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ENGLISH FILE aa Ola -(eu.<-lencelm eats tem) Christina Latham-Koenig Clive Oxenden Mike Boyle OXFORD Siva vB RHF} GREE ava UR THT GR TE UHURU mrennnmreven ov vnmnmengnn ver eaea USB RU DED eee eevee ETc cere eee RESEERTSEETEOEDIEIO OXFORD Creat Clarendon Steet, Oxford. x2 6, United Kingdom Oxford University Press a department ofthe University’ of Osford lefurthers the University objective of excellence in esearch scholars, ‘nd eustion by publishing worldwide Oxford a reghtered rade rmarcof Oxford University Press inthe UK and in certain other counties ‘Oxford University Press 2014 ‘The moral ights ofthe autor have been assert st published in 2014 wos7eses ‘No unauthorized photocopying Alrights reserve. No part ofthis publication maybe reproduce, stored Inaretieval system of transmitted in ay fom or by any means, without the por permission in wating of Oxford Unversity Press, oras expres permitted by aby cence or nde terms agreed with the appropiate Feprographics rights organization. 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Oxford disclaims any responsibility forthe materials contained in any third party website referenced in this work Ths books printed on paper from certified and wellmanaged sources ‘uations Astash!HarpDutch Vac: pp5 6,7,9, 10,14, 15,16, 17,20,24, 22,2, Olivier LaykGood station It p.1, CONTENTS 4 10 ad FILE © present simple and continuous, action and non-action verbs © future forms FILE 2 © present perfect and past simple © present perfect + for | since, present perfect continuous FILES © comparatives and superlatives: adjectives and adverbs © articles: a / an, the, no article FILE 4 © can, could, be able to (ability and possibility) © have to, must, should FILES © pasttenses © present and past habits and states: usually and used to 14 16 18 20 22 FILEG © the passive: be + past participle © modals of deduction: might, can’t, must FILE7 © first conditional and future time clauses + when, until, etc. @ second conditional FILES © reported speech: sentences and questions © gerundsand infinitives FILES © third conditional © quantifiers FILE 10 @ relative clauses @ question tags 1A present simple and continuous, action and non-action verbs present simple: tive, he works, etc. 1 Iworkin a bank. She studies Russian, We don’t have any pets. jack doesn’t wear glasses, Where do you live? Does your brother have a car? 2 She usually has cereal for breakfast. Pm never late for work, We only eat out about once a month, 1 Weuse the present simple for things that are always true or happen regularly + Remember the spelling rules for thied person singular, eg lives, studies, watches. + Use ASI (Auxiliary, Subject, Infinitive) or QUASI (Question word, Auxiliary, Subject, Infinitive) to help you with word order in questions. Do you know David? What time does the film start? 2. Weoften use the present simple with adverbs of frequency, © asaly newer or expressions of equenc, 2 eery dey + Adverbs of frequency go before the main yerb, and after be. + Expressions of frequency usually go atthe end of the sentence or verb phrase. present continuous: be + verb +-ing A Whoare you waiting for? B P’mwaiting for a friend. A Is your sister still going ouc with Adam? B No, they broke up. She isn’t going out with anyone at the a Complete the sentences with the present simple or present continuous forms of the verbs in brackets, We don't travel very far when we're on holiday. (not travel) 1 [think you _ magazines. (spend) 2 What__we 3 Doyowusually advance? (book) t00 much money on fordinner? (have) jour holidays in 4 four mum __many clothes with her ‘on holiday? (take) 5 1___Iealian at the moment. (learn) 6 We many souvenirs abroad. (not buy) 7 youall___the sunshine today? (enjoy) 8 1_____tocontact the travel agent. (try) 9 Ifyou think street food is unsafe, 10 1__tohavea break soon. (want) -it. (noteat) ‘+ We use the present continuous (not the present simple) for actions in progress atthe rime of speaking, eg things that are happening now or around now. These are normally temporary, not habitual, actions, + Remember the spelling rules, e.g. living, studying, geting, ‘+ Wealso use the present continuous for future arrangements (ee 1B). action and non-action verbs A What are you cooking? B I'mmaking pasta, A Great! Hove pasta. A Whatare you looking for? B My car keys A ['llhelp you in a moment, B ButI need them now! + Verbs which describe actions, e.g, cook, make, can be used in the present simple or continuous. I'm making the lunch. Tusually make the lunch atthe weekend. * Verbs which describe states or feelings (not actions), e.g, love, eed, be, are non-action verbs. They are not usually ‘used in the present continuous, even ifwe mean ‘now’ + Common non-action verbs are agree, be, believe, belong, Aepend, forget, hate, hear, know, like, love, matter, mean, need, prefer, realize, recognize, remember, sem, suppose, Verbs than can be both action and non-action ‘A few verbs have an action and a non-action meaning, eg. have and think. Ihave a cat now. = possession non-action) ‘can't talk now. m having lunch. = an action | think this music's great. = opinion (non-action) What are you thinking about? = an action b Gircddthe correct form, present simple or present continuous. Fmnot understanding |(don't understand) these 1 Inced | 1m needing some black pepper for this dish. 2 Are you expecting | Do yowexpect the postman? 3 Fnnot liking | [don’t like spinach very much, 4 My brother goes | is going swimming every Thursday. 5 They build | are building a new house, 6 Isend | 'm sending a cext to my friend. 7. Are they coming | Do they come to town with us? 8 He doesn’t believe {isn't believing her story 9 Itry [’m trying to solve the problem! 10 This restaurant seems | is seeming very expensive to me. 1B future forms be going to+ infinitive future plans and intentions My sister's going to adopt a child. Are you going to buy anew car or a second-hand one? I'm not going to go to New York tomorrow. The meeting is, cancelled, predictions Barcelona are going to win. They're playing really well, Look at those black clouds I chink it's going to rain. + Weuse going co (NOT will won’) when we have already decided to do something. NOT Mysisterwilfadoptarchila, + Wealso use going toro make prediction about the future, especially when you can see or have some evidence (eg black clouds). present continuous: be + verb +-ing future arrangements Lorna and Jamie are getting married in October. ‘We're meeting at 10.00 tomorrow in Jack's office. Jane's Teaving on Friday and coming back next Tuesday + We often use the present continuous for future arrangements + There is very little difference berween the present continuous and going 10 for future plans / arrangements, and often you ‘canuse either. ~ going to shows that you have made a decision. We're going to get married next year. a Gee he correct form. Tick the sentence if both are possible ‘The students are going to study will study a Shakespeare play. 7 1 Shall your | Will your mother come to stay with you at Christmas? ‘The statue willbe | is going to be put up in the park. 3 The teachers will expect | shall expect us to work hard. 4 I'mnot going 10 attend | won't attend my cousin's birthday party. 