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Question 1

The dispersion relation related to k and w is:

w 2=gk tanh(kh)

The phase velocity is the conventional velocity which can be obtained:


2
k w
C= = =
T 2 k
w
In the other hand, we know there is another velocity called group velocity Cg, energy
is propagating at this speed.
w w 1 2 kh
C g= = (1+ )
k k 2 sinh ( 2 kh )
From the above two equations, the relation between phase velocity and group velocity
can be obtained as:
C 2 kh
C g= (1+ )
2 sinh ( 2 kh )

A Matlab function kfromw.m has been given to us, we can set the values of different
angular frequencies wi and water depth hi, the testing pairs of these two parameters are
present in Table xx:
h=50m(deep water) h=8m(intermediate water) h=2m(shallow water)
W1 K1 W2 K2 W3 K3
0.25 0.0119 0.25 0.0285 0.25 0.0566
0.50 0.0286 0.50 0.0584 0.50 0.1138
0.75 0.0577 0.75 0.0917 0.75 0.1726
1.00 0.1019 1.00 0.1307 1.00 0.2337
1.25 0.1593 1.25 0.1787 1.25 0.2981
1.50 0.2294 1.50 0.2395 1.50 0.3668
1.75 0.3122 1.75 0.3162 1.75 0.4412
2.00 0.4077 2.00 0.4089 2.00 0.5227
2.25 0.5161 2.25 0.5163 2.25 0.6132

By definition, 3 different water depths are defined, which are:


A. 50m depth for deep water
B. 8m depth for intermediate water
C. 2m depth for shallow water
After these, we can know the wavenumber corresponding to each angular frequency
and water depth. Then, both phase velocity and group velocity are able to be
calculated:
Finally we get Figure xx to demonstrate the features of these two velocities. As shown
in Figure:
1. Low kh (small dispersive parameter )
C 2 kh C
C g=
2 (
1+
) (1+1 ) =C
sinh ( 2 kh ) 2

2. High kh (large dispersive parameter )

C 2 kh C C
C g=
2 (
1+
) (1+ 0 )=
sinh ( 2 kh ) 2 2
Question 2

There are three parameters (water depth, h; wave amplitude, A; time period, T). in this
part, we set two of these three parameters, only change one parameter.

1. A=0.5m, T=8s

H=2,8,50m
Deep water will have large wave length, velocity will higher

2. H=50m, A=0.5m
T=6,8,10s
Lower time period will have large kh

3. H=50m, T=8s
A=0.5,0.75,1m
The value of kh will not change, the elevations of the free surface are different.

For trajectory, we have to set the height for each points

kh
Question 3

The wave steepness, =kA , is a small paremeter in this case based on Stokess
assumption, then the elevation is perturbed as:
' (1) (2) 2
= + + O( )

By using Taylor expansion for 2nd order Stokes solution, we can neglect the items

more than O ( 2 ) because is a small parameter. Then the expression of the

elevation for 2nd solution can be:


' =(1) + (2)

(1 ) (2 )
By referring to the notes in class, we obtain the solution for and :

2
' 2 3tanh (kh)
= Acos( kxwt )+ k A cos[2(kx-wt)]
4 tanh 3 ( kh)

In the above equation, the first component is the linear solution which we have
discussed in Question 2, and the second component is the 2nd solution.

H=50m, A=2m, T=8m


So k is equal to , and kA=

The elevations of both 1st order and 2nd order and the combination
1. A=2m, T=4s

H=5,15,30m

2. H=30m, A=2m
T=3.5,4,4.5s

3. H=30m, T=4s
A=0.5,0.75,1m

kh
location x=2m;
Question 4.a

The formula of JONSWAP Spectrum is valid for Wind Sea to fully-developed sea.

[ ] with =0.07 f < f


2
( f f p )
p g2
[ ( )]
4 exp
5 f
{
2 2
2 f p
SJ f =
( ) exp
p

4 5
(2 ) f 4 fp =0.09 f f p

It is observed that JONSWAP spectrum is the function of Hs, Tp and . After


fixing a reasonable value to Hs and Tp (Hs=2m. Tp=10s), we can study the influence
of parameter .

As can be seen in Figure xx above, the shape of the JONSWAP spectrum will be
sharper with bigger value of . However, all the shapes have the same frequency
location for the peak because of the same Tp.
Question 4.b

In this part, we study the wave profile with the time evolution at a given location
(x=2m) for three different values of .

