
comprising more than one aircraft type, insert ZZZZ, then spec-
ify in Item 18 the number(s) and type(s) of aircraft, preceded by
TYP/.

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Flight Planning

Wake Turbulence Category: Insert / + H, M, or L:


/H Heavy – maximum certificated T/O mass of 136,000 kg
(300,000 lbs) or more
/M Medium – maximum certificated T/O mass of less than
136,000 kg but more than 7,000 kg (between 15,500 and
300,000 lbs)
/L Light – maximum certificated T/O mass of 7,000 kg or
less (15,500 lbs)
Item 10: Equipment
Radio Communication, Navigation, and Approach Aid
Equipment: Insert one of the following letters:
N if COM/NAV/approach aid equipment is not carried or is
inoperative.
S if standard COM/NAV/approach aid equipment (VHF
RTF, ADF, VOR, ILS, or equipment prescribed by ATS
authority) is on board and operative;
and/or insert one of the following letters to indicate correspond-
ing COMM/NAV/approach aid equipment is available and oper-
ative:
A not allocated O VOR
B not allocated P not allocated
C LORAN C Q not allocated
D DME R RNP type certification
E not allocated
F ADF T TACAN
G (GNSS) U UHF RTF
H HF RTF V VHF RTF
I Inertial Navig. W when prescribed by ATS
J (Data Link) X when prescribed by ATS
K (MLS) Y when prescribed by ATS
L ILS Z Other (specify in Item 18)
M Omega

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SSR Equipment: Insert one of the following letters to describe
the operative SSR equipment on board:
N None
A Transponder Mode A (4 digits- 4 096 codes)
C Transponder Mode A and Mode C
X Transponder Mode S without aircraft ID or pressurealti-
tude transmission
P Transponder Mode S with pressure altitude transmission,
but without aircraft ID transmission
I Transponder Mode S with aircraft ID transmission, but
without pressure-altitude transmission
S Transponder Mode S with both pressure altitude and air-
craft ID transmission

Item 13: Departure Aerodrome (4 characters)


and Time (4 characters)
Departure Aerodrome: Insert one of the following:
ICAO four-letter location indicator of the departure aero-
drome.
If no location indicator assigned, insert ZZZZ, then spec-
ify in Item 18 the name of the aerodrome, preceded by
DEP/.
If flight plan submitted while in flight, insert AFIL, then
specify in Item 18 the four-letter location indicator of the
ATS unit from which supplementary flight plan data can
be obtained, preceded by DEP/.
Time: Insert one of the following:
for a flight plan submitted before departure: the estimated
offblock time
for a flight plan submitted while in flight: the actual or esti-
mated time over the first point of the route to which the
flight plan applies

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Flight Planning

Item 15: Cruising Speed (5 characters), Cruis-


ing Level (5 characters), and Route
Cruising Speed: Insert the true air speed for the first or whole
cruising portion of the flight in one of the following forms:
Kilometers per hour: K + 4 figures (e.g., K0830)
Knots: N + 4 figures (e.g., N0485)
Mach number: M + 3 figures (e.g., M082) if prescribed by
ATS .
Cruising Level: Insert the planned cruising level for the first or
whole portion of the planned route using one of the following
forms:
Flight level: F + 3 figures (e.g., F085; F330)
Standard metric level in tens of metres: S + 4 figures
(e.g., S1130) if prescribed by ATS.
Altitude in hundreds of feet: A + 3 figures (e.g., A045;
A100)
Altitude in tens of metres: M + 4 figures (e.g., M0840)
For uncontrolled VFR flights: VFR
Route: Include changes of speed, level, and/or flight rules.
For flights along designated ATS routes:
If the departure aerodrome is on or connected to the ATS
route, insert the designator of the first ATS route.
If the departure aerodrome is not on or connected to the
ATS route, insert the letters DCT followed by the point of
joining the first ATS route, followed by the designator of
the ATS route.
Insert each point at which a change of speed, change of
level,change of ATS route, and/or a change of flight rules
is planned. For a transition between lower and upper ATS
routes oriented in the same direction, do not insert the
point of transition.
In each case, follow with the designator of the next ATS
route segment even if it is the same as the previous one
(or with DCT if the flight to the next point is outside a des-
ignated route), unless both points are defined by geo-
graphical coordinates.

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CAE SimuFlite
Flights outside designated ATS routes:
Insert points not normally more than 30 minutes flying
time or 200 nautical miles apart, including each point at
which a change of speed or level, a change of track, or a
change of flight rules is planned.
When required by ATS, define the track of flights operat-
ing predominantly in an east-west direction between
70°N and 70°S by reference to significant points formed
by the intersections of half or whole degrees of latitude
with meridians spaced at intervals of 10 degrees of longi-
tude. For flights operating in areas outside those lati-
tudes, define the tracks by significant points formed by
the intersection of parallels of latitude with meridians nor-
mally spaced not to exceed one hour’s flight time. Estab-
lish additional significant points as deemed necessary.

For flights operating predominantly in a north-south direc-


tion, define tracks by reference to significant points
formed by the intersection of whole degrees of longitude
with specified parallels of latitude that are spaced at 5
degrees.
Insert DCT between successive points unless both points
are defined by geographical coordinates or bearing and
distance.
Examples of Route Sub-entries
Enter a space between each sub-entry.
1. ATS route (2 to 7 characters): BCN1, B1, R14, KODAP2A
2. Significant point (2 to 11 characters): LN, MAY, HADDY
degrees only (7 characters – insert zeros, if necessary):
46N078W
degrees and minutes (11 characters – insert zeros if nec-
essary): 4620N07805W
bearing and distance from navigation aid (NAV aid ID [2
to 3 characters] + bearing and distance from the NAV aid
[6 characters – insert zeros if necessary]): a point 180
magnetic at a distance of 40 nautical miles from VOR
“DUB” = DUB180040

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Flight Planning

3. Change of speed or level (max 21 characters): insert point


of change/cruising speed and level – LN/N0284A045, MAY/
N0305F180, HADDY/N0420F330, DUB180040/M084F350
4. Change of flight rules (max 3 characters): insert point of
change (space) change to IFR or VFR – LN VFR, LN/
N0284A050 IFR
5. Cruise climb (max 28 characters)
insert C/point to start climb/climb speed / levels –
C/48N050W / M082F290F350
C/48N050W / M082F290PLUS
C/52N050W / M220F580F620

Item 16: Destination Aerodrome (4 charac-


ters), Total Estimated Elapsed Time (EET, 4
characters), Alternate Aerodrome(s) (4 char-
acters)
Destination aerodrome: insert ICAO four-letter location indica-
tor. If no indicator assigned, insert ZZZZ.
Total EET: insert accumulated estimated elapsed time. If no
location indicator assigned, specify in Item 18 the name of the
aerodrome, preceded by DEST/.
Alternate aerodrome(s): insert ICAO four-letter location indica-
tor. If no indicator assigned to alternate, insert ZZZZ and spec-
ify in Item 18 the name of the alternate aerodrome, preceded
by ALTN/.

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CAE SimuFlite

Item 18: Other Information


This section may be used to record specific information as
required by appropriate ATS authority or per regional air navi-
gation agreements. Insert the appropriate indicator followed by
an oblique stroke (/) and the necessary information. See exam-
ples below.
Estimated elapsed time/significant points or FIR bound-
ary designators: EET/CAP0745, XYZ0830.
Revised destination aerodrome route details/ICAO aero-
drome location indicator: RIF/DTA HEC KLAX. (Revised
route subject to reclearance in flight.)
Aircraft registration markings, if different from aircraft I.D.
in Item 7: REG/N1234.
SELCAL code: SEL/ ________.
Operator’s name, if not obvious from the aircraft I.D. in
Item 7 : OPR/ ________.
Reason for special handling by ATS (e.g., hospital air-
craft, one-engine inoperative): STS/HOSP, STS/ONE
ENG INOP.
As explained in Item 9: TYP/ ________.
Aircraft performance data: PER/ ________.
Communication equipment significant data: COM/UHF
Only.
Navigation equipment significant data: NAV/INS.
As explained in Item 13: DEP/ ________.
As explained in Item 16: DEST/ , or ALTN/_______.
Other remarks as required by ATS or deemed neces-
sary: RMK/ _______.