5 The examination results shale [willbe put upon the noticeboard. 6 I'm going to ask [Pil ask Keira if she wants to come with us. 7 The garden is looking | will ook lovely in the 8 Will we {Shall we book tickets forthe cinema? 9 Fmnot going to send | I won't send an expensive gift. ENTRY CHECKER — the present continuous emphasizes that you have made the arrangements, We've getting married on 12 October, (we've booked the church, etc) + Weofien use the present continuous with verbs relating to travel arrangements, e.g. go, come, arrive, leave, etc. Tmgoing to Paris tomorrow and coming back on Tuesday. will / shall+infinitive instant decisions, promises, offers, predictions, future facts, suggestions 1 Pave the steak. (instant decision) Iwon't tell anybody where youare. (promise) Pllearry that bag for you. (offer) You'll ove New York! (prediction) Pitbeat homeallafternoon. (furure fact) 2 Shall Ihelp you with your homework? (offer) Shall we eat out tonight? (suggestion) si have the steak. 1 Weuse will won't(NOT the present simple) for instant decisions, promises, offers, and suggestions. NOT fearry that bag foryou + Wecan also use will / won’ for predictions, e.g. Iuhink Barcelona will win, and to talk about future facts, eg. The lection will bon Ist Marck. 2. Weuse shall (NOT will) with [and wefor offersand suggestions when they are questions. Complete B's replies with a correct future form. A Will your parents be here for lunch? B No, they won tarrite for some time yet. (notartive) 1A The train getsin at 6.15 p.m. B Oh-Ihope we 100 carly. (not be) 2. A Have you decided what sort of holiday to have? B Yes, we camping. (go) 3 A Are you going to get that coat now? B No, but! iconline tonight. (buy) 4 A Will needa coat? B Yes, the weather forecast saysit _ __. (snow) 5A Guess what! We're having a party and youre invited. B Thankyou! What__I_? (bring) 6 A What time does the flight leave? B Ican’'tremember-I_____youatext. (send) 7 A Ohdear—I've left my textbook at home. B I youmine? (lend) 8A My dog has gone missing, B 'msurehe back soon. (come) 2A present perfect and past simple present perfect simple: have/has + past participle (worked, seen, etc) 1 pastexperiences ve been to London, but I haven't been to Oxford. Have you ever lost your credit card? Sally has never met Bill's ex-wife 2 recent past actions Pye cut my finger! "Too late! Our train has just left! 3 with yerand already (for emphasis) Pye aiready seen this film ewice, Can't we watch another one? My brother hasn't found a new job yet. He's still looking, Have you finished your homework yet? No, not yet. 1. Weuse the present perfect for past experiences when we dont say exactly when they happened. ‘+ We often use ever and never when we ask or talk about past ‘experiences, They go before the main verb. 2. Weuse the present perfect for recent past actions, often with ust + just goes before the main verb, 3 We also use the present perfect with yet and already. + alrendyisused inFElsentences and goes hefore the main verb, + yetisused with E] sentences and 2} It goes at theend ofthe phase. a Complete the mini dialogues with the present perfect form of the verb in brackets and an adverb from the list. You can use the adverbs more than once, already ever just never yet A Whose is that €50 note? B Tvejust picked it yp from the street! (pick up) 1A Have you visited New York? B Noy! _ to America. (be) 2 A Do youneed to get a new suit for the wedding? B Noy! ‘one. (buy) 5. eee horse-riding? (ery) B No, [think I'd be too scared! 4A Wesaw some dolphins from the boat. B Youare solicky—1 5 A Didyou send me that number? B Yes,1____ youatext. (send) 6 A AmIoo late to have some of your birthday cake? B No,it'sOK,we it (not finish) 7 A Areyou going to buy some tickets for the cinema? BI themonline. (book) 8A __amember ofthe royal one. (see) you family? (meet) B No, but my parents have. past simple (worked, stopped, went, had, etc.) ‘They got married last year, What time did you wake up this morning? I didn’t have time to do my homework. + Use the past simple for finished past actions (when we say, ask, or know when they happened), present perfect or past simple? I've been to Madrid twice. (=inmy life up to now) Twent there in 1998 and 2002, (contwo specific occasions) Pye bought a new computer. (€Tdon’esay exactly when, where, etc) Though it last Saturday. (= Isay when) + Use the present perfect (NOT the past simple) to.alkabout past experiences and recent past actions when we don't specify a time + Use the past simple (NOT the present perfect) toaskor talk about finished actions inthe past, ‘when the time is mentioned or understood. We often use a pastime expression, eg. yesterday, last week ete 1b Right or wrong? Tick ¥ or cross x the sentences. Correct the wrong sentences, Thaven’t finished my homework yet. 7 Why have you thought wouldn't come? X Why did you think I wouldn't come? 1 Did you goto Windsor Castle yesterday? 2. When has Peter bought the tickets? 3. Make sure you've wrote your name on the paper. 4 Dean has always been my favourite cousin 5 My sister has been to France never. 6 [didn't know my grandfather very well. 7 Have you been swimming on Monday? 8 When have you had your hair cut? 9. John says he's never been to Europe. 10 The rent on our flat has went up. 2B present perfect + for/ since, present perfect continuous present perfect + for/ since ‘They've known each other for ten years. Julia has had that bag since she was at university. ‘A How long have you worked here? B Since 1996. ‘A How long has your brother had his motorbike? B For abouta year. + Weuse the present perfect «for or since with non-action verbs (e.g. like, have, know, etc, to talkabout something which started in the past and is still true now. ‘They've known each other for ten years, (= they met ten years ago and they still know each other today) + Weuse How long...? + present perfect to ask about an unfinished period of time (from the past until now). + WeuseJor-+ aperiod of time, eg. for ewo weeks, or since +a point oftime, eg. since 1990. + Dont use the present simple with for | since, NOT They know eachother: fora long time. present perfect continuous: have / has been verb + ing 1 How long have you been learning En; Nick has been working here since April They've been going out together for about three years. 2 Your eyes are red. Have you been crying? No, P've been chopping onions. a Correct the mistakes. I didn’t see her since Monday, Thaven't seen her since Monday. 1 How long is she working at the supermarket? 2 Marisa and Helen have been living in Italy since wo years. 3 Thaven't had my hair cut for last year. 4 Serena learnt Spanish since three years before she went to live in Chile, 5 I'mliving in the UK for five years ago. 6 Chrisis having his car for eight years. 7 How longhas 8 Thaven't gone on holiday since ten years. 9) They'te working really hard for hours. 10 The birds has been singing in the cherry tree all morning, rained? ENTRY CHECKER | Weuse the present perfect continuous with for and since with action verbs (e.g. learn, work, go, etc, to talk about actions which started in the past and are still true now. + Don’tuse the present continuous with for/ since, NOT Fam working here fortwo years. 