The final wave profile is assumed as linear superposition of 200 regular sinusoidal
function waves.
( x , t )= i ( x , t )= ai cos ( k i x wi t + i )
i i

There are four parameters in this formula, ai , ki , wi and i . In this


question, the location of x is fixed as x=2m.

1. ai

After creating the JONSWAP spectrum in Case a, the frequency is discrete into 200
parts in the range of 0 to 0.6 Hz. Each part is a very short frequency f i and the
corresponding spectrum S (f i) , so the corresponding ai can be obtained by
using the following formula:

ai = 2 S (f i) f i

2. ki , w i

We set a value for the water depth, h=25m.


w i=2 f i
After getting w i and h, the corresponding ki can be computed by using the file
kfromw.m

3. i

The phase i which is a random value, is very important for the final wave profile,
because we must make sure to have the same phases at each i of all the three
different .
In order to ensure the same random values for different tests, a vector can be
used to store the 200 random phase values. The range of the random phase value is
between -2 to 2 .

After knowing ai , k i , w i , i and discrete the time as every second, we


are able to obtain the wave elevation i at different time period. There are 200
i in total, the final wave final of each can be created after the superposition
of all the 200 i . The three different wave profile can be seen in the following
Figure xx.
Question 6

In the above part, the irregular wave fields have been studied based on JONSWAP
Spectrum. After choosing a JONSWAP Spectrum with normal parameters (Hs=2m,
Tp=10s, =3.3), a typical irregular wave is created from 0 to 200 seconds, as
shown in Figure xx.

Now we have the above irregular wave as our input data, we want to obtain the
response spectrum for large body with the help of transfer function RAO (Response
Amplitude Operator).

The large body in the report is the cargo ship with the length of 126 meters. The
response spectrum (in Heave) of the ship is studied in heading sea in two conditions
(without forward speed and with forward speed of Fn=0.22).

1. Without Forward Speed


We knew the relation between input spectrum, output spectrum and RAO from this
class:

RAO=
Sinput (f )
S output (f )

From the file RAO-0nd.dat we can know 18 different periods from 3 seconds to 20
seconds. We have the RAOi of each period T i , then we can know each f i :

f i =T i , i=3,4, , 20
After getting each corresponding f i , we can read the value of S input (f i ) from the
input JONSWAP spectrum. Finally we can calculate the corresponding S output (f i )
in each frequency. All the data are present in Table xx below:

Period T FREQUENCY INPUT RAO OUTPUT


3 0.3333 0.0197 5.3504E-04 0.00000
4 0.2500 0.0814 1.5014E-03 0.00000
5 0.2000 0.2371 2.8403E-02 0.00019
6 0.1667 0.5435 1.3147E-01 0.00939
7 0.1429 1.0225 3.4210E-01 0.11966
8 0.1250 1.6537 2.2809E-01 0.08603
9 0.1111 3.7620 3.2765E-01 0.40387
10 0.1000 7.6500 4.8123E-01 1.77163
11 0.0909 3.5800 6.1695E-01 1.36264
12 0.0833 1.6500 7.1938E-01 0.85388
13 0.0769 0.8665 7.9236E-01 0.54402
14 0.0714 0.3700 8.4374E-01 0.26340
15 0.0667 0.1147 8.8031E-01 0.08889
16 0.0625 0.0286 9.0671E-01 0.02351
17 0.0588 0.0043 9.2614E-01 0.00369
18 0.0556 0.0004 9.4067E-01 0.00035
19 0.0526 0.0001 9.5170E-01 0.00009
20 0.0500 0.0000 9.6020E-01 0.00000

Based on the column FREQUENCY and OUTPUT, we can create a curve. In the end,
we can obtain the response spectrum of the cargo ship without forward speed in
heading sea (Figure xx).
2. With Forward Speed
In Case 1, all the consideration is in the fixed reference frame. However, when the
ship is navigating in the sea, the concept of Encounter Frequency is used (because the
problem is in heading sea, the heading angle, , is 180 ).
2 2
U U
e= cos =+
g g
Here, U is the speed of the ship, U=Fn gL=7.735 m/s .
=2 f
So the encounter frequency, f e , is calculated as:

