Guidance Manual
PART 23
II INSTRUMENTS
AND
for Model Testing

I APPARATUS
ANSI/ASME PTC 19.23 1980
ASME P T C * L 7  2 3 8 0
~ m 0757b70 0052305 3 m
Copyright 01980
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
All Rights Reserved
Printed in U.S.A.
FOREWORD
In 1971 the PTC Supervisory Committee, then called the PTC Standing Committee, recognized
that the high cost of prototypetesting had resulted in increased interest in the use of models to
confirm or extend performance data. The Supervisory Committee suggested that a group of
specialists in severalareas of Model Testing undertake to study the larger aspects and implica
tions of Model Testing.The result of this suggestion was the formation in March 1972of
PTC 37 on Model Testing. The Committee was later designated PTC 19.23.
This Committee was charged with the responsibility of surveying the varied fields of PTC
activity in which the techniques, opportunities for, and the limitations of, Model Testing may
be useful. The initial concept was to develop a Performance Test Code. After further delibera
tions, it wasagreed, with the permission of the PTC Supervisory Committee, based upon the
complexities of the subject matter and the uniqueness of its application, to prepare an Instru
mentsandApparatus Supplement on Code Applications of Model Experiments,(Guidance
Manual for Model Testing). This document was submitted onvariousoccasions to the PTC
Supervisory Committee and interested parties for review and comment. Comments received as a
result of this review were duly noted and many of them were incorporated in the document.
This I & A Supplement represents the first effort to prepare a manual on the techniques and
methods of Model Testing and it is intended that it would eventually be utilized by all the
Performance TestCode Committees.
This I L? A Supplement was approved by the PTC Supervisory Committee on May 1O, 1979,
and was approved by ANSI as an American National Standard on January 14,1980.
iii
x \
NO. 19.23
PERSONNEL OF PERFORMANCE TEST CODE COMMITTEE
ON MODEL TESTING
C. A. Meyer, Chairman
Professor J. H. Potter, Past Chairman*
Brown, D. H., Environmental Systems Engineer, General Electric Company, P. o. BOX 435345,
Schenectady, New York 12301
Burton, C. L., Section Manager, R & PD Kreisinger Development Lab., Steam Generator Develop
ment & Testing, Combustion Engineering, Incorporated, 1000 Prospect Hill Road,
Windsor, Connecticut 06095 (Deceased)
Fisher, R. K., Supervisor, Hydraulic Labs., AllisChalmers, York Plant, HydroTurbine Division,
P. O. Box 712, York, Pennsylvania 17405
Karassik, I., Consulting Engineer, 476 Walton Road, Maplewood, New Jersey 07040
Langhaar, H. L., Professor, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, University of Illinois, Urbana,
Illinois61 801 (Retired)
Meyer, C.A.,Professor, Engineering Center, WidenerCollege,Chester,Pennsylvania 19013.
Neale, L. C., Professor,Charles T. Main, Incorporated, Southeast Tower, Prudential Center,
Boston, Massachusetts 02199
*Potter, J. H., Professor, Departmentof Mechanical Engineering, Stevens lnstituteof Technology,
Castle Point Station, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (Deceased)
Rolsma, B., SeniorEngineer,Design Thermodynamics, Medium Steam TurbineDepartment
(E & M), Building 264 G2,General Electric Company, 1100 WesternAvenue, Lynn,
Massachusetts O191O
Yorgiadis, S., Partner,Sheppard T. Powell Associates, 31 Light Street, Baltimore, Maryland
2 1 202
vi
SECTION 1 PAGE
O General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.1 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.2 Intended Use of This Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.3 Definition of a Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.4 General Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1 Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
3 Dimensionless Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4 Similitude (Similarity) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
4.1 Geometric Similarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
4.2 Dynamic Similarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5 Some Modeling ExamplesUsingDimensionlessNumbers .......... 4
5.1 The Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
5.2 A Vibration Dynamic Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5.3 Incompressible Flow Turbine Blade Cascade Study . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5.4 Compressible Flow Turbine Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
5.5 Flow Induced Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.5.1 Flow Over a Flat Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.5.2 Pipe Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.5.3 Flow Past a Sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.5.4 Flow in PipeBends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.5.5 Flow Through Regions of Rapid Expansion/Contraction . . . . . . 9
5 .G Characteristic Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5.7 Additional Considcrations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
G Referred Quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
7 References for Section 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
SECTION 2
Index of Example Problems
Example
1 Oversized Turbine Stage Flow Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2 Pump lntakcVortex Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3 Hydraulic Turbine Tcsts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4 Butterfly Valvc Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5 Electrostatic Precipitator. Gas
Distribution
Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . .: . 30
G Flow in Furnaces
and
Ducts.
Smokeand Water Table Tests . . . . . . . . . 42
Cooling
7 Tower. Flow Recirculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
8 Compressor for the Tullahoma Windtunnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large 47
9 River Model Heating Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
10 Model Testing of LargeFans ............................ 54
viii
,...". =_
======.
COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services

 ASME PTC*K17*23 80 9 0 7 5 7 6 7 00 0 5 2 3 3 2 O 9
SECTION 1
relationships betweenthe performance of model and proto canbeused as a designguideorused to determine the
type should be determined, or confirmed experimentally. remedial action that might be required if the equipmentis
Models shall be physically similar to the prototype and notperformingasexpected. The ability to interpret model
must experience the same physical phenomenaas theproto ing results is strongly dependent on an understanding of
type, as detailed subsequently in this document. Analogs dimensional analysissuchas developed in the next section.
are not included in Performance Test Code modeling at A treatment o f the theoretical background of model
this time. Of most immediate importance to the engineer testing isgiven in Section 3. Examples il!ustrating modeling
is the ability to use a model of a prototype to predict the applications are given in Section 2. The remaining sections
performance of equipment covered by Performance Test are devoted to definition and application.