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Flight Planning

Item 19: Supplementary Information


Endurance: insert fuel endurance in hours and minutes.
Persons on Board: insert total persons on board, including pas-
sengers and crew. If unknown at time of filing, insert TBN (to be
notified).
Emergency Radio, Survival Equipment, Jackets, Dinghies:
cross out letter indicators of all items not available; complete
blanks as required for items available. (jackets: L = life jackets
with lights, J = life jackets with fluorescein).

ICAO Position Reporting Format


Outside the U.S., position reports are required unless specifi-
cally waived by the controlling agency.

Initial Contact (Frequency Change)


1. Call sign
2. Flight level (if not level, report climbing to or descending to
cleared altitude)
3. Estimating (next position) at (time) GMT

Position Report
1. Call sign
2. Position (if position in doubt, use phonetic identifier. For
oceanic reports, first report the latitude, then the longitude
(e.g., 50N 60W)
3. Time (GMT) or (UST)
4. Altitude or flight level (if not level, report climbing to or
descending to altitude)
5. Next position
6. Estimated elapsed time (EET)

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US DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TIME STARTED SPECIALIST

5-28
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA USE ONLY) PILOT BRIEFING VNR INITIALS

FLIGHT PLAN STOPOVER


1. TYPE 2. AIRCRAFT 3. AIRCRAFT TYPE/ 4. TRUE 5. DEPARTURE POINT 6. DEPARTURE TIME 7. CRUSING
IDENTIFICATION SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AIRSPEED ALTITUDE
VFR PROPOSED (Z) ACTUAL (Z)
IFR
DVFR
8. ROUTE OF FLIGHT
CAE SimuFlite

9. DESTINATION (Name of airport 10. EST TIME ENROUTE 11. REMARKS


FAA Flight Plan Form

and city)
HOURS MINUTES

12. FUEL ON BOARD 13. ALTERNATE AIRPORT(S) 14. PILOTS NAME, ADDRESS & TELEPHONE NUMBER & AIRCRAFT HOME BASE 15. NUMBER

Developed for Training Purposes


ABOARD
HOURS MINUTES

17. DESTINATION CONTACT / TELEPHONE (OPTIONAL)

18. COLOR OF AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT PILOTS. FAR Part 91 requires you to file an IFR flight plan to operate under instrument flight rules in
controlled airspace. Failure to file could result in civil penality not to exceed $1,000 for each violation (Section 901 of the
Federal Aviation Act of 1956, as amended). Filing of a VFR flight plan is recomended as a good operating practice. See also
Part 99 for requirements concerning DVFR flight plans.

FAA Form 7233-1 (8-82) CLOSE VFR FLIGHT PLAN WITH_________________FSS ON ARRIVAL

Leerjet 35/36
February 1998
Flight Planning

FAA Flight Plan Form


Completion Instructions
Block 1 Check the type flight plan. Check both the VFR
and IFR blocks if composite VFR/IFR.
Block 2 Enter your complete aircraft identification,
including the prefix “N,” if applicable.
Block 3 Enter the designator for the aircraft, or if
unknown, the aircraft manufacturer’s name.
When filing an IFR flight plan for a TCAS
equipped aircraft, add the prefix T for TCAS .
Example: T/G4/R .
When filing an IFR flight plan for flight in an air-
craft equipped with a radar beacon transponder,
DME equipment, TACAN-only equipment or a
combination of both, identify equipment capabil-
ity by adding a suffix to the AIRCRAFT TYPE,
preceded by a slant (/) as follows:
/X no transponder
/T transponder with no altitude encoding capa-
bility
/U transponder with altitude encoding capability
/D DME, but no transponder
/B DME and transponder, but no altitude encod-
ing capability
/A DME and transponder with altitude encoding
capability
/M TACAN only, but no transponder
/N TACAN only and transponder, but with no alti-
tude encoding capability
/P TACAN only and transponder with altitude
encoding capability
/Y LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS with no transpon-
der

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/C LORAN, VOR/DME, transponder with no
Mode C
/I LORAN, VOR/DME, transponder with Mode C
/E Flight Management System (FMS) with DME/
DME and IRU position updating.
/F FMS with DME/DME position updating.
/G Global Navigation Satelite System (GNSS)
including GPS or Wide Area Augmentation Sys-
tem (WAAS), with enroute and terminal capabil-
ity.
/R Required Navigational Performance. The air-
craft meets the RNP type prescribed for the
route segment(s), route(s) and/or area con-
cerned.
/J /E with RVSM
/K /F with RVSM
/L /G with RVSM
/Q /R with RVSM
/W RVSM

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Flight Planning

Block 4 Enter your true airspeed (TAS).


Block 5 Enter the departure airport identifier code, or if
code is unknown, the name of the airport.
Block 6 Enter the proposed departure time in Coordi-
nated Universal Time (UTC). If airborne, specify
the actual or proposed departure time as appro-
priate.
Block 7 Enter the appropriate IFR altitude (to assist the
briefer in providing weather and wind informa-
tion).
Block 8 Define the route of flight by using NAVAID identi-
fier codes, airways, jet routes, and waypoints.
Block 9 Enter the destination airport identifier code, or if
unknown, the airport name. Include the city
name (or even the state name) if needed for
clarity.
Block 10 Enter estimated time enroute in hours and min-
utes.
Block 11 Enter only those remarks pertinent to ATC or to
the clarification of other flight plan information,
such as the appropriate call sign associated with
the designator filed in Block 2 or ADCUS.
Block 12 Specify the fuel on board in hours and minutes.
Block 13 Specify an alternate airport, if desired or
required.
Block 14 Enter the complete name, address, and tele-
phone number of the pilot in command. Enter
sufficient information to identify home base, air-
port, or operator. This information is essential for
search and rescue operations.
Block 15 Enter total number of persons on board (POB),
including crew.
Block 16 Enter the aircraft’s predominant colors.

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Block 17 Record the FSS name for closing the flight plan.
If the flight plan is closed with a different FS or
facility, state the recorded FSS name that would
normally have closed your flight plan. Informa-
tion transmitted to the destination FSS consists
only of that in Blocks 3, 9, and 10. Estimated
time enroute (ETE) will be converted to the cor-
rect estimated time of arrival (ETA).
Optional Record a destination telephone number to assist
search and rescue contact should you fail to
report or cancel your flight plan within 1/2 hour
after your estimated time of arrival (ETA).

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Flight Planning

ICAO Weather Format


On July 1, 1993, the worldwide (ICAO) and North A aerodrome
weather codes merged into a new international for forecasts
and reports. The new codes are the result effort to meet
revised aeronautical requirements and confusion in the aviation
community.
The United States converted to METAR / TAF format on 1996
with terminal aerodrome forecast (TAF) replacing terminal fore-
cast airport and meteorological aviation weather report
(METAR) replacing the airport surface observation (AOS).
Although the aviation community now uses a standard codes,
some differences remain between U.S. and ICAO For example,
the following differences may remain in eff
Horizontal visibility is reported in statute miles (SM)
U.S. code and in meters in the ICAO code. To avoid
confusion, the suffix SM follows the visibility value if
it is reported U.S. code. Additionally, when forecast
visibility in exceeds six statute miles, the prefix P
appears (e.g., a visibility forecast greater than six
statute miles).
Runway visual range (RVR) is reported in feet (FT)
in code and in meters in ICAO code. When RVR is
reported a U.S. runway, the suffix FT is added (e.g.,
R27L/ runway 27 left RVR 2,700 ft). RVR is reported
only weather, not a forecast TAF.
Ceiling and visibility okay (CAVOK) is not used in the
Temperature, turbulence, and icing conditions are
forecast in a U.S. TA F. Turbulence and icing are
forecast Forecasts (FAS). Surface temperatures are
forecast public service and agricultural forecasts.
Trend forecasts are not included in U.S. METARs.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 5-33


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
An altimeter setting in a U.S. METAR is in inches of
mercury. In an ICAO METAR, it is in hectopascals
(millibars). To avoid confusion, a prefix is always
assigned: an A for a U.S. report or a Q for an ICAO
report (e.g., A2992 or Q1013).
In the U.S., remarks (RMKs) precede recent (RE)
weather and wind shear (WS) information reported
at the end of METARs.
Low level windshear, not associated with convective
activity, will appear in U.S., Canadian, and Mexican
TAFs .