2. Wecanalso use the present perfect continuous for continuous or repeated actions which have been happening very recently. The actions have usually just finished ve (have) ‘You've (Youhave) pales ive et een working here eset? h®) fortwo years. They've hey have) hsv haven You haven't Terr ithaane —— besnworkinghere He shed years, ‘They haven't Haveyou been working ‘Yes, No, fortwoyeus? Ihave. {haven't Has she been working Yes, No, herefortwa years?" shebas, — shohasn't B workand tive Work and live are often used in either present perfect simple or present perfect continuous with the same meaning Pvelived here since 1980. ve been living here since 1980, b_ Make sentences with the present perfect simple or present perfect continuous (and for / since if necessary) Use the present perfect continuous if possible. how long J your father | play golf? How long has your father been playing golf? 1 1 {not know ber | very long 2. your aunt / always grow | pink flowers? 3. we /all / waitto meet you 4 Sally ive next door | two years 5 the Beatles’ musie /be popular | the 1960s 6 Hannah | ery to find | her brother many years, 7 our friends / work abroad / 2011 8 humans | live inthis area | several centuries 9. you {sleep | hours! 10 how long /you J collect old glass? 3A comparatives and superlatives: adjectives and adverbs comparing two people, places, things, etc. I My sisterisabic taller than me, London is more expensive than Edinburgh. ‘This testis less difficult than the last one, Olive oilis better for you than butter. 2 The new sofa isn'tas comfortable as the old don't have as many books as | used to. 1 Weuse comparative adjectives to compare two peopl, places, things, ete + Regular comparative adjectives: spelling rules old> older big> bigger easy> easier tmodern> more modern dificult» more dificult + Irregular comparative adjectives: good> better —bad> worse —_far> further + One-syllable adjectives ending in -e hored> more bored stressed > more stressed tired > more tired 2 Wecan also use (not) as + adjective + asto make ‘comparisons. Object pronouns (me, him, atc.) after than ‘and as ‘After than or as we can use an object pronoun (me, him, her, etc) or a subject pronoun (he, she, etc] + auxiliary verb. ‘She's taller than me. OR She's taller than | am. NOT She's Theyre not as busy as us. OR Theyre not as busy as we are. NOT They the same as We use the same as to say that two people, places, things, etc. are identical, Her dressis the same as mine. a Complete with the comparative or superlative of the bold word (and than ifnecessary) is much taller than Antony. tall cat I've ever seen, big 2 Working hard is 3 This light will get you to Greece 4 One Canada Square is one of London's buildings. call 5 Whocanrun 6 That'samuch 7 He drinks only the very 8 This year, light colours are year. fashionable 9 Youcan buy that DVD _ 2 fast solution, sensible way to passexams. good thenext _wines. fine they were last _on Amazon, cheaply 10 Whereis the tallest building comparing two actions 1 My father drives faster than me. You walk more quickly chan Ido. Liverpool played worse today than last week, 2 Max doesn't speak English as well as his wife does I don't earn as much as my boss. 1 Weuse comparative adverbs to compare two actions, + Regular comparative adverbs: spelling rules fast> faster slowly>moreslowly carefully > more carefully + Irregular comparatives: well> better badly > worse 2 Wecanalso use (not) as + adverb + asto make comparisons. superlatives Kevin is the tallest player in the team, Oslo is the most expensive capital city in Europe. ‘The small bag is the least expensive Lucy is the best student in the class Who dresses the most stylishly in your family? ‘That's the worst wo've ever played. + Weuse superlative adjectives and adverbs to compare people, things, or actions with all oftheir group. + Form superlatives like comparatives, but use -est instead of -erand most | east instead of more [ les. + Wenormally use the before superlatives, but you can also use possessive adjectives, e-g, my best friend, their mast famous song. + We often use a superlative with present perfect + ever, eg. Ie'sthe best hook Tveever read, inafter superlatives Use in (NOT of) before places after a superative. It’s the longest bridge inthe world. NOT of the world Its the best beach in England. NOT ofEnglend b Complete wich one word. Our holiday was Jess enjoyable than we expected, because of the rain, 1 [think he should drive slowly 2 can getready as quickly ___youcan. 3 She isthe best violinist 've_ heard. 4 The meeting took much than we thought it ‘would. Ie lasted for three hours! 5 Thishas been coldest spring since records began, 6 My laptopis most expensive possession. 7 Edinburgh isthe _ beautiful city in the UK, 8 Ttold him that his behaviour was worse__mine, 9) Thope you feel soon, the world? 3B articles: a/ an, the, no article a/an 1 Tsaw an old man witha dog, 2 I’sanice house. She’sa lawyer. 3 Whatanavwfal day! 4 Thave classes three times a week. + Weusea an with singular countable nouns: 1 the fist time you mention a thing { person. 2 when you say what something is or what somebody docs. 3 in exclamations with What...! 4 in expressions of frequency. the 1 Tsawan old man witha dog. ‘The dog was barking My father opened the door. ‘The children are at school ‘The moon goes round the Earth, I'm going to the cinema tonight. It's the best restaurant in town. a Girco)the correct answers, ik GB cats becase eyes peacetil 1 Ahmed will visit his parents next week | the next week. They have a lovely house [ the lovely house. 2 This is really bad news | the bad news. You should visit her in a hospital | the hospital she's been taken to. 3 Bating the apples apples is part of the healthy [a healthy diet. 4 Wego to the poo! | poot at the health club once aweek j once the week. 5. My mother is good gardener | a good ‘gardener. She grows the beautiful flowers | beautiful flowers. 6 The phone | Phone downstairs rang very carly, while I was still in the bed / be. 7 Areyou ready for the exam | exam? Have you finished the revising | revising? 8 My cousin has the horse | a horse; she goes for a ride | the ride as often as she can. 9 When I go to gyre | the gym like to use the exercise bikes | exercise bikes. 10 Tthink work experience the work experiences more useful than the good ‘exam results| good exam results ENTRY CHECKER + Weuse the: 1. when we talk about something we've already mentioned. ‘when i's clear what you're referring to. ‘when there’s only one of something. ‘with places ina town, e.g cinema and theatre. ‘with superlatives no article 1 Women usually talk more than men. Love is more important than money. 2 She's notarhome today. I get back from work at 5.30, 3. Inever have breakfast. 4 See younext Friday. + Wedon'tuse an article: 1 when we are speaking in general (with plural and uncountable nouns). Compare love flowers. (= flowers in general) love the flowers in my garden. (=the specific flowers in my garden) 2 with some nouns (eg. home, work, school, church, after at 10 | from. before meals, days, and months. 