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Theory and Computation

Fifth Edition

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Theory and Computation

Fifth Edition

Mario Paz

Speed Scientific School University ofLouisville Louisville, KY

William Leigh

University ofCentral Florida Orlando, FL .

KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLIS HERS Boston I Dordrecbt/ London

I

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Distributors for North, Central and Soutb America:

Kluwer Academic Publishers 101 Philip Drive Assinippi Park Norwell, Massachusetts 02061 USA Telephone (781) 87 1-6600 Fax (7 8 1) 68 1-9045 E-Mail < kluwer@wkap.corn>

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Libra ry of Congr ess Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Paz, Mario. Structural Dynamics: Theory and Compulation I by Mario Paz, William Leigh.- s• ed. p.cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-4020-7667-3

I. Structural dynamics. I. Ti tle.

Copyright C 2004 by Kluwer Academic Publishers

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, mecllanical, photo- copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 10 I Philip Drive, Assinippi Parl<, Norwell, Massachusetts 02061 .

Pennission for books published in Europe: pcnnlssions@wklp.nl

Permissions few books published in the United Stales ofAmerica: penniss.ions@wlcap.com

Printed on acid-free paper.

Printed in the United States of America.

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CONTENTS

PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION

xyil

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDmON

XXI

PART I STRUCTURES MODELED AS A

SINGLE

OEGREE-OF-FREEDOM

SVSTEM

1

1 UNDAMPED SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

1.1 I?egrees ofFreedom

3

4

1.2 Undamped System

5

1.3 Springs in Parallel or in Series

7

1 4

Newton's I .aw ofMotjon

1.5 Free Body Diagram

8

9

1.6

D' Al embert's Principle

 

10

I.7

Solution ofthe Differential Equation ofMotion

12

1.8

Frequency and Period

 

14

1.9

Amplitude of Motion

 

16

1.10

Summary

22

J II

Problems

23

2 DAMPED SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

31

2

.1

Viscous Damping

31

2.2 Equation of Motion

32

2.3 Critically Damped System

33

2.4 Overdamped System

34

2

2

.5

.6

Underdamped System Logarithmic Decrement

35

37

2.7

Summary

44

2,8

Problems

4S

Copyrighled material

viii Contents

3

RESPONSE OF ONE-DEGREE HARMONIC LOADING

OF-FREEDOM

SYSTEM TO

49

3.1

Hannonic Excitation: Undamped System

49

3.2

Hannonic Excitation: Damped System

52

3.3

Evaluation of Damping at Resonance 60

3.4

Bandwidth Method (Half-Power) to Evaluate Damping

61

3.5

Energy Dissipated by Viscous Damping

63

3.6

Equivalent Viscous Damping

64

3.7

Response to Support Motion

67

3.8

Force Transmitted to the Foundation

75

3.9

Seismic Instruments

78

3.10

Response ofOne-Degree-<lf-Freedom System

 

to Hannonic Loading Using SAP2000

80

 

3. 11

Summary

92

3.12

Analytical Prob lem

94

3.13

Problems

96

4

RESPONSE TO GENERAL DYNAMIC LOADING

 

101

4.1 Duhamel's Integral-Undamped System

101

4.2 Duhamel's Integral-Damped System

110

4.3 Response by Direct Integration

110

4.4 Solution of the Equation of Motion

112

4.5 Program 2-Response by Direct Integration

117

4.6 Program 3-Response to Impulsive Excitation

120

4.7 Response to General Dynamic Loading Using SAP2000

126

4.8 Summary

 

137

4.9 Analytical Problems

137

4.I0 Problems

141

5

RESPONSE SPECTRA

149

5.1 Construction of Response Spectrum

149

5.2 Response Spectrum for Support Excitation

153

5.3 Tripartite Response Spectra

154

5.4 Spectra for Elastic Design

Response

157

5.5

Influence

of Local Soil Conditions

161

5.6 Spectra

Response

for

Inelastic Systems

163

5.7 Spectra for

Response

Inelastic Design

166

5.8 Program 6-Seismic Response Spectra

17 1

5.9 Summary

174

5.10 Problems

174

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6 NONLINEAR STRUCTURAL RESPONSE

6.1 Nonlinear Single Degree-of-Freedom Model

6.2 Integration of the Nonlinear Equation of Motion

6 3

Constant Acce!erarjon Method

6.4 Linear Acceleration Step-by-Step Method

6 S

The N ewmark Beta Method

6.6 Elastoplastic Behavior

6.7 Algorithm for the Step-by-Step Solution for Elastoplastic Single-Degree-of-Freedom System

6.8 Program 5-Response for Elastoplastic Behavior

6.9 Summary

6 10

Problems

Contents

ix

1Zll

Behavior 6.9 Summary 6 10 Problems Contents ix 1Zll PART II STRUCTURES MODELED AS SHEAR BUILDINGS
Behavior 6.9 Summary 6 10 Problems Contents ix 1Zll PART II STRUCTURES MODELED AS SHEAR BUILDINGS

PART II STRUCTURES MODELED AS SHEAR BUILDINGS

l

FREE VIBRATION OF A SHEAR BUILDING

2115.

7.1

Stiffness Equations for the Shear Building

2ll5

7.2

Natural Frequencies and Normal Modes

202

7 .3

OrthogonaliiY Property of the Normal Modes

ill

7.4

Rayleigh's Quotient

21&

1.5

Program 8-Natural Frequenc ies and Normal Modes

22ll

7.6 Free Vibration of a Shear Building Using SAP2000

221

7.7

Summary

225

7 8

Problems

221

ll

FORCED MOTION OF SHEAR BUILDING

8.1 Modal Superposition Method

8.2 Response of a Shear Building to Base Motion

8.3 Program 9-Response by Modal Superposition

8 4

Harmonic Forced Excitation

8.5 Program 10-Harmonic Response

8.6 Forced Motion Using SAP2000

8.7 Combining Maximum Values ofModal Response

8.8 Summary

8 9

Problems

REDUCTION OF DYNAMIC MATRICES

9 I

Static Condensation

9.2 Static Condensation Applied to Dynamic Problems

9.3 Dynamic Condensation

9.4 Modified Dynamic Condensation

9.5 Program 12-Reduction of the Dynamic Problem

9.6

9 7

Summary

]?rohlems

21J

225

lli

223

226

222

222

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x

Contents

PARI Ill FRAMED STRUCTURES MODE! ED AS DISCRETE

IIU~EGREE

QF.FREEDOM

SYSTEMS

1Jl

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BEAMS

0.1

Shape Funetions for a Beam Segmeat

ill

0.2

System Stiffness Malrix

ill

0.3

Inertial Properties-Lumped Mass

ill

0.4

Inertial Properties-Consistent Mass

ill

O.S

Damping Properties

32!!

0

6

Externa l I .oads

32!!