5-34 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Planning

Sample TAF
Aterminal aerodrome forecast (TAF) describes the forecast
prevailing conditions at an airport and covers either a 9-hour
period or a 24-hour period. Nine-hour TAFs are issued every
three hours; 24-hour TAFs are issued every six hours. Amend-
ments (AMD) are issued as necessary. A newly issued TAF
automatically amends and updates previous versions. Also,
many foreign countries issue eighteen hour TAFs at six hour
intervals.
The following example has detailed explanations of the new
codes.
KHPN 091720Z 091818 22020KT 3/4SM -SHRA
BKN020CB FM2030 30015G25KT 1500 SHRA
OVC015CB PROB40 2022 1/4SM TSRA OVC008CB
FM2300 27008KT 1 1/2SM -SHRA BKN020
OVC040 TEMPO 0407 00000KT 1/2SM -RABR
VV004 FM1000 22010KT 1/2SM -SHRA OVC020
BECMG 1315 20010KT P6SM NSW SKC
KHPN . ICAO location indicator. The usual 3 letter identifiers
we are familiar with are now preceeded by a K for the contigu-
ous United States. Alaska and Hawaii will use 4 letter identifiers
with PA and PH respectively. Changes are planned to incorpo-
rate alphabetic identifiers for those weather reporting stations
where numbers and letters are now used (e.g., W10 changed
to KHEF) .
091720Z. Issuance time. The first two digits (09) indicate the
date; the following four digits (1720) indicate time of day. All
times are in UTC or Zulu.
091818. Valid period. The first two digits (09) indicate the date.
The second two digits (18) are the hour that the forecast period
begins. The last two digits (18) indicate the hour that the fore-
cast expires. The example is a 24-hour forecast.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 5-35


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
22020KT. Surface wind. The first three digits (220) are true
direction to the nearest 10°. The next two digits (20) indicate
speed. KT indicates the scale is in knots. TAFs may also use
kilometers-per-hour (KMH) or meters per second (MPS). If
gusts are forecast, a G and a two-digit maximum gust speed
follow the five-digit wind reading (e.g., 22020G10KT). Five
zeros and the appropriate suffix indicate calm winds (e.g.,
00000KT/KMH/MPS) .

NOTE: Towers, ATIS and airport advisory service report


wind direction as magnetic.

3/4SM . Prevailing horizontal visibility. Visibility (3/4SM) is in


statute miles in the U.S. However, most countries use meters
which appears with no suffix (e.g., 1200).
-SHRA. Weather and/or obstruction to visibility. The minus sign
(-) indicates light, a plus sign (+) indicates heavy, and no prefix
indicates moderate. If no significant weather is expected, the
group is omitted. If the weather ceases to be significant after a
change group, the weather code is replaced by the code for no
significant weather (NSW) .
BKN020CB . Cloud coverage/height/type. The first three letters
indicate expected cloud coverage. Cloud height is indicated by
the second set of three digits; these are read in hundreds of
feet (or multiples of 30 meters). When cumulonimbus is fore-
cast, cloud type (CB) follows cloud height.
When an obscured sky is expected and information on vertical
visibility is available, the cloud group is replaced by a different
five-digit code (e.g., VV004). The first two digits are Vs. The
three figures following indicate vertical visibility in units of 100
ft. For indefinite vertical visibility, the two Vs would be followed
by two slash marks (VV//)
.
NOTE: More than one cloud layer may be reported.

5-36 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Planning

FM2030 . Significant change expected in prevailing weather.


The from code (FM) is followed by a four-digit time code
(2030). Prevailing weather conditions consist a surface wind,
visibility, weather, and cloud coverage.
PROB40 2022. Probability (PROB) and a two-digit code for
percent (40) is followed by a four-digit code (2022) that indi-
cates a beginning time (20) and an ending time (22) to the
nearest whole hour for probable weather conditions. Only 30%
and 40% probabilities are used; less than these are not suffi-
cient to forecast; 50% and above support the normal forecast.
TEMPO. Temporary change followed by a four-digit time. Fore-
casts temporary weather conditions. Indicates that changes
lasting less than an hour and a half may occur anytime
between the two-digit beginning time and two-digit ending time.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 5-37


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Decoding TAFs
The latter half of the sample TAF is decoded based on the pre-
ceding information.

30015G25KT 1/2SM SHRA OVC015CB


Surface winds, 300° true direction
Mean speed, 15 kts
Gusts, maximum gust 25 kts
Visibility, 1/2 statute mile
Moderate showers of rain
Overcast at 1,500 ft with cumulonimbus clouds
FM2300 27008KT 1 1/2SM -SHRA BKN020 OVC040
Significant change expected from 2300 hours
Surface winds, 270° true direction at 8 kts
Visibility, one and one-half statute mile
Light showers of rain
Broken clouds at 2,000 ft with a second overcast layer at
4,000 ft
TEMPO 0407 00000KT 1/4SM -RA BR VV004
Temporary between 0400 and 0700 hours
Calm winds
Visibility 1/4 statute mile
Light rain and mist
Indefinite ceiling, vertical visibility 400 ft
FM1000 22010KT 1/2SM -SHRA OVC020
Significant change expected from 1000 hours
Surface winds, 220° true direction at 10 kts
Visibility, 1/2 statute mile
Light showers of rain
Overcast skies at 2,000 ft

5-38 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Planning

BECMG 1315 20010KT P6SM NSW SKC


Change to the forecast conditions between 1300 and
1500 hours
Expected surface winds, 200° true direction at 10 kts
Visibility, more than 6 statute miles
No significant weather
Clear skies

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 5-39


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
Sample METAR
A routine aviation weather report on observed weather, or
METAR, is issued at hourly or half-hourly intervals. A special
weather report on observed weather, or SPECI, is issued when
certain criteria are met. Both METAR and SPECI use the same
codes.
A forecast highly likely to occur, or TREND, covers a period of
two hours from the time of the observation. A TREND forecast
indicates significant changes in respect to one or more of the
following elements: surface wind, visibility, weather, or clouds.
TREND forecasts use many of the same codes as TAFs.
Most foreign countries may append a TREND to a METAR or
SPECI. In the U.S., however, a TREND is not included in a
METAR or SPECI.
The following example indicates how to read a METAR .
KHPN 201955Z 22015G25KT 2SM
R22L/1000FT TSRA OVC010CB 18/16 A2990
RERAB25 BECMG 2200 24035G55
KHPN. ICAO location indicator.
201955Z. Date and time of issuance. METARs are issued
hourly.
22015G25KT. Surface wind (same as TAF). If the first three
digits are VAR, the wind is variable with wind speed following. If
direction varies 60° or more during the ten minutes immediately
preceding the observation, the two extreme directions are indi-
cated with the letter V inserted between them (e.g., 280V350).
.
NOTE: G must vary 10 kts or greater to report gust.

5-40 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Flight Planning

2SM. Prevailing horizontal visibility in statute miles. In the U.S.,


issued in statute miles with the appropriate suffix (SM)
appended.
When a marked directional variation exists, the reported mini
mum visibility is followed by one of the eight compass points to
indicate the direction (e.g., 2SMNE).
R22L/1000FT. The runway visual range group. The letter R
begins the group and is followed by the runway description
(22L). The range in feet follows the slant bar (1000FT). In other
countries range is in meters and no suffix is used. TSRA
OVC010CB. Thunderstorms (T S) and rain (R A) with an over-
cast layer at 1,000 ft and cumulonimbus clouds.

NOTE: More than one cloud layer may be reported.