4 before next | last + day, week, et. Complete with a / an, the, or —(=no article). A Are yousure the satnay is working properly? B Yes, it is—there’s the side road we've just passed 1A Does your younger brother own___car? ef B Yes,he bought __second-hand one from {garage over the road. 2. A What time shall [book our meal at__theatre restaurant? B Aboutanhourand__ half before _ performance. 3 A Areyoucooking green beans? B Yes,I got them at__local market this morning. 4A Which bus will ake me to centre? B Younced cone that leaves from outside _ town hall. 5A What time does train leave? B [don't know. Pd better check _departure time online. 6 A Doyoulike Italian food? B Yes, very much, There’s__ excellent Italian restaurant near bank in my village 7 A Did Robbie send you__ message last week? B Yes, he emailed me ust before he went on_ holiday. 8 A Can buy batteries here? B No, sorry, but you can buy them in shopon____ corner. 9 A Why were you late? Was there__ problem? B Yes, my car broke down and had to make call to ‘emergency services. 10 4A can, could, be able to (ability and possibility) can could Tean speak three languages fluently. Jenny can’t come tonight. She's il. My cousin could play the violin when she was three. ‘They couldn’e waic because they were in a hurry. Could you open the door for me, please? *+ canis a modal verb. Itonly has a present form (which can be used with future meaning) and a past or conditional form (could. + Forall other tenses and forms, we use he ableto 4 infinitive, be able to+ infinitive 1 Luke has been able to swim since he was three. Td like to be able to ski. love being able to stay in bed late on Sunday morning, You'll be able to practise your English in London, 2 Fortunately, [am able to accept your invitation, My colleagues weren’table to come to yesterday's meeting a Complete with the correct form of be able to (ELE Colin wasn't able to complete the course due to illness. a you Wednesday? 2 Iwent out last nighe, so homework on time, 3. Yesterday you asked me if find out where Emily lived. 'm sorry, but I've had no luck 11__joimus for dinner this evening? come for an interview next complete all my si accompany you tomorrow, as Thave an appointment atthe doctor's. 6 Thank you for your kind invitation. I'm glad to say we accept. 7 We hope that after his operation, Roger walk again. 8 I'm going abroad on holiday so 1 check my emails for two weeks. 9 You take that knife onto the plane~it could be used to hurt someone. 10 Atthis point I will be repaired. predict when your computer Could you open the door forme, please? 1 Weuse beable to + infinitive for ability and possibility, especially where there is no form of can, eg, fature, present perfect, infinitive and gerund, etc. 2 Wesometimes use be able tin the present and past (instead of can j could), usually if we want to ‘be more formal. b_ Gireld)the correct form. Tick ¥ ifboth are possible. Pm sorry I won't can (Ge able ®go dancing tonight. 1 Gan the children Are the children able to come to our hhouse for tea? 2 Youcan’t | notable o use your cheap ticket on this 3. From the top of that hill you can | beable to see for miles. 4 couldn't | wasn't able to drive to my parents’ house because of the fog 5 Canyou { Areyou able to speak German? 6 Would those who can | are able to please join us for the reception. If practised more I can { would beable to pass my driving rest later this year. 8 Now that they have more money, they'll can / beable to start building their new house. Was the doctor able to { Could the doctor tell you the reason for your headaches? 10 Ican’t weren't able to understand what the lecturer is saying, 4B have to, must, should have to / must (+ infinitive) 1 You have to wear a seat belt ina car. Do you have to work on Saturdays? Thad co wear a uniform at my primary school Pit have to get up early tomorrow. My interview is at 9.00. 2 You must be on time tomorrow because there's test. You must remember to phone Emily —it’s her birehday. 3 Tlove the Louvre! You have to go when you're in Paris, You must see his film — it’s amazing! + have 10 and must are normally used co talk about obligation or something that iis necessary to do. 1 have isa normal verb and itexists in all tenses and forms, eg-alsoasa gerund or infinitive, 2 mustisa modal verb. Itonly exists in the present, butitcan be used witha furure meaning, 3 You can also use have to or must for strong recommend: B have to or must? Have to and musthave a very similar meaning, and you can usually use either form. Have tois more common for general, external obligations, for example rules and laws. ‘Mustis mare common for specific (.¢. on one occasion) or personal obligations. Compare: Ihave to wear a shirt and tie at work. t's the rulein this ‘company. Imust buy new shit tis anes tooo now t's my ‘own decision) have got to Have got tol often used instead of have to or must in spoken English, e.g, I've got to go nove It's very ate. a Complete with the correct form of have to orf), ‘Doyou haveta leave very early in the morning? 1 You should check carefully before you travel, as you may. obtainavisa. El 2 He'sa brilliant pianist. I'm sure he practise alot. ENTRY CHECKER don't have to ‘You don’t have to pay~this museum is free. ‘You don’t have to go to the party ifyou don't want to. mustn't ‘You mustn’t park here. ‘You mustn't eat that cake it's for the party. + Weuse don't have to when there is no obligation to do something, and mustn't when something is prohibited. + don'thave to and mustn't are completely different. Compare: Youdon't have ta drive we can geta train. (= You can drive it ‘you wane to, butit’s nor necessary / obligatory.) You musin' drive along this stret. (= I's prohibited, against che law, NOT Youdon'ehavetodriventong thisstreet) + You can often use can’t or not allowed to instead of must You mustn't] can’t] re not allowed to park here. should / shouldn't + infinitive) You should take warm clothes with you to Dublin. Iemight be cold at night. You shouldn't drink so much coffee. Icisn't good for you. I think the government should do something about ‘unemployment, + shoulldis notas strong as must | have to. We use itto give advice ‘ran opinion — to say if we think something is che right or wrong thing to do. + shouldisamodal verb, The only forms are should | should’. + You can use ought 10 ought not to instead of should | shoulda’. You ought to take warm clothes with you to Dublin You ought not to drink o much coffee. b Gack encore form Tick ifboth are pow ‘You must / have to water these plants every day. 7 1 Please excuse me, I must {should catch the 9.30 a.m. train. 3 you show proof of age before you were allowed into the club? 2 Youshouldn’ | musty’ always think people 4 We'll take our umbrellas so we worry about the rain. E) dislike you. 5 you ever go to hospital? 