0 7

Geometric Stiffness

322

0.8 Equations ofMotion E ll'ft'li!Dt Forces at Nodal CoordjnatM
0.8
Equations ofMotion
E ll'ft'li!Dt Forces at Nodal CoordjnatM

1J

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PLANE FR.&MFS

II

I

EIMDMlt Stiffness Mattix for Axjal EffH"fS

Element Mass Matrix for AxjaJ EtT«ts

Coordinate Transformatjon

Program 14-Modeling StruclureS as Plane Frames Dynamic Analysis of frames Using SAP2000

I J 2

II 3

11.4

lt.S

11.6 Summary

I t

7

Problems

11 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF GRID FRAMES

lli

ill

ll6

ll2

Kl

Kl

m

ill

ill

ill

l!i1

l10

ill

ill

311

12.1 Local and Global Coordinate Systems 3!1 12 2 Torsional f_treas 3J!2 12 3 Stillbm
12.1
Local and Global Coordinate Systems
3!1
12 2
Torsional f_treas
3J!2
12
3
Stillbm Matrix for a Gdd Elcmeot
3M
12 4
Consistent Mass Matrix for a Grid Element
ill
12.S
Lumped Mass Malrix for a Grid Element
ill
12
6
:186
12.7
l22
l25
403
~

U DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OFTHREE

13.1 Elemcnl Stiffness Malrix

13 2

Element M ass M atrix

13.3 Element Damping Malrix

OIMENSIONAL

FRAMES

t.opy

ill

4Jl1

402

fill

'(j-

a

Transfonnatjon of Coordinates Differential Equation ofMotion [)ynamlc Response Program 16-Mode1ing Structures as Space

Transfonnatjon of Coordinates

Differential Equation ofMotion

[)ynamlc Response

Program 16-Mode1ing Structures as Space Frames

Dynamic Response ofThree Using SAP2000

Dimensional Frames

13.9 Summary

l.1

IJl

Problems

14 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF TRUSSES

Contents

x•

!1 1.0

ill

lli

ill

ill

426

ill

429

14.1

Stiffness and Mass Matrices for the Plane Truss

429

14.2

Transfonnation of Coordinates

432

14.3

Program 17-Modeling Structures as Plane Trusses

438

14

.4

Stiffness and Mass Matrices for Space Trusses

441

14.5

EQuation of Motion for Space Trusses

443

14 .6

Program IS-Modeling Structures as Space Trusses

444

14.7 Dynamic Analysis of Trusses Using SAP2000

446

14.8 Summary

14 9

459

Problems

459

15 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES USING THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

463

15.1 Plane Elasticity Problems

464

15.1.1 Triangular Plate Elementfar Plane Elasticil)l problem•

465

15.1.2 SAP2000 for Plane Elmticity Problem

412

15.2 Plate Bending

477

15.2.1 Rectangular Elementfor Plate Bending

478

15.2.2 SAP2000 far Plate Bending and Shell Problem>

484

15.3 Summary

491

15.4 Problems

493

16 TIME HISTORY RESPONSE OF MULTIDEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS

495

16.1 Incremental Equation• of Motion

495

16.2 The Wi lson-8Method

497

16.3 Algorithm for Step-by-Step Solution ofa Linear System Using the Wilson-OMethod

500

16.3.1 Initialization

500

16.3.2 Far Each Time Step

500

16.4 Program 19-Responso by Step Integration

505

16.5 The Newmark Beta Method

506

16.6 E1astoplastic Behavior of Framed Structures

508

16.7 Member Stiffness Matrix

508

16.8 Member Mass Matrix

511

16.9 Rotation of Plastic Hinges

513

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xii

Contents

16. 10

Calculation of Member Ductility Ratio

5 14

16. 11

Time-History ResponseofM uh~f-Frcedom SY@!!!S Using

SAP200Q

SIS

16.12

Summary

521

16.13

Problems

522

PART IV

STRUCTURES MODELED WITH DISTRIBUTED PROPERTIES

525

17

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF SVSTEMS WITH DISIRIBUI£D PROPERTIES

527

17. 1

flcxuml

Yib!Jtion o fUn jfonn Beams

 

527

17.2

Solution

ofthe Equation

of Motion in free Vibration

529

17.3

Natural frequencies and

Mode Shapes for Uniform Beams

53 1

17.3 .1

Bolh Ends

Simply Supporttd

 

531

17.3.2

Bolh

Ends

Fr u (Fru Beam)

534

17.3

1

&th Ends

Fired

 

m

12 .34

One End Firoi and tht orha E:nd

 

(ConJiln-rr Btam)

 

537

 

17.3.5

One End Fbcoi

and

tht

01hcr

End Shttply Sveporttd

538

17.4

Orthoaonality Condition Between Normal Modes

540

17.5

Forced Vibration of Beams

 

542

17.6

Dynamic Suesses in Beams

547

17.7

Summary

 

549

17.8

Problem•

550

18 DISCRETIZATION OF CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS

553

18. 1

Dynamic Maltix for flexural Effects

554

18.2

Dynamic Maltix for Axial Effe:cts

556

18.3 Dynamic

Malrix for Torsional Effects

18.4 Beam Flexure Including Axial-Force Effect

18.5 Power Series Expansion of the

Effe:cts

Dynamic Maltix for flexural

55 8

560

563

18.6 Powa- Series Expansion of the Dynamic Maltix for Axial and for

Ia.7

Tgaional Effects

Powa- Series Expansion of the Dynamic Maltix

lncluclin& the Effects ofAxial forces

18.8 Summary

PART V

SPECIAL TOPICS: Fourier Analysla, Evaluation of Abaolute Damping, Generalized Coordlnatu

19 FOURIER ANALYSIS AND RESPONSE IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN

19. 1

fowicr Analysis

564

565

566

567

569

569

Coordlnatu 19 FOURIER ANALYSIS AND RESPONSE IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN 19. 1 fowicr Analysis 564 565

Contents

xiii

19.2

Response to a Loading Represented by Fourier Series

19 3

Fourier Coefficients for Piecewise Linear Functions

19.4

Exponential Form of Fourier Series

19.5

Discrete Fourier Analysis

19.6

Fast Fourier Transform

19.7

Program 4-Response in the Frequency Domain

19.8

Summary

19.9

ProbleJM

570

ill

ill

575

578

S8ll

586

586

20. EVALUATION OF ABSOLUTE DAMPING FROM MODAL DAMPING RADOS

20.1 Equations for Damped Shear Building

20.2 Damped Egua!ions

Uncoopled

20.3 for Damping Uncoupling

20.4 Program !!-Absolute Damping From Modal Damping Ratios

20.5 Summary

20.6 ProbleJM

Conditions

~ GENERALIZED COORDINATES AND RAYLEIGH'S METHOD

Principle ofVinual Work 21.2 Generaliz.ed Single-Dewee-of-Freedom System-Rigid Body 21.3 Generaliz.ed Single-Degrce-of,Freedom System- Distributed Elasticity 21.4 Shear Forces and Bending Moments Generaliz.ed Equation of Motion for a Multistory Building Shape Function Rayleigh's Method Improved Rayleigh ' s Method

21 . 1

21 .5

21.6

21.7

2 1.8

523

ill

526

6112

604

604

6IIZ

621

602

612

617

621

624

628

63.6.