18/16. Temperatures in degrees Celsius. The first two digits


(18) are observed air temperature; the last two digits (16) are
dew point temperature. A temperature below zero is reported
with a minus (M) prefix code (e.g., M06).
A2990. Altimeter setting. In the U.S., A is followed by inches
and hundredths; in most other countries, Q is followed by hec-
topascals (i.e., millibars).
RERAB25. Recent operationally significant condition. A two
letter code for recent (RE) is followed by a two letter code for
the condition (e.g., RA for rain). A code for beginning or ending
(B or E) and a two-digit time in minutes during the previous
hour. When local circumstances also warrant, wind shear may
also be indicated (e.g., WS LDG RWY 22).
.
NOTE: A remark (RMK) code is used in the U.S. to precede
supplementary data of recent operationally significant
weather.
.

NOTE: RMK [SLP 013] breaks down SEA LVL press to


nearest tenth (e.g., 1001.3 reported as SLP 013).

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 5-41


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
BECMG AT 2200 24035G55. A TREND forecast. The becom-
ing code (BECMG) is followed by a when sequence (AT 2200)
and the expected change (e.g., surface winds at 240° true at 35
kts with gusts up to 55 kts)

NOTE: For more information on METAR/TAF, consult the


FAA brochure “New Aviation Weather Format METAR/
TAF.” Copies may be obtained by writing to: FAA/ASY-20,
400 7th Street, S.W. Washington, DC 20590.

5-42 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Servicing
Table of Contents
Servicing Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Emergency Air Bottle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Engine Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Checking/Adding Oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Fire Bottle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
Fuel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Aviation Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Approved Fuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Fuel Additives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-8
Electronic Fuel Computer Adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Refueling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-12
Hydraulic Fluid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Hydraulic Accumulator Preload. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Landing Gear Struts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-16
Landing Gear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Strut Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Tire Inflation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Oxygen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Windshield Anti-Ice Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Deicing Supplemental Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-19
Deicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
Post Deicing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-26

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-1


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

6-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Servicing Record
DATE QTY DATE QTY

Hydraulic Fluid _______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

Engine Oil _______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

Alcohol _______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Servicing Record (continued)

DATE QTY DATE QTY

Pneumatic Bottle _______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

Oxygen _______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

Other _______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______

6-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Emergency Air Bottle


Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DRY AIR OR NITROGEN
Normal Pressure Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,800 TO 3,000 PSI

Engine Oil
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 GAL (5.68 LITERS)
The following oils conforming to AiResearch EMS 53110, Class
B, are approved:
Q
Exxon/Esso Turbo Oil 2380
Q
Mobil Jet Oil II
Q Castrol 5000
Q Aeroshell/Royco Turbine Oil 500
It is permissible to mix brands of approved oils.

Checking/Adding Oil
Oil should be checked shortly (within one hour) after engine
shutdown. If oil quantity seems overfilled, motor engine 10 sec-
onds with starter. Recheck. If engine is cold and oil level
appears low, start engine and idle until stabilized. Shutdown
engine and recheck.
Access Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OPEN
Filler Cap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE
Tank . . . . . . . . . . . FILL TO WITHIN ONE QUART OF FULL
Use a 10 micron filter.
Filler Cap. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE
Access Door . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECURE

Fire Bottle
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CF3Br EXTINGUISHING AGENT

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-5


December 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Fuel
Capacity
Learjet 35/35A Learjet 36/36A
Tank
TOTAL USABLE TOTAL USABLE

Tip without 182.8 GAL 181.3 GAL 182.8 GAL 181.3 GAL
Recog. Lt (691.8 L) (626.2 L) (691.8 L) (626.2 L)
Tip with 176.9 GAL 175.3 GAL 176.9 GAL 175.3 GAL
Recog. L (669.6 L) (663.5 L) (669.6 L) (663.5 L)
Wing 195.4 GAL 187.1 GAL 195.4 GAL 187.1 GAL
(739.6 L) (708.1 L) (739.6 L) (708.1 L)
Fuselage 201.5 GAL 200.0 GAL 380.4 GAL 379.4 GAL
(762.7 L) (757.0 L) (1,439.8 L) (1,436.0 L)
TOTAL 1,130.9
952.0 GAL 931.0 GAL 1,110.4 GAL
GAL
(3,603.3 L) (3,422.9 L) (4,201.9 L)
(4,280.4 L)

Aviation Gasoline
Aviation gasoline (MIL-D-5572D, Grades 80/87, 100/130, and
115/145) may be used as an emergency fuel and mixed, in any
proportion, with various approved jet kerosene-based fuels. An
anti-ice additive is required in aviation gasoline.
Aviation gasoline may not be used in excess of 500 gallons
(1,892.5 L) per 100 hours of operation per engine.

WARNING: Aviation gasoline in the fuel mixture presents a


greater flammability hazard; adhere strictly to safety precau-
tions to eliminate sparks.

6-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Approved Fuels
EMS 53111 (Jet A) EMS 53112 (Jet A-1/JP-8)

AMOCO Jet Fuel Type A ASTM Jet A-1


AMOCO Turbine Fuel Boron Oil Company Jet A-1
ASTM Jet AAircraft Turbine Fuel British Fuel D ENG RD
B.P. Oil Inc. Jet A 2492 AVTUR 50
Boron Oil Company Jet A Canadian Fuel 3-GP-23
Chevron Jet Fuel A Chevron Jet Fuel A-1
Chevron Jet Fuel A-50 Exxon Turbo A-1
Conoco Jet 50 Jet A-1 Kerosene
Exxon Turbo A Mobil Jet A-1
Gulf Jet A NATO F-34 (Jet A-1)
Jet A Kerosene NATO F-35 (Jet A-1)
Mobil Jet A Richfield Jet A-1
NATO F-30 (Jet A) Shell Jet A-1
Philips Philjet A-50 Texaco Avjet A-1
Richfield Jet A Union Jet A-1
Standard Oil of Ohio Jet A MIL-T-83133 (JP-8)
Shell Jet A
Texaco Avjet A
Union Turbine Fuel A

EMS 53113 (Jet B/JP-4) EMS 53116 (JP-5)

ASTM Jet B Aircraft Turbine British Fuel D ENG RD


Fuel 2498 AVCAT 48
British Fuel D ENG RD Chevron Turbine Fuel JP-5
2486 AV TA G MIL-T-5624G (JP-5)
Canadian Fuel 3-GP-22 Mobil JP-5
Chevron Jet Fuel B NATO F-42 (JP-5)
Chevron Jet Fuel JP-4 NATO F-44 (JP-5)
Conoco (JP-4) Texaco JP-5
Exxon Turbo B ENG RD 2494
MIL-T-5624G (JP-4) British Fuel D
Mobil JP-4
NATO F-40 (JP-4)
NATO F-45 (JP-4)
Richfield Jet B
Richfield JP-4
Texaco Avjet-B
Texaco JP-4
Union JP-4

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-7


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Fuel Additives
Anti-Icing Additive
Fuel anti-icing additive meeting the requirements of MIL-I-
27686 or MIL-I-85470 is required. The additive concentration,
by volume, shall be as follows.
Use not less than 20 fluid ounces (1 can) of MIL-I-27686 per
260 gallons (984.2 liters) nor more than 20 fluid ounces (1 can)
per 105 gallons (397.4 liters) of fuel. Use not less than 20 fluid
ounces (1 can) of MIL-I-85470 per 155 gallons (586.7 liters) nor
more than 20 fluid ounces (1 can) per 105 gallons (397.4 liters)
of fuel.

CAUTION: Lack of anti-icing additive may cause fuel filter


icing and subsequent engine flameout.

Fuels having the required anti-icing additive blended at the


refinery need no additional treatment. However, some fuels do
not have the required additive blended at the refinery. Prior to
refueling, check with the fuel supplier to determine if the fuel
contains the required anti-icing additive. Any approved or
emergency fuels not containing the required anti-icing additive
must have it blended during refueling.
The following products have been qualified for blending MIL-I-
27686 additive over-the-wing:
Q
Hi-Flo Prist 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.
Q
Quell 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.
Q
D-Ice 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.

6-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

CAUTION: Ensure that anti-icing additive is directed into the


fuel stream and that additive flow starts after fuel flow starts
and stops before fuel flow stops. Do not allow concentrated
additive to contact interior of fuel tank or aircraft painted sur-
faces.