Codessuch as centrifugal pumps, fans,
compressors,
hydraulic turbines and steam turbines.
Certain systems being considereddo not lend themselves
1 DIMENSIONS
to complete system modeling, (such as steamgenerators,
steam and gas turbines and steam condensing equipment). Certain fundamental entities are identified as dimen
Others such as hydraulic turbinesandpumps arefrequently sions. Some common dimensions are cited below:
modeled to determine and even prove prototype perform (M) mass
ance,Where complete system modeling is not effective, (L) length
various approaches are available such as the selective model ( T ) time
ing of components and an interpretive ability to relate the (e) temperature
component modelresults. With this approach, modeling (a) electric charge
TABLE 1
Quantity U.S. Customary Units S.I. (Metric Units) Conversion Factor (*)
Vel oc
ty footlmin meterlsec 5.08EO3
footlsec meterlsec 3.048 EO1
(*) Note: Conversion factors are expressed as a number greater than one but less than ten, followed by E (for exponent) and a
sign showing whether the decimal should be moved to the l e f t () or to the right (+), and the power o f ten to which
the change i s made.
As an example, the conversion factor from inches to meters is 2.54 E02, or inches multiplied by 0.0254 is meters.
3
"
COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
SECTION 1 ANSI/ASME PTC 19.231980
zI'
= constant (2) 5 SOME MODELING EXAMPLES USING DIMEN
vx, YI z SIONLESS NUMBERS
must exist. Also, the accelerationratios Much time, effort and expense may be saved through a
knowledgeable application of modeling using similitude
anddimensionlessnumbers.Someselectedexamplesare
presented here to point outthe advantages o f using dimen
sional
analysis,
especially for the
testing of models.
must exist.
5.1 The
Pendulum
4.2 Dynamic similariv requires that the forces actingon
the corresponding masses between the prototype and the The simple pendulum affords an excellent example for
model, demonstratingthe principles o f modeltesting. A dimen
sionalanalysisshows that the period ( t ) of a pendulum
z  constant multiplied by the square root of the ratio of the accelera
" Y
tion of gravity (9)divided by i t s length is a function o f the
amplitude (O) o f i t s swing and is independent of i t s mass
must be related. The Reynolds number NRe , or the Froude
number areexamples fromfluid mechanics. (m).
The idea of dynamic similitud; is derived from the con
sideration that the dimensionlessnumbersare typically
(t m) function o f (e)
= (8)
ratios of transport functions and/or other specific proper
ties of the system being modeled.Typically (1 O) Any one of the pendulums shown in Fig. 1 (a) could be
N R =~ Inertia forces/Viscous forces used as a test model for any of the others, for the analysis
N F ~= Inertia forces/Gravityforces o f this system shows:
= Pressure forces/lnertia forces
N1ve = Inertia forces/Surface tension forces
N M =~ Local velocity/Acoustical velocity
PERIOD t
o FIG. 1 (a)
ment, at one g instead o f 9000 g, a t ten times the size,
and a t a period 300 times as long, as would be the case in
the rotating prototype. However, the value of t c w a s
the same in model and prototype.
NRe 0: VL P a Nie/(L (1 1)
Thus the power for the same Reynolds number varies
inversely with the size ( L ) .(See Fig. 2.)
Hence, a turbine oracascade ten times larger,with 1/1O
PROTOTYPE
the velocity, will require 1/10 the air power to test it pro
vided, the Reynolds numbers are the same, Large low speed
MODEL
turbines or large low velocity cascades, require less air or
steam power, can be constructed more accurately, and are
affected less by the presence of instrument probes. The
above reasoningcan be applied to all fluid compressors,
FIG. 1 (b) pumps and turbines.
I " /
/
a cxv
Pa c2 v3
N d 
PalooC2x  v3
1 O00
=
c2 y 3

10
FIG. 2
In the case of piping where liquid collects in horizontal devcloped pipeflow.Typically, the Moody[] diagram,
runs, additional dimensionalnumbers based on liquid Fig. 6, relates the friction factor f to N R and~ the relative
density, gravity, surfacetensionand viscosity must be roughness /D, where E is the median height of the source
introduced. of roughnesson the inside diameter of the pipe D. The
Moody diagram is only applicable for flow conditions at
5.5 Flow Induced Turbulence least 20 diameters downstream from the pipe inlet or from
a turbulence inducingdevice.This permits the full hydraulic
The general characterization of flow turbulence by the development of the boundary layer as noted in Fig. 4.

Reynolds number
DV
N R ~=,
u D
+
canbe misleading. The following are several examples of 1 +
how the Reynolds number criteria is used to describe or
evaluate various phenomena.
5.5.1 Flow Over a Flat Plate
The development of a flow field over a f l a t plate is il
lustrated by Fig. 4121*. Here, a flat plate with a sharp FIG. 5
leading edge is located parallel to the fluidvelocityvectors.
Theviscous effects first form a laminar boundary layer
where the viscous drag is a function of stress on the plate 5.5.3 Flow Past a Sphere
7 = FIA (dvldy).