21

.9

Shear Walls

639

21.1

0 Summary

21.1

1 Problems

643

PARI VI RANDOM VIBRATION

RANDOM VIBRATION

22. 1

Slllistical Oesaiption ofRandom Functions

22.2

Probability Density Function

n

3

The Normal Djstrjbucion

22.4

The Rayleig)! Distribution

22

5

Correlation

22.6 The FourierTrwfoan

22.7 Specn! Analysis

22.8 Spcclral Density FW!Clion

22.9 Narrow-Band and Wide-Band Random processes

Copyr

!Iii

w

ill

654

~

657

659

661

li6S

~

671

ro Mall:'

xiv

Conte nts

22. 10

Response to Random Excitation:

Single·Degree~f-FreedomSystem

675

22. 11

Response to Random Excitation: Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom System

681

22.11.1 Relationship Between Complex Frequency Response and Unit Impulse Response

681

22.11.2 Response to Random Excitation:

Two-degree-cffreedom System

683

22.11.3 Response to Random Excitation:

N Degree ofFreedom System

688

22.12

Summary

691

22.13

Problems

692

PARI VII EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

691

23 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1997: EQUIVALENT LATERAL FORCE METHOD

699

23.I

Earlhquake Ground Motion Equivalent Lateral Force Method Earlhguake·Resistant Design Methods

Sejsmjc Znne Factor

700

23.2

703

23 .3

23 4

703

703

23.5 Base Shear Force

704

23 6

D jsttihutjon of t.areral Seismic Eortes

711

23

.7

Story Shear Force

711

23.8

Horizontal Torsional Moment

712

23.9

Overturning Moment

7 13

23. J0

P·Delta Effect (P·a)

71 3

23.11

Redundancy/Reliability Factor p

715

23.12

Story Drift Limitation

715

23

.13

Diaphragm Design Forces

71 6

23.14 Earlhquake Load Effect

717

23.15 Irregular Structures

 

717

23.16 Summary

726

23.17 Problems

726

24 UNIFORM BUILDING CODE 1991: DYNAMIC METHOD

24.1

Modal Seismic Response of Buildings

731

731

24.1. 1

Modal Equation andParticipation Factor Modal Shear Force Ef[ecJive Modal Weight

732

24.12

24.

1.3

733

734

24. 1.4

Modal Latera/ Forces

735

24.1.5

Modal Displacements Modal Drill Modal Overturning Moment Modal Torsional Moment

735

24.1.6

736

24.1.7

736

24. 1.8

737

737

24.2 Total Design Values

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Contents

xv

2!1 1

Provisions ofUBC-97: Dynamic Method

738

24.4

Scaling of Results

740

M.j

Program 24-UBC 1997 Dynamic Lateral Force Method

750

24.6 Summary

754

24.7 Problems

755

25 INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE IBC-2000

757

25.1

Response Spectral Acceleration: S,

S,

757

25.2

Soil Modification Response Spectral Acceleration: S•t& S

,,

758

25.3

Design Response Spectral Acceleration: S 0 s, S 0 ,

 

759

25.4

Site Class Definition: A B

F

 

760

25.5

Seismic Use Group (SUG) and Occupancy Importance Factor Q,)760

25.6

Seismic Design Category (A, B , C, D, E and F)

 

761

25.7

Design Response Spectral Curve: S, v.s. T

763

25.8

Determination ofthe Fundamental Period

766

25.9

Mjojmum lateral Force Procedure

 

[IBC-2000: Section 1616.4.1] Simplified Analysis Procedure [IBC-2000: Section 1617.5)

 

767

25. 10

768

 

25.10.1

Sel.!micBa,seShear Response Modification Factor R

 

768

25.102

168

25.10.3

Vertical Distribution ofLateral Forces

169

25.11

Equivalent Seismic Lateral Force Method:

 

[IBC-2000: Section 1617.4]

 

769

25.11.1 Distribution ofLateral Forces

771

25.11.2 Overturning Moments

711

25.11 .3 Horizontal Torsional Moment

772

25.1 1.4 P-Delta Effect (P-11)

772

25 .1 1.$ Story Drl(l

113

25.12

Redundancy/Reliability Factor

774

25.13

Earthquake Load Effect

 

775

25.14

Building Irregularities

 

775

25.15

Summary

781

APPENDICES

783

Appendix 1: Answers to Problema In Selected Chapters

785

Appendix II: Computer Programs

793

Appendix Ill: Glossary

795

Selected Bibliography

803

Index

807

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I

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PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION

The basic structure of the four previous editions is maintained in this fifth edition, although numerous revisions and additions have been inuoduced. The three chapters on Earthquake Engineering have been rewritten to present the most recent versions of the Unifonn Building Code (UBC-97) and of the new International Building Code (IBC-2000) as in the fourth edition. A new chapter to serve as an inO'oduction for the dynamic analysis of structures using the Finite Element Method has heen incorporated in Pan m, SO'uctures Modeled as Discrete Mult idegree-of-Freedom Systems. The chapter on RBndom Vibration has been exteoded to include the response of structures modeled as a multidegree~f-freedom system, subjected to several random foroes or to a random motion at the base of the sO'ucture. The concept of damping is discussed more thoroughly, including the evaluation of equivalent viscous damping. The constant acceleration method to detennine the response ofnonlinear dynamic systems is presented in addition to the linear acceleration method presented in past editions. Chapter S on Response SpeCO'a now includes the development of seismic response specua with consideratioo of local soil conditions at the site of the SO'ueture. The secondary effect resulting from the lateral displacements of the building, commonly known as the P-11 effect, is explicitly considered through the calculation of the geometric stifthess matrix. Finally, a much larger number of solved iiiUSO'ative examples using the educational computer programs developed by the author or using the professional program SAP2000 have been incorporated in various chapters ofthe book.

The use of the professional computer program SAP2000 for the analysis and

Copyrighted material

xviii

Preface to the Fifth Edition

solution of structural dynamics problems is introduced in !his new edition. This program was selected from among lhe various professional programs available because of its capability in solving complex problems in structures as well as its wide use in professional practice by sll\lctUtal engineers. SAP2000 includes routines for the analysis and design of structures with linear or nonlinear behavior subjected to static or dynamics loads; (material non-linearity or large displacements non-linearities) and may be used most efficiently in lhe microcomputer. The larger versions of SAP2000 have lhe capability for the analysis of slruetures modeled with virtually any large number of nodes. This new fifth edition of lhe book uses, almost exclusively, lhe introductory version of SAP2000 which has a capability limited to 25 nodes or 25 e lements. A CD- ROM containing lhe introductory version of SAP2000 as well as the educational set of lhe program deve loped by lhe aulhor is included in this s• edition of Structural Dynamics: Theory andComputation.