1 3 Youdon'thaveto| mustn’esmokein 6 You____take plenty of cool clothes when you goto India, area 7 Jenny's results were good, so she aS 4 Silvio hasto | must report toa police station 9 4 Pouumaly swaitlong to be served in this ee 10 [_____look around for very long before I saw my brother 6 Doyou have to | Must you speak s0 loudly? waving El 5A past tenses past perfect: had + past participle past simple: worked, stopped, went, had, etc. When they turned on the TV, the match had already finished She was born in Berlin, AAs soon as [shut the door, I realized that'd efe my keys on They got married las year. the able Onthe way:o Rome we stopped in Florence for the night ‘We couldn't get table in the restaurant because we hadn't ‘The plane didn’t arrive on time. booked. What time did you get up this morning? + Weuse the past perfect when we are talking about the past, and we want to talk about an earlier past action. Compare: When John arrived, hey went out. (= first John arrived and then they went out) When John arrived, they had gone out. (= they went out before ‘+ Weuse the past simple for finished actions in the past (when ‘we say, ask, or know when they happened). past continuous: was/ were + verb + -ing 1 What were you doing at six o'clock last night? 2. Twas driving along the motorway when itstarted snowing, 3. While I was doing the housework the children were playing in the garden, 4 Iewasa cold night and itwas raining. [was watching TV in the siting room, ‘We use the past continuous to talk about an action in progress ata specific time in the past. ‘We often use the past continuous to describe past action in [progress which was interrupted by another action (expressed in the past simple). We often use the past continuous with while for ewo actions happening at the same time. ‘We often use the past continuous to describe the beginning of astory or aneedote, a Gireld)the correct form, Robert ran | \down the street when he tripped and fel 1 Were you understanding | Did you understand the lesson today? 2 Wearrived atthe cinema quite late. The film started already | had already started. 3. Wewere playing {played on the beach when heavy rain started to fll 4 Whathave you been doing? I've been waiting [waited for my friend to arrive. 5 We had lived | lived in Spain for five years. 6 went {was going shopping very early last Saturday. 7 Iwas stroking | stroked the bird's feathers when it bieme. 8 Iwasn’thungry, so didn'teat | wasn't eating very much, lunch, 9. By the time I got home, my husband had cooked | ‘cooked the dinner. John arrived) using narrative tenses together Iewasa cold night and it was raining, Iwas watching TV in the sitting room, Suddenly [heard a knock at the door. | gor Lup and opened the door. But there was nobody there, The person who had knocked on the door had disappeared. + Use the past continuous (was maining, was watching) to set the + Use the past simple (heard, got up, etc.) o say what happened, + Use the past perfect (had knocked had disappeared) to say what happened before the previous past action. b_ Complete with the past simple, past continuous, or past perfect. Thad a great idea for a new website, but someone had thought oft already. (have, think) 1 The man on the door usin because he said we suitable proof of age. (notlet, not have) ‘The lights in the houses _ brightly as we the village. (shine, approach) 3. When we — at the campsite we could see that our friends already. (arrive, leave) 41 heavy books all day, so very tired. (carry, fel) e audience loudly when the star —_ ‘ontothe stage. (clap, step) 61 return the library book because ‘with it. (not ean, not finish) 7 The couple never up hope that their daughter would be found, even though she __many years ago. (give, disappear) 8. The owner ofthe bookshop that. yesterday told meshe bookshop in London previously. (open, own) 5B present and past habits and states: usually and used to 1 [usually get up at 8.00 during the week. Idon’t normally go out during the week. English houses usually have gardens. Do younormally walk to work? 2. Weuused to go to France for our holidays when Iwasa child He didn't use to do any exercise, but now he runs marathons. Inever used to like football, but I watch itevery week now. We used to be close friends, but we don't talk to each other any more ‘That building used to be a restaurant, but itclosed down last year. Did they use to live inthe city centre? Didn'c you use to have long hair? 1 For present habits we can use usually or normally + present simple. NOT Fused to getup nt8-06. 2 For past habits we use used to | didn't use to + infinitive + used to does not exist inthe present tense. NOT Fuse togetup at 8.00- carn heroes + Werse sed ro for things that were true over period of time in the past. Used to often refers to something which is not true now. used to do alot of sport. (= 1did alot of sport for a period of time in the past, but now I don't) + Weoften use never used to instead of didn't use to, + used to | didn’t use o can be used with action verbs (e.g go, do) and non- action verbs eg. be, have) ‘+ Wecan also use the past simple to describe past habits (often with an adverb of frequency) We (often) went to France for our holidays when Iwasa child. [lived in the city centre until I got married a Complete with used t0 (@}. or(2) and a verb from the list miss do catch travel stay buy dream ride think send believe We used to dream of living abroad, but then we realized we were happy where we were. 2] 1 you____ Christmas cards to your aunts and uncles? 2 We ‘many vegetables, but we buy plenty now. 3 What_____you before you got your present job? 4 Surely you can still ride a bicycle, if you__one when you were small 5 you___the bus to work? 6 1___itwasimportant to dress smartly all the time, but now T'mnot sosure. 7 She in ghosts, but then she saw one. E] 8 Before Icould talk to my sister on Skype,1_really her. 9 My parents with us very often, but now they visit regularly. 5 10 Before I bought a car, to work on the train, ENTRY CHECKER used to or past simple? ‘We can use used to or past simple for repeated actions or states, and the meaning is the same. used to lve in Leeds as a child. lived in Leeds as.a chit, But ifthe action happened only once, or we mention exact dates or number of times, we have to use past simple. went to Paris last year. NOT Hised to-geto Paris last year. Jack caught the train to London four times last week NOT Jeckused-to-catel-the train to London four tines last wet, ‘any more and any longer ‘We often use not..any more / any longer fe not now) with the present simple to, contrast with used to. used to go to the gym, but [don't (go) any more / any tonger. be used to and get used to Don't confuse used to / dnt use to (do sth) with be used to or get used to (doing sth. lam used to getting up early every day. Elam accustomedto it. always do itso itis not a prablem for me) Lola can't get used to living in the Uk. She can't get accustomed toit.Itis a problem for her} Are the highlighted verb forms right ¥ or wrong X? Correct the wrong ones. John didn’t used to think he was clever. X didn't use to think Spring flowers used to come up in our garden every year. ‘We usually go out on Saturday nights. ‘My mother always use to make her own clothes. Look! I'm sure thar’s a famous actor. Didn't he used to be in that show we liked? ‘My father didn’c use to suggest I should be a teacher, but wanted to become an artist. Do you usually go abroad for your holidays? In che first part of the twentieth century, ‘many mare people use to go to church. He can't used to waking up early. Didi they use to own a house by the sea? 6A the passive: be + past participle 1 Alorof films are shot on location. ‘Our caris being repaired today. [Andy's bike has been stolen. ‘The director died when the film was being made. You'll be picked up at the airport by one of our staf. This bill has to be paid tomorrow. 