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7/6/2017 Grendel - Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Grendel is a being originated from the Anglo-Saxon epic poem Beowulf

(AD 7001000). He is one of poem's three antagonists (along with
Grendel's mother and the dragon), all aligned in opposition against the
protagonist Beowulf. Grendel is feared by all but Beowulf. Grendel is
usually depicted as a monster or a giant, although his status is not clearly
described in the poem and thus remains the subject of scholarly debate.

In John Gardner's book Grendel (1971),[1] Grendel has more humanistic

qualities and the book is narrated from his perspective.

1 Story
2 Scholarship
2.1 Tolkien An illustration of Grendel by J.R.
2.2 Debate over description Skelton from Stories of Beowulf.
2.2.1 Debate over Grendel's nature Grendel is described as "Very terrible
3 Grendel in film, literature, and popular culture to look upon."
4 Notes
5 References

The poem Beowulf is contained in the Nowell Codex. As noted in lines 105114 and lines 12601267 of Beowulf,
Grendel and his mother are described as descendants of the Biblical Cain. Beowulf leaves the Geats to destroy
Grendel, who has several times killed those asleep in the mead-hall of Heorot, after having been disturbed by the
noise of the drunken revellers. Beowulf and his warriors bed down in the mead hall to await the inevitable attack of
the creature. Grendel stalks outside the building for a time, spying the warriors inside. He then makes a sudden
attack, bursting the door with his fists and continuing through the entry. The first warrior Grendel finds is still
asleep, so he seizes the man and devours him (gory detail is given). Grendel grabs a second warrior, but is shocked
when the warrior grabs back with fearsome strength. As Grendel attempts to disengage, he and the reader both
discover that Beowulf is that second warrior. A battle ensues, with Beowulf's warriors attempting to aid in the
melee. Finally Beowulf tears off Grendel's arm, mortally wounding the creature. Grendel flees but dies in his
marsh-den. There, Beowulf later engages in a fierce battle with Grendel's mother, over whom he triumphs.
Following her death, Beowulf finds Grendel's corpse and removes his head, which he keeps as a trophy. Beowulf
then returns to the surface and to his men at the "ninth hour" (l. 1600, "nn", about 3 p.m.).[2] He returns to Heorot,
where a grateful Hrothgar showers him with gifts.

Tolkien 1/5
7/6/2017 Grendel - Wikipedia

In 1936, J.R.R. Tolkien's Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics discussed Grendel and the dragon in Beowulf.
This essay was the first work of scholarship in which Anglo-Saxon literature was seriously examined for its
literary merits not just scholarship about the origins of the English language, or what historical information could
be gleaned from the text, as was popular in the 19th Century. Tolkien wrote his own translation of Beowulf
entitled, Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary together with Sellic Spell[3] between 1920 and 1926.

Debate over description

During the following decades, the exact description of Grendel became a source of debate for scholars. Indeed,
because his exact appearance is never directly described in Old English by the original Beowulf poet, part of the
debate revolves around what is known, namely his descent from the biblical Cain (who was the first murderer in
the Bible). Grendel is referred to as a sceadugenga shadow walker, night goer given that the monster was
repeatedly described to be in the shroud of darkness.[4][5]

Debate over Grendel's nature

Some scholars have linked Grendel's descent from Cain to the monsters and giants of the Cain tradition.[6]

Seamus Heaney, in his translation of Beowulf, writes in lines 13511355 that Grendel is vaguely human in shape,
though much larger:

... the other, warped

in the shape of a man, moves beyond the pale
bigger than any man, an unnatural birth
called Grendel by the country people
in former days.[7]

Heaney's translation of lines 16371639 also notes that Grendel's disembodied head is so large that it takes four
men to transport it. Furthermore, in lines 983989, when Grendel's torn arm is inspected, Heaney describes it as
being covered in impenetrable scales and horny growths:

Every nail, claw-scale and spur, every spike

and welt on the hand of that heathen brute
was like barbed steel. Everybody said
there was no honed iron hard enough
to pierce him through, no time proofed blade
that could cut his brutal blood caked claw[8]