The set of educational programs in SIJ\ICtUral Dynamics includes programs to detennine the response in lhe time domain or in the frequency domain using lhe FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) of structures modeled as a single oscillator. Also included is a program to determine the response of an inelastic system with elastOPlastic behavior, and another program for lhe development ofseismic response spectral charts. A set ofseven computer programs is included for modeling structures as two or-three-dimensional frames and trusses. Finally, olher programs, inCOI]lOrating modal superposition or a step-by-step time-history solution, are provided for calculation of the responses to forces or motions exciting the Slrueture. Tills fifth edition also includes a program to detennine the response of single or multiple-degree-of-freedom systems subjected to random

The book is organized in six parts. Part I deals wilh struetures modeled as single-degree-of-freedom systems. It introduces basic concepts in Slructural Dynamics and presents important melhods for lhe solution of such dynamic systems. Part II introduces important concepts and methodology for multi-degree-of-freedom systems through the use of structures modeled as lbear buildini$. Part m describes in detail !he Mattix StrnC!UOII Analysis for modeling skeletal type of structures (beams, frames, and trusses) as discrete systems in preparation for dynamic analysis. Part III also includes a chapter to serve as an introduction to the Finite Element Method (f.E.M,l for modeling continuous structures such as plates for dynamic analysis. Part IV presents the mathematical solution for some simple structures, such as beams, modeled as systems wilh distri buted properties, !bus having an in.finite number of degrees of freedom. Part V on Special Topics presents: an introduction to the magnificent Fourier Melhod and the use of the Fast Fourier Transfonn; an extension of the modeling complex structures as one degree-of-freedom systems lhrough the use of Generalized Coordinates and of Rayle igh Melhod; and methods to evaluate absolute damping in structures from estimated modal damping coefficients. Part Vl, which contains ooe chapter, introduces the reader to the complex but fascinating topic of Random Vibrations for the analysis of single degree of freedom systems, as well as for !he analysis of struetures modeled as multi-degree of freedom systems. Finally, Part VII presents the important current topic of Earthquake Engineering with applications to earthquake-resistant design of buildings

Copyrighted material

Preface to the Fifth Edition

xix

following the provisions of 1he Uniform Building Code and of the new International Building Code in use in The United States of America.

The author believes that a combination of knowledge on the subjects of applied mathematics, theory of structures, and computer programs is needed today for successful professional practice of engineering, just as knowledge ofa combination of numbers and turns is needed to open a safe. To provide 1he reader with such a combination of knowledge has been the primary objective of this book. The reader may wish to inform the author on 1heextent to which this objective has been fulfilled.

Many srudents, colleagues, and practicing professionals have suggested improvemenlS, identified typographical errors, and recommended additional topics for inclusion. In this new edition all these suggestions were carefully considered and have been included in this fifth edition whenever possible.

During the preparation ofthis fifth edition, I became indebted to many people to whom I wish to express my appreciation: First of all I am most grateful to many of my students who helped me through their inquisitive discussions in class to improve and c laril)' my presentation of the various topics in this book. It is now wilh great pain that I wish to recognize · posthumously the preliminary work done by my student Elaine Fonseca, who prepared changes to some drawings from the Fourth Edition. Her tragic death was most unfonunately a great loss ofa 11105t promising engineering student. She will be sorely missed by her family, friends, fellow students and this instructor. I wish also to recognize and thank my graduate students, Xiaobing Cui and Zhiyong Zhao, for their diligent collaboration and expert use of scanning equipment to retrieve text and

I am most grateful to my former

colleague; Dr. Michael A. Cassaro, who diligently checked the chapter on the Finite Element Method and to Dr. Julius Wong, of the Deparnnent of Mechanical Engineering, whose comments and discussions he lped me to refine my exposition. I am also grateful to my friend Dr. Farzad Naeim who has collaborated with me on the chapter Seismic Response Spectra in the "International Handbook of Eanhquake Engineering: Codes, Programs and Examples" of which I am the editor. I have incorporated some of the material from the Handbook in updating the chapter on Response Spectra. I also wish to acknowledge Dr. Luis E. Suarez from the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez, who provided me with copies of his work in Random Vibration and a copy of his class notes on the Finite Element Method. I also like to take this opportunity to thank my colleague, Dr Joseph Hagerty for his past he lp of many years ago, in the 1970s, at the time when I was just playing with the plan of writing a textbook in Structural Dynamics, without my knowledge, be approached a publishing company a initiated a contract in my name for the publication of the first edition of this textbook in 1980. A special acknowledgement of gratitude is extended to my friend Dr. Assraf Habibullllh, president of Computers and Structures Inc., who most kindly authorized me to include in this volume the introductory vers ion of SAP2000. In addition, Dr.

figures from the previous edition of this textbook.

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xx

Preface to the Fifth Edition

Habibulla provided me with the full version of SAP 2000 so I could solve problems beyond the capabilily of the introductory version. I am also most grateful to two other computer scientists of that company, Drs. Syed Hasnain and Bob Morris who most patiently tutored me and c!Mified many of the intricacies in the use of SAP2000. The senior author is cer1ainly very grateful to the co-author, Dr. William Leigh for his contribution in reviewing and editing lhls volume, especially those sections which used the computer programs. To those people whom I recognized in the prefaces to the previous editions for their help, I again express my wholehearted appreciation. Finally, I thank my wife, Annis, who most diligently helped me with great proficiency in the final preparation of this new edition to be camera ready for publication. Her dedication to the work as well as her continuous support and encouragement is deeply appreciated. In recognition of her indispensable help, this new edition is duly dedicated to her.

Mario Paz

September 2003

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Preface to the First Edition

Natural phenomena and human activities impose forces of time-dependent variability

complex as a

multistory building or a nuclear power plant constructed from different materials.

Analysis and design of such structures subjected to dynamic loads involve

on structures as simple as a

concrete beam or a

steel pile, or as

consideration

of time-dependent

inertial

forces. The

resistance to displacement

exhibited by a structure may include forces which are functions of the displacement and the velocity. As a consequence; the governing equations of motion ofthe dynamic system are generally nonlinear partial differential equations which are extremely difficult to solve in mathematical terms. Nevertheless, recent developments in the field of structural dynamics enable such analysis and design to be accomplished in a practical and efficient manner. This work is facilitated through the use of simplifYing assumptions and mathematical models; and of matrix methods and modem computational techniques. In the process of teaching courses on the subject of structural dynamics, the author came to the realization that there was a definite need for a text which would be suitable for the advanced undergraduate or the beginning graduate engineering student

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Jodi

Preface to the First Edition

being introduced to !his subject The author is familiar wilh lhe exisleoce of several excellent texts of an advanced nawre but generally lhese texts are, in his view, be)'OOd lhe expee~ed comprehension of the swdern. Consequently, it was his principal aim in writing !his book to incorporate modem melhods of analysis and techniques adaplable to computer programming in a manner as clear and easy as the subject permits. He felt !hat computer programs should be included in the book in order to assist the sruclcot in lhe application of modem methods associated wilh computer usage. In addition, the author hopes that this text will serve the praeticiiJi engineer for pwposes ofself-study and as a reference source. In writing Ibis teXt, the author also had in mind the use of lhe book as a possible source for research topics in suucrural dynamics for students working toward an advanced degree in engineering who are required to write a lhesis. At Speed Scientific School, University of Louisville, 111051 englnecrin& SIUdents complete a fifth year of swdy with a thesis requirement leading to a Master in Engineering degree. Tbe autho<'s experience as a lhesis advisor loads him to believe that this book may well serve the s~ts in their search and selection of topics in subjects currently under investigation in strucrutal dynamics. Should tho !ext fulfill !he expectations of the author in some measure, particularly the elucidation of this subject, he will !hen feel rewarded for his efforts in the preparation and development of the material in this book.

