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Theory and Computation 

Fifth Edition 

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Theory and Computation
Fifth Edition
Mario Paz
Speed Scientific School University ofLouisville Louisville, KY
William Leigh
University ofCentral Florida Orlando, FL .
KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLIS HERS Boston I Dordrecbt/ London
I
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Distributors for North, Central and Soutb America:
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Libra ry of Congr ess CataloginginPublication Data
Paz, Mario. Structural Dynamics: Theory and Compulation I by Mario Paz, William Leigh. s• ed. p.cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1402076673
I. Structural dynamics. I. Ti tle.
Copyright C 2004 by Kluwer Academic Publishers
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, mecllanical, photo copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 10 I Philip Drive, Assinippi Parl<, Norwell, Massachusetts 02061 .
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Printed on acidfree paper.
Printed in the United States of America.
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CONTENTS
PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION
xyil
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDmON
XXI
PART I STRUCTURES MODELED AS A
SINGLE
OEGREEOFFREEDOM
SVSTEM
1
1 UNDAMPED SINGLEDEGREEOFFREEDOM SYSTEM
1.1 I?egrees ofFreedom
3
4
1.2 Undamped System
5
1.3 Springs in Parallel or in Series
7
1 4
Newton's I .aw ofMotjon
1.5 Free Body Diagram
8
9
1.6 
D' Al embert's Principle 
10 

I.7 
Solution ofthe Differential Equation ofMotion 
12 

1.8 
Frequency and Period 
14 

1.9 
Amplitude of Motion 
16 

1.10 
Summary 
22 

J II 
Problems 
23 
2 DAMPED SINGLEDEGREEOFFREEDOM SYSTEM
31
2 
.1 
Viscous Damping 
31 
2.2 Equation of Motion 
_{3}_{2} 

2.3 Critically Damped System 
_{3}_{3} 
2.4 Overdamped System
34
2
2
.5
.6
Underdamped System Logarithmic Decrement
_{3}_{5}
37
2.7
Summary
_{4}_{4}
2,8
Problems
4S
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viii Contents
3 
RESPONSE OF ONEDEGREE HARMONIC LOADING OFFREEDOM 
SYSTEM TO 
_{4}_{9} 

3.1 
Hannonic Excitation: Undamped System 
49 

3.2 
Hannonic Excitation: Damped System 
52 

_{3}_{.}_{3} 
Evaluation of Damping at Resonance _{6}_{0} 

3.4 
Bandwidth Method (HalfPower) to Evaluate Damping 
61 

3.5 
Energy Dissipated by Viscous Damping 
_{6}_{3} 

3.6 
Equivalent Viscous Damping 
_{6}_{4} 

3.7 
Response to Support Motion 
67 

3.8 
Force Transmitted to _{t}_{h}_{e} Foundation 
75 

3.9 
Seismic Instruments 
_{7}_{8} 

3.10 
Response ofOneDegree<lfFreedom System 

to Hannonic Loading Using SAP2000 
_{8}_{0} 

3. 11 
Summary 
92 

3.12 
Analytical Prob lem 
_{9}_{4} 

3.13 
Problems 
_{9}_{6} 

4 
RESPONSE TO GENERAL DYNAMIC LOADING 
101 

4.1 Duhamel's IntegralUndamped System 
101 

4.2 Duhamel's IntegralDamped System 
_{1}_{1}_{0} 

4.3 Response by Direct Integration 
110 

4.4 Solution of the Equation of Motion 
112 

4.5 Program 2Response by Direct Integration 
_{1}_{1}_{7} 

4.6 Program 3Response to Impulsive Excitation 
120 

4.7 Response to General Dynamic Loading Using SAP2000 
126 

4.8 Summary 
137 

4.9 Analytical Problems 
_{1}_{3}_{7} 

4.I0 Problems 
141 

5 
RESPONSE SPECTRA 
149 
5.1 Construction of Response Spectrum 
149 

5.2 Response Spectrum for Support Excitation 
153 

_{5}_{.}_{3} Tripartite Response Spectra 
154 

5.4 Spectra for Elastic Design Response 
_{1}_{5}_{7} 

5.5 Influence of Local Soil Conditions 
161 

_{5}_{.}_{6} Spectra Response 
for 
Inelastic Systems 
163 
_{5}_{.}_{7} Spectra for Response 
Inelastic Design 
_{1}_{6}_{6} 

5.8 Program 6Seismic Response Spectra 
17 1 

5.9 Summary 
174 

5.10 Problems 
174 
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6 NONLINEAR STRUCTURAL RESPONSE
6.1 Nonlinear Single DegreeofFreedom Model
6.2 Integration of the Nonlinear Equation of Motion
6 3
Constant Acce!erarjon Method
6.4 Linear Acceleration StepbyStep Method
6 S
The N ewmark Beta Method
6.6 Elastoplastic Behavior
6.7 Algorithm for the StepbyStep Solution for Elastoplastic SingleDegreeofFreedom System
6.8 Program 5Response for Elastoplastic Behavior
6.9 Summary
6 10
Problems
Contents
ix
1Zll
PART II STRUCTURES MODELED AS SHEAR BUILDINGS
l 
FREE VIBRATION OF A SHEAR BUILDING 
2115. 

7.1 
Stiffness Equations for the Shear Building 
2ll5 

7.2 
Natural Frequencies and Normal Modes 
202 

7 .3 
OrthogonaliiY Property of the Normal Modes 
ill 

7.4 
Rayleigh's Quotient 
21& 

1.5 
Program 8Natural Frequenc ies and Normal Modes 
22ll 

7.6 Free Vibration of a Shear Building Using SAP2000 
221 

7.7 
Summary 
225 

7 8 
Problems 
221 
ll
FORCED MOTION OF SHEAR BUILDING
8.1 Modal Superposition Method
8.2 Response of a Shear Building to Base Motion
8.3 Program 9Response by Modal Superposition
8 4
Harmonic Forced Excitation
8.5 Program 10Harmonic Response
8.6 Forced Motion Using SAP2000
8.7 Combining Maximum Values ofModal Response
8.8 Summary
8 9
Problems
REDUCTION OF DYNAMIC MATRICES
9 I
Static Condensation
9.2 Static Condensation Applied to Dynamic Problems
9.3 Dynamic Condensation
9.4 Modified Dynamic Condensation
9.5 Program 12Reduction of the Dynamic Problem
9.6
9 7
Summary
]?rohlems
21J
225
lli
223
226
222
222
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x
Contents
PARI Ill FRAMED STRUCTURES MODE! ED AS DISCRETE
IIU~EGREE
QF.FREEDOM
SYSTEMS
1Jl 
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BEAMS 
0.1 
Shape Funetions for a Beam Segmeat 
ill 

0.2 
System Stiffness Malrix 
ill 

0.3 
Inertial PropertiesLumped Mass 
ill 

0.4 
Inertial PropertiesConsistent Mass 
ill 

O.S 
Damping Properties 
32!! 