2. Batman Begins was directed by Christopher Nolan. [Alot of fms are shot on location. The play bases [&baseDonateue story. 1A Harry Potter film shows] is being shown at the local cinema, 2 You'll take | be taken to the station by our driver 3 Tcan't get a refund because the shoes bought | ‘were bought in America. 4. Viewers amaze | are amazed by the interior shots in Downton Abbey. 5 Amanda plays | splayed tennis once a week. 6 My mother’s dog takes | istaken for a walk every morning, Tean't play the trumpet because I've never taught | been taught. 8 Does the new show open | been opened next week? 9 Ididn’t buy Sally che DVD for her birthday because Iknew someone else had already bought | had already been bought it for her. 10. We were horrified to learn that the car had stole { had been stolen 1 Weoften use the passive when it’s not said, known, oF important who does an action. ‘Andy's bike has been stolen. (= Somebody has stolen Andy's Dike, We don't know who.) 2. Ifyou want to say who did the action, use by. + We can often say things in two ways, inthe active or in the passive. Compare: Batman Begins was directed by Christopher Nolan. (= the focusis more on the film) (Christopher Nolan directed Batman Begins in 2005. (= the focus is more on Nolan) + We form negatives and questions in the same way asin active sentences. Some films aren’t shot on location. Isyour car being repaired today? + We often use the passive to talk about processes, for example scientific processes, and in formal writing, such as ‘newspaper reports. Then the water is heated to 100 degrees. ‘Many buildings inthe city have been damaged by the earthquake. b_ Rewrite the sentences with the passive. Only use by if necessary. ‘They haven't cold me when the interview will rake place. Thaven’t been told when the interview will ake place 1 You need to book tickets wel Tickets 2 They're building a new roundabout Anew roundabout _ 3 William Shakespeare wrote the history play Richard IIT, The history play Rickard I1T__ 4. A group of reporters were chasing the footballer. The footballer _ — ‘The drama teacher designed the set for the school play ‘The set for the school play _ inadvance. 1 the end of the road. 6 Someone sent me some beautiful flow I 7 They always hold a special celebration in the village at Easter A special c s asa thank you. ‘bration 8 People consider the Argentinian Lionel Messi to be one of the world’s greatest footballers. ‘The Argentinian Lionel Messi 9 Has anyone ever interviewed you on TV? Have you __ — ? 10 More people are accessing high-speed internet every day. High-speed internet__ 6B modals of deduction: might, can’t, must ‘might / may (when you think something is possibly true) ‘Tony's phone is switched off. He might be on the plane now, or just boarding Laura might not like that skirt. IU not really her style. don't know where Kate is. She may be at work or atthe gym. Pm surprised that Ted isn't here, He may not know that the ‘meeting is today. can't (when you are sure something is impossible / not true) ‘Nigel ean’ earn much money in his job. He's stil living with his parents. ‘That woman can’t be Jack's wife, Jack's wife has dark hair. ‘must (when you are sure something is true) ‘The neighbours must be out. There aren't any lights on in the house. Your sister must have a lot of money ifsh ives a Porsche. a Match the sentences. He could be a farmer, He might not have much hair. He must be trying to catch a train. He might be going on holiday, He could bea twin, He must be bored. He can't be from the UK. He may be starting to write a book, He might be home soon. He might not be able to attend. o 0 oO --rosmcoee He's running along the street. He's staring out of the window. He doesn't speak English. He’s been working in his room fora long time. He phoned to say he’s left the office He's wearing 2 work shireand jeans His brother looks very similar to him, He's wearing a big cap. He told me he's very busy at the moment. He's carrying a suitcase. ENTRY CHECKER + Weoften use might / may, can't, or must to say how sure or certain we are about something (based on the information we. have). + We don’t use can instead of might / may, NOT Heeanbeom the planenow. + Inthis context the opposite of musts can’t. ‘The neighbours must be out, There aren't any lights on in the house. | The neighbours can’t be out. All the lights are on in the house. NOT Fheneighboursmustr'+beont. ‘Theneighbours must be out. There The neighbours can't be out. aren't anylights onin thebouse. _Allthe lights are on nthe house, + Wecan use could instead of might in positive sentences, Jack could (or might) be at the party ~ I'm not sure + Weoften use be « gerund after might | must /can'. ‘They must be having a party the musics very loud. b_ Cover 1-9, Look at A-J and try to remember the start of the sentence. © Complete with must, might (not), or can't. ‘A Which country has the largest population in the world? B I'mnot quite sure, but I think it might be China. 1 A IsMary OK? B Yes, but she seems so tired. She ‘working too hard, 2 A There's no one here, B They have all gone home. 3. A My friend has accused me of stealing her phone, B Surely she. think you would do that? 4A haven't seen that shop before. B Norhavel. It have just opened. 5 A Lasked Pete what he’s doing next year, but he won't tellme. B Well, he have been actually know yet. 6 A Oh dear, I've run out of onions. B There bbe some in the cupboard. 7A think I'd like to live in a cottage in the country. B You ‘mean that. You'd be lonely so far away from the town! 8 A Ishe our new teacher? B No,he teacher. be. He's too young to bea 9 A Ohno! Have we missed the last train? B Maybe~ there _be any more trains this evening 10 A There's anew person in the office. he seems B Iknow. thinkI___ask her to be my friend oon Facebook 7A first conditional and future time clauses + when, until, etc. first conditional sentences: if+ present simple, will/ won't+ infinitive future time clauses 1 Ifyou work hard, you'll pass your exams. ‘The boss won't be very pleased if we're late for the meeting. 2. Come and see us next week if you have time. 3. Alison won't get into university unless she gets good grades. won't go unless yougo 100. Assoon as you get your exam results, call me. ‘We'll have dinner when your father gets home. Lwon'tgo to bed until you come home. [have a quick lunch before Teave. ‘After [finish university, Pl probably take year off and travel ‘+ Weuse first conditional sentences to talk about possible future situation and its consequence. 1. Weuse the present tense (NOT the future) after fin first conditional sentences. NOT: 2. We can also use an imperative instead of the wiliclause. 