December, 1979

MARIO PAZ

Copyr

E'd Mall:'

PART I

Structures Modeled as a Single-Degree of Freedom System

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:

1 Undamped Single Degree-of-Freedom System

The ana lys is and design of structures to resist the effect produced by t ime dependent forces or motions requires conceptual idealizations and simplifying assumptions through which the physical system is represented by an idealized system known as the analytical or mathematical model. These idealizations or simplifying assumptions may be classified in the fo llowing three groups:

I.

Material assumptions. These assumptions or simplifications include material properties such as homogeneity or isotrophy and material behaviors such as linearity or elasticity.

2.

koadin& ;w;umptions. Some common loading assumptions are to consider concentrated forces to be applied at a geometric point, to assume forces suddenly applied, or to assume external forces to be constant or periodic.

3. Geometric Assumptions . A

trusses

is

to consider these

genera] assumption

for beams~ frames and

structures to be formed by

unidirectional

elements. Another common assumption is to assume that some structures

such as plates are two-dimensional systems with relatively small thicknesses. Of greater importance is to assume that continuous structures may be analyzed as discrete systems by specifying locations (nodes) and directions for displacements (nodal coordinates) in the structures as described in the following section.

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4

Degrees of Freedom

1.1 Degree10 of Freedom

In structural dynamics the number of independent coordinates necessary to specify the configuration or position o f a system at any time is referred to as the number of degrees of freedom . In general, a continuous structure has an infini te number of

freedom . Nevertheless, the process of idealization or selection of an

appropriate mathematical model permits the reduction to a discrete number of degrees of freedom. Figure 1. 1 shows some examples of structures that may be represented for dynamic analysis as one.Pegree-g(-freedom-svstems, tha t is, structures modeled as

systems with a single displacement coordinate.

degrees o f

flv

/i&=====ft==~A. '"''~r=====i11----·

~I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I II

(>)

I

I

I

I

lJ

I I Ij

.,

Fig. 1.1 Examples of structures modeled as one-degree-of-freedom systems.

These one=Pegree-of-freedom systems may be conveniently described by the analytical model shown in Fig. 1.2 which has the following elemeniS:

I.

A mass element m representing the mass and inertial characteristic of the

structure.

2.

A spring element k representing the elastic restoring force and potential energy storage of the structure.

3.

A damping e lement c representing the frict ional characteristics and energy

dissipation ofthe structure.

4.

An exc itation force F(r) representing the external forces acting on the structural system.

The force F(t) is written this way to indicate that it is a function of t ime. In adopting the a nal ytical model s hown in Fig. 1.2, it is assumed that each e lement in the system

that is, the mass m represeniS only the property of inertia

represents a s ingle property;

and not elasticity or energy dissipation

whereas the spring k represents excl usively

e lasticity and not inertia or energy dissipation. Finally, the damper c only d issipates energy. The reader certainly realizes that such ·•pure" elemeniS do not exist in our physical world and that analytical models are only conceptual idealizations of real structures. As s uch, analyt ical models may provide complete and accurate know ledge of the behavior oflhe model i!Self, but only limited or approximate information on the behavior of the real physical system. Nevertheless, from a practical point of view, the information acquired from tbe analysis o f the analytical model may very well be

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Undamped Single-Degree-of-Freedom System

5

sufficient for an adequate understanding of the dynamic behavior of the physical system, including design and safety requirements.

1--
1--

F(l)

Fig. 1.2 Analytical model for one-degree-of-freedom systems.

1.2 Undamped System

We start the study of structural dynamics with the analysis of a fundamental and simple system, the one-degree-of-freedom system in which we disregard or "neglect" frictional forces or damping. In addition, we consider the system, during

its motion or vibration, to be free from external actions or forces. Under these

conditions, the system is said to be in free vibration and it is in motion governed only by the influence of the so-called initial conditions, that is, the given displacement and velocity at time t = 0 when the study of the system is initiated.

This undamped, one~egree

undamped oscillator. It is usually represented as shown in Fig. 1.3(a) or Fig. 1.3(h) or any other similar arrangement. These two figures represent analytical models that are dynamically equivalent. It is only a matter of preference to adopt one or the other. In these models the mass m is restrained by the spring k and is limited to

rectilinear motion a long one coordinate axis, designated in these figures by the

letter u.

of freedom

system is often referred to as the simole

u. of freedom system is often referred to as the simole m T " (a) (b)
u. of freedom system is often referred to as the simole m T " (a) (b)

m

T

"

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1.3

AHernate representations of analytical models for one-degree-of-freedom systems.

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6

Undamped System

The mechanical characteristic of a spring is described by the relationsh ip between rhe magnitude of the force F, applied to its free end and the resulting end displacement u as shown graphically in Fig 1.4 for three different springs.

F,

shown graphically in Fig 1.4 for three different springs. F, (b) Fig. 1.4 Force-displacement relationship: (a)

(b)

graphically in Fig 1.4 for three different springs. F, (b) Fig. 1.4 Force-displacement relationship: (a) Hard

Fig. 1.4

Force-displacement relationship: (a) Hard spring,

(b) Linear spring, (c) Soft spring.

The curve labeled (a) in Fig. 1.4 represents the behavior of a hard spring in which the force required to produce a given displacement bceomes increasingly greater as the spring is deformed. The second spring (b) is designated a linear spring because the deformation is directly proportional to the force and the graphical representation of its characteristic is a strnight line. The constant of proportionality between the force and displacement [slope of the line (b)] of a linear spring is referred to as the s tiffness or the spring constant, usually designated by the letter k. Consequen tly , we may write the relationship between force and displacement for a linear spring as

F,

:

ku

( I. I)

A spring with characteristics shown by curve (c) in Fig. 1.4 is known as a soft spring. For such a spring the incremental force required to produce additional

deformation decreases as the spring deformation increases. Undoubtedly, the reader is aware from his previous exposure to analytical modeling of physical systems that the linear spring is the simplest type to manage mathematically. It should not come as a surprise to learn that most of the technical literature on slructural dynamics deals with models using linear springs. In other words, either because the elastic characteristics of the slructural system are, in fact, essentially linear, or simply because of analytical expediency, it is usually assumed that the force-deformation properties ofthe system are linear. In support ofthis practice, it should be noted that in many cases the disp lacements produced in the structure by the action of external forces or disturbances are smaU in magnitude (Zone E in Fig. 1.4), thus rendering

the linear approximation close to the actual structural behavior.

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Undamped Single-Degree-of-Freedom Syslem

7

1.3 Springs in parallel or In series

Sometimes it is necessary to determine the equivalent spring constant for a system in which two or more springs are arranged in parallel as shown in Fig. 1.5(a) or in series as in Fig. 1.5(b).

as shown in Fig. 1.5(a) or in series as in Fig. 1.5(b). (a) p k I

(a)

p

shown in Fig. 1.5(a) or in series as in Fig. 1.5(b). (a) p k I kl

kI

kl

~

~~ .-

p

A~ =-P Au 1 •£ ~u = Au +A U

I

} -I

l~

I

l

!