0 
6 
Externa l I .oads 
32!! 
0 7 
Geometric Stiffness 
322 
1J
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANE FR.&MFS
II
I
EIMDMlt Stiffness Mattix for Axjal EffH"fS
Element Mass Matrix for AxjaJ EtT«ts
Coordinate Transformatjon
Program 14Modeling StruclureS as Plane Frames Dynamic Analysis of frames Using SAP2000
I J 2
II 3
11.4
lt.S
11.6 Summary
I t
7
Problems
11 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF GRID FRAMES
lli
ill
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ll2
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ill
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311
U DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OFTHREE
13.1 Elemcnl Stiffness Malrix
13 2
Element M ass M atrix
13.3 Element Damping Malrix
OIMENSIONAL
FRAMES
t.opy
ill
4Jl1
402
fill
'(j
_{a}
Transfonnatjon of Coordinates
Differential Equation ofMotion
[)ynamlc Response
Program 16Mode1ing Structures as Space Frames
Dynamic Response ofThree Using SAP2000
Dimensional Frames
13.9 Summary
l.1
IJl
Problems
14 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF TRUSSES
Contents
x•
!1 1.0
ill
lli
ill
ill
426
ill
429
14.1 
Stiffness and Mass Matrices for the Plane Truss 
429 

14.2 
Transfonnation of Coordinates 
432 

14.3 
Program 17Modeling Structures as Plane Trusses 
438 

14 
.4 
Stiffness and Mass Matrices for Space Trusses 
441 

14.5 
EQuation of Motion for Space Trusses 
443 

14 .6 
Program ISModeling Structures as Space Trusses 
444 

14.7 Dynamic Analysis of Trusses Using SAP2000 
446 
14.8 Summary
14 9
459
Problems
459
15 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES USING THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
463
15.1 Plane Elasticity Problems 
464 
15.1.1 Triangular Plate Elementfar Plane Elasticil)l problem• 
465 
15.1.2 SAP2000 for Plane Elmticity Problem 
412 
15.2 Plate Bending 
477 
15.2.1 Rectangular Elementfor Plate Bending 
478 
15.2.2 SAP2000 far Plate Bending and Shell Problem> 
484 
15.3 Summary 
491 
15.4 Problems 
493 
16 TIME HISTORY RESPONSE OF MULTIDEGREEOFFREEDOM SYSTEMS
495
16.1 Incremental Equation• of Motion 
495 
16.2 The Wi lson8Method 
497 
16.3 Algorithm for StepbyStep Solution ofa Linear System Using the WilsonOMethod 
500 
16.3.1 Initialization 
500 
16.3.2 Far Each Time Step 
500 
16.4 Program 19Responso by Step Integration 
505 
16.5 The Newmark Beta Method 
506 
16.6 E1astoplastic Behavior of Framed Structures 
508 
16.7 Member Stiffness Matrix 
508 
16.8 Member Mass Matrix 
511 
16.9 Rotation of Plastic Hinges 
513 
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xii
Contents
16. 10 
Calculation of Member Ductility Ratio 
5 14 
16. 11 
TimeHistory ResponseofM uh~fFrcedom SY@!!!S Using 

SAP200Q 
SIS 

16.12 
Summary 
521 
16.13 
Problems 
522 
PART IV 
STRUCTURES MODELED WITH DISTRIBUTED PROPERTIES 
_{5}_{2}_{5} 
17 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SVSTEMS WITH DISIRIBUI£D PROPERTIES 
527 
17. 1 
flcxuml 
Yib!Jtion o fUn jfonn Beams 
527 

17.2 
Solution 
ofthe Equation 
of Motion in free Vibration 
529 

17.3 
Natural frequencies and 
Mode Shapes for Uniform Beams 
53 1 

17.3 .1 
Bolh Ends Simply Supporttd 
531 

17.3.2 
Bolh 
Ends Fr u (Fru Beam) 
534 

17.3 
1 
&th Ends Fired 
m 

12 .34 
One End Firoi and tht orha E:nd &« 

(ConJilnrr Btam) 
537 

17.3.5 
One End Fbcoi 
and 
tht 
01hcr 
End Shttply Sveporttd 
538 

17.4 
Orthoaonality Condition Between Normal Modes 
540 

17.5 
Forced Vibration of Beams 
542 

17.6 
Dynamic Suesses in Beams 
547 

17.7 
Summary 
549 

17.8 
Problem• 
550 
18 DISCRETIZATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS
_{5}_{5}_{3}
18. 1 
Dynamic Maltix for flexural Effects 
554 
18.2 
Dynamic Maltix for Axial Effe:cts 
556 
18.3 Dynamic
Malrix for Torsional Effects
_{1}_{8}_{.}_{4} Beam Flexure Including AxialForce Effect
18.5 Power Series Expansion of the
Effe:cts
Dynamic Maltix for flexural
55 8
560
563
18.6 Powa Series Expansion of the Dynamic Maltix for Axial and for
Ia.7
Tgaional Effects
Powa Series Expansion of the Dynamic Maltix
lncluclin& the Effects ofAxial forces
18.8 Summary
PART V
SPECIAL TOPICS: Fourier Analysla, Evaluation of Abaolute Damping, Generalized Coordlnatu
19 FOURIER ANALYSIS AND RESPONSE IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN
19. 1
fowicr Analysis
564
565
566
567
569
569
Contents
xiii
19.2 
Response to a Loading Represented by Fourier Series 
19 3 
Fourier Coefficients for Piecewise Linear Functions 
19.4 
Exponential Form of Fourier Series 
19.5 
Discrete Fourier Analysis 
19.6 
Fast Fourier Transform 
19.7 
Program 4Response in the Frequency Domain 
19.8 
Summary 
19.9 
ProbleJM 
570
ill
ill
575
578
S8ll
586
586
20. EVALUATION OF ABSOLUTE DAMPING FROM MODAL DAMPING RADOS
20.1 Equations for Damped Shear Building
_{2}_{0}_{.}_{2} Damped Egua!ions
Uncoopled
20.3 for Damping Uncoupling
20.4 Program !!Absolute Damping From Modal Damping Ratios
20.5 Summary
20.6 ProbleJM
Conditions
~ GENERALIZED COORDINATES AND RAYLEIGH'S METHOD
Principle ofVinual Work 21.2 Generaliz.ed SingleDeweeofFreedom SystemRigid Body 21.3 Generaliz.ed SingleDegrceof,Freedom System Distributed Elasticity _{2}_{1}_{.}_{4} Shear Forces and Bending Moments Generaliz.ed Equation of Motion for a Multistory Building Shape Function Rayleigh's Method Improved Rayleigh ' s Method
21 . 1
21 .5
21.6
21.7
_{2} _{1}_{.}_{8}
523
ill
526
6112
604
604
6IIZ
621
602
612
617
621
624
628
63.6.
21 
.9 
Shear Walls 
639 
21.1 
0 Summary 