The analysis andexperimental data onthe sphere afford
further insights into the proper interpretation of dimen
sionless numbers. The plot ofdrag coefficient of a sphere,
Fig. 7, has a characteristic cusp a t a Reynolds number of
about 3 X 10. The location of this cusp has been found
to depend on the surface roughness of the sphere and also
on thefree stream turbulence, both of which influence the
LAMINAR
BOUNDARY
BOUNDARY
LAYER TRANSITION
LAYER
 flowseparation point and therefore the drag of the sphere.
Without this empirical knowledge one might assume the
drag coefficient is a function of the Reynolds and Mach
numbers and ignore the effects of surfaceroughnessand
FIG. 4 turbulence. Therefore, turbulence andsurfaceroughness
must be considered also to get model to full scale corrcla
When the velocity gradient (dvldy) exceeds the shear tion.
stress capability of the fluid, the flow becomes turbulent. 5.5.4 Flow in Pipe Benas
The momentum transfer of V, into V*, Fig. 5i31, again
adds to theviscousdrag of thesystem. Theresults are The preceding discussion of turbulence was based only
characterized by the relationship: on the viscous properties and the resultant boundary layer
of the fluid stream. Other turbulenceproducingagents are
N R =~x VPlF (14) encountered in real fluid flow systems. Figure 8 indicates
where x is the distance downstream from the leading edge the creation of secondary flow systems when a fluid tra
of the flat plate. Hence, there is a dimension x, where fully verses a pipe bendl 4 l . Here the centrifugal forces due to
devcloped turbulent boundary layer flow is established. turning create a pressure gradient of (P, p2)ld. The
The boundary layer thickness is shown in Fig. 4 as S. lower momentum boundary layer on the wall of the pipe
permits the pressure gradient to initiate a secondary flow
5.5.2 Pipe Flow onthe wall from p l to p z . This secondary flow adds to
Historically, the Reynolds number turbulence concept the pressure drop of the system by increasing the velocity
ha:been useful in calculating the pressure drop of fully gradient a t the pipe wall. Additional fluid energy is con
verted to heat by the viscous dissipation of the free stream
*Numbers in brackets idcnlifyrcfcrenccs in Item 7 of Section I . turbulence of the vortices.
&
Ln
O
Ln 7 0
.
s g
m
9 9
* 8 8
O 0
I
II
I
I
O
I Ln0
r0
O 0
m
O
5 88
O 0
1
2
o Wz
cc
o
I:u LLLL
OQ
1 .I
1 .o
0.9
0.8
k
r"
z 0.7
uU
U
0.6
o
W
o
2
0.5
2
v)
W
U: 0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
o
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2
D1 I D 2
FIG. 9
number is needed. Figure shows the mean stream hance ease of measurement, provided that the critical
velocity, U, with the Root Mean Squared turbulent compo physical effects are reproduced. An additional benefit is
nentsof velocity ii, V, and F. A statistical analysis of these the succinct presentation of experimental resultsand
flow elements is then used to quantify turbulence in terms designdatawhenexpressed in terms of t h e significant
of intensity, frequency, and scale. dimensionless groups. For example, to test three (3) values
Based on this analysis, one should expect that the effi each of five (5) independent variables, requires 243 tests
ciency of a major item of equipment, such as a turbine or and requires 27 curvesheets to plot the results. Whereas
a kinetic compressor, is not fully dependent on Reynolds the five variables can bereduced to two (2) nondimensional
or Mach number alone, but alsoon theupstream turbulence variables which will require only nine tests and the results
which is not homogeneous, but consists, in the case of can be plotted on one curve sheet.
turbomachinery, o f a succession of hub and tip lifting
vortices interspersed with blade trailing edge wakes.
These application examplesdiscussed in this section
illustrate that the criteriaare notsize, larger or smaller, nor
6 REFERRED QUANTITIES
speed,fasterorslower, but rather the proportion among Referred quantities have been devised to avoid some of
significant physical entities that are expressible as dimen the inconveniences associated with dimensionless numbers
sionlessnumbers. Model testing can save expenseoren but at the expense of a loss of generality.
"U"
" O
ROLL
J
VORTEX
INTENSITY = / U
FREQUENCY = n
SCALE = L
Consider a compressor, for which unit inlet total pressure ( P t , ), corrected for inlet sonic
W = mass flow,Ibm per sec velocity (atl).
at, = inlet sonic velocity, ft per sec This dimensionlessnumber is converted to a referred
A = crosssectional area, s q in. quantity by first ignoring the reference size (A ) and refer
P t , = total inlet pressure,psi ring the flow to standard sea level inlet pressure (Po) and
g = Acceleration of gravity, ft per sec2 tempcraturc ( T o )conditions, assuming the sonic velocity
to vary as fl
A dimensionless mass flow rate may be computed from
11
ASME P T C x 1 9 . 2 3 A O W 0759670 0 0 5 2 3 2 3 5 m
.~
Example Title

1 Oversized Turbine Stage Flow Model
2 Pump Intake Vortex Studies
3 Hydraulic Turbine Tests
4 Butterfly Valve Tests
5 Electrostatic Precipitator,Gas Flow Distribution
6 Flowin Furnaces and Ducts, Smokeand Water Table Tests
7 Cooling Tower, Flow Recirculation
8 Large Compressor.for the Tullahoma Windtunnel
9 River Model Heating Studies
10 Model Testing of Large Fans
Certain aerodynamic effects in turbine stage flow defy forces in the rotating bucket.
