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Journal of Global Business Vol. 2 No. 1 (2013) Published online in atiftap.

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Prospects and Initiatives on Teaching, Research, and


Advocacy on Disaster Risk Management, Case
Studies of Two Universities in Manila
Dr. Rachel A. Quero
De La Salle University Manila, Philippines

ABSTRACT

Universities play a vital role in supporting other institutions in the national effort on disaster risk
management. As such, there is a need for more local, empirical researches that capture the active
and meaningful participation of Philippine tertiary education in disaster preparedness and
response. Ultimately, the long-term goal is to improve and promote cross-institutional
coordination and collaboration for facing up to severe challenges brought by the incidence of
natural disasters. This study offers a snapshot of the current wave of initiatives and perceptions
for promoting teaching, research, and advocacy related to disaster risk management. As an initial
effort, this research focused on initiatives and perceptions from two private universities in
Manila that are prone to street floods particularly during onslaughts of long, heavy rains. The
case studies used mixed methods for gathering primary data, such as surveys and personal
interviews. Results of the study indicate that disaster risk management can be further integrated
in university teaching, research, and advocacy. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of disaster risk
management, the study has implications for greater collaboration among the different
departments of a university to enhance teaching, research, and advocacy for disaster risk
management. Moreover, university tie-ups with other stakeholders for disaster risk management
are also encouraged, specifically, with government, business, civil society groups, and local
communities.

Keywords: disaster risk management, university collaboration

INTRODUCTION

Universities play a critical role in integrating disaster risk management in teaching,


research, and advocacy. Indeed, the academe is uniquely positioned to help the government,
private sector, civil society groups, and the local communities in mainstreaming disaster risk
management in view of the following reasons: First, certain academic programs within a
university may be enhanced by including courses that promote students greater awareness,
knowledge, attitudes, and skills pertaining to different phases of disaster risk management, i.e.,
disaster preparedness, mitigation, response, recovery and rehabilitation. Second, disaster
research within the academe is vital due to synergy among various disciplines in promoting
disaster management programs. Lastly, universities possess a unique network of partner

Association of Training Institutions for Foreign Trade in Asia and the Pacific 2013 Journal of Global Business 2013
Prospects and Initiatives on Teaching, Research, and Advocacy on Disaster Risk Management, Case Studies of Two
Universities in Manila 2

institutions that can work together to effectively advocate disaster preparedness and resilience,
such as by holding public conferences and fora.
This study served as an initial attempt to capture some organizational approaches by
which universities could integrate disaster risk management in teaching, research, and advocacy.
In general, the study hoped to contribute to long-term effort of the academic community to
promote sustainability and social responsibility, by adopting a more proactive approach to
managing risks due to natural disasters.

Statement of the Problem


Although disaster risk management has been a top national concern, there have been no
attempts to date to capture empirically and systematically the approaches by which universities
have tried to incorporate disaster risk management in teaching, research, and advocacy.
Although disaster researches have already been conducted in some local universities, for
instance, De La Salle University, University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University,
and Bicol University, they appear to be at nascent stage. Perhaps, this may be partly due to a
current gap between researchers and practitioners in disaster risk management (Tiglao-Torres,
2008). Similarly, no studies have been done to assess how universities have utilized public
conferences and fora to advocate disaster risk management.
In response to the research gap mentioned above, this study focused on this question:
What are some current and potential organizational arrangements which universities may adopt
for integrating disaster risk management in teaching, research, and advocacy?

Objectives
The objectives of this study are three-fold, namely:
- To identify current and potential organizational arrangements considered by selected
universities for integrating disaster risk management in university teaching, research, and
advocacy ;
- To apply the environment-strategy-structure model as conceptual framework that
guided the research approach and analyses; and
- To generate implications for future research on integrating disaster risk management in
university teaching, research, and advocacy.