Peter Dickinson (1979) argued that seeing as the considered distinction between man and beast at the time the
poem was written was simply man's bipedalism, the given description of Grendel being man-like does not
necessarily imply that Grendel is meant to be humanoid, going as far as stating that Grendel could easily have been
a bipedal dragon.[9]

Other scholars such as Kuhn (1979) have questioned a monstrous description, stating:

There are five disputed instances of glca [three of which are in Beowulf, lines] 649, 1269, 1512 ... In the
first ... the referent can be either Beowulf or Grendel. If the poet and his audience felt the word to have two
meanings monster and hero the ambiguity would be troublesome; but if by glca they understood a
fighter, the ambiguity would be of little consequence, for battle was destined for both Beowulf and Grendel
and both were fierce fighters (216217). 2/5
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OKeefe has suggested that Grendel resembles a Berserker, because of numerous associations that seem to point to
this possibility.[10]

Sonya R. Jensen argues for an identification between Grendel and Agnar, son of Ingeld, and suggests that the tale
of the first two monsters is actually the tale of Ingeld, as mentioned by Alcuin in the 790s. The tale of Agnar tells
how he was cut in half by the warrior Bothvarr Bjarki (Warlike little Bear), and how he died with his lips separated
into a smile. One major parallel between Agnar and Grendel would thus be that the monster of the poem has a
name perhaps composed of a combination of the words gren and daelan. The poet may be stressing to his audience
that Grendel died laughing, or that he was gren-dael[ed] or "grin-divid[ed]", after having his arm torn off at the
shoulder by Beowulf, whose name means bee-wolf or bear.[11]

Grendel in film, literature, and popular culture

Grendel appears in many other cultural works. Here are a few examples.

Grendel appears in the speech Harold E. Varmus gave for winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine for his work on oncogenes, at the Nobel Banquet, December 10, 1989. He stated a cancer cell is
"like Grendel, a distorted vision of our normal selves".[12]
In The Wolf Among Us by Telltale Games, Grendel is magically disguised as a normal-looking human yet
possesses the attributes in the main story. Gren (short for Grendel) has the ability to transform into a white,
giant-like creature at will, resembling the giant in Beowulf. After a drawn-out fight, the player character,
Bigby Wolf (the Big Bad Wolf himself) has the option of ripping off his arm, as a nod to his original Beowulf
In John Gardner's novel Grendel (1971), the titular character tells his side of the epic poem Beowulf. The
novel goes deep into the philosophies of existentialism and nihilism, which philosophies Gardner challenges
by juxtaposing them against the heroic values that are held by those in Hrothgar's kingdom, which give
people of the kingdom meaning in life. Grendel is constantly torn between the philosophies he is forced to
live by in his isolation (existentialism and nihilism) and the heroic values the people live by. Gardner
proposes that these heroic values are innately human, and though Grendel is descended of man, they are
unattainable for him due to his exile from society and perceived monstrosity. The novel was nominated for
the 1972 Mythopoeic Award for best novel.[13]
Similar to this is the Marillion song Grendel, the B-side of Market Square Heroes, in which Grendel is
shown as a creature which is actually more moral than the average human and attacks the humans out of
vengeance, accusing them of "placing the killer's blade in my hands" and being disgusted at him for killing
humans when they've killed enough of their own kind anyway. As Grendel puts it in the song: "Why should I
feel pity when you kill your own kind and feel no shame? [...] Well I've had enough of all your pretty, pretty
speeches. Receive your punishment, expose your throats to my righteous claws!"
Grendel was featured in the 2007 film Beowulf where it was motion-captured and voiced by Crispin Glover.
This version is a grotesque humanoid who is revealed to have been born from a tryst between Grendel's
mother and Hrothgar.
Grendel appears in Once Upon a Time in Wonderland, a spin-off of Once Upon a Time, portrayed by Steve
Bacic. This version of Grendel is a half-beast half-human man who captures Alice and the Knave of Hearts
as they approach his home. They are seeking the Forget Me Knot, a magical rope that when placed over an
area, will show the viewer the last thing that happened there. They were informed of its location from the
Caterpillar. He ties them up as they witness the Grendel talking to a woman in a scene inside the Forget Me
Knot. As they escape, they run into a Bandersnatch, a monstrous wild boar-like creature who Alice has
battled before. The two successfully kill the beast with the Forget Me Knot and The Grendel thanks them for
saving his life. He then reveals to them that The Grendel used the rope to remember his late-wife. He further
explains that he stole the rope from the Red Queen. For his crime, she transformed him into the beast. He
gives Alice and the Knave the Forget Me Knot as it is useless to him now that the vision of his wife has been
over-written. He is later visited by Jafar and the Red Queen who promise to bring back his wife in return for 3/5
7/6/2017 Grendel - Wikipedia

him telling them who killed the Bandersnatch. He agrees, though Jafar tricks him by re-uniting him with his
wife....only through killing him.
In the Once Upon a Time episode "Ill-Boding Patterns," Beowulf faked a Grendel sighting and killed some
people in order to frame Rumpelstiltskin for their deaths and reclaim Hrunting.
In Neil Gaiman's 2003 short story The Monarch of the Glen, set in the world of Gaiman's American Gods,
Grendel appeared as the monster protagonist Shadow Moon was forced to fight in Scotland. Like most
mythological beings in this world Grendel could hide in plain sight as a slightly peculiar human. In this case,
Grendel hid as an unusually large and hairless man with his mother as a simple old woman. [14]

1. Gardner, John (1971). Grendel. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-27509-8.
2. Jack, George. Beowulf: A Student Edition. p. 123.
3. Tolkien, J. R. R., Christpher, and J. R. R. Tolkien. (2014). Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary : together with Sellic
4. Thorpe, Anglo-Saxon Poems, pg. 48
5. Heyne, Beowulf, pg. 129; pg. 228, s.v. "genga"; pg. 298, s.v. "scadu-genga"
6. Williams, David (1982). Cain and Beowulf: A Study in Secular Allegory. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
7. Heaney, Seamus. Beowulf lines 13511355.
8. Heaney, Seamus. Beowulf lines 983989.
9. Dickinson, Peter. The Flight of Dragons ch. 10 "Beowulf". New English Library, 1979.
10. Berserker (
11. Jensen, S R (1998). Beowulf and the Monsters. Sydney: ARRC.
12. Varmus, Harold E. (December 10, 1989). "Nobel Banquet Speech" (
13. "1972 Mythopoeic Award" ( Retrieved 2014-09-20.
14. Gaiman, Neil (2003). The Monarch of the Glen. Hammersmith, London W6 8JB: Voyager. ISBN 0007154356.

Jack, George. Beowulf : A Student Edition. Oxford University Press: New York, 1997.
Jensen, S R. Beowulf and the Monsters. ARRC: Sydney, corrected edition, 1998. Extracts available online.
----. Beowulf and the Battle-beasts of Yore. ARRC: Sydney, 2004. Available online.
Klaeber, Frederick, ed. Beowulf and the Fight at Finnsburg. Third ed. Boston: Heath, 1950.
Kuhn, Sherman M. "Old English Aglaeca-Middle Irish Olach". Linguistic Method : Essays in Honor of
Herbert Penzl. Eds. Irmengard Rauch and Gerald F. Carr. The Hague, New York: Mouton Publishers, 1979.
Tolkien, J.R.R. Beowulf, the Monsters and the Critics. (Sir Israel Gollancz Memorial Lecture, British
Academy, 1936). First ed. London: Humphrey Milford, 1937.
Cawson, Frank. "The Monsters in the Mind: The Face of Evil in Myth, Literature, and Contemporary Life".
Sussex, England: Book Guild, 1995: 3839.
Gardner, John. "Grendel". New York, 1971.
Thorpe, Benjamin (trans.). The Anglo-Saxon Poems of Beowulf: The Scp or Gleeman's Tale and the Fight
at Finnesburg Oxford University Press. 1885.
Heyne, Moritz. Harrison, James A. Sharp, Robert. Beowulf: An Anglo-Saxon Poem, and The Fight at
Finnsburg: a Fragment Boston, Massachusetts: Ginn & Company, 1895.

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