WARNING: Anti-icing additive may be harmful if inhaled or


swallowed. Use adequate ventilation. Avoid contact with skin
and eyes. If sprayed into eyes, flush with large amounts of
water and contact a physician immediately.

The following products have been qualified for blending MIL-I-


85470 additive over-the-wing:
Q
Hi-Flash Prist 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.
Q
D-Ice Flash 190, 20 fluid ounce aerosol blender.
Biocide Additive
BIOBOR JF is approved for use as a biocide additive when pre-
mixed in the fuel supply facility. Concentration is not to exceed
270 ppm.

CAUTION: Drain all sumps prior to refueling with fuel con-


taining Biobor JF.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Electronic Fuel Computer Adjustment


The engine electrical fuel computer (Figure 6-1) must be
adjusted to the Engine Log Book recommended specific gravity
position for the type of fuel. If no entry in the Engine Log Book,
ensure the following settings are observed.
Jet A, Jet A-1, JP-5, JP-8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSITION 5
Jet B, JP-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSITION 6
50% or more Aviation Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . . POSITION 7

The fuel density adjustment selector has 11 positions num-


bered clockwise from lower left side of the dial. The knob
may be rotated one click either direction from the recom-
mended positions to compensate for individual engine char-
acteristics or installation effects.

WARNING: Engine surge may occur if the recommended


specific gravity adjustment is not adhered to. If surge
encountered, refer to engine maintenance manual.

CAUTION: Clockwise trim (corresponding to a decrease in


specific gravity setting) on the fuel computer without a
change in fuel specific gravity results in higher turbine tem-
peratures during start, acceleration, and deceleration.

6-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

6
5 FUEL SCHEDULING VIA
7 ENGINE FUEL (COMPUTERS)

8
NORMAL
4

FUEL
3 AV 9 COMPUTER
GAS MODE
SWITCH

10
2
MANUAL
1 11 (ENGINE OVERSPEED
PROTECTION WITH FUEL
FUEL DENSITY COMPUTERS NOT IN USE)
ADJUSTMENT

Figure 6-1. Engine Electrical Fuel Computer

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-11


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Refueling
Refuel tanks through filler openings in each wing tip tank. Fuel
gravity flows from wings into the tips. Standby pumps in the
wing sumps pump fuel into the fuselage tank. Ensure aircraft in
a designated fueling area; fire equipment should be available.

Fuel Truck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GROUND


Aircraft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOND TO TRUCK
Fuel Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOND TO AIRCRAFT
Ground Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT
Tip Tank Filler Caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE

WARNING: Ground fuel truck to apron and to the nose gear


uplatch spacer. Ground fuel nozzle to tip tank ground jack
prior to removing filler cap; this precludes possible fire and/or
explosion due to static electricity or sparks.

6-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

To blend anti-ice additive:


Prist Blender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATTACH TO NOZZLE
. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(Figure 6-2)
Fuel Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .REGULATE FLOW RATE
Flow rate should be between 30 and 50 gallons per minute.
Prist Blender . . . . . . . . DIRECT FLOW INTO FUEL STREAM
Prist Blender . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOP FLOW
Fuel Nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOP FUEL FLOW

CAUTION: Ensure additive is directed into the fuel stream.


Ensure the additive flow begins after the fuel flow starts. Stop
the additive flow before the fuel flow stops. Do not allow con-
centrated additive to contact interior of fuel tank or aircraft
painted surfaces.

ANTI-ICING ADDITIVE PHF-204


RING HI-FLO PRIST (20 FL. OZ. CAN)
BLENDER TUBE (MUST BE ATTACHED
SO THAT ADDITIVE DISCHARGES
INTO THE FUEL STREAM)

FUEL NOZZLE
TRIGGER
REFUELING
MAT

Figure 6-2. Attaching Refueling Nozzle

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-13


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
To fill wing and tip tank:
Fuel to Tip Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOP AT 125 GAL
Fuel to Opposite Tip Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . STOP AT 250 GAL
Switch Sides . . . . . . . . . . . . STOP WITH FUEL IN BALANCE
Filler Caps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INSTALL
Ground Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REMOVE

WARNING: Do not completely fill one tank before adding fuel


to the opposite side. Fill both tanks simultaneously or main-
tain a maximum imbalance of 125 gallons between sides.

6-14 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

To fill fuselage tank:


Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
GPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECT
GPU should indicate 28V DC. Do not connect or disconnect
GPU while refueling is in progress.
XFER/OFF/FILL Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FILL
FUS VAL Switch (if installed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CLOSE
When desired quantity indicated or FULL light illuminated:
XFER/OFF/FILL Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF
Battery Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OFF

CAUTION: Monitor filling operation. If fuselage float switch


does not stop fuel transfer into fuselage tank, fuel overflows
into the wing vent system and out through wing vent air
scoops. If this occurs:
Q stop fueling operation
Q turn off transfer and battery switches
Q drain fuel vent sump until dry
Q ensure fuselage float switch repaired.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-15


October 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Hydraulic Fluid
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MIL-H-5606 RED FLUID
Reservoir Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.9 GALLONS
1.5 gallons available to engine-driven pump
0.4 gallons available to auxiliary pump

Hydraulic Accumulator Preload


Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .DRY AIR OR NITROGEN
Hydraulic System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .850 PSI
Dee Howard Thrust Reverser . . . . . . . . . . . .900 TO 1,000 PSI

Landing Gear Struts


Type . . . . . . . . . . . DRY AIR OR NITROGEN AND MIL-H-5606
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .HYDRAULIC FLUID

6-16 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Landing Gear
Strut Extension
Full Fuel/No Baggage, Passengers, or Crew:
Main . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 TO 3.5 INCHES
Nose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.25 TO 5.75 INCHES

Tire Inflation
Unloaded Pressures:
Nose Wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 TO 110 PSI
Main Wheels:
17,000 MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 TO 150 PSI
18,000 MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 TO 161 PSI
18,300 MTOGW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 TO 165 PSI
Loaded Pressures: Add approximately 4% to above pressures.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-17


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Oxygen
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL-O-27210,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TYPE I BREATHING OXYGEN
Normal Pressure Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,500 TO 1,850 PSI
Purge Required. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 PSI

Windshield Anti-Ice Fluid


Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIL-O-M-232,
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .GRADE A METHYL ALCOHOL
Electric Pump System Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 GALLONS
Bleed Air Pressurized System Capacity . . . . 1.75 GALLONS

6-18 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Deicing Supplemental Information


This section provides supplementary information on aircraft
deicing, anti-icing/deicing fluids, deicing procedures, and air-
craft operating procedures. Consult the AFM, Maintenance
Manual Chapter 12 – Servicing, and FAA Advisory Circulars for
deicing procedures, fluid specifications, recommendations, and
hazards.
Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) prohibit takeoff with snow,
ice, or frost adhering to the wings and control surfaces of the
aircraft. It is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command to ensure
the aircraft is free of snow, ice, or frost before takeoff.
Failure to adequately deice the aircraft can result in seriously
degraded aircraft performance, loss of lift, and erratic engine
and flight instrument indications.
Following extended high-altitude flight, frost can form at ambi-
ent temperatures above freezing on the wing’s underside in the
fuel tank areas. Refueling the aircraft with warmer fuel usually
melts the frost.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-19


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Deicing
When necessary, use the following methods to deice the air-
craft:
Q placing the aircraft in a warm hangar until the ice melts
Q mechanically brushing the snow or ice off with brooms,
brushes, or other means
Q
applying a heated water/glycol solution (one-step proce-
dure)
Q applying heated water followed by an undiluted glycol-
based fluid (two-step procedure).
Deicing Fluids
Two types of anti-icing/deicing fluids are in commercial use:
SAE/ISO Types I and II/IV. Type I fluids are used generally in
North America. Type II/IV fluids, also referred to as AEA Type
II/IV, are used generally in Europe.
Type I fluids are unthickened glycol-based fluids that are usu-
ally diluted with water and applied hot; they provide limited
holdover time.
Type II/IV fluids are thickened glycol-based fluids that are usu-
ally applied cold on a deiced aircraft; they provide longer hold-
over times than Type I fluids.