21.1 
1 Problems 
643 
PARI VI RANDOM VIBRATION
RANDOM VIBRATION
22. 1 
Slllistical Oesaiption ofRandom Functions 

22.2 
Probability Density Function 

n 
3 
The Normal Djstrjbucion 
22.4 
The Rayleig)! Distribution 

22 
5 
Correlation 
22.6 The FourierTrwfoan
22.7 Specn! Analysis
22.8 Spcclral Density FW!Clion
22.9 NarrowBand and WideBand Random processes
Copyr
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ill
654
~
657
659
661
li6S
~
671
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xiv
Conte nts
22. 10 
Response to Random Excitation: 

Single·Degree~fFreedomSystem 
675 

22. 11 
Response to Random Excitation: MultipleDegreeofFreedom System 
681 
22.11.1 Relationship Between Complex Frequency Response and Unit Impulse Response 
681 

22.11.2 Response to Random Excitation: 

Twodegreecffreedom System 
_{6}_{8}_{3} 

22.11.3 Response to Random Excitation: 

N Degree ofFreedom System 
688 

22.12 
Summary 
691 
22.13 
Problems 
692 
PARI VII EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING 
691 
23 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1997: EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE METHOD 
699 
23.I
Earlhquake Ground Motion Equivalent Lateral Force Method Earlhguake·Resistant Design Methods
Sejsmjc Znne Factor
700
23.2
703
23 .3
23 4
703
703
23.5 Base Shear Force
704
23 6 
D jsttihutjon of t.areral Seismic Eortes 
711 

23 
.7 
Story Shear Force 
711 

23.8 
Horizontal Torsional Moment 
712 

23.9 
Overturning Moment 
7 13 

23. J0 
P·Delta Effect (P·a) 
71 3 

23.11 
Redundancy/Reliability Factor p 
715 

23.12 
Story Drift Limitation 
715 

23 
.13 
Diaphragm Design Forces 
71 6 

23.14 Earlhquake _{L}_{o}_{a}_{d} Effect 
717 

23.15 Irregular Structures 
717 

23.16 Summary 
726 

23.17 Problems 
726 
24 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1991: DYNAMIC METHOD
24.1
Modal Seismic Response of Buildings
731
731
24.1. 1
Modal Equation andParticipation Factor Modal Shear Force Ef[ecJive Modal Weight
732
24.12
24.
1.3
733
734
24. 1.4
Modal Latera/ Forces
735
24.1.5
Modal Displacements Modal Drill Modal Overturning Moment Modal Torsional Moment
735
24.1.6
736
24.1.7
736
24. 1.8
737
737
24.2 Total Design Values
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Contents
xv
2!1 1 
Provisions ofUBC97: Dynamic Method 
738 
24.4 
Scaling of Results 
740 
M.j 
Program 24UBC 1997 Dynamic Lateral Force Method 
750 
24.6 Summary 
754 

24.7 Problems 
755 
25 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE IBC2000
757
25.1 
Response Spectral Acceleration: S, 
S, 
757 

25.2 
Soil Modification Response Spectral Acceleration: S•t& S 
,, 
758 

25.3 
Design Response Spectral Acceleration: S _{0} s, S _{0} _{,} 
759 

25.4 
Site Class Definition: A B F 
760 

25.5 
Seismic Use Group (SUG) and Occupancy Importance Factor Q,)760 

25.6 
Seismic Design Category (A, B , C, D, E and F) 
761 

25.7 
Design Response Spectral Curve: S, v.s. T 
763 

25.8 
Determination ofthe Fundamental Period 
766 

25.9 
Mjojmum lateral Force Procedure 

[IBC2000: Section 1616.4.1] Simplified Analysis Procedure [IBC2000: Section 1617.5) 
767 