Conceptual Framework

Association of Training Institutions for Foreign Trade in Asia and the Pacific 2013 Journal of Global Business 2013
Dr. Rachel A. Quero 3

Environment Strategy STRUCTURE

Natural Organizational
Role of the
Environment: arrangements of
university to
Vulnerability of the a university to
integrate
Philippines to integrate
disaster risk
natural hazards disaster risk
management
(typhoons, floods, management in
in teaching,
earthquakes) teaching,
research, and
Legal/Political research, and
advocacy
Environment: R.A. advocacy
10121 which
mandates the
Commission on
Higher Education
(CHED ) to
mainstream disaster
risk management

Figure 1. Using the Environment-Strategy-Structure Model as Conceptual Framework for


Integrating Disaster Risk Management in University Teaching, Research, and Advocacy

The conceptual framework used for this study, as shown in Figure 1, was based from
current empirical and conceptual literature in strategic management ( see for example, Gamble,
J., Thompson, A. Jr, & Peteraf, M. (2013); Jones G. & Hill, C., 2012; Effendi, Muafi, & Arifin,
2010). The framework depicts the interrelationships between the concepts, environment,
strategy and structure.
For this study, the environment served as background context on the importance of
disaster risk management to organizational sustainability. Environment is defined as the
general environment of organizations which consists of all external conditions that set the
context of managerial decision making (Schermerhorn, 2010, p.61). The relevant
environment in this study pertained to the natural environment and the legal/political
environment in the Philippine setting.
As shown in Figure 1, in responding to the environment, universities need to adopt a
strategy, which pertains to their role of integrating disaster risk management in teaching,
research, and advocacy. Strategy, as used in this study, is defined as set of actions that
managers take to increase the performance of their company (or organization, as added by this
writer) (Jones, G. and Hill, C., 2012, p. 15).
Structure may be defined as the way in which various parts of an organization are
formally arranged (Schermerhorn, 2010). For this study, structure pertains to organizational
arrangements that a university may adopt or explore to integrate disaster risk management in
Association of Training Institutions for Foreign Trade in Asia and the Pacific 2013 Journal of Global Business 2013
Prospects and Initiatives on Teaching, Research, and Advocacy on Disaster Risk Management, Case Studies of Two
Universities in Manila 4

teaching, research, and advocacy.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Fundamental concepts and tools in strategic management also have been applied to other
sectors, such as education. For example, the Balance Scorecard which underscored customizing
the strategy map to ones strategy in order for organizations to create sustained value for
shareholders was illustrated for the Fulton County School System in Atlanta (Kaplan and
Norton, 2004). In a local study, the McKinsey 7S model was applied for crafting a framework
for building skills in disaster risk management for businesses (Quero, 2012a).
The following discussions focused on dynamic interrelationships among environment,
strategy, and structure as cited in strategic management literature (Gamble, Thompson, &
Peteraf, 2013; Jones G. & Hill, C., 2012; Effendi, Muafi, & Arifin, 2010). The review of
literature also contains related studies on disaster risk management in Philippine setting.
The Environment. The environment may be defined as the general environment
of organizations which consists of all external conditions that set the context of managerial
decision making (Schermerhorn, 2010, p.61). The environment also pertains to the natural
environment, and pertinent issues include global warming, carbon emissions, and protection of
the natural environment (Schermerhorn, 2010, p. 64).
Regarding the natural environment as context of this study, studies have pointed out
the countrys vulnerability to natural hazards, such as typhoons, floods, typhoons, floods,
landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes (Disaster Preparedness and First Aid
Handbook, 2011; Ladrido-Ignacio, 2011; Golez, 2006). This was evidenced in recent years as
the country was struck by a series of destructive typhoons and floods, e.g., Ondoy in 2009,
Sendong in 2011, Habagat in 2012, and Pablo in 2012. Also in 2012, a high-intensity
earthquake damaged parts of Northern and Central Mindanao regions.
The legal/political environment also bears an impact on disaster management in the
Philippines. In 2010, Republic Act 10121 was passed, known as Philippine law on disaster risk
management (R.A. 10121, 2010). This created the multi-agency National Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), with its counterpart offices at all local
government levels. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) is a member of the
NDRRMC. Under R.A. 10121, CHED is mandated to mainstream disaster risk management in
policies and programs for higher education, covering all public and private colleges and
universities.
The Strategy. Strategy may be defined as the set of actions that managers take to
increase their companys (or organizations) performance (Jones, G. and Hill, C., 2012, p. 15;
italicized words were added by this writer). Based on strategic management, managers of
organizations select and pursue strategies to deal with the complexities in the external
environment (Schermerhorn, 2010; Jones G. and Hill, C., 2012).
In this study, strategy pertains to Philippine universities role in disaster risk
management by integrating the topic (disaster management) in academic teaching, research, and
advocacy. This role of the academe for mainstreaming disaster risk management is stipulated in
the National Risk Reduction and Management law (R.A. 10121, 2010). In a similar vein, the
U.S. Department of Homeland Security cited that the role of universities in disaster
management is quite broad and includes consultation, research, disaster relief, training, and self-
preparedness (Staley, et al., 2009).
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Dr. Rachel A. Quero 5