NOTE: Holdover time is the estimated time that an anti-


icing/ deicing fluid protects a treated surface from ice or
frost formation.

6-20 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Many factors influence snow, ice, and frost accumulation and


the effectiveness of deicing fluids. These factors include:
Q ambient temperature and aircraft surface temperature
Q relative humidity, precipitation type, and rate
Q wind velocity and direction
Q operation on snow, slush, or wet surfaces
Q operation near other aircraft, equipment, and buildings
Q presence of deicing fluid and its type, dilution strength,
and application method.

CAUTION: Type II/IV FPD generally should not be applied


forward of the wing leading edges. If used for deicing, do not
apply forward of cockpit windows. Ensure that radome and
cockpit windows are clean.

CAUTION: If engines are running when spraying of deicing


fluids is in progress, turn cabin and crew conditioning
switches to OFF.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-21


February 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Deicing Procedures
One-step deicing involves spraying the aircraft with a heated,
diluted deicing/anti-icing fluid to remove ice, snow, or frost. The
fluid coating then provides limited protection from further accu-
mulation.
Two-step deicing involves spraying the aircraft with hot water or
a hot water/deicing fluid mixture to remove any ice, snow, or
frost accumulation followed immediately by treatment with anti-
icing fluid (usually Type II/IV FPD fluid).
Deice the aircraft from top to bottom. Avoid flushing snow, ice,
or frost onto treated areas. Start the deicing process by treating
the horizontal stabilizer followed by the vertical stabilizer. Con-
tinue by treating the fuselage top and sides. Finally, apply deic-
ing fluid to the wings.
Deicing fluid should not be applied to:
Q pitot/static tubes, static ports, temperature probes, AOA
vanes, or TAT probe
Q gaps between control surfaces and airfoil
Q cockpit windows
Q passenger windows
Q air and engine inlets and exhausts
Q vents and drains
Q wing and control surface trailing edges
Q brakes

CAUTION: Do not use deicing fluid for engines. After deicing


engine, start engine(s) immediately to prevent any reicing
condition. Select engine anti-ice on after engine start.

6-22 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Deicing fluid sprayed into an operating engine can introduce


smoke or vapors into the cabin and cockpit and pose a serious
fire hazard.
Do not use deicing fluid to deice engines. Mechanically remove
snow and ice from the engine inlet. Check the first stage fan
blades for freedom of movement. If engine does not rotate
freely, deice engine with hot air.
After aircraft deicing and anti-icing, visually inspect the follow-
ing areas to ensure that they are free from ice, snow, and frost
accumulations:
Q
wing leading edges, upper and lower surfaces
Q vertical and horizontal stabilizer leading edges, side pan-
els, and upper and lower surfaces
Q ailerons, elevator, and rudder
Q flaps, flap tracks, and flap drive mechanisms
Q ground and flight spoilers
Q engine inlets and exhausts
Q cockpit windows
Q communication and navigation antennas
Q fuselage
Q AOA probes, pitot tubes, static ports, and SAT/TAS probe
Q fuel tank vents
Q cooling air inlets and exhausts
Q
landing gear including brakes, wheels, tires, struts, and
doors.
When unsure of wing cleanliness, perform a “hands on” inspec-
tion to verify that all wing surfaces are clean of ice, snow, and-
frost.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-23


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite
When performing snow removal, observe the following.
Q Do not use isopropyl alcohol on rubber or plastic compo-
nents.
Q Do not use isopropyl alcohol on windows or above fuse-
lage window line. Alcohol crazes and cracks acrylic win-
dows.
Q Remove all snow accumulations on fuselage forward of
windshield. Avoid damage to pitot tubes.
Q Avoid using deicing fluid for snow removal. Dilution of
deicing fluid by melted snow results in a weak mixture
that can refreeze.
Q Do not use tools to scrape, scratch, or chip ice from sur-
faces or from between fixed and moveable surfaces or
components.
Q Do not beat aircraft surface to loosen ice.
Q Avoid hot air temperatures above 200°F (93.3°C) when
using heat to melt snow, ice, or frost.
Q Use hot air carefully around windows. Excessive temper-
atures on windows can crack or craze cold windows.
Q Exercise extreme care when using hot air to prevent
damage to hoses, painted surfaces, and acrylic, plastic,
fiberglass, and rubber components.
During deicing observe the following.
Q Avoid excessive use of deicing fluid to prevent flushing of
slush into areas forward of control surfaces.
Q When applying fluid, avoid pressures 300 PSI or greater.
Q
Exercise extreme caution when moving deicing equip-
ment around aircraft. Maintain adequate separation
between equipment and aircraft.

6-24 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Servicing

Q A fine mist of deicing fluid applied two or three times pro-


vides better anti-icing protection than a single heavy
application.
Q
Apply deicing fluid to lower surfaces if anticipating taxi
and takeoff through snow.
Q Follow all deicing fluid manufacturer’s recommendations
and procedures.
Q Do not use diluted deicing fluid for anti-icing. Melting
snow will further dilute the solution and refreezing can
occur.
Q After deicing the aircraft nose, wipe all remaining traces
of fluid from area in front of windshield.

CAUTION: After deicing wings and empennage, check flap


wells for slush and/or ice accumulations. Ensure that all drain
holes are clear.

CAUTION: Check all primary flight control surfaces by hand


movement through full travel stop before any movement is
attempted with control wheel, yoke, or rudder pedals. Trim
and control tabs should be operated through full travel range.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-25


February 2001
CAE SimuFlite

Post Deicing Procedures


Deicing Inspection
After deicing, the following areas should be free of snow, ice, or
frost:
Q wings leading edges, upper and lower surfaces, ailerons,
balance bays, flaps, ground spoilers, speedbrakes, and
fuel vents. A “hands on” inspection may be necessary.
Q
horizontal and vertical stabilizer leading edges, side pan-
els, upper and lower surfaces, elevators, rudder, balance
bays, and trim tabs
Q fuselage windshields, windows, radome, pitot tubes,
static ports, AOA probes/vanes, air inlets and exhausts,
and antennas
Q engines inlet
Q landing gear wheels, brakes, tires, wheel well, and doors.
Taxi
During taxi on ice or snow covered surfaces, observe the
following.
Q Maintain a greater than normal distance between aircraft.
Q Do not use reverse thrust. If reverse thrust used, rein-
spect the aircraft for snow, ice, and frost accumulations.
Q Taxi with the flaps up. Do not perform Taxi/Before Take
off checklist until flaps are extended.
Q
Periodically conduct engine run-ups to as high a thrust
setting as practical.
Q
Turn ENGINE and WING ANTI-ICE switches ON immedi-
ately after engine start.
Q
Conduct final pre-takeoff inspection five minutes before
takeoff.

6-26 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2001
Servicing

Pre-takeoff Inspection
Within five minutes of takeoff, conduct an exterior aircraft
inspection from within the aircraft to:
Q note any loss of anti-icing fluid effectiveness
Q examine visible aircraft surfaces for ice and snow accu-
mulation
Q
use windshield wipers to observe ice or snow accumula-
tions.
If uncertain of current aircraft condition, conduct an exterior
“hands on” inspection or deice the aircraft again before flight.

Takeoff
During takeoff observe the following.
Q Do not use reduced thrust.
Q Accomplish an engine run-up to highest practical thrust
and observe stable engine operation before brake
release.
Q After setting takeoff throttle, verify that LP RPM and other
engine indications are normal.
Q Rotate to normal takeoff attitude at VR and not before.
Approach and Landing
During the descent approach observe the following.
Q Anticipate use of engine and wing anti-icing.
Q Arm AUTO ground spoilers for landing. At touchdown,
deploy manual speedbrakes.
Q As the ground spoilers and thrust reversers actuate,
immediately lower nose wheel to runway.
Q
With the anti-skid system operational, apply normal brak-
ing smoothly and symmetrically to maintain direction con-
trol.
Q Do not use asymmetric thrust on icy or slippery runways.
Q Be prepared for possible downwind drift on icy or slippery
runways with crosswind when using reverse thrust.
Q
Do not attempt to turn off runway at too high speeds.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 6-27


February 2001
CAE SimuFlite

6-28 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 2001
Emergency Information

Emergency Information
Table of Contents
The ABCs of Emergency CPR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Heart Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Choking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Emergency Equipment Record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Emergency Exits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 7-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Airway

Breathing

Circulation Reproduced with permission. © MedAire, Inc.