25. 10 
768 

25.10.1 
Sel.!micBa,seShear Response Modification Factor R 
768 

25.102 
168 

25.10.3 
Vertical Distribution ofLateral Forces 
169 

25.11 
Equivalent Seismic Lateral Force Method: 

[IBC2000: Section 1617.4] 
769 

25.11.1 Distribution ofLateral Forces 
771 

_{2}_{5}_{.}_{1}_{1}_{.}_{2} Overturning Moments 
711 

25.11 .3 Horizontal Torsional Moment 
772 

_{2}_{5}_{.}_{1} 1.4 PDelta Effect (P11) 
772 

25 .1 1.$ Story Drl(l 
113 

25.12 
Redundancy/Reliability Factor 
774 

25.13 
Earthquake Load Effect 
775 

25.14 
Building Irregularities 
775 

25.15 
Summary 
781 
APPENDICES 
_{7}_{8}_{3} 
Appendix 1: Answers to Problema In Selected Chapters 
_{7}_{8}_{5} 
Appendix II: Computer Programs 
_{7}_{9}_{3} 
Appendix Ill: Glossary 
_{7}_{9}_{5} 
Selected Bibliography 
_{8}_{0}_{3} 
Index 
_{8}_{0}_{7} 
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PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION
The basic structure of the four previous editions is maintained in this fifth edition, although numerous revisions and additions have been inuoduced. The three chapters on Earthquake Engineering have been rewritten to present the most recent versions of the Unifonn Building Code (UBC97) and of the new International Building Code (IBC2000) as in the fourth edition. A new chapter to serve as an inO'oduction for the dynamic analysis of structures using the Finite Element Method has heen incorporated in Pan m, SO'uctures Modeled as Discrete Mult idegreeofFreedom Systems. The chapter on RBndom Vibration has been exteoded to include the response of structures modeled as a multidegree~ffreedom system, subjected to several random foroes or to a random motion at the base of the sO'ucture. The concept of damping is discussed more thoroughly, including the evaluation of equivalent viscous damping. The constant acceleration method to detennine the response ofnonlinear dynamic systems is presented in addition to the linear acceleration method presented in past editions. Chapter S on Response SpeCO'a now includes the development of seismic response specua with consideratioo of local soil conditions at the site of the SO'ueture. The secondary effect resulting from the lateral displacements of the building, commonly known as the P11 effect, is explicitly considered through the calculation of the geometric stifthess matrix. Finally, a much larger number of solved iiiUSO'ative examples using the educational computer programs developed by the author or using the professional program SAP2000 have been incorporated in various chapters ofthe book.
The use of the professional computer program SAP2000 for the analysis and
Copyrighted material
xviii
Preface to the Fifth Edition
solution of structural dynamics problems is introduced in !his new edition. This program was selected from among lhe various professional programs available because of its capability in solving complex problems in structures as well as its wide use in professional practice by sll\lctUtal engineers. SAP2000 includes routines for the analysis and design of structures with linear or nonlinear behavior subjected to static or dynamics loads; (material nonlinearity or large displacements nonlinearities) and may be used most efficiently in lhe microcomputer. The larger versions of SAP2000 have lhe capability for the analysis of slruetures modeled with virtually any large number of nodes. This new fifth edition of lhe book uses, almost exclusively, lhe introductory version of SAP2000 which has a capability limited to 25 nodes or 25 e lements. A CD ROM containing lhe introductory version of SAP2000 as well as the educational set of lhe program deve loped by lhe aulhor is included in this s• edition of Structural Dynamics: Theory andComputation.
The set of educational programs in SIJ\ICtUral Dynamics includes programs to detennine the response in lhe time domain or in the frequency domain using lhe FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) of structures modeled as a single oscillator. Also included is a program to determine the response of an inelastic system with elastOPlastic behavior, and another program for lhe development ofseismic response spectral charts. A set ofseven computer programs is included for modeling structures as two orthreedimensional frames and trusses. Finally, olher programs, inCOI]lOrating modal superposition or a stepbystep timehistory solution, are provided for calculation of the responses to forces or motions exciting the Slrueture. Tills fifth edition also includes a program to detennine the response of single or multipledegreeoffreedom systems subjected to random
The book is organized in six parts. Part I deals wilh struetures modeled as singledegreeoffreedom systems. It introduces basic concepts in Slructural Dynamics and presents important melhods for lhe solution of such dynamic systems. Part II introduces important concepts and methodology for multidegreeoffreedom systems through the use of structures modeled as lbear buildini$. Part m describes in detail !he Mattix StrnC!UOII Analysis for modeling skeletal type of structures (beams, frames, and trusses) as discrete systems in preparation for dynamic analysis. Part III also includes a chapter to serve as an introduction to the Finite Element Method (f.E.M,l for modeling continuous structures such as plates for dynamic analysis. Part IV presents the mathematical solution for some simple structures, such as beams, modeled as systems wilh distri buted properties, !bus having an in.finite number of degrees of freedom. Part V on Special Topics presents: an introduction to the magnificent Fourier Melhod and the use of the Fast Fourier Transfonn; an extension of the modeling complex structures as one degreeoffreedom systems lhrough the use of Generalized Coordinates and of Rayle igh Melhod; and methods to evaluate absolute damping in structures from estimated modal damping coefficients. Part Vl, which contains ooe chapter, introduces the reader to the complex but fascinating topic of Random Vibrations for the analysis of single degree of freedom systems, as well as for !he analysis of struetures modeled as multidegree of freedom systems. Finally, Part VII presents the important current topic of Earthquake Engineering with applications to earthquakeresistant design of buildings
Copyrighted material
Preface to the Fifth Edition
xix
following the provisions of 1he Uniform Building Code and of the new International Building Code in use in The United States of America.
The author believes that a combination of knowledge on the subjects of applied mathematics, theory of structures, and computer programs is needed today for successful professional practice of engineering, just as knowledge ofa combination of numbers and turns is needed to open a safe. To provide 1he reader with such a combination of knowledge has been the primary objective of this book. The reader may wish to inform the author on 1heextent to which this objective has been fulfilled.
Many srudents, colleagues, and practicing professionals have suggested improvemenlS, identified typographical errors, and recommended additional topics for inclusion. In this new edition all these suggestions were carefully considered and have been included in this fifth edition whenever possible.
During the preparation ofthis fifth edition, I became indebted to many people to whom I wish to express my appreciation: First of all I am most grateful to many of my students who helped me through their inquisitive discussions in class to improve and c laril)' my presentation of the various topics in this book. It is now wilh great pain that I wish to recognize · posthumously the preliminary work done by my student Elaine Fonseca, who prepared changes to some drawings from the Fourth Edition. Her tragic death was most unfonunately a great loss ofa 11105t promising engineering student. She will be sorely missed by her family, friends, fellow students and this instructor. I wish also to recognize and thank my graduate students, Xiaobing Cui and Zhiyong Zhao, for their diligent collaboration and expert use of scanning equipment to retrieve text and
I am most grateful to my former