In the Philippines, disaster risk management has been already included, albeit partly, in
tertiary education curriculum through the environmental education under the civic welfare and
training service component of the National Service Training Program (CHED Memorandum
Order No. 33, 2009, p.1) This is in compliance with Section 14 of the National Disaster Risk
Reduction and Management law entitled The Integration of Disaster Risk Reduction in the
School Curricula (Republic Act 10121, 2010, p.22).
The Structure: According to strategic management literature, managers can best
implement their strategies through their organizations structure (Jones G. and Hill, 2012, p.
373). A well-known model called structure follows strategy was first developed by Chandler
(Chandler, 1962). Subsequent studies expounded on this model (see for example, Gamble,
Thompson, and Peteraf, 2013; Galbraith, 2012) that emphasized matching organizational
structure to strategy. Organizational structure was defined as the way in which various parts of
an organization are formally arranged (Schermerhorn, 2010).
For this study, structure pertained to potential organizational arrangements for a
university to incorporate disaster risk management in teaching, research, and advocacy. At
present, several universities have already been active in disaster research, e.g. De La Salle
University, University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila, and Bicol University. In some
foreign universities, well-developed academic programs have been established on disaster risk
management. These include the George Washington University (U.S) Institute for Crisis,
Disaster and Risk Management; the Bournemouth University (U.K) Disaster Management
Center; and the Tripura University (India) that offers a masteral program in Geography and
Disaster Management.
To date, no study has been done on the extent by which Philippine universities have been
teaching disaster risk management, that is, beyond the limited scope under the National Service
Training Program. However, a study by Luna, (2006) emphasized that the kind of academic
teaching on disaster risk management in their state university involves not just the presentation
of concepts and process, but the analysis, the critique, the questioning and the synthesis of
practice and theory (p.2).
The need for improvement in cross-institutional linkages in Philippine disaster risk
management was underscored in another local study (Quero, 2012b). That study identified issues
on coordination and collaboration among the academe, government agencies, private businesses,
non-government organizations (NGOs), local communities, and foreign donors.
Stallings (2002) observed that disaster research among universities may be a challenge,
and in particular, very little had been written on disaster research methods because of the
following: the lack of time between the occurrence of a disaster and the fielding of research; the
lack of time to develop theory and hypotheses; the lack of time to develop research instruments;
lack of time even to decide which events are worthy of study. (p.23)

METHODOLOGY

Exploratory case studies using qualitative research methods were used in this study. As
an initial effort to discover how disaster risk management may be included in university
teaching, research, and advocacy, this study chose a specific academic department from the De
La Salle University (DLSU) and the Far Eastern University (FEU). These two universities were
Association of Training Institutions for Foreign Trade in Asia and the Pacific 2013 Journal of Global Business 2013
Prospects and Initiatives on Teaching, Research, and Advocacy on Disaster Risk Management, Case Studies of Two
Universities in Manila 6