3. We can use unless instead of f..not in conditional sentences. ‘She won't get into university unless she gets qood grades ifshe doesn’t get good grades. ‘+ Use the present tense (NOT the furure) after when, 4s soon as, stl, before, and after to talk about the farure, ‘The boss wont be very pleased if we're late forthe meeting, bb Gircls) the correct word or expression. ‘a Complete with the present simple or future with will Ifyou take the beach towels, 'Ltake the suncream. (take) 1 Letmeknow ifyou____itbefore Ido. (find) 2. She won'tbe able to attend college if she (not register) 3. You won't find the best bargains unl onthe first day of the sale, (arrive) 4 Bob 5 You___never don't start soon. (get) __histrain if he doesn’t hurry. (miss) your revision done ifyou Toucan' pstalewer GES] i/youhave puta stamp onit. Don’t forget co put the milk in the fridge before | after you've bought it. I shall be disappointed if [until you don't write to me. Well leave until as soon as you're ready. Ican’t help you unless / if you explain the problem, ‘The men will sell fresh fish on the beach before { when the boat comes in. When | Unless itains soon, the flowers in the garden 6 Tfyoupass the test, you___agood chance of will de getting the job, (have) 7 Tthinkyou should ask your parents for advice before | 7 We'll go out and celebrate if we good fier youmake a final decision results. (achieve) 8. You'll be in danger of getting a fine unless you more slowly. (drive) or youa lift home from the party if you let me iknow what time to pick you up. (give) 10 Ifyou dor't tidy your room, you ‘game. (not go) tothe 10 ‘Sam knew he had to keep driving when /untit he reached his destination. Sandra hopes to go to Manchester Uni shecan get the necessary grades. Pets are not allowed to enter the country if} unless they have all their health certificates. sity if{ when 7B second conditional second conditional sentences: i+ past simple, would / wouldn't infinitive 1 Tf Thad ajob, Pd get my own flat IfDavid spoke good English, he could get a job in that new hotel Twould get on berter with my parents if didn’ live with them. ‘mea really good salary. [wouldn't do that job unless they p: Ifyour sister were here, she'd know what todo. Iie was warmer, we could have a swim. IeLwere you, I'd buy a new computer, WM, ‘+ Weuse the second conditional to talk about a hypothetical /imaginary present or future situation and its consequence. Ifthad ajob... («1 don'thave a job, I'm imagining it) ENTRY CHECKER + Wecan also use could instead of would in the other clause, 2 Afterifwecan use was or were wich, he, and she. 3 We often use second conditionals beginning If were you, Ma. to give advice. Here we don’t normally use fT was you. ® First or second conditional? If} have time, Itt help you. (= this is areal situation, i's possible that Il have time ~ first conditional) Ifthad time, fd help you. = this is a hypothetical / imaginary situation, | don't actually have time ~ second conditional) would / wouldn’t+ infinitive We also often use would / wouldn't + infinitive (without an ifclause) when we talk about imaginary situations. (My ideal holiday would be 2 week in the Bahamas. ''d never buy a car as big as yours. 1 Weuse the past simple after if, and would | would’ + infinitive in the other clause. a Write second conditional sentences. 1 (not need) to buy a new computer ifthis one (notbe) always crashing Iwouldn'tneed to buy a new computer if this one wasn't always crashing. 1 I (aot want) to live in the city centre if (have) young children 2 you (come) to the dance next Wednesday if we (go) together? 3 if (intend) to go out this evening, I (not buy) the ingredients for cooking dinner 4 if (be) your sister I (stop) going out with that boy immediately 5 I (love) tolive in Australia for a year if (think) I could getajob there 6 when he was younger, my brother (not get) into the water unless | (swim) along with him 7 ifsomething bad ever (happen), Marion (cope) very well 8 I think your friend (enjoy) thatarticl if she (ake) the time to read it carefully 9. (spend) more time at home if I (eel) more welcome there 10 even ifie (not work) last time, I (try) acupuncture again, 10 If wean sell our flat, we b_ First or second conditional? Complete with the correct form of the verb. Ifyou don’t like it, we'll exchange it, no problem. (exchange) ‘Mose people say that they would like to retire if they were rich, (like) 1 Ifyou don’t save money when you're young, you _that you had later on in life. (wish) 2 1____the bill if hadn't lost my purse. (pay) 3 Iwould love to have acat, if ina second-floor flat. (not ive) 4 Ifwe __upabichigher, we'll be able to see for miles, (climb) 5. If you had to pick one book to take to a desert island, which you _? (choose) 6 Iwouldn't study English if =. (ot have to) 7 Our friends on holiday ifthey had the time. (go) 8 Those tomatoes ifyoudon't water them. (not grow) 9 ['lltake my raincoat co keep dry ifit (rain) __ahouse next year. (buy) 8A reported speech: sentences and questions reported sentences directstatements _ reported statements travelling” She said (that) she liked travelling, ‘I'm leaving tomorrow.’ He told her (that) he was leaving the next day. ‘Plalwaysiove you’ He said (that) he would always love me, ‘passed theexam!’ She told me (that) she had passed the exam, ‘T've forgotten my keys! He said that) he had forgotten his keys. ‘Tean'ecome. ‘She said (that) she couldn't come. may be late’ He said (¢hat) he might be late ‘Tmust go. She said (that) she had to go, + Weuse reported speech to report (eto tell another person) what ‘someone sad. ‘+ When the reporting verb (aid, told, etc.) sn the past tense, the tenses in the sentence which is being reported usually change ike this: present > past will> would | past simple | present perfect > past perfect + Ifyou report what someone sad on a different day or ina different place, ome other time and place ‘words can change, ¢.g. tomorrow >the next day, here> ther, this > tat, te ‘Tilmeet you here tomorrow? He said hell meet me therethenext day. ‘and tell Be careful after said don't use a person or ‘an object pronoun: He said he was tired. NOT He-saidme-- After told you must use a person or pronoun: Sarah told Cally that she would calf her. NOT Sorat tne table He told me he was tired, NOT Hetald-he was: reported questions direct questions ‘Are you married? reported questions She asked him ifhe was ‘When tenses don't change \When you report what someone said very soon after they saidit, the tenses often stay the same as in the original sentence. ‘Adam ‘I can't come tonight.’ fve just spoken to Adam and he said that he can’t come tonight. Jack ‘really enjoyed my trp.’ Jack told me that he really enjoyed his trp, married, id she phone? Heasked me whether she had phoned. “What's your name?" Lasked him what his name “Where do you live?’ They asked me where Hlived. ‘+ When you report a question the tenses change as in reported statements. ‘+ Some modal verbs change, e.g. can> could, may > might, must» had to. ‘Other modal verbs stay the same, e.g. could, might, should, etc, *+ You usually have to change the pronouns, e.g. Tlikejazz Jane sid that she liked jazz + Using that after said and told is optional a Complete the sentences using reported speech, ‘Ican'cafford to buy this dress?” My sister said she couldn't afford to buy that dress. “You can hardly expect me to drive back tonight. 