*(

-L. J_

.t,

k2

(b)

Fig. 1.5 Combination of springs: (a) Springs in parallel (b) Springs in series.

For two springs in parallel

the total

force required to produce a relative

displacement of their ends of one unit is equal to the sum of their spring constants. This total force is by definition the equivalent spring constant k. and is given by

the equivalent spring constant k. and is given by In general for n springs in parallel

In general for n springs in parallel

k. and is given by In general for n springs in parallel ( 1.2) (1.3) For

( 1.2)

(1.3)

For two springs assembled in series as shown in Fig. 1.5(b), the force P produces the relative displacements in the springs

and

p

ru., =-

A,

the relative displacements in the springs and p ru., =- A, Then, the total displacement u

Then, the total displacement u of the free end of the spring assembly is equal to

u =t.u 1 +t.u 2 , or substituting 6u 1 and 6u 2

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8

Springs in Parallel or in Se ries

p

p

u=-+-

k1

k ,

(1.4)

Consequently, the force k, necessary to produce one unit displacement (equivalent spring constant) is given by

p

k ' = -

u

Substi tuting u from this last relati on into eq.( 1.4). we may conveniently reciprocal value of the equivalent sprin g constant as

I

-=- +-

k,

k,

k,

express the

(1.5)

In general for n springs in series the equi valent spring constan t may be obtained !Tom

- =22-

k.-

Jcl

Jc.l

I

I

1.4 Newton's Law of Motion

(1.6)

We continue with the study of the s imple oscillator dep icted in Fig. 1.3 . The objective is to describe its motion, that is, to predict the displacement or velocity of the mass m at any ti ne t, for a g.iven set of in itial condi tions at time t = 0. The analytical relation between the displacement u, and time 1, is given by Newton's Second Law of Motion, which in modem nota tion may be expressed as

F =ma

(1.7)

Where F is the resu ltant force acting on a particle of mass m and a its resu ltant acceleration. The reader should recognize that eq.( I.7) is a vector re lation and as such it can be wrinen in equivalent form in terms of its components along the coo rdina te axes x, y. and z, name ly,

LF,. = ma.r

L F,. = ma 1

L F, =ma,

( 1.8a)

(1.8b)

( 1.8c)

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Undamped Single-Degree-of-Freedom System

9

The acceleration is defined as the second derivative of the position vector with

respect

should also be reminded that these equations as stated by Newton are directly applicable only to bodies idealized as particles, that is, bodies assumed to possess

mass but no volume. However, as is proved in elementary mechanics, Newton's

Law of Motion is also directly applicable to bodies of finite dimensions undergoing translatory motion. For plane motion of a rigid body that is symmetric with respect to the reference

Law of Motion yields the following

plane of motion (x-y plane), Newton's equations:

to time; it follows that eqs.( 1.8) are indeed differential equations. The reader

eqs.( 1.8) are indeed differential equations. The reader (1.9a) (1.9b) (1.9c) In the above equations (a
eqs.( 1.8) are indeed differential equations. The reader (1.9a) (1.9b) (1.9c) In the above equations (a
eqs.( 1.8) are indeed differential equations. The reader (1.9a) (1.9b) (1.9c) In the above equations (a

(1.9a)

(1.9b)

(1.9c)

In the above equations (a 0 ), and (a 0 ) 1 are the acceleration components, along

the x andy axes, of the center of mass G of the body; a is the angular acceleration; Ia is the mass moment of inertia of the body with respect to an axis through G, the

center

perpendicular to the x-y plane of the moments of all the forces acting on the body. Equations (1.9) are certainly also applicab le to the motion of a ri gid body in pure rotation about a fixed axis, a lternatively, fo r this particular rype of p lane motion, eq.( 1.9c) may be replaeed by

of mass; and L M a is the sum with respecl to an axis through G,

L M a is the sum with respecl to an axis through G, ( 1.9d) in

( 1.9d)

in which the mass moment of inertia / 0 and the moment of the forces M. are detennined with respect to the fixed axis of rotation. The general motion of a rigid body is described by two vector equations, one expressing the relation between the forces and the acceleration of the mass center, and another relating the moments of the forces and the angular motion of the body. This last equation expressed in its scalar components is rather complicated, but seldom needed in structural dynamics.

1.5 Free Body Diagram

At this point, it is advisable to follow a method conducive to an organized and systematic analysis in the solution of dynamics problems. The first and probably the most important practice to follow in any dynamic analysis is to draw a tree body diagram of the system, prior to writing a mathematical description of the system.

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10

Free Body Diagram

The free body diagram IFBOl. as the reader may reeall, is a sketch of the body

isolated from all other bodies, in which all the forces external to !he body are shown. For the case at hand, Fig. 1.6(b) depicts the FBD of the mass m of the oscillator, displaced in !he positive direction with reference to coordinate u and

acted

upon by the spring force F,, = leu (assuming a linear spring) . The weight of the

body mg and the nonnal reaction N of the supporting surface are also shown for

completeness, though these forces. acting in the venical direction, do not enter inro

the equation of motion written for the u direction. The application ofNewton' s Law

of Motion gives

-ku = mii

(1.10)

where the spring force acting in the negative direction has a minus sign~ and where

the acceleration has been indicated by ii. In this notation, double overdots denote the second derivative with respect to time and obviously a single ovcrdot denotes the first derivative with respect to time, !hat is, the velocity.

mg m -· m11
mg
m
-· m11

(a)

(b)

(<)

Fig. 1.6 Alternate free body diagrams: (a) Single degree-of-freedom system. (b) Showing only external forces. (c) Showing external and inertia l forces.

1.6 0 'Alembert's Principle

An alternative approach to obtain eq.(I.IO) is to make use of D' Aicmbert's Principle which states that a system may be set in a state of dynamic equilibrium by adding to the external . forces a fictitious force that is commonly known as !he

inertial force.

Figure 1.6(c) shows the FBO with inclusion of the inertial force mii . This force is equal to the mass multiplied by the acceleration, and should always be directed negatively with respect to the coiTesponding coordinate. The application of 0 ' Alcmbcrt's Principle allows us to use equations of equilibrium in obtaining the equation of motion. For example, in Fig. 1.6(c), the summation of forces in the u direction gives direc!ly

mii+ku=O

(1.11)

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Undamped Single-Degree-of-Freedom System

11

which obviously is equivalenr to eq.(l.l 0). The use of D' Alembert's Principle in this ease appears to be trivial. This will not be lbc case for a more complex problem, in which !he application of 0 ' Alembert' s Principle, in conjunction with the Princjple of Vjnual Wor!<, constitutes a powerful tool of analysis. As will be explained later, the Principle of Virtual Work is directly applicable to any system in equilibrium. If follows then that this principle may also be applied to the solution of dynamic problems, provided that D'Alembert' s Principle is used to establish the dynamic equilibrium of the system.

Illustrative Example 1.1

Show that the same differential equation is obtained for a body vibrating along a horizontal axis or for the same body moving vertically, as shown in Figs. 1.7(a) and

1.7(b).

-=-·-----.,

as shown in Figs. 1.7(a) and 1.7(b). -=-·-----., (•) A:u- - - - • 11fii I

(•)

A:u- - - - • 11fii I
A:u-
- - -
11fii
I

(C)

N

1.7(b). -=-·-----., (•) A:u- - - - • 11fii I (C) N • w I b

w I

b

0

W

.

·-

' w
'
w

(b) (d)

(<)

Fig. 1.7 Two repreoontations of the simple oscillator and corresponding free body

Solution:

diagrams.

The FBDs fo r these two representations of the simple oscillator are shown in Figs. 1.7(e) and 1.7(e), in which the inertial forces have been included. Equating to zero in Fig. 1.7(c) the sum oflhe forces along the direction u, we obtain

mii+ku = O

(a)

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12

D'Aiembert's Principle

T

Wben lhc body in Fig. I.7(d) is in lhe SIAlic equilibrium position, the spring is stretched u. units and cxcns a force .t,. • W upward on lhe body, where W is tbe weigh t of the body. When the body is displaced a distance u downward from this position of equilibrium the magnitude of lhe spring force is given by F,; k(u 0 +u)or F, W +ku since b 0 W . Using this result and applying it to tbe body in Fig. 1.7(e). we obtain from Newton 's Second Law ofMO(ion

or

which is identical to eq. (a).

Second Law ofMO(ion or which is identical to eq. (a). (b) 1. 7 Solution of the
Second Law ofMO(ion or which is identical to eq. (a). (b) 1. 7 Solution of the

(b)

1.7 Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion

The next step towanl our objC<:tive is to find lhe solution of the diffetential equation (1.1 1). We should again adopt a systematic approach and proceed fU'SI to classify

this d.iffercntial equation. Since the dependent variable u and second derivative ii appear in the fU'SI degree in eq.( I .I I), this cquat.ion is classified as linear and of second order. The fact that the coefficients of u and of ii (land m, respectively) arc constants and that the second member (righ t-hand side) of the equation is zero funher classifies Ibis equation as homogenous with conslant coefficients. We should

re<:all, proba bl y with

for the solution of linear different ial equations (homogenous or non-homogenous) of any order. For this simple, second-order differential equation we may proceed directly by assum ing a tria.l solution given by

a ccnain degree of satisfact ion, that a general procedure exists

u

Aeosmt

(1.12)

or by

u

B sin 4J t

( I. I 3)

where A and 8 arc cons1ants depend in& on the initiation of the tn01ion while"' is a quantity denoting a physical characteristic of lhe system as it will be shown nexL The substitution ofeq. (1.12) into eq. (I . I I) gives

The substitution ofeq. (1.12) into eq. (I . I I) gives (1.14) If this cquatioo is

(1.14)

If this cquatioo is to be satisfied at any time, lhe factor in parentbeses must be equal

to zero, or

~

yr

ed IT'ale

Undamped Single-Degree-of-Freedom System

13

(I)

2

k

=-

m

( 1.15)

The reader should verify tltat eq.(l .13) is a lso a solution of the differential equation ( 1.11), wilh "'also satis.fying eq.(l.l 5). The positive root ofeq.( 1.15,

satis.fying eq.(l.l 5). The positive root ofeq.( 1.15, (1.16a) is known as the natural frequency of

(1.16a)

is known as the natural frequency of !he system for reasons tltat will soon be apparent. The quantity m in equation (1.16a) may be expressed in terms of !he static

disp lacement resulting

substitution into eq.(l . l6a)

the spring. The

from

the weight

W

= mg applied to

of m =W I g results in

Hence

OJ=N

II'

(1.16b)

OJ=N:

u,.

(1.16c)

where u., =WI!: is the static displacement of the spring due to the weight II'. Since either eq.(l.l2) or eq.(l.13) is a solution of eq.(l.l l), and since this differential equation is linear, the superposition of these two solutions, indicated by eq.(1.17) below, is also a solution. Furthermore, eq.(1.17), having two constants of integration. A and 8 , is, in fact, the general solution for this linear second-{)rder

differential equation.

u = A cosa11 + Bsin a> 1

(1.17)

The expression for ve locity, u, is simp ly found by differentiating eq . (1.17) with

respect to time, that is,

u= -A a> sin a> I+ 8a> COS <VI

(1.18)

Next, we should determine the constants of integration A and B. These constants are determined from known values for the motion of the system which almost invariably are the d isplacement u 0 and the velocity u 0 at the initiation of the motion, . that is, at time I = 0. These two conditions are referred to as initial conditions, and

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14

Solution of the Differential Equation of Motion

the problem of solving the differential equation for the initial conditions is called an

initial yal~~eproblem.

After sui>Jiiluting. fort zO, u = Uo. and ,; s u 0 into eqs.(l.l7) and (1.1 8) we fmd that

uo =A

"o = BOJ

(1.19a)

( 1.19b)

Finally, the subsli!Uiion of A and 8 from eqs. (1.19) into eq.( l.1 7) gives

uo

U-= u 0 COS4H +-Sln lUI

.

(j)

(1.20)

which is the expression of the displacement u of the simple oscillator as a function of the lime Vllriable t . Thus, we bave accomplished our objeeti •-e of describing the motion of the simple undamped oscillator modeling suuc:rures with a single degree off'Rcdom.

1.8 Frequency and Period

An examinalion of eq.( 1.20) shows that the motion described by !his equalion is harmonic and therefore periodic, that is, it can be expressed by a sine or cosine funcl ion of the same frequency OJ. The period may easily be found since the funct ions sine and cos ine bolh have a period of 2H . The period '[of the motion is delermined from

or

. The period '[of the motion is delermined from or T=- 2JI' t» (1.21) The period

T=- 2JI'

(1.21)

The period is usually exjnSsed in seconds per c:yde or simply in seconds, with

the tacil unders~andin& thai it

is "per

cycle". The reciprocal value of the period is

the natural frcguenc;x l

From eq.(l.21)

I

1=-=-

OJ

T

2K

(1.22)

The natural fi'equency[is usually expressed in benz or cycles per second (cps). Because 1he quantily OJ differs from the natura l frequency f only by the constant faclor 2Jr, (J) also is sometimes referred to as the na1ural frequency. To distinguish

y

ed

f only by the constant faclor 2Jr, (J) also is sometimes referred to as the na1ural

Undamped Single-Degree-of-Freedom System

15

between these two expressions for natural frequency, (i) may be called the circular or angular natural frequency. Most often, the distinction is understood form the context or from the units. The natural frequency f is measured in cps as indicated, while the circular frequency "'should be given in radians per second (rad/sec).

Illustrative Example 1.2

Determine the natural frequency of the beam-spring system shown in Fig. 1.8 consisting of a weight of W 50.0 lb anached to a horizontal cantilever beam

through the coil spring k 2 The cantilever beam has a thickness h = Y. in, a width b =

10 6 psi, and length L 12.5 in. The coil spring

I in. modulus of elasticity £ • 30 x bas a stiffness k 2 = I00 (lblin)

t--------L • Il.>;,,---------1

t--------L • Il.>;,,---------1
t--------L • Il.>;,,---------1
t--------L • Il.>;,,---------1
k 2 = I00 (lblin) t--------L • Il.>;,,---------1 ~ •,. "'""" Fig . 1.8 System for

~•,."'"""