colleague; Dr. Michael A. Cassaro, who diligently checked the chapter on the Finite Element Method and to Dr. Julius Wong, of the Deparnnent of Mechanical Engineering, whose comments and discussions he lped me to refine my exposition. I am also grateful to my friend Dr. Farzad Naeim who has collaborated with me on the chapter Seismic Response Spectra in the "International Handbook of Eanhquake Engineering: Codes, Programs and Examples" of which I am the editor. I have incorporated some of the material from the Handbook in updating the chapter on Response Spectra. I also wish to acknowledge Dr. Luis E. Suarez from the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez, who provided me with copies of his work in Random Vibration and a copy of his class notes on the Finite Element Method. I also like to take this opportunity to thank my colleague, Dr Joseph Hagerty for his past he lp of many years ago, in the 1970s, at the time when I was just playing with the plan of writing a textbook in Structural Dynamics, without my knowledge, be approached a publishing company a initiated a contract in my name for the publication of the first edition of this textbook in 1980. A special acknowledgement of gratitude is extended to my friend Dr. Assraf Habibullllh, president of Computers and Structures Inc., who most kindly authorized me to include in this volume the introductory vers ion of SAP2000. In addition, Dr.
figures from the previous edition of this textbook.
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xx
Preface to the Fifth Edition
Habibulla provided me with the full version of SAP 2000 so I could solve problems beyond the capabilily of the introductory version. I am also most grateful to two other computer scientists of that company, Drs. Syed Hasnain and Bob Morris who most patiently tutored me and c!Mified many of the intricacies in the use of SAP2000. The senior author is cer1ainly very grateful to the coauthor, Dr. William Leigh for his contribution in reviewing and editing lhls volume, especially those sections which used the computer programs. To those people whom I recognized in the prefaces to the previous editions for their help, I again express my wholehearted appreciation. Finally, I thank my wife, Annis, who most diligently helped me with great proficiency in the final preparation of this new edition to be camera ready for publication. Her dedication to the work as well as her continuous support and encouragement is deeply appreciated. In recognition of her indispensable help, this new edition is duly dedicated to her.
Mario Paz
September 2003
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Preface to the First Edition
Natural phenomena and human activities impose forces of timedependent variability
complex as a
multistory building or a nuclear power plant constructed from different materials.
Analysis and design of such structures subjected to dynamic loads involve
on structures as simple as a
concrete beam or a
steel pile, or as
consideration
of timedependent
inertial
forces. The
resistance to displacement
exhibited by a structure may include forces which are functions of the displacement and the velocity. As a consequence; the governing equations of motion ofthe dynamic system are generally nonlinear partial differential equations which are extremely difficult to solve in mathematical terms. Nevertheless, recent developments in the field of structural dynamics enable such analysis and design to be accomplished in a practical and efficient manner. This work is facilitated through the use of simplifYing assumptions and mathematical models; and of matrix methods and modem computational techniques. In the process of teaching courses on the subject of structural dynamics, the author came to the realization that there was a definite need for a text which would be suitable for the advanced undergraduate or the beginning graduate engineering student
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Jodi
Preface to the First Edition
being introduced to !his subject The author is familiar wilh lhe exisleoce of several excellent texts of an advanced nawre but generally lhese texts are, in his view, be)'OOd lhe expee~ed comprehension of the swdern. Consequently, it was his principal aim in writing !his book to incorporate modem melhods of analysis and techniques adaplable to computer programming in a manner as clear and easy as the subject permits. He felt !hat computer programs should be included in the book in order to assist the sruclcot in lhe application of modem methods associated wilh computer usage. In addition, the author hopes that this text will serve the praeticiiJi engineer for pwposes ofselfstudy and as a reference source. In writing Ibis teXt, the author also had in mind the use of lhe book as a possible source for research topics in suucrural dynamics for students working toward an advanced degree in engineering who are required to write a lhesis. At Speed Scientific School, University of Louisville, 111051 englnecrin& SIUdents complete a fifth year of swdy with a thesis requirement leading to a Master in Engineering degree. Tbe autho<'s experience as a lhesis advisor loads him to believe that this book may well serve the s~ts in their search and selection of topics in subjects currently under investigation in strucrutal dynamics. Should tho !ext fulfill !he expectations of the author in some measure, particularly the elucidation of this subject, he will !hen feel rewarded for his efforts in the preparation and development of the material in this book.
December, 1979
MARIO PAZ
Copyr
E'd Mall:'
^{•}
PART I
Structures Modeled as a SingleDegree of Freedom System
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•
:
1 Undamped Single DegreeofFreedom System
The ana lys is and design of structures to resist the effect produced by t ime dependent forces or motions requires conceptual idealizations and simplifying assumptions through which the physical system is represented by an idealized system known as the analytical or mathematical model. These idealizations or simplifying assumptions may be classified in the fo llowing three groups:
I. 
Material assumptions. These assumptions or simplifications include material properties such as homogeneity or isotrophy and material behaviors such as linearity or elasticity. 
2. 
koadin& ;w;umptions. Some common loading assumptions are to consider concentrated forces to be applied at a geometric point, to assume forces suddenly applied, or to assume external forces to be constant or periodic. 
3. Geometric Assumptions . A
trusses
is
to consider these
genera] assumption
for beams~ frames and
structures to be formed by
unidirectional
elements. Another common assumption is to assume that some structures
such as plates are twodimensional systems with relatively small thicknesses. Of greater importance is to assume that continuous structures may be analyzed as discrete systems by specifying locations (nodes) and directions for displacements (nodal coordinates) in the structures as described in the following section.
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Degrees of Freedom
1.1 Degree10 of Freedom
In structural dynamics the number of independent coordinates necessary to specify the configuration or position o f a system at any time is referred to as the number of degrees of freedom . In general, a continuous structure has an infini te number of
freedom . Nevertheless, the process of idealization or selection of an
appropriate mathematical model permits the reduction to a discrete number of degrees of freedom. Figure 1. 1 shows some examples of structures that may be represented for dynamic analysis as one.Pegreeg(freedomsvstems, tha t is, structures modeled as
systems with a single displacement coordinate.
degrees o f
flv
/i&=====ft==~A. '"''~r=====i11·
_{~}_{I}
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
•
I II
(>)
I
I
I
I
lJ
I I Ij
•
.,
Fig. 1.1 Examples of structures modeled as onedegreeoffreedom systems.
These one=Pegreeoffreedom systems may be conveniently described by the analytical model shown in Fig. 1.2 which has the following elemeniS:
I. 
A mass element m representing the mass and inertial characteristic of the 
structure. 