7-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Emergency Information

The ABCs of Emergency CPR


Establish victim’s unresponsiveness.
Gently shake victim and shout, “Are you all right?”

AIRWAY
Q
Open airway: lift chin, tilt head. (With neck injury, lift
chin but do not tilt head.)
Q Look for chest movement.
Q Listen for sound of breathing.
Q
Feel for breath on your cheek.

BREATHING
Q Head tilt position – pinch victim’s nose shut while lifting
chin with your other hand.
Q Give two full breaths while maintaining airtight seal with
your mouth over victim’s mouth.

NOTE: A pocket mask can be used instead, but proper head


position and air-tight seal must be maintained.

CIRCULATION
Q Locate carotid artery pulse; hold 10 seconds. If no pulse:
Q Begin external chest compressions by locating hand
position two fingers above notch and placing heal of hand
on breastbone.
Q Perform 15 compressions of 11/2 to 2 inches at a rate of
80 to 100 compressions per minute. (Count, “One and
two and three and …,” etc.) Come up smoothly, keeping
hand contact with victim’s chest at all times.
Q Repeat the cycle of two breaths, 15 compressions until
victim’s pulse and breathing return. If only the pulse is
present, continue rescue breathing until medical assis-
tance is available.

Reproduced with permission. © MedAire, Inc.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 7-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Heart Attack
Signals
Q
Pressure, squeezing, fullness, or pain in center of chest
behind breastbone.
Q
Sweating
Q Nausea
Q Shortness of breath
Q Feeling of weakness
Actions for Survival
Q Recognize signals
Q Stop activity and lie or sit down
Q Provide oxygen if available
Q If signals persist greater than two minutes, get victim to
medical assistance

‘Reproduced with permission. © MedAire, Inc.

7-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Emergency Information

Choking
If victim can cough or speak:
Q encourage continued coughing
Q provide oxygen if available.
If victim cannot cough or speak
Q perform Heimlich maneuver (abdominal thrusts):
1. stand behind victim; wrap arms around victim’s waist
2. place fist of one hand (knuckles up) in upper abdo-
men*
3. grasp fist with opposite hand
4. press fist into upper abdomen* with quick, inward and-
upward thrusts
5. perform maneuver until foreign body is expelled
Q provide supplemental oxygen if available.
*If victim is pregnant or obese, perform chest thrusts instead of
abdominal thrusts.

‘Reproduced with permission. © MedAire, Inc.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 7-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Emergency Equipment Record


EMERGENCY DATE LAST
LOCATION
EQUIPMENT SERVICED

First Aid Kit

Fire Extinguisher(s)

Fire Axe

Life Raft

Life Vests Seat Pockets


Theraputic
Oxygen
Overwater
Survival Kit

Other:

7-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Emergency Information

Emergency Exits
The plug-type emergency exit opens inward for quick egress.
Q To open an emergency exit from outside the aircraft,
push the release plate above the window. The window
unlocks and falls into the cabin.
Q To open an emergency exit from inside the aircraft, pull
the red release handle above the window. The window
unlocks and falls into the cabin. A fabric handle facilitates
evacuation.

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 7-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

7-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Conversion Tables

Conversion Tables

Table of Contents
Distance Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Meters/Feet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3
Statute Miles/Kilometers/Nautical Miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Kilometers/Nautical Miles/Statute Miles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
Weight Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Fuel Weight to Volume Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-7
Volume Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Temperature Conversion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Altimeter Setting Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Cabin Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 8-1


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

8-2 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Conversion Tables

Distance Conversion
Meters/Feet
Meters Feet / Meters Feet
.3048 1 3.2908
.61 2 6.58
.91 3 9.87
1.22 4 13.16
1.52 5 16.45
1.83 6 19.74
2.13 7 23.04
2.44 8 26.33
2.74 9 29.62
3.1 10 32.9
6.1 20 65.8
9.1 30 98.7
12.2 40 131.6
15.2 50 165.5
18.3 60 197.4
21.3 70 230.4
24.4 80 263.3
27.4 90 296.2
31 100 329
61 200 658
91 300 987
122 40 1316
152 500 1645
183 600 1974
213 700 2304
244 800 2633
274 900 2962
305 1000 3291

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 8-3


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Statute Miles/Kilometers/Nautical Miles


Statute Miles Kilometers Nautical Miles
.62137 1 .53996
1.24 2 1.08
1.86 3 1.62
2.49 4 2.16
3.11 5 2.70
3.73 6 3.24
4.35 7 3.78
4.97 8 4.32
5.59 9 4.86
6.21 10 5.40
12.43 20 10.80
18.64 30 16.20
24.85 40 21.60
31.07 50 27.00
37.28 60 32.40
43.50 70 37.80
49.71 80 43.20
55.92 90 48.60
62.14 100 54.00
124.27 200 107.99
186.41 300 161.99
248.55 40 215.98
310.69 500 269.98
372.82 600 323.98
434.96 700 377.97
497.10 800 431.97
559.23 900 485.96
621.37 1000 539.96

8-4 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Conversion Tables

Kilometers/Nautical Miles/Statute Miles


Kilometers Nautical Miles Statute Miles
1.8520 1 1.1508
3.70 2 2.30
5.56 3 3.45
7.41 4 4.60
9.26 5 5.75
11.11 6 6.90
12.96 7 8.06
14.82 8 9.21
16.67 9 10.36
18.52 10 11.51
37.04 20 23.02
55.56 30 34.52
74.08 40 46.03
92.60 50 57.54
111.12 60 69.05
129.64 70 80.56
148.16 80 92.06
166.68 90 103.57
185.20 100 115.08
370.40 200 230.16
555.60 300 345.24
740.80 40 460.32
926.00 500 575.40
111120 600 690.48
1296.40 700 805.56
1481.60 800 920.64
1666.80 900 1305.72
1852.00 1000 1150.80

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 8-5


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Weight Conversion
Lbs/Kilograms
Lbs Kgs / Lbs Kgs
2.2046 1 .4536
4.40 2 .91
6.61 1.36
8.82 4 1.81
11.02 5 2.27
13.23 6 2.72
15.43 7 3.18
17.64 8 3.63
19.84 9 4.08
22.0 10 4.5
44.1 20 9.1
66.1 30 13.6
88.2 40 18.1
110.2 50 22.7
132.3 60 27.2
154.3 70 31.8
176.4 80 36.3
198.4 90 40.8
220 100 45
441 200 91
661 300 136
882 40 181
1102 500 227
1323 600 272
1543 700 318
1764 800 363
1984 900 408
2205 1000 454

8-6 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Conversion Tables

Fuel Weight to Volume Conversion


U.S. Gal/Lbs; Liter/Lbs; Liter/Kg
TURBINE FUEL Volume/Weight
(up to 5 lbs variation per 100 gallons due to fuel grade and temperature)
U.S. U.S.
Gal Lbs Gal Lbs Ltr Lbs Ltr Lbs Ltr Kg Ltr Kg
.15 1 6.7 .57 1 1.8 1.25 1 .8
.30 2 13.4 1.14 2 3.6 2.50 2 1.6
.45 3 20.1 1.71 3 5.4 3.75 3 2.4
.60 4 26.8 2.28 4 7.2 5.00 4 3.2
.75 5 33.5 2.85 5 9.0 6.25 5 4.0
.90 6 40.2 3.42 6 10.8 7.50 6 4.8
1.05 7 46.9 3.99 7 12.6 8.75 7 5.6
1.20 8 53.6 4.56 8 14.4 10.00 8 6.4
1.35 9 60.3 5.13 9 16.2 11.25 9 7.2
1.5 10 67 5.7 10 18 12.5 10 8
3.0 20 134 11.4 20 36 25.0 20 16
4.5 30 201 17.1 30 54 37.5 30 24
6.0 40 268 22.8 40 72 50.0 40 32
7.5 50 335 28.5 50 90 62.5 50 40
9.0 60 402 34.2 60 108 75.0 60 48
10.5 70 469 39.9 70 126 87.5 70 56
12.0 80 536 45.6 80 144 100.0 80 64
13.5 90 603 51.3 90 162 113.5 90 72
15 100 670 57 100 180 125 100 80
30 200 1340 114 200 360 250 200 160
45 300 2010 171 300 540 375 300 240
60 400 2680 228 400 720 500 400 320
75 500 3350 285 500 900 625 500 400
90 600 4020 342 600 1080 750 600 480
105 700 4690 399 700 1260 875 700 560
120 800 5360 456 800 1440 1000 800 640
135 900 6030 513 900 1620 1125 900 720