Fig . 1.8 System for Illustrative Example 1.2.

Solution:

The deflection 1!. at the free end of a uniform cantilever beam acted upon by a static force Pat the free end is given by

acted upon by a static force Pat the free end is given by The corresponding spring

The corresponding spring con.stant k 1 is then

given by The corresponding spring con.stant k 1 is then where the cross-section moment of inertia

where the cross-section moment of inertia I =_!_bh 3 (for a rectangular section).

12

Now, the cantilever and the coil spring of this system are connected as springs in series. Consequently, the equivalent spring constant as given from eq.(l.5) is

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16

Frequency and Period

I

I

I

-=-+-

k,

k,

k,

( 1.5) repeated

Substituting COITesponding numerical values, we obtain

and

I

1 = -

12

x lx

() )

I

-

4

k

=

3x30 x l0 6

I

= -

768

.

(m)

4

= 60 lblin

1 (12.5) 3 x 768

-

I

k,

I

= -

60

I

+ -

100

k, = 37.5 lblin

The natural frequency for this system is lhen given by cq.( 1.16a) as

or using eq.(l.22)

1.9 Amplitude of Motion

"'=.Jk, I m

(m =WI g and g = 386 in/sec' )

{)) = .J37.5x386/ 50.0

{)) = 17.0I radlsec

/

= 2.71 cps

(Ans.)

us now exam ine in more deta il eq.( 1.20), lhe solution describing the free

vibratory motion ofthe undamped oscillator. A simple trigonomerric transfoiTnation may show us that we can rewrite lhis equation in the equivalent foiTOS, namely

Let

 

u

= Csin((J)t + a)

(1.23)

or

 

u

= C cos(<Vt - fJ)

(1.24)

where

 

C

= ~u~ + (u 0 I Cll) 2

(1.25)

I

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Undamped Single-Degree-<lf-Freeclom System

17

and

tan a s

uo uo / OJ

tan/) = uo/OJ

••

(1.26)

(1.27)

The simplest way to obtain eq.(l.23) or eq.(l.24) is to multiply and divide eq.(1.20) by the factor C defined in eq.(l.25) and to define a(or /)) by eq.( 1.26) [or eq.(1.27)]. Thus

and to define a(or /)) by eq.( 1.26) [or eq.(1.27)]. Thus u, (1.28) Fig. 1.9 Definition
and to define a(or /)) by eq.( 1.26) [or eq.(1.27)]. Thus u, (1.28) Fig. 1.9 Definition

u,

(1.28)

Fig. 1.9 Definition of angle a or angle p.

With the assistance of Fig. 1.9, we recognize that

and

•o

$Jn(Z :::5-

.

c

cos a = uo / OJ

c

(1.29)

(1.30)

The substitution ofeqs.(1.29) and ( 1.30) into eq.(l.28) gives

u =C(sin acosw 1+cos a sin OJI)

(1.31)

The substitution ofeqs.(1.29) and ( 1.30) into eq.(l.28) gives u = C(sin acosw 1+cos a sin

18

Amplitude o f Motion

The expression within the parentheses of eq.(l.3t) is identical to sin(a.or + a) , which yields eq.(J.23). Similarly, the reader should veri~)! without difficulty, the form of solution given by eq.( 124). The value of C in eq.(J.23) (or eq.(1.24)] is referred to as the amplitude of motion and the angle a (or p) as the ohase angle. The solut ion for the motion of the simple oscillator is shown graphically in Fig. I. I 0.

u

simple oscillator is shown graphically in Fig. I. I 0. u Fig. 1.10 Undamped free-vibration response

Fig. 1.10 Undamped free-vibration response

Illustrative Example 1.3

Consider the stee l frame shown in Fig. 1. 11(a) hav ing

which a horizontal dynamic force is applied. As pan of the overall structural design

it is required to detennine the natural frequency of this structure. Two assumptions

are made:

a rigid horizontal member to

I.

The masses of the columns are neglected.

2.

The horizontal members are sufficiently rigid to prevent rotation at the tops of the columns.

These assumptions are not mandatory for the solution of the problem, but they serve to simplify the analysis. Under these conditions, the frame may be modeled by the spring-mass system shown in Fig. 1.1 I(b).

I

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Undamped Single-Degree-of-Freedom System

19

rp=21•22ZlW~:il;:izi~i2:iZn==r- F( t )

I.

IS'

f- ---2~--- -1

==r- F( t ) I. • IS' f- ---2~--- -1 • (a) (b) Fig. 1. 11

==r- F( t ) I. • IS' f- ---2~--- -1 • (a) (b) Fig. 1. 11

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1. 11 O n<Kiegree-of-freedom frame and eo<responding analytical model for Illustrative Example 1.3.

S<>lution:

The parameters of this model may be computed as follows:

Note:

II' = 200 x 25 = 5000 lb

I

£

k

= 82.5 in• = 30 x 10 6

psi

= 12£(2/) = 12 x 30xi0 6 x l65

Ll

(15x l2) 3

k = I0,185 lblin

(Ans.)

A unit displacement of the top of a fixed column requires a force equal to

12£1/ L'-

Therefore, the natural frequency from eqs .( 1.1 6b) and (1 .22) is

Illustrative Example 1.4

from eqs .( 1.1 6b) and (1 .22) is Illustrative Example 1.4 I = 4.46 cps

I

= 4.46 cps

10,185x386 5000
10,185x386
5000

(Ans.)

The elevated water tower tank with a capacity for 5000 gallons of water shown in

Fig. 1. 12(a) has a natural period in lateral vibration of 1.0 sec when empty. When

lateral

stiffness k of the tower and the weight W of the tank. Neglect the mass of the supporting columns (one gallon ofwater weighs approximately 8.34 lb).

tbe tank is full of water, its period lengthens to 2 .2 sec. Detenninc the

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20

Amplitude of Motion

20 Amplitude of Motion /' k w ( a ) (1>) Fig. 1.12 (a) Water tower

/'

k w

k

k w
k w
k w

w

k w
k w
k w

(a)

20 Amplitude of Motion /' k w ( a ) (1>) Fig. 1.12 (a) Water tower
20 Amplitude of Motion /' k w ( a ) (1>) Fig. 1.12 (a) Water tower

(1>)

Fig. 1.12 (a) Water tower tank of Illustrative Example 1.4. (b) Analytical model.

Solution:

In its lateral motion, the water tower is modeled by the simple oscillator shown in Fir. 1.12(b) in which k is the lateral stiffness of the tower and m is the vibrating

mass of the tank.

a) Narural frequency aJ£

(tank empty):

of the tank. a) Narural frequency aJ£ (tank empty): b) Natural frequency aJp Weight of wate.r

b) Natural frequency

aJp

Weight of wate.r w.:

(tank full of water)

Ww =5000 x 8.34=41,700 l b

21r

21r

<Vf=-=-=

r,

2.2

kg

w+41,700

(a)