rigorous analysis ortheoretical appraisal. Their proper (4) Intrastage threedimensional effects due to radial
understandingrequires amodel where the physical phenom aerodynamic forces induced by the warpednozzlesand
enacanbe directly observed and measured. The aerody buckets.
namic effects which appeared to be themajor probable Studies in several of these areas were carried out, but it
sources of losses in efficiency, and for which no clearunder soon became apparent that economy of effortrequired the
standing exists, were: identification of the sources of the most significantlosses,
(1) The timevaryingnatureof theflowin turbinestages so that work could then stress these most promisingareas.
caused by the interaction between the stationary nozzles Consideration of the problemareas indicated that it would
and the moving buckets. beverydesirable to expand both the physical and time
(2)Effects due to the interaction of the nozzle end scales involved. Such scaling would permit rather detailed
vortex with bucket end wall flow. investigations of boundary layer and mainflow behavior
(3) Radial forces on the nozzle and bucket boundry using simple, wellproven instruments, and, with the time
layers due to radial pressure gradients and thecentrifugal scale expansion, would also permit relatively easy visual
SECTION 2
and photographic studies of all aspects of the flow. Such a TABLE 11
time andsize expansion would also entail a low enough Dimensions of Test Stage
speed to permit an observer to ride on the rotating wheel
of a test facility, and thus directly study the relative flow Diameter (pitch
49
line) ft4 in.
through the moving buckets. Radial height of buckets
53% in.
Nozzle partitions
Establishment o f Design Parameters
Number 50
Obviously, it would be difficult to operate a largescale width
Axial /8 481 in.
visualizer with anyappreciable pressure drop across the Pitch 37.1 5 in.
stage. Fortunately, the turbine stages beinginvestigated Exit area 166.4 ft2
have a pressure ratio across the buckets so near to unity
Buckets
that no serious distortion o f the flow picture is introduced
Number 95
by testingunder incompressibleflow conditions. The
in. 25 width Axial
factors governing the designof the model were:
in. 19.6 Pitch
(1) Maintenance o f the correct ratio between the flow
velocity and the wheel speed.
Overall Structure
(2) Operation at the same Reynoldsnumber as the
prototype stages to permit direct comparison o f results. Height 45 fb4 in.
(3) Consideration o f size and speeds such that observers Diameter 72 ft
could obtain useful results without undue discomfort, Radome 90 ft diameter X
Preliminary experiments with large airfoil mockups in 55 ft high
dicated that the air velocity relative to the bucket should
be no higher than 10 ft/sec for visual studies with smoke. Operating Conditions for Visualization
This figure, plus the necessity of maintaining the proper
velocity ratios,establishedthedesign bucket tangential flow Air 174,000 cfm
speed o f 11 ft/sec and theflow velocity at the nozzle throat4.3 speedWheel rpm
o f about 20 ft/sec. (1 1 fps at pitch line)
Toobtain thesevelocities at the same Reynolds Number Stage
pressure drop
0.09 in. H 2 0
as exists on the actual turbine, t h e model stage is 25 times Nozzlepassing frequency
the size of the prototype. Table 11 shows the operating (moving observer)
3.6/sec
conditions and some pertinent dimensions of the facility.
The axis of the model turbine stage is vertical with air
flow downwardthroughthestationarynozzlesandthen
ment of flowsmoothing screenswasdeveloped using a
downward through theturbine buckets. Example11shows
1/50th sizescale model with water as the fluid anddye
the buckets and an observer riding on the ring shaped car
tracers.
(like a merrygoround) that rotateson a circular track.
Because of the low velocities and pressure differentials
at whichthemodeloperates, it would havebeenvery
Observing Flow Behavior
d i f f i h t to eliminate all troublesome air infiltration and The moving buckets in Ex. 11 are bounded by trans
thermalconvective effects if the structure were directly parent plastic end plates. Penetrationsof the plastic permit
exposed to the weather. Accordingly, it was enclosed in a the moving observer to insertmeasurementprobesand
90ftdiameter airsupportedfabricradomewhich com smoke probes.
pletely eliminates wind effects and provides weather An excellentpictureof flowconditions in the boundary
protection. layer is obtained by wiping the bucket surface with a swab
Due to the low air flow velocity the power generated soaked in a mixture of titanium tetrachloride andanhy
in the model turbine stage is insignificant. An electric drousalcohol. During the few seconds required for the
motor drive of the ring thatbears the moving buckets and liquid filmtoevaporate, adensesmoke is liberated directly
the moving observer synchronizes the pitchline velocity to into the boundary layer. For exploratory studies, the ob
the air flow velocity. server uses a longhandledapplicator to apply the chemicals
The air flow is induced by a 14ftdiameter propeller to any region of interest. Since the moist swag smokes
type fan. It wasnecessary to suppress the general whirl continuously it is a convenient probe for investigatingflow
and many smaller disturbances leaving the fan. An arrange in the main streamalso.When more detailed studiesare
14
7!