150 1000 6700 570 1000 1800 1250 1000 800

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 8-7


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Volume Conversion
Imp Gal/U.S. Gal; U.S. Gal/Ltr; Imp Gal/Ltr

Imp U.S. Imp U.S. U.S. U.S. Imp Imp


Gal Gal Gal Gal Gal Ltr Gal Ltr Gal Ltr Gal Ltr
.83267 1 1.2010 .26418 1 3.7853 .21997 1 4.5460
1.67 2 2.40 .52 2 7.57 0.44 2 9.09

2.49 3 3.60 .79 3 11.35 0.66 3 13.64


3.33 4 4.80 1.06 4 15.14 0.88 4 18.18
4.16 5 6.01 1.32 5 18.92 1.10 5 23.73
5.00 6 7.21 1.59 6 22.71 1.32 6 27.28
5.83 7 8.41 1.85 7 26.50 1.54 7 31.82
6.66 8 9.61 2.11 8 30.28 1.76 8 36.37
7.49 9 10.81 2.38 9 34.07 1.98 9 40.91
8.3 10 12.0 2.6 10 37.9 2.2 10 45.6
16.7 20 24.0 5.3 20 75.7 4.4 20 91.0
24.9 30 36.0 7.9 30 113.5 6.6 30 136.4
33.3 40 48.0 10.6 40 151.4 8.8 40 181.8
41.6 50 60.1 13.2 50 189.2 11.0 50 227.3
50.0 60 72.1 15.9 60 227.1 13.2 60 272.8
58.3 70 84.1 18.5 70 265.0 15.4 70 318.2
66.6 80 96.1 21.1 80 302.8 17.6 80 363.7
74.9 90 108.1 23.8 90 340.7 19.8 90 409.1
83 100 120 26.4 100 379 22 100 455
167 200 240 53 200 757 44 200 909
249 300 360 79 300 1136 66 300 1364
333 400 480 106 400 1514 88 400 1818
416 500 601 132 500 1893 110 500 2273
500 600 721 159 600 2271 132 600 2728
583 700 841 185 700 2650 154 700 3182
666 800 961 211 800 3028 176 800 3637
749 900 1081 238 900 3407 198 900 4091

833 1000 1201 264 1000 3785 220 1000 4546

8-8 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Conversion Tables

Temperature Conversion
Celsius/Fahrenheit
C F C F C F C F C F
-54 -65 -32 -26 -10 14 12 54 34 93
-53 -63 -31 -24 - 9 16 13 55 35 95
-52 -62 -30 -22 - 8 18 14 57 36 97
-51 -60 -29 -20 - 7 19 15 59 37 99
-50 -58 -28 -18 - 6 21 16 61 38 100
-49 -56 -27 -17 - 5 23 17 63 39 102
-48 -54 -26 -15 - 4 25 18 64 40 104
-47 -53 -25 -13 - 3 27 19 66 41 106
-46 -51 -24 -11 - 2 28 20 68 42 108
-45 -49 -23 - 9 - 1 30 21 70 43 109
-44 -47 -22 - 8 0 32 22 72 44 111
-43 -45 -21 - 6 1 34 23 73 45 113
-42 -44 -20 - 4 2 36 24 75 46 115
-41 -42 -19 - 2 3 37 25 77 47 117
-40 -40 -18 0 4 39 26 79 48 118
-39 -38 -17 1 5 41 27 81 49 120
-38 -36 -16 - 3 6 43 28 82 50 122
-37 -35 -15 - 5 7 45 29 84 51 124
-36 -33 -14 - 7 8 46 30 86 52 126
-35 -31 -13 - 9 9 48 31 88 53 127
-34 -29 -12 -10 10 50 32 90 54 129
-33 -27 -11 -12 11 52 33 91 55 131

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 8-9


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)


Altitude/Temperature

Altitude ISA Altitude ISA Altitude ISA Altitude ISA


(ft) (!C) (ft) (!C) (ft) (!C) (ft) (!C)
S.L. 15.0 11,000 -6.8 22,000 -28.5 33,000 -50.3
1,000 13.0 12,000 -8.8 23,000 -30.5 34,000 -52.3
2,000 11.0 13,000 -10.7 24,000 -32.5 35,000 -54.2
3,000 9.1 14,000 -12.7 25,000 -34.5 36,000 -56.2
4,000 7.1 15,000 -14.7 26,000 -36.5 37,000 -56.5
5,000 5.1 16,000 -16.7 27,000 -38.4 38,000 -56.5
6,000 3.1 17,000 -18.7 28,000 -40.4 39,000 -56.5
7,000 1.1 18,000 -20.6 29,000 -42.4 40,000 -56.5
8,000 -0.8 19,000 -22.6 30,000 -44.4 41,000 -56.5
9,000 -2.8 20,000 -24.6 31,000 -46.3 42,000 -56.5
10,000 -4.8 21,000 -26.6 32,000 -48.3 43,000 -56.5

8-10 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998
Conversion Tables

Altimeter Setting Conversion


Hectopascals or Millibars/Inches of Mercury
1 hectopascal = 1 millibar = 0.02953 inch of mercury

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Hectopascals
or Millibars
Inches of Mercury

880 25.99 26.02 26.05 26.07 26.10 26.13 26.16 26.19 26.22 26.25

890 26.28 26.31 26.34 26.37 26.40 26.43 26.46 26.49 26.52 26.55

900 26.58 26.61 26.64 26.67 26.70 26.72 26.75 26.78 26.81 26.84

910 26.87 26.90 26.93 26.96 26.99 27.02 27.05 27.08 27.11 27.14

920 27.17 27.20 27.23 27.26 27.29 27.32 27.34 27.37 27.40 27.43

930 27.46 27.49 27.52 27.55 27.58 27.61 27.64 27.67 27.70 27.73

940 27.76 27.79 27.82 27.85 27.88 27.91 27.94 27.96 27.99 28.02

950 28.05 28.08 28.11 28.14 28.17 28.20 28.23 28.26 28.29 28.32

960 28.35 28.38 28.41 28.44 28.47 28.20 28.53 28.56 28.58 28.61

970 28.64 28.67 28.70 28.73 28.76 28.79 28.82 28.85 28.88 28.91

980 28.94 28.97 29.00 29.03 28.06 29.09 29.12 29.15 29.18 29.21

990 29.23 29.26 29.29 29.32 29.35 29.38 29.41 29.44 29.47 29.50

1000 29.53 29.56 29.59 29.62 29.65 29.68 29.71 29.74 29.77 29.80

1010 29.83 29.85 29.88 29.91 29.94 29.97 30.00 30.03 30.06 30.09

1020 30.12 30.15 30.18 30.21 30.24 30.27 30.30 30.33 30.36 30.39

1030 30.42 30.45 30.47 30.50 30.53 30.56 30.59 30.62 30.65 30.68

1040 30.71 30.74 30.77 30.80 30.83 30.86 30.89 30.92 30.95 30.98

1050 31.01 31.04 31.07 31.10 31.12 31.15 31.18 31.21 31.24 31.27

Leerjet 35/36 Developed for Training Purposes 8-11


February 1998
CAE SimuFlite

Cabin Altitude

8-12 Developed for Training Purposes Leerjet 35/36


February 1998