chosen due to convenience in data gathering. They were also chosen due to some similarities: a)
Both the De La Salle University (DLSU) and the Far Eastern University (FEU) are classified as
private and autonomous universities by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED). As such,
they are allowed flexibilities to enhance their academic curricula, subject to CHED guidelines; b)
both universities are located within university belts in Manila, and therefore, bear an influence
on their nearby universities.
The DLSU is a Catholic university established by the Brothers of Christian Schools,
while FEU is a non-sectarian university publicly listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange.
The two cases, however, differed in terms of: a) focus of content; b) data gathering
method; and c) the time setting. The case study on De La Salle University focused on current
initiatives for integrating disaster risk management in research, teaching, and advocacy. More
specifically, the College of Computer Studies (CCS) at De La Salle University was chosen as it
is the only college at DLSU that teaches a course in disaster risk management. Other colleges at
DLSU have related research and training on disaster risk management, e.g., the training on
psycho-social interventions for disaster management under the Department of Psychology;
econometric models for determining disaster impact under the Center for Sustainable Research
and Development, and structural integrity of buildings for disaster resiliency under the College
of Engineering.
In gathering primary data for the case study on DLSU, the researcher personally
interviewed the Director for Research of the College of Computer Studies (CCS). This
researcher also interviewed in person the Director of the Center for Social Concern and Action
(COSCA), the community engagement arm of DLSU, due to existing collaboration between the
CCS and COSCA in disaster risk management.
The case study on Far Eastern University (FEU) dwelt on potential approaches for
integrating disaster risk management in university teaching, research, and advocacy, as perceived
by selected faculty members. Primary data were gathered through a survey conducted by this
researcher among faculty members from the Institute of Accounts, Business, and Finance (IABF)
of the Far Eastern University (FEU). The IABF was selected for case analysis because it is the
academic department offering management-related courses.
Through survey questionnaires, a sample of 41 faculty members from the FEU-IABF
were asked about their perceptions on how disaster risk management could be a part of academic
programs within the university (that is, apart from its very limited coverage under the National
Service Training Program required for all undergraduates). The data gathered were a part of an
unpublished research study conducted by this researcher in 2011 for FEU-IABF faculty
members. Those results on faculty perceptions on integrating disaster risk management in
teaching, research, and advocacy are valid up to the present since, based on this researchers
recent visit to FEU, those suggestions have remained as potential ideas from the faculty
members. Permission from FEU administrators was obtained by this researcher for using the
pertinent survey results for this study.
The reason for having the two case studies was not to compare and contrast the relative
performance of each university in administering actual measures for disaster risk management
(e.g., disaster management planning, fire drills, earthquake drills, simulated evacuation and
rescue operations, early warning systems, improving structural integrity of buildings). Rather,
this exploratory study was designed to capture specific organizational approaches for
incorporating disaster risk management in university teaching, research, and advocacy.

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Dr. Rachel A. Quero 7

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

The results of the two case studies focus mainly on the structure aspects, pertaining to
specific organizational arrangements considered by DLSU and FEU for integrating disaster risk
management in teaching, research, and advocacy. However, in line with the environment-
strategy-structure framework, the following discussions start with a brief overview on the
environment common to both the DLSU and FEU. This is followed by a brief discussion on
the strategy, which highlights the guiding principles adopted by DLSU and FEU in
mainstreaming disaster risk management in teaching, research, and advocacy. Finally, in line
with the given environment and strategy, the structure, or the specific results of the case
studies are expounded. As such, the results of the study dwelt more on the DLSUs and FEUs
organizational arrangements for integrating disaster risk management in university teaching,
research, and advocacy.

The Environment of DLSU and FEU


The De La Salle University and the Far Eastern University are both located in Metro
Manila, which is yearly visited by typhoons. Both universities experience the perennial problem
of flooding in nearby streets due to heavy rainfall. It may be surmised that many university
members from DLSU and FEU may have either experienced or witnessed the risks from severe
floods. Transportation and traffic problems accompany the heavy floods due to clogged
thoroughfares and stranded vehicles. During typhoon Ondoy in 2009, both DLSU and FEU
experienced the high level of flood waters that entered some campus buildings.
Given the above scenario, enhanced disaster risk management has become relevant to
DLSU and FEU members. The results of personal interviews conducted for the DLSU-College
of Computer Studies and the survey findings from the FEU-Institute of Accounts, Business, and
Finance seemed to point out this greater awareness among university members on disaster risk
management and its effect on public safety, in general.

The Strategy for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management at DLSU and FEU
With respect to strategy, all tertiary learning institutions are mandated by CHED to
integrate disaster risk management in teaching, research, and advocacy. At the same time,
strategy is driven by the vision-mission of the university (Jones & Hill, 2012; Carlopio, 2010).
Hence, the following section revisits the vision-mission of the DLSU and FEU as part of the
strategy related to their role in enhancing disaster risk management.
For the De La Salle University, part of its Vision-Mission is bridging faith and
scholarship in the service of society, especially the poor. Also, the core values of DLSU
center on faith (for human development and social transformation); zeal for service
(being socially responsible), and communion in mission (improving the quality of life in
Philippine society) (www.dlsu.edu.ph).
For the Far Eastern University, its vision-mission nurtures a service-oriented and
environment-conscious community which seeks to contribute to the advancement of the global
society, and its core values focus on fortitude, excellence, and uprightness (www.feu.edu.ph).
Association of Training Institutions for Foreign Trade in Asia and the Pacific 2013 Journal of Global Business 2013
Prospects and Initiatives on Teaching, Research, and Advocacy on Disaster Risk Management, Case Studies of Two
Universities in Manila 8

As reflected in their vision-mission, both DLSU and FEU are both service-oriented,
community-oriented, and committed to the development of society. These organizational
directions encourage both universities to adopt an enhanced role on disaster risk management
related to academic programs.