\
;
EX, 11 MOVING BUCKETS AND OBSERVER ON GENERAL ELECTRIC 25/1 SCALE TURBINE STAGE
0.2
O
O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
15
needed, smoke may be liberated from fixed probes, rakes, The correspondence between the measured and calcu
or ports in the surfaces. lated pressures is quite good, with the principal differences
The smoke generated on the bucket surface is rapidly occurring near the trailing edgeofthe bucket. These differ
diffused into the turbulent boundary layer by the turbulent ences are believed to be mainly due to the accumulated
eddies, and thus tends to outline the extent o f the bound threedimensional flow effects near the dischargeside of
ary layer thickness at t h i s point. In.motion pictures of t h i s the bucket,andalso to boundarylayer growthon the
regiontaken a t high framing rates, the presence of indi bucket surface.
vidual eddies in the boundary layer can be detected, The Much interesting flow visualization data hasbeen ob
smoke generated outboard along the trailing edge is seen tained using this facility. Motion pictures havebeenused
to pass smoothly into the bucket wake with no backward for this documentation. Complex flows near the surfaces
flow along the bucket surface, thus indicating that there is are observed with definite secondary flow effects. Cyclical
noflow separation from t h e convex bucket surface, patterns at the frequency of nozzlepassingare readily
The facility is welladapted for detailed quantitive observed.
measurements of the various flow parameters,andsuch
work is being carried out. Example 12 illustrates one type Conclusion
of result which has been obtained. In this case, the pressure
distribution on the bucket surface wasmeasured, and in The understanding of turbine stage efficiency started
the graph the time average pressures at one radial position with steadyflowconcepts of simple pitchline vector
are compared to the values calculated for that section as P diagrams and hasadvanced to sophisticated concepts for
twodimensional cascade. The quantity plotted is the pres accounting for radial equilibrium and radial velocity com
sure coefficient ponents of the turbine.flow. Further efficiency refinements
are dependent on specific understanding of loss mechan
 Po  P
isms. Thelargescale turbine stage modelprovides the
cp P T
means for the direct observation o f nonsteady flows and
where:
other fine flow details by observers riding withthe moving
po = total pressure buckets.
p l = static pressure at the discharge
p = local static pressure on the bucket surface ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The mostserious problem encountered in suction in output. Conversely, if t h e rotation o f the water is in the
takes is that of a persistent and largescale vortex at the same direction as the pumprotation, the pump output
pump suction. The design specific speedo f a wetpit pump will decrease with a reduction in power,andmay not
is dependent upon straightthrough flow into the suction satisfy the anticipated conditions. The formation o f a
bell, and if this pattern is disturbed the capacity and head largescale vortex is usuallyassociated with an intake
at maximum efficiency will be affected. If the water a t the design that causes a change in direction of the flow before
suction rotates in a direction opposed to that of the pump it enters the pump suction.
rotation, the pump will increase with a proportional in It has been learned from field experience and through
crease in power required to produce this condition. Since model studies, that if the change in direction of the water
the pump head is dependent upon the sum o f the angular is not too severe, a baffle placed between the suctionbell
momentum at the suction and that produced by the im rim and the back wall in line with the incoming flow, as
peller, it is apparent that a negative angular momentum o f shown in Ex. 21, will assuresatisfactory operation. The
the flow at the suction, as a result o f counterrotation baffle should beplaced as close to the suction bell as
produced by the intake structure, will increase the pump possible and extend to the surface of the water in an open
16
7
COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
ANSllASME PTC 19.231 980 SECTION 2
11/2 D MIN
/////////
A B
"
"
11111,
11/2D
MIN
11/2 D MIN
Y /
r
EX. 22
EX. 22a
17
channelor to the roof of the tunnel in a closedsystem. the sacrifice in pump performance warrants the additional
In a multipleunit installation of identical pumps a construction cost.
number of the pumps may operate satisfactorily, but the The most effective method for the study of these prob
remaining units mayoverpump or underpump in anap lems is by model tests of the intake structure where con
parently haphazard fashion. Upon investigation, however, trolled conditions can be maintained and alterations made
it will be evident that becauseof the location o f thevarious at little cost.Model studies,however,are not infallible,
units the suction conditions are not duplicated and over and considerable skill and judgment must be exercised in
pumping and underpumping occursdepending upon the their design, operation, and interpretation of results. Such
magnitude and direction of the swirls. It is thus apparent models have been designed, built, and tested andthe results
that identical pumps cannot be considered as duplicates when applied to the prototype have provedeffective. A
unless the suctionflow conditions to each are also dupli model of the complete intake structure, from the inlet to
cated. the pump suction, is seldom necessary and the usual prac
Largerand morecomplexinstallations involving a tice is to model that portion where the most severe condi
number of pumps generally operatea t higher tunnel veloc tions occur and to select as large a scale as is practicable.
ities. Shown in Ex. 22 is a typical installation o f this type Models of intake structuresfall into two general classifi
in which the pumps are placed in individual wells out of cations,models of openchannelintakesandmodels of
the mainstream flow. Toillustrate, if each o f the six pumps closed conduits or tunnel intakes. The surface conditions
shown has a design capacity of 25,000 gpm, thetunnel in an open channel follow Froude's law which states that
flow at the first well is 150,000 gpm at tunnel velocity of the surfacedisturbancecan bedescribed by Froude's
6 fps. The velocity head represented by this velocity tends number. It is further recognized that to produce compa
to maintain straight flow through the tunnel and the flow rable conditions in two geometrically similar structures o f
into the wells will be proportional to the difference in the differentsize, Froude's numbermust be held constant. Now
pressure in the tunnel and the level in the well. The level if L, i s a linear dimension o f the model and L is the cor
in the well is determined by the drawdown of the pump respondinglineardimension of the prototype, the scale
and will increase until a sufficient differential exists to factor is Lm/L. Further the Froude number o f the model
divert the required capacity into the well. The reduction is
in level, however, will manifest itself to the detriment of  Vm
the pump in at least three forms: Frm  G
(a) Thesuctionheadavailable a t the impeller is re and of the prototype is
duced, and if less than that required by the pump, cavita
tion will occur.
