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Running Header: Descriptive Epidemiology 1

Descriptive Epidemiology

Kimberly Rhodes

Benedictine University

MPH 604
Descriptive Epidemiology 2

Describe each of the figures (1-5) with respect to person, time, and place (e.g.
descriptive epidemiology). Make sure to include numbers and details in your
descriptions. After all five figures, list some possible hypothesis for the pattern of
this disease. Use reliable, scholarly sources to support your hypothesis (e.g.
CDC, WHO, NIH, Mayo, etc.).

The incidence rate for the unknown disease is higher amongst young boys and girls
between the ages of 9 to 10. At adulthood the incidence rate is at its highest for both
men and woman between the ages of 50 to 54. Although the incidence rate for the
unknown disease is higher amongst men than that of woman for the majority of
individual life spans, it does remain the same for both between the ages of 25-29 and
remain higher for woman between the ages of 30-39. The incidence rate for the
unknown disease is at its lowest for both men and woman between the ages of 20 to
24.
Descriptive Epidemiology 3

The largest concentrations in geographical distribution for the unknown disease are the
north east coast, north California coast and Wisconsin/ Minnesota area. The most likely
reasons could include the association of these affected areas with major trade locations
in the United States.

Although New York has the highest amount of reported cases it does not appear to be
as concentrated as those in Connecticut and Rhode Island. This in itself could be
explained by understanding the amount of individuals living in New York is much higher,
yet the incidence rate per 100,000 could be lower due to stronger hygienic practices or
Descriptive Epidemiology 4

individuals simply were not seeking medical attention and hence the difference in rate of
cases.

Frequency of unknown disease is at its highest between the summer months of June
and July. Such disease might achieve its most favorable conditions in higher
temperatures and dry season.
Descriptive Epidemiology 5

The unknown disease has been steadily rising in frequency since 1982, showing signs
of slight decrease sporadically. In order to better understand which factors could have
contributed to the decreases in frequency during certain time periods we should conduct
a full social analysis of events that might have been taking place during those years.
Events such as changes in weather patterns, migration changes of either humans or
animals to the greatest affected areas, other forms of disease which might have been
confused with such disease or even reasons leading to the disease not being reported.
Descriptive Epidemiology 6

What are some possible explanations of this disease? Please also include the
sources of your information.

According to Friis (2014), the changes in frequency of diseases are observed


during certain months are called seasonal trends. As figure 4 demonstrates that the
frequency of the unknown disease is at the highest during the months of June and July.
By understanding the geographical distributation can help can help epidemiologist
create the possible linkage between disease such as time and place. As the months of
summer come around more people start to travel and seek the outdoors. Such changes
in human activity can potentially trigger a higher immediacy and increase the infection of
such diseases. Women have a stronger immune response to pathogen then man, thus
able to withstand disease better than men (Saleh, 2009). Estrogen in woman could be
the reason why woman immune systems are stronger than man. This would also
explain why men are common for having the unknown disease than females. Reason
for the steady increase without any sins of the disease could decrease the troublesome
depending on lethal of the disease. If the disease was a mutate then the consequences
of the disease could be overwhelming to the population.

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References:

Friis, R., & Sellers, T. (2014). Epidemiology for Public Health Practice. Chapter Four.
Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

McGill University Health Center (2009) Women Have a More Powerful Immune System
than Men, Retrieved from http://phys.org/news/2009-05-women-powerful-
immune-men.html