The Structure for Integrating Disaster Risk Management in University Teaching,


Research, and Advocacy at DLSU and FEU
Case Study 1: Current Organizational Arrangements for Integrating Disaster Risk
Management in Teaching, Research, and Advocacy at the De La Salle University (DLSU),
College of Computer Studies
The College of Computer Studies (CCS) of the De La Salle University (DLSU) has
specified four (4) focal areas for its academic programs on information technology: disaster
management, health, governance, and education. These academic programs focus on developing
information and communication systems to support the focal areas. At the undergraduate level,
the current entry point for teaching disaster risk management is through an elective course.
Currently, CCS offers a specific undergraduate course on Disaster Management under the degree
program on Bachelor of Science in Information Systems (BS IS). This elective course on disaster
risk management is offered to third year undergraduate students within the academic program.
The elective course in Disaster Management is offered once or twice a year.
Another mode for teaching various aspects of disaster management at the undergraduate
level within the College of Computer Studies (CCS) is through service learning. Rendering
service to community in need is part of the CCS thrusts. Service learning is implemented in
cooperation with the Center for Social Concern and Action (COSCA), the main arm for
community engagement of the De La Salle University. In service learning, undergraduate
students apply their skills and knowledge gained in the classroom to actual community sites.
Students who took up the elective course on disaster management apply their learnings through
community immersion that seek to uplift the lives of marginal groups. CCS coordinates with
COSCA for choosing the sites for community service. Currently, the main sites for community
service by conducting local training on disaster preparedness are Lian, Batangas and Bagac,
Bataan. CCS students help conduct community needs analysis, vulnerability and hazard
assessments (e.g. floods), and disaster preparedness training
At the graduate level, the College of Computer Studies (CCS) also offers an elective
course in disaster risk management for students taking up Masters in Information Technology.
The elective course adopts a higher level of analysis for disaster management based on a
development track i.e. development of IT systems, planning of IT systems, establishment and
adoption of IT systems, and framework improvement. The College of Computer Studies also
collaborates with the College of Education in offering the elective course in disaster management
for graduate students in Masters in Education.
Research on disaster risk management at the College of Computer Studies is embedded in
their academic courses. As such, graduate students undertake community-based researches for
improving information and communication systems on disaster preparedness and response. For
example, to benefit the local communities, research focus on translating into more
understandable language certain technical terms used in disaster management (e.g. early warning
signals for floods and typhoons). These research studies adopt participatory methods
encouraging local and self-help initiatives in disaster management.
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Dr. Rachel A. Quero 9

In addition, the College of Computer Studies (CCS) has on-going collaboration with the
College of Liberal Arts on an interdisciplinary Research Program Workshop on disaster risk
management, sponsored by the DLSU University Research Coordination Office. This research
program seeks to develop interdepartmental research linkages within the university on disaster
management.
With respect to advocacy on disaster risk management, CCS has been organizing
symposia and university lectures related to enhancing information management systems for
disaster risk management. For instance, in December 2012, CCS sponsored a symposium on
humanitarian computer technology and its challenges on disaster management. CCS hopes to
further expand its advocacy activities to develop awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and skills in
information and communication systems for disaster risk management.

Case Study 2: Potential Organizational Arrangements for Integrating Disaster Risk


Management in Teaching, Research and Advocacy at the Far Eastern University (FEU),
Institute of Accounts, Business, and Finance
The Institute of Accounts, Business, and Finance (IABF) is the academic institute of Far
Eastern University (FEU) offering undergraduate programs in business management, accounting,
finance marketing, and legal management. A survey of 41 faculty members was conducted to
find out about IABF perceptions for integrating disaster risk management in the university. A
brief profile of sample faculty members showed the following: 51.2 per cent had been teaching
within the IABF for more than 10 years; about 92.7 per cent had experienced a natural disaster,
specifically, typhoon Ondoy in 2009; and around 51.2 per cent had been involved in disaster
response, mostly by helping in disaster relief operations.
On teaching about disaster management to undergraduates, the faculty members surveyed
from IABF were aware that this is partly covered in the university-wide National Service
Training Program (NSTP). However, most of faculty members- respondents viewed that disaster
management under the NSTP was not enough and should be expanded. When the sample faculty
members from IABF were asked if they were in favor of incorporating disaster risk management
in other courses within the university (that is, beyond the NSTP), majority or about 82.9 per cent
of the respondents indicated a favorable, yes response. The respondents also suggested that
disaster risk management could be partly included in specific academic courses under the IABF,
as follows: 58.5 per cent of the faculty members-respondents pointed to Operations
Management; 46.3 per cent of the sample indicated Human Behavior in Organizations; 43.9
per cent indicated Ethics or Corporate Social Responsibility, and 34.1 per cent indicated
Management Principles (multiple-response items).
Almost all (92.3 per cent) of the sample faculty members agreed that disaster risk
management could be taught in other departments of the university apart from the IABF. About
70.7 per cent of the respondents indicated that disaster risk management could be taught in the
Institute of Nursing; 63.4 per cent pointed to teaching it in the Institute of Arts and Sciences;
61.0 per cent were in favor of teaching it in the Engineering College; 41.4 per cent said it could
be taught at the Institute of Architecture and Fine Arts; and 41.5 per cent were in favour of
teaching it in the Institute of Tourism & Hotel and Restaurant Management.
Almost all (92.9 per cent) of the respondents were in favor of integrating disaster risk
management in advocacy activities of the university. The suggested offices that could initiate

Association of Training Institutions for Foreign Trade in Asia and the Pacific 2013 Journal of Global Business 2013
Prospects and Initiatives on Teaching, Research, and Advocacy on Disaster Risk Management, Case Studies of Two
Universities in Manila 10

seminars or symposia on disaster risk management were the following: the Administration
Office, Office of Student Affairs, and all Institutes of the university.
While the survey indicated that most of the sample faculty members were in favor of
integrating disaster risk management as a topic in teaching and advocacy activities, the faculty
sentiment was not exactly the same with respect to research initiatives. Only 34.1 per cent of the
respondents were agreeable to include disaster risk management as a topic for research. Perhaps,
this seemingly lukewarm attitude towards disaster-related research may be due to differences in
professional interests among the faculty members sampled. Among faculty members who gave a
positive view on doing disaster-related research, the following research topics were suggested:
impact of disaster management on financial performance; improvement of record management
systems for emergencies; and tracer study on university involvement in disaster relief and rescue
operations.

CONCLUSION

Different approaches may be chosen by universities for integrating disaster risk


management within academic teaching, research, and advocacy. Evidence from a university in
Manila revealed that a current entry point in teaching disaster risk management is through the
field of information and communication (ICT) systems, and via an elective course at the
undergraduate and graduate levels. Indeed, there are many opportunities for enhancing teaching,
research, and advocacy in ICT that would include disaster risk management as a topic. Another
university in Manila also suggested possibilities for teaching disaster risk management as a
course in business management, nursing, arts and sciences, and engineering. The potential
research topics related to disaster risk management varied widely in scope. An area that remains
to be further developed is advocacy on disaster risk management through university conferences
and symposia were highly recommended. In summary, the study showed evidence that disaster
risk management may be integrated in university teaching, research, and advocacy through
different organizational approaches.

LIMITATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

The case studies covered only two selected universities in Manila, and one college for
each of the two universities. As such, this research was limited in scope since there are other
universities also doing disaster risk management studies that were not included in this research.
Another limitation pertained to research design as the two case studies differed in data gathering
method and time frame. For better comparison and contrast, the two case studies could have used
similar data gathering method and research period.
Future research related to this topic could expand the scope of universities with
possibilities for integrating disaster risk management in teaching, research, and advocacy. Also,
future research could include more extensive research methods, such as focus group discussions,
participant observations, and longitudinal approaches to capture emergent organizational change.
Succeeding research could focus on interdisciplinary and cross-institutional efforts within and
among several universities, and their partnerships with public and private institutions. Finally,
other conceptual and theoretical frameworks could be developed for studies related to integrating
disaster risk management in teaching, research, and advocacy in tertiary education.
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Dr. Rachel A. Quero 11

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Association of Training Institutions for Foreign Trade in Asia and the Pacific 2013 Journal of Global Business 2013