1 My husband said__. ‘Pm sorry we won't beable to come to the wedding” My niece said 3 ‘Lwon’ebe buying a new car after all? 3 Rob said es 4 ‘T'm nor sure I want to go to Spain this summer. 4 Ellie said "Thope you don’t break my expensive vase.” My mother said ‘Istanbul is my favourite city.” My friend said “You should get more exercise.” My doctor told me “I saw wild bears in the mountains’ ‘The speaker told us 6 6 ‘When a question doesn’t begin with a question word, add if(or whether) ‘Doyou wanta drink?" He asked me if] whether | wanted a drink + You also have to change the word order to subject + verb, and not use do j did. Complete the sentences using reported speech. “When are you two going to the hotel in Venice?” Jessasked us when we mere going to the hoteLin Venice. "When will we receive our grades?” ‘The student asked the teacher “Did you find the spices you needed?" My flatmate asked me “Did youremember your passport?" Aliasked Jen “What do you think of the band? Lindsey asked me ‘Which newspaper do you want?" She asked him “Have you bought clothes online before?" Mum asked me : “Do you enjoy performing live?” ‘The presenter asked the group “How long will you be travelling for?” asked her 8B ENTRY CHECKER geninds afd inriitives + Moc verti tena than the gerund end (er +n) or gerund wih diferencia meaning sare, bepiacontnueyep tsaredtrain ned 1 T'mnot very good at remembering names. _, Katies up smoking ce rivingat night is quite tiring Verb + person + infinitive with to ‘Shopping is my favourite thing todo at weekends, ec ctcnmeene after some 3 Ihate not being on time for things. verbs, e.g. ask tell want, would tke * person, don't mind getting up early. Can you ask the manager to come? ‘She told him not to worry + Weuse the gerund (verb + ing) | want you to do this now 1 after prepositions and phrasal verbs Weld ealy ike you to come. 2 asthe subject ofa sentence, 3 after some verbs, eg. hate, spend, don't mind, + Common verbs which take the gerund include: admit, avoid, deny, dislike, enjoy, feel like, finish, hate, keep, like, love, mind, miss, practise, prefer, recommend, spend time, stop, suggest, and phrasal verbs, e.g. give up, goon, etc + The negative gerund = not + verb + ing tthe infinitive without to 1 Lean drive. Wemust hurry. 2. Shealways makes me laugh, My parents didn’t let me go out last nigh the infinitive with to + Weuse the infinitive without 10 I after most modal and auxiliary verbs. 1 My flacisvery easy to find. 2 after make and let, 2. Liam is saving money to buy a new car, 3. Mysisterhas neverlearned to drive. Try not to makea noise, - (Verbs that can take a gerund or an inne, i é but the meaning is afferent See ene ae Try to be on time. (= make an effort to be on 1 after adjectives. time) 2 a reason or purpose Try doing yoge. (= do tt see if you like it) 3 after some verbs, want, ned, lean. Romembero phone dor forge to ‘+ Common verbs which take the infinitive include: (can’t) afford, agree, oi decide, expect, forget, help, hope, learn, need, offer, plan, pretend, {remember meeting him years ago. (= havea promise, refuse, remember, seem, try, want, would like. memory of it) + The negative infinitive = not to + verb, a Gizeld)the correct form. _ Complete witha verb from the list in the eorreet form. My bossexpeetsme @conpleD} completingeveryjob “Sage cantnae tge-Gal vestigate eg ee type send be hi not wait 1 I'mreally keen working out { to work out how to use my a new iPhone. Tike totakea picture ofthe river valle: 2 Be careful not tripping | not to trip over the step. 1 Please canyou_____me your contact details? 3. Emily is really good at making | to make desserts 2 My ambition i fluent in several languages 4 The safest method of to send | sending the documents is 3 She's been trying him since yesterday by email evening 5. We carried on to walk | walking until we reached the 4 Please complete the online form by __ your village answers in the spaces. 6 Remember not watering | not to water the plants too 5 Werold the bus driver for you ifyou're late often. 6 T'mnot good at _ ‘sorry’ 7 Running {To runis good exercise. 7 The paper sent journalise the story, 8 You need wearing /to wear warm clothes in cold weather. 8 The dog must be here somewhere it’s 9) My father enjoys not to have | not having to work every probably day. 9 After much discussion, we decided _with the 10 The school hopes setting up (to set up a breakfast club scheme 9A third conditional Youwouldn'thave ost yourjob IfT'd known about the meeting, I would have gone 'fyouhadt been late every doy IFJames hadn't gone on that training course, he wouldn’t have methis wife ‘You wouldn't have lost your job ifyou hadn't been late every day. ‘Would you have gone tothe party ifyou'd known Lisa was there? ‘+ We normally use third conditional sentences to talk about hhow things could have been differentin the past, ie. for hypothetical / imaginary situations. Compare: Yesterday I got up late and missed my train, (= the real situation) Ifthadn't got up late yesterday, Twouldn’t have missed my train. (the hypochetical or imaginary past situation) ‘+ Tomakea third conditional, use f+ past perfect and would hhave + past participle + The contraction ofboth had and would st ‘+ Wecan use might or could instead of would to make the result less certain, If sheld studied harder, she might have passed the exam. a Match the phrases. ‘She wouldn't have slipped inthe rain [F] A we wouldn't have met and fallen in love. 1 Pd have spoken to my boss (1B ifyou'd done more revision. 2. They might have stayed friends [) € twouldn'thave asked him to come with me 3 Ifa realized how ill he was 5) D Iwouldn'thave gor into this mess 4 He wouldn't have asked his sistertodoit |] E. ifwe'd known that the neighbours were so noisy 5 Youmight have got better marks (1 F ifshehadn'tbeeminsuctrahurry: 6 fwehadn't worked inthe same office, [-]_ G_ifhe'd phoned us to say he would be late. 7 [falistenedtomymother'sadvice, [] if 'dchoughtit would help. 8 We'd never have bought this house (5) 1. ifhe'd known how much work she had to do. 9 Wewouldnthave worried about Phil [] J ifehey'd spent more time together. Db Cover A-J. Look at 1-9 and try to remember the end of the sentence. ‘¢ Complete the third conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs, Lfwe hadn'tintended to visit you, we would have rold you well in advance. (not intend, tell) Lift all the prices online, | ‘more than [needed to. (not compare, spend) 2 You more about the play ifyou the books [told you to read. (learn, read) 3 Ifthey therisks,they _that skydive. (understand, not attempt) 4 She she could use my computer unless she __ my permission. (not assume, ask) 5 IfAmy she was going away fora whole year, |__ tolook ater her pet snake. (explain, not agree) 6 Ifwe the treetsigns, we ___ the wrong way. (not see, go) 7 IfL____ itany later to phone the theatre, _ tosee the show. (leave, not be able) 8 We ____ more about the resort ifwe __ it out before staying there. (know, check) 9 Ifyou ‘me with my project, iton time. (nothelp, not finish) 10 Ifmy grandmother ____ the useful electronic items we have today, herlife __ alot easier. (own, be)