Fr =
v "

(b) That portion o f the flow which is diverted into the
well still retains a component of its forward velocity and
G
produces a severe swirl that cannot be controlled effectively and it follows that withconstant Froude number
by baffling.
(c) The reduction in level will increase the total pump vm= V d ?
ing head by increasing the static head between t h e suction
anddischarge levels. This is an example o f uncontrolled Modeling o f the pump suction tomaintain geometric
flow a t high velocities andcan beimproved only by provid similarity requires that the suction bells and the flow pat
ing a means to utilize a portion ofthe energy of the tunnel tern in the model and the prototype be similar. The ratio
flowand guiding the flowevenly to the impeller. The usual of the model and the prototype velocities, however, need
practice is to provide a scoop or contractingelbow located not be related to the scale factor t o maintain geometric
in such a manner that as much flow is diverted as required similarity.
by each pump and yet does not restrict the flow to the It would appear that a model designed for constant
downstream units. Froude number, .e.,
Formed suctions have proved to be very effective with
highvelocity flows and, when it is realized that a flow of vm=.v/+
150,000 gpm a t a velocity o f 6 fps represents 21 hp, it is
apparent that every effort should be made to utilize this
*If the water depth ( h ) is used in place of ( L ) , the wave velocity
power with a minimum of loss. The formed intake struc (V,) = f i andthe Froudenumber is the ratio of velocity
ture,however, will increase thecost of the installation Fr = (V/V,). The Froude number i s unity when the head is 2/3
materially and theengineer must decidewhether or not the initial head.
RECIRCULATION MAKE UP
FROM
 .TUNNEL
._. . WATER
GAGE
ORIFICE
% I
I
I
I
I
METER 7 I I/i """" "
"
MANOMETER
IJ
f SUCTION SCOOP
/ r"
I
EE
19
. .
ASME P T C * l 1 7 . 2 3 8 0 W 0757b70 0052331 4 9
~~~
will satisfy the model relations for both the surface flow TABLE 21 PROTOTYPE AND MODEL DATA
conditions and thepump suction. This assumption is reason
able if the model scale is not toosmall and the prototype Prototype Model
velocities sufficiently high.
Tunnel cross section 8 ft X 15 ft 6 in. X 11% in.
As the model scale decreases, the model flow velocities
Well opening 8 ft X 8% ft 6 in. X 63/8 in.
become very low as compared to the prototype and the re
Well size 9% ft X 8% ft 7% in. X 63/8 in.
sults areunreliable. Satisfactory results have been obtained,
Pump capacityeach 34500 gpm 135 gpm
however, if themodel is designed with t h e same flow
Suctionbell diameter 44 in. 2% in.
velocities as in the prototype. With velocities higher than
Scoop inlet 2 ft x 4 ft 1% in. X 3 in.
required for a constant Froudenumbertheeddiesand
Static head on tunnel 15 in. 3% ft
turbulence in the model will be more severe than in the
prototype and it is reasonable to assume that if these ad
verse flow conditions can be corrected in the model, the siphon flows with tunnelvelocitiesequal only to those
same measures will be effective when applied to the proto caused by the siphon flow. This plots, as shown in Ex. 24,
type. with the suctionbell inlet, and in Ex. 25 with the suction
A 1/16scale model was used to study the effectiveness scoop inlet. Usingthesecurves as a calibration for each,
o f suctionscoops in an installation with varying tunnel any deviation in capacity a t constant siphon heads will
velocities. The model was built with the same velocities as indicate the effectiveness of the suction design.
in the prototype. To attain the desired velocities past the Examination of Ex. 24 with the bell suction shows a
first well, a true model would have included additional marked decrease in capacity for pumps Nos. 1 and 2 up to
pumps, but modeling of the first two wells only was con about 3% fps tunnel velocity, and then with a further in
sidered sufficient to obtain the essential information. The crease in tunnel velocity, the curves approximately parallel
modelconsisted of a crib which served as areservoir to the calibration curve up to the velocities of 9 to 10 fps
maintain a constant static head on the tunnel comparable whenthedeviationbegins to increase. Throughout the
to the actual river level. The No. 1 well was placed a suffi range of velocities tested, with the exception o f the low
cient distance from the junction o f the tunnel and the crib tunnel velocities,there is little difference in performance
so that the inlet conditions into the tunnel would not between the Nos. 1 and 2 pumps.
affect thereadings at the first well.Thedesiredtunnel Example 26 shows the loss in capacity plotted on a
velocities were obtained by an auxiliary pump which took percentagebasisagainsttunnel velocity. The singlecurve
i t s suction from the end of the tunnel and recirculated the shown is anaverage o f the loss in capacity o f the Nos. 1
water back to the crib. By throttling the discharge o f this and 2 pumps. It must be remembered in the application of
pump it was thuspossible to vary the tunnelvelocities these curves to the prototype that the percentage loss in
overawiderange. It is veryconvenient in this type of capacityreflects losses into thewell only, and gives no
model to use siphons with modeled inlets to duplicate the indication of the magnitude or direction of the swirl in the
pumps. well and its effect upon the pump performance.