2. 
A spring element k representing the elastic restoring force and potential energy storage of the structure. 
3. 
A damping e lement c representing the frict ional characteristics and energy 
dissipation ofthe structure. 

4. 
An exc itation force F(r) representing the external forces acting on the structural system. 
The force F(t) is written this way to indicate that it is a function of t ime. In adopting the a nal ytical model s hown in Fig. 1.2, it is assumed that each e lement in the system
that is, the mass m represeniS only the property of inertia
represents a s ingle property;
and not elasticity or energy dissipation
whereas the spring k represents excl usively
e lasticity and not inertia or energy dissipation. Finally, the damper c only d issipates energy. The reader certainly realizes that such ·•pure" elemeniS do not exist in our physical world and that analytical models are only conceptual idealizations of real structures. As s uch, analyt ical models may provide complete and accurate know ledge of the behavior oflhe model i!Self, but only limited or approximate information on the behavior of the real physical system. Nevertheless, from a practical point of view, the information acquired from tbe analysis o f the analytical model may very well be
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Undamped SingleDegreeofFreedom System
5
sufficient for an adequate understanding of the dynamic behavior of the physical system, including design and safety requirements.
F(l)
Fig. 1.2 Analytical model for onedegreeoffreedom systems.
1.2 Undamped System
We start the study of structural dynamics with the analysis of a fundamental and simple system, the onedegreeoffreedom system in which we disregard or "neglect" frictional forces or damping. In addition, we consider the system, during
its motion or vibration, to be free from external actions or forces. Under these
conditions, the system is said to be in free vibration and it is in motion governed only by the influence of the socalled initial conditions, that is, the given displacement and velocity at time t = 0 when the study of the system is initiated.
This undamped, one~egree
undamped oscillator. It is usually represented as shown in Fig. 1.3(a) or Fig. 1.3(h) or any other similar arrangement. These two figures represent analytical models that are dynamically equivalent. It is only a matter of preference to adopt one or the other. In these models the mass m is restrained by the spring k and is limited to
rectilinear motion a long one coordinate axis, designated in these figures by the
letter u.
of freedom
system is often referred to as the simole
m
T
"
(a)
(b)
Fig. 1.3
AHernate representations of analytical models for onedegreeoffreedom systems.
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Undamped System
The mechanical characteristic of a spring is described by the relationsh ip between rhe magnitude of the force F, applied to its free end and the resulting end displacement u as shown graphically in Fig 1.4 for three different springs.
F,
(b)
Fig. 1.4
Forcedisplacement relationship: (a) Hard spring,
(b) Linear spring, (c) Soft spring.
The curve labeled (a) in Fig. 1.4 represents the behavior of a hard spring in which the force required to produce a given displacement bceomes increasingly greater as the spring is deformed. The second spring (b) is designated a linear spring because the deformation is directly proportional to the force and the graphical representation of its characteristic is a strnight line. The constant of proportionality between the force and displacement [slope of the line (b)] of a linear spring is referred to as the s tiffness or the spring constant, usually designated by the letter k. Consequen tly , we may write the relationship between force and displacement for a linear spring as
F,
:
ku
( I. I)
A spring with characteristics shown by curve (c) in Fig. 1.4 is known as a soft spring. For such a spring the incremental force required to produce additional
deformation decreases as the spring deformation increases. Undoubtedly, the reader is aware from his previous exposure to analytical modeling of physical systems that the linear spring is the simplest type to manage mathematically. It should not come as a surprise to learn that most of the technical literature on slructural dynamics deals with models using linear springs. In other words, either because the elastic characteristics of the slructural system are, in fact, essentially linear, or simply because of analytical expediency, it is usually assumed that the forcedeformation properties ofthe system are linear. In support ofthis practice, it should be noted that in many cases the disp lacements produced in the structure by the action of external forces or disturbances are smaU in magnitude (Zone E in Fig. 1.4), thus rendering
the linear approximation close to the actual structural behavior.
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Undamped SingleDegreeofFreedom Syslem
7
1.3 Springs in parallel or In series
Sometimes it is necessary to determine the equivalent spring constant for a system in which two or more springs are arranged in parallel as shown in Fig. 1.5(a) or in series as in Fig. 1.5(b).
(a)
p
kI
kl
~
~~ .
p
A~ =P Au _{1} •£ ~u = Au +A U
I
} I
l~
I
l
!
*(
L. J_
.t,
k2
(b)
Fig. 1.5 Combination of springs: (a) Springs in parallel (b) Springs in series.
For two springs in parallel
the total
force required to produce a relative
displacement of their ends of one unit is equal to the sum of their spring constants. This total force is by definition the equivalent spring constant k. and is given by
In general for n springs in parallel
( 1.2)
(1.3)
For two springs assembled in series as shown in Fig. 1.5(b), the force P produces the relative displacements in the springs
and
p
ru., =
A,
Then, the total displacement u of the free end of the spring assembly is equal to
u =t.u _{1} +t.u _{2} , or substituting 6u _{1} and 6u _{2}
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Springs in Parallel or in Se ries
p
p
u=+
k1
k ,
(1.4)
Consequently, the force k, necessary to produce one unit displacement (equivalent spring constant) is given by
p
k ' = 
u
Substi tuting u from this last relati on into eq.( 1.4). we may conveniently reciprocal value of the equivalent sprin g constant as
I
= +
k,
k,
k,
express the
(1.5)
In general for n springs in series the equi valent spring constan t may be obtained !Tom
 =22
k.
•
Jcl
Jc.l
I
I
1.4 Newton's Law of Motion
(1.6)
We continue with the study of the s imple oscillator dep icted in Fig. 1.3 . The objective is to describe its motion, that is, to predict the displacement or velocity of the mass m at any ti ne t, for a g.iven set of in itial condi tions at time t = 0. The analytical relation between the displacement u, and time 1, is given by Newton's Second Law of Motion, which in modem nota tion may be expressed as
F =ma
(1.7)
Where F is the resu ltant force acting on a particle of mass m and a its resu ltant acceleration. The reader should recognize that eq.( I.7) is a vector re lation and as such it can be wrinen in equivalent form in terms of its components along the coo rdina te axes x, y. and z, name ly,
LF,. = ma.r
L F,. = ma _{1}
L F, =ma,
( 1.8a)
(1.8b)
( 1.8c)
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Undamped SingleDegreeofFreedom System
9
The acceleration is defined as the second derivative of the position vector with
respect
should also be reminded that these equations as stated by Newton are directly applicable only to bodies idealized as particles, that is, bodies assumed to possess
mass but no volume. However, as is proved in elementary mechanics, Newton's
Law of Motion is also directly applicable to bodies of finite dimensions undergoing translatory motion. For plane motion of a rigid body that is symmetric with respect to the reference
Law of Motion yields the following
plane of motion (xy plane), Newton's equations:
to time; it follows that eqs.( 1.8) are indeed differential equations. The reader
(1.9a)
(1.9b)
(1.9c)
In the above equations (a _{0} ), and (a _{0} _{)} _{1} are the acceleration components, along
the x andy axes, of the center of mass G of the body; a is the angular acceleration; Ia is the mass moment of inertia of the body with respect to an axis through G, the
center
perpendicular to the xy plane of the moments of all the forces acting on the body. Equations (1.9) are certainly also applicab le to the motion of a ri gid body in pure rotation about a fixed axis, a lternatively, fo r this particular _{r}_{y}_{p}_{e} of p lane motion, eq.( 1.9c) may be replaeed by
of mass; and L M a is the sum with respecl to an axis through G,
( 1.9d)
in which the mass moment of inertia / _{0} and the moment of the forces M. are detennined with respect to the fixed axis of rotation. The general motion of a rigid body is described by two vector equations, one expressing the relation between the forces and the acceleration of the mass center, and another relating the moments of the forces and the angular motion of the body. This last equation expressed in its scalar components is rather complicated, but seldom needed in structural dynamics.
1.5 Free Body Diagram
At this point, it is advisable to follow a method conducive to an organized and systematic analysis in the solution of dynamics problems. The first and probably the most important practice to follow in any dynamic analysis is to draw a tree body diagram of the system, prior to writing a mathematical description of the system.
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Free Body Diagram
The free body diagram IFBOl. as the reader may reeall, is a sketch of the body
isolated from all other bodies, in which all the forces external to !he body are shown. For the case at hand, Fig. 1.6(b) depicts the FBD of the mass m of the oscillator, displaced in !he positive direction with reference to coordinate u and
acted
upon by the spring force F,, = leu (assuming a linear spring) . The weight of the
body mg and the nonnal reaction N of the supporting surface are also shown for
completeness, though these forces. acting in the venical direction, do not enter inro
the equation of motion written for the u direction. The application ofNewton' s Law
of Motion gives
ku = mii
(1.10)
where the spring force acting in the negative direction has a minus sign~ and where
the acceleration has been indicated by ii. In this notation, double overdots denote the second derivative with respect to time and obviously a single ovcrdot denotes the first derivative with respect to time, !hat is, the velocity.
(a)
(b)
(<)
Fig. 1.6 Alternate free body diagrams: (a) Single degreeoffreedom system. (b) Showing only external forces. (c) Showing external and inertia l forces.
1.6 0 'Alembert's Principle
An alternative approach to obtain eq.(I.IO) is to make use of D' Aicmbert's Principle which states that a system may be set in a state of dynamic equilibrium by adding to the external . forces a fictitious force that is commonly known as !he
inertial force.
Figure 1.6(c) shows the FBO with inclusion of the inertial force mii . This force is equal to the mass multiplied by the acceleration, and should always be directed negatively with respect to the coiTesponding coordinate. The application of 0 ' Alcmbcrt's Principle allows us to use equations of equilibrium in obtaining the equation of motion. For example, in Fig. 1.6(c), the summation of forces in the u direction gives direc!ly
mii+ku=O
(1.11)
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Undamped SingleDegreeofFreedom System
11
which obviously is equivalenr to eq.(l.l 0). The use of D' Alembert's Principle in this ease appears to be trivial. This will not be lbc case for a more complex problem, in which !he application of 0 ' Alembert' s Principle, in conjunction with the Princjple of Vjnual Wor!<, constitutes a powerful tool of analysis. As will be explained later, the Principle of Virtual Work is directly applicable to any system in equilibrium. If follows then that this principle may also be applied to the solution of dynamic problems, provided that D'Alembert' s Principle is used to establish the dynamic equilibrium of the system.
Illustrative Example 1.1
Show that the same differential equation is obtained for a body vibrating along a horizontal axis or for the same body moving vertically, as shown in Figs. 1.7(a) and
1.7(b).
=·.,
(•)
(C)
N
•
w I
b
0
•
W
.
·
(b) (d)
(<)
Fig. 1.7 Two repreoontations of the simple oscillator and corresponding free body
Solution:
diagrams.
The FBDs fo r these two representations of the simple oscillator are shown in Figs. 1.7(e) and 1.7(e), in which the inertial forces have been included. Equating to zero in Fig. 1.7(c) the sum oflhe forces along the direction u, we obtain
mii+ku = O
_{(}_{a}_{)}
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D'Aiembert's Principle
T
Wben lhc body in Fig. I.7(d) is in lhe SIAlic equilibrium position, the spring is stretched u. units and cxcns a force .t,. • W upward on lhe body, where W is tbe weigh t of the body. When the body is displaced a distance u downward from this position of equilibrium the magnitude of lhe spring force is given by F,; k(u _{0} +u)or F, • W +ku since b _{0} _{•} W . Using this result and applying it to tbe body in Fig. 1.7(e). we obtain from Newton 's Second Law ofMO(ion
or
which is identical to eq. (a).
(b)
1.7 Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion
The next step towanl our objC<:tive is to find lhe solution of the diffetential equation (1.1 1). We should again adopt a systematic approach and proceed fU'SI to classify
this d.iffercntial equation. Since the dependent variable u and second derivative ii appear in the fU'SI degree in eq.( I .I I), this cquat.ion is classified as linear and of second order. The fact that the coefficients of u and of ii (land m, respectively) arc constants and that the second member (righ thand side) of the equation is zero funher classifies Ibis equation as homogenous with conslant coefficients. We should
re<:all, proba bl y with
for the solution of linear different ial equations (homogenous or nonhomogenous) of any order. For this simple, secondorder differential equation we may proceed directly by assum ing a tria.l solution given by
a ccnain degree of satisfact ion, that a general procedure exists
u •
Aeosmt
(1.12)
or by
u
•
B sin 4J t
( I. I 3)
where A and 8 arc cons1ants depend in& on the initiation of the tn01ion while"' is a quantity denoting a physical characteristic of lhe system as it will be shown nexL The substitution ofeq. (1.12) into eq. (I . I I) gives
(1.14)
If this cquatioo is to be satisfied at any time, lhe factor in parentbeses must be equal
to zero, or
~
yr
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Undamped SingleDegreeofFreedom System
13
(I)
2
k
=
m
( 1.15)
The reader should verify tltat eq.(l .13) is a lso a solution of the differential equation ( 1.11), wilh "'also satis.fying eq.(l.l 5). The positive root ofeq.( 1.15,
(1.16a)
is known as the natural frequency of !he system for reasons tltat will soon be apparent. The quantity m in equation (1.16a) may be expressed in terms of !he static
disp lacement resulting
substitution into eq.(l . l6a)
the spring. The
from
the weight
W
= mg applied to
of m =W I g results in
Hence
OJ=N
_{I}_{I}_{'}
(1.16b)
_{O}_{J}_{=}_{N}_{:}
u,.
(1.16c)
where u., =WI!: is the static displacement of the spring due to the weight II'. Since either eq.(l.l2) or eq.(l.13) is a solution of eq.(l.l l), and since this differential equation is linear, the superposition of these two solutions, indicated by eq.(1.17) below, is also a solution. Furthermore, eq.(1.17), having two constants of integration. A and 8 , is, in fact, the general solution for this linear second{)rder
differential equation.
u = A cosa11 + Bsin a> 1
(1.17)
The expression for ve locity, u, is simp ly found by differentiating eq . (1.17) with
respect to time, that is,
u= A a> sin a> I+ 8a> COS <VI
(1.18)
Next, we should determine the constants of integration A and B. These constants are determined from known values for the motion of the system which almost invariably are the d isplacement u _{0} and the velocity u _{0} at the initiation of the motion, . that is, at time I = 0. These two conditions are referred to as initial conditions, and
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Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion
the problem of solving the differential equation for the initial conditions is called an
initial yal~~eproblem.
After sui>Jiiluting. fort zO, u = Uo. and ,; s u _{0} into eqs.(l.l7) and (1.1 8) we fmd that
uo =A
"o = BOJ
(1.19a)
( 1.19b)
Finally, the subsli!Uiion of A and 8 from eqs. (1.19) into eq.( l.1 7) gives
uo
U= u _{0} COS4H +Sln lUI
.
(j)
(1.20)
which is the expression of the displacement u of the simple oscillator as a function of the lime Vllriable t . Thus, we bave accomplished our objeeti •e of describing the motion of the simple undamped oscillator modeling suuc:rures with a single degree off'Rcdom.
1.8 Frequency and Period
An examinalion of eq.( 1.20) shows that the motion described by !his equalion is harmonic and therefore periodic, that is, it can be expressed by a sine or cosine funcl ion of the same frequency OJ. The period may easily be found since the funct ions sine and cos ine bolh have a period of 2H . The period '[of the motion is delermined from
or
T= 2JI'
t»
(1.21)
The period is usually exjnSsed in seconds per c:yde or simply in seconds, with
the tacil unders~andin& thai it
is "per
cycle". The reciprocal value of the period is
the natural frcguenc;x l
From eq.(l.21)
I
1==
OJ
T
2K
(1.22)
The natural fi'equency[is usually expressed in benz or cycles per second (cps). Because 1he quantily OJ differs from the natura l frequency f only by the constant faclor 2Jr, (J) also is sometimes referred to as the na1ural frequency. To distinguish
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ed
Undamped SingleDegreeofFreedom System
15
between these two expressions for natural frequency, (i) may be called the circular or angular natural frequency. Most often, the distinction is understood form the context or from the units. The natural frequency f is measured in cps as indicated, while the circular frequency "'should be given in radians per second (rad/sec).
Illustrative Example 1.2
Determine the natural frequency of the beamspring system shown in Fig. 1.8 consisting of a weight of W • 50.0 lb anached to a horizontal cantilever beam
through the coil spring k _{2} • The cantilever beam has a thickness h = Y. in, a width b =
10 ^{6} psi, and length L • 12.5 in. The coil spring
I in. modulus of elasticity £ • 30 x bas a stiffness k _{2} = I00 (lblin)
tL • Il.>;,,1
~•,."'"""
Fig . 1.8 System for Illustrative Example 1.2.
Solution:
The deflection 1!. at the free end of a uniform cantilever beam acted upon by a static force Pat the free end is given by
The corresponding spring con.stant k _{1} is then
where the crosssection moment of inertia I =_!_bh ^{3} (for a rectangular section).
12
Now, the cantilever and the coil spring of this system are connected as springs in series. Consequently, the equivalent spring constant as given from eq.(l.5) is
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Frequency and Period
I
I
I
=+
k,
k,
k,
( 1.5) repeated
Substituting COITesponding numerical values, we obtain
and
I
1 = 
12
x lx
() )
I

4
k
=
3x30 x l0 6
I
= 
768
.
(m)
4
= 60 lblin
^{1} (12.5) ^{3} x 768

I
k,
I
= 
60
I
+ 
100
k, = 37.5 lblin
The natural frequency for this system is lhen given by cq.( 1.16a) as
or using eq.(l.22)
1.9 Amplitude of Motion
"'=.Jk, I m
(m =WI g and g = 386 in/sec' )
{)) = .J37.5x386/ 50.0
{)) = 17.0I radlsec
/
= 2.71 cps
(Ans.)
us now exam ine in more deta il eq.( 1.20), lhe solution describing the free
vibratory motion ofthe undamped oscillator. A simple trigonomerric transfoiTnation may show us that we can rewrite lhis equation in the equivalent foiTOS, namely
Let
u 
= Csin((J)t + a) 
(1.23) 

or 

u 
= C cos(<Vt  fJ) 
(1.24) 

where 

C 
= ~u~ + (u _{0} I Cll) ^{2} 
(1.25) 
I
•
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Undamped SingleDegree<lfFreeclom System
17
and
tan a s
^{u}^{o} uo / OJ
tan/) = uo/OJ
••
(1.26)
_{(}_{1}_{.}_{2}_{7}_{)}
The simplest way to obtain eq.(l.23) or eq.(l.24) is to multiply and divide eq.(1.20) by the factor C defined in eq.(l.25) and to define a(or /)) by eq.( 1.26) [or eq.(1.27)]. Thus
u,
(1.28)
Fig. 1.9 Definition of angle a or angle p.
With the assistance of Fig. 1.9, we recognize that
and
•o
$Jn(Z :::5
.
c
cos a = uo / OJ
c
(1.29)
(1.30)
The substitution ofeqs.(1.29) and ( 1.30) into eq.(l.28) gives
u =C(sin acosw 1+cos a sin OJI)
_{(}_{1}_{.}_{3}_{1}_{)}
18
Amplitude o f Motion
The expression within the parentheses of eq.(l.3t) is identical to sin(a.or + a) , which yields eq.(J.23). Similarly, the reader should veri~)! without difficulty, the form of solution given by eq.( 124). The value of C in eq.(J.23) (or eq.(1.24)] is referred to as the amplitude of motion and the angle a (or p) as the ohase angle. The solut ion for the motion of the simple oscillator is shown graphically in Fig. I. I 0.
u
Fig. 1.10 Undamped freevibration response
Illustrative Example 1.3
Consider the stee l frame shown in Fig. 1. 11(a) hav ing
which a horizontal dynamic force is applied. As pan of the overall structural design
it is required to detennine the natural frequency of this structure. Two assumptions
are made:
a rigid horizontal member to
I. 
The masses of the columns are neglected. 
2. 
The horizontal members are sufficiently rigid to prevent rotation at the tops of the columns. 
These assumptions are not mandatory for the solution of the problem, but they serve to simplify the analysis. Under these conditions, the frame may be modeled by the springmass system shown in Fig. 1.1 I(b).
I
•
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Undamped SingleDegreeofFreedom System
19
rp=21•22ZlW~:il;:izi~i2:iZn==r F( t )
I. •
IS'
f 2~ 1
•
(a)
(b)
Fig. 1. 11 O n<Kiegreeoffreedom frame and eo<responding analytical model for Illustrative Example 1.3.
S<>lution:
The parameters of this model may be computed as follows:
Note:
II' = 200 x 25 = 5000 lb
I
£
k
= 82.5 in• = 30 x 10 ^{6}
psi
= 12£(2/) = 12 x 30xi0 ^{6} x l65
Ll
(15x l2) ^{3}
k = I0,185 lblin
(Ans.)
A unit displacement of the top of a fixed column requires a force equal to
12£1/ L'
Therefore, the natural frequency from eqs .( 1.1 6b) and (1 .22) is
Illustrative Example 1.4
I
= 4.46 cps
(Ans.)
The elevated water tower tank with a capacity for 5000 gallons of water shown in
Fig. 1. 12(a) has a natural period in lateral vibration of 1.0 sec when empty. When
lateral
stiffness k of the tower and the weight W of the tank. Neglect the mass of the supporting columns (one gallon ofwater weighs approximately 8.34 lb).
tbe tank is full of water, its period lengthens to 2 .2 sec. Detenninc the
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Amplitude of Motion
/'
k
w
_{(}_{a}_{)}
(1>)
Fig. 1.12 (a) Water tower tank of Illustrative Example 1.4. (b) Analytical model.
Solution:
In its lateral motion, the water tower is modeled by the simple oscillator shown in Fir. 1.12(b) in which k is the lateral stiffness of the tower and m is the vibrating
mass of the tank.
a) Narural frequency aJ£
(tank empty):
b) Natural frequency
aJp
Weight of wate.r w.:
(tank full of water)
Ww =5000 x 8.34=41,700 l b
21r
21r
^{<}^{V}^{f}^{=}^{}^{=}^{}^{=}
r,
2.2
kg
w+41,700
(a)
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