U
f e =f + 2 f2
g
In the other hand, the original input spectrum must be modified based on the
conservation of energy.
S ( )
S ( e ) =
| 1
2 U
g
cos|
Then we can get the updated input wave spectrum in moving reference frame. The
difference between the previous and current spectrum is shown in Figure xx. As the
speed of the ship increases, the shape of the spectrum will shift to the right side.
Again, with the encounter frequency and new input spectrum, we are able to calculate
the output of each encounter frequency. All the data can be seen in Table xx.
Period T FREQUENCY ENCOUNTER fe RAO INPUT OUTPUT
3 0.3333 0.8838 0.0001 0.0046 0.0000
4 0.2500 0.5596 0.0009 0.0234 0.0000
5 0.2000 0.3982 0.0024 0.0795 0.0000
6 0.1667 0.3043 0.0070 0.2048 0.0000
7 0.1429 0.2440 0.0964 0.4225 0.0039
8 0.1250 0.2024 0.0638 0.7391 0.0030
9 0.1111 0.1723 0.8168 1.7940 1.1969
10 0.1000 0.1495 2.0721 3.8400 16.4877
11 0.0909 0.1319 1.8201 1.8870 6.2511
12 0.0833 0.1177 1.3996 0.9020 1.7669
13 0.0769 0.1062 1.1716 0.4888 0.6710
14 0.0714 0.0967 1.0518 0.2165 0.2395
15 0.0667 0.0887 1.0008 0.0710 0.0711
16 0.0625 0.0819 0.9860 0.0173 0.0168
17 0.0588 0.0760 0.9852 0.0027 0.0026
18 0.0556 0.0708 0.9882 0.0003 0.0003
19 0.0526 0.0664 0.9914 0.0001 0.0001
20 0.0500 0.0624 0.9940 0.0000 0.0000

In the end, the response spectrum (in Heave) of the cargo ship with forward speed of
Fn=0.22 in heading sea is created in Figure xx below.
The Heave responses with forward speed will be more strong than that without
forward speed.
Directional wave spectrum

For this part, a typical JONSWAP spectrum is discretized into 200 parts along
different frequencies (between 0.01Hz and 0.6 Hz) as shown in Figure xx. The
parameters used in this spectrum are:
H z =2 m ; T p =10 s ; =3.3

Here we introduce the spreading function, D(f ,) , which has to satisfy the
following condition:

D (f , ) d=1

By using the spreading function, the spectrum density, S (f ) is modified into


S (f ,) :

S ( f , )=S ( f ) D(f , )

The spreading function used in this report is:


2
22 s1 ( s +1 ) m
D ( )=
( 2 s+1 )
cos 2 s
2 ( )
m

Here, s spreading parameter; gamma function; m mean direction

For the parameters, m = /3 , s=20 , we can observed how the spreading


function will influence the original spectrum due to each different direction .

After obtaining the spreading function, we are able to calculate the parameters,
a , k , , used in creating the regular waves.

In our report, the water depth is 25 meters and the space is equally divided into 18
directions with 20 degrees between two neighboring directions. For each direction
D(i) , firstly we should get the parameters of each frequency f i depending on
the below formulas. The value D(i) in one given direction is constant, only
different directions will have different values of D(i) .

ai = 2 S ( i ) df D(i)

i =2 f i
k i=kfromw ( i , h , g)

Since we have the values of ai , i , k i for all the frequency f i . We can create the
water surface of each ai , i , k i and f i . So we can obtain 200 layers of regular
water surface for one given direction. We can do the same procedures for 18 times, in
the end there are 3600 layers of different regulars combined together to create the
final sea surface, as seen in Figure xx

As we modify the value of s, the distribution of D ( ) in each directions will be


different, this will affect the amplitude ai of each layer as can be seen from the
above formula.

It is also possible to change the mean direction of the wave m . The two situations
of m =0 and m = /3 can be observed in the below Figure xx.
Question 5

In this question, we compare the differences of free surface elevations, kinematics and
pressures in both conditions. The locations are both fixed at x=5 m . In order to
make a better comparison, other parameters are present in the below Table xx:

regular Hs=2m Tp=10s h=25m


irregular A=1m T=10s h=25m

This time, we discrete the time from 0 to 20 seconds with 0.1 second interval.
The