Example 23 shows the modeled scoop in place in t h e Visualexamination during these tests revealedsevere
No. 1 wellandthe orifice meter in the down leg of the swirling in both wellseventhough a baffle had been in
siphon to measure theflow rates. The siphon headrequired stalled between the suction bell and the back of the well.
to producethe flow rate through the suction bell and Rcadings of thedrawdown in each well weretakenand
siphon system. The flow removed by the siphons was re the f e e t drawdown is plotted against tunnel velocity in
placed by makeup waterin the crib to maintain a constant Ex. 27. The curve applics for both the Nos. 1 and 2 wells
level throughout the tests. Table21 gives the pertinent as very little difference was noted betweenthe two. The
specifications of the prototype andthecorresponding velocity head in the tunnel also is plotted on t h e same scale
model values. and the diffcrcnce between the velocity head andthe draw
To obtain acomparison of therelative mcrits of the down represents the head loss incurred with a 90deg turn
suction bell and the scoop suction, the change in capacity of the watcr into the well. I t can bc seen from this curve
andsiphonhead with each suction dcsign a t a constant that a drawdown bf 1% ft a t a tunnel vclocity of 7.8 fps,
valve setting of thesiphon was obtained. It is apparent that which would bc of the same order of magnitude in the
the greatertheturbulenceandlosses into thewell,the prototype, would be quite scrious with a lowhead pump
lower will be the capacity of thesiphonand t h e greater as it would incrcascthe pumping headanddecreasethe
will be the required siphon head. It follows that all losses available submergcncc by the same amount.
in thesiphonsthcmselvcs must be isolatedand this was In contrast of thew curves is that in Ex. 25 where the
done by plotting the static levels in the wells against the same test was run with the suction scoop in place. It will
. .
6.0
5.6
5.2
c
d
4
$ 4.8
O

2
v)
4.4
4 .O
3 .c
110
GALLONS PER MINUTE
2
130 110 120 140
GALLONS PER MINUTE
21
20
15
10
I I I I
I
TUNNEL VELOCITY, fps
I
I
I
I I
I I
I 1 I I
I
5 0 7 8 9 10 11 12
m
m
s
l I 1 I I I I I I I I l
22
O 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
TUNNEL VELOCITY, fps
EX. 27 DRAWDOWNAND HEADLOSS CURVES
be' noted that there is a gain in capacity as the tunnel tunnel construction to reduce velocities, if the suction bell
velocity is increased with an appreciable spread between is to be used, as against the cost of the scoop construction
the Nos. 1 and 2 pumps. which will operate satisfactorily with the high tunnel
Example 26 shows this increase as a percentage rise in velocities.
capacity plotted against tunnelvelocity. It is apparent Evidently the tests show that the source of vortices is
from these curves that much is to be gained by the use of the moment of momentum of the flow at inlet to the
the suction scoop which utilizes a portion of the impact pump. Any flow whose moment is about the center of the
velocity of the tunnel flow over the suctionbell design pump must resultin avortex of equal momentum. Adesign
and, with performance data of t h i s nature, the problem similar to Ex, 22a should fulfill this requirement.
then resolves itself into the cost study of the increase in
EXAMPLE 3  H Y D R A U L I C T U R B I N E T E S T S
Model testing of hydraulic turbines is a well established for development and improvement of existing designs and
method for design research and development. The results for contract acceptance.
of model testing are used to predict and/or verify the per For accurate prediction of performance of a prototype
formance of prototype units.[l] All the major rnanufac turbine based upon a model, complete homology is neces
turers of hydraulic turbines have their own laboratories for sary. This includes modeling of the inlet casingand the
model performance and cavitation tests. In these labora draft tube discharge. The model must be carefully built
tories the turbine efficiency, power, flow and cavitation with fine attention to the degree of dimensional accuracy
characteristics are determined. The model testing is done between the model and prototype. When good correlation
23
110
.1O0
x
W
z , .
m
U
3
I
80
I
MODEL TEST INCLUDING
REYNOLDS NUMBER CORRECTION
70
200 16080 120 240 280
360 320 400
EX. 31
1O0
90
x
&2
W
E
L
.!
80
u1
W
zm
U
3
70
60
40 60 80 1O0 120 140 160 180
EX.32
24
between model dimensions and prototype dimensions are, tion and actual prototype measurements. The power levels
obtained accurate predictions of prototype performance are satisfactorilypredicted from the model tests. The
based upon model results i s possible. However, these pre efficiency levels obtained on the model are lower than the
dictions must take into account the effect of Reynolds efficiencies measured on the prototype, but when the ef
number in scaling from model toprototype size. The fect of Reynolds number is taken into account the model
Reynolds number effects are taken into account by ap efficiency is increased and a better estimate of prototype
plying a correction to the model results based on formulas efficiencies is obtained.
derived by Moody, Hutton, and others.[2] Furthermore, In addition to determining thesteadystate performance
tests on models must bedone in a Reynolds number of the prototype, model testing is used to obtain the hy
regime where the flow can be considered super critical.* draulic characteristicsof the turbomachine when operating
Tests on models which are too smalloraretested with in a transientcondition.The data is obtained on the model
flow velocities that are lowor where the possibilityof sub in a quasistatic manner and then is used to predict tran
critical Reynolds number exists yield results which are sient prototype performance'througti the use of computer
erroneous. Each manufacturer has evolved generalized di modeling. Furthermore, pressures,stresses, and vibration
mensions for his modelswhich yield test results which can aremeasured on models to beable to undeistand how
be satisfactorily scaled to prototype size. Models are con designcanbe built which will have smooth operating
structed to be as small as possible in physical size to characteristics.
minimizethe cost of the testing while still beinglarge
enough to be in t\he super critical flow regime.
REFERENCES
Examples 31 and 32 illustrate the correlation between
tests doneon prototype turbines and the expected per [l] Symposium on Laboratory Testing of Hydraulic
formance derived from model test results. In both cases Turbine Models in Relation to Field Performance
good correlation is obtained between model based predic Transaction of the ASME for October 1958.
[2] InternationalElectrotechnical Commission  Pub
*Critical, as usedhere, refers to the critical Reynolds number
where the flow changes from laminar t o turbulent, rather than lication 193 International Code for Model Accept
from subsonic to supersonic as used elsewhere. ance Tests of Hydraulic Turbines.
The design of butterflyvalves, for example in crossover 01 =The angle setting of the valve
pipes in low pressure steam turbines, requires a knowledge shaft, from the open position,
of the flow and the torque on the valve shaft as a function which is alreadydimensionless.
of the valve shaft angular position and the pressure drop
across the valve. In case of emergency, the valve must be
The dependent variables are:
closed quickly to prevent the turbine from running away.
The size of the operating piston and its supply pressure K = A p / ( pV 2 / 2 ) =The totalpressure drop across the
will, of course,depend on the inertia andaerodynamic valve,measured in terms of the
torque of the valve and the required closing time and the velocity pressureahead of the
flow through the valve during closing. valve, taken as a standard dimen
sion itself to replace either M, L,
Dimensional Analysis or t.
The independent variables are:
CD = (Flow/ldeal flow)=The discharge coefficient, which
(Ap/pl) =The pressure drop across the is the flow measured using an
valve,measured in terms of the ASME Standard Nozzle, given as
inlet pressure (DI) which is used a fraction of an ideal flow which
as a standard dimension to re is used.as a standard dimension
place M, f., or t . itself to replace M, L or t.
25
Operation
(1) An arbitrary thrust is selected by placing a weight on the scale
which opposes the nozzle thrust and holds nozzle against a stop
toward the left.
( 2 ) A blower, supplyingair a t "O" is increased in speed until it
develops sufficient pressure and nozzle thrust t o l i f t the nozzle
off its stop, toward the right where it hits another stop. The
greater the loss of the specimen, the greater the supply pressure
must be to l i f t the selected weight.
(3) The difference between the total pressure required t o l i f t the
weight when the specimen is in the nozzle and when the nozzle
is empty i s used t o calculate the incremental loss coefficient.
. "
P to =Psz + ( 1 + K ) p , V 2 2 / 2  p S Z + ( 1 + K ) ( F / 2 A )
' P S z r + (1 +K,I p z V , 2 / 2 " P S Z f + ( 1 + K , ) ( F m )
Pt" r
nr
EX. 41
26
0.1o
0.09
0.08
0.07
0.06

z

W
o
U
U 0.05
W
O
V
W
3
U
U
O
t 0.04
h
c,
.
II
Q
4
a 0.03
\
h
L
0.02
0.01
1oo 200 30' 40' 50' 60' 700
VALVE ANGLEDEGREES FROM OPEN
EX. 43 TOKQUE O F BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR VARIOUS ANGLES AND PRESSURE DROPS
1 .o a a  a l * I m
l
NOZZLE WITHOUT VALVE
8
0.9
0.8
u 0.7
LI
LI
W
8
W
0.6
a
1u
2
Cl
n
0 0.4
I
Q
W
Cl
S
\
3
If 0.3
04
0.2
0.1
o
100 200 30' 40' 50' 60
VALVE ANGLEDEGREES FROMOPEN +
I I I I I I I I
O .2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 .o 1.2 1.4
PRESSURE DROP ( 40 / P , ) PERCENT 6
. __ . 
EX. 44 DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT FOR VARIOUS ANGLES AND PRESSURE DROPS
29
Thissectiondescribessome model and field gas flow receiving 9 percent more flow than the south but, more
studies of the inlet and outlet flues of an electrostatic importantly, the inboard leg of each fan received moreflow
precipitator installation. This precipitator was designed to than the outboard legs.
produce 99.6 percent (.0041oss) dust collection efficiency. Finally, dust samples weretaken a t the inlet to each I.D.
The actual measured collection efficiency was measured at fan tocheck for system performance and it was found that
98.8 percent (.O12loss) to 99.1 percent (.O09 loss). The 88 percent of the total dust going up the stack, asmeasured
reduced performance was attributed to poor gas flow as it a t each fan inlet, occurred at Sample Port No. 1 as noted
passed through the precipitator. in Ex. 53.
Example 51 is a side elevation of the precipitator com Based on these results and supplemental visual offline
plex. Gas leaves two Ljungstrom airpreheatersand is inspections, it was obvious that gas flow problems in this
divided between the two precipitators of the double deck unit were a major contributing factor to i t s deteriorated
installation. During initialoperation, flue gas flow traverse performance. It was concluded that a threedimensional
were conducted to determine the gross division of gasbe air model study would have to be conducted to evaluate
tweenthe twoprecipitators. Detailed velocity traverses the various options available to remedythe situation. It
were also conducted in the vertical outlet flue leaving the was also decided that a complete field velocity traverse of
upper precipitator and a t the inlets to the I.D. fans. The the inlet to both the upper and lower precipitators should
gas volume flow passing through the lower precipitator was be conducted. This information would then beused to
determined by subtracting the measured gas flow leaving check the as built model fesults to ensureanaccurate
the upper precipitator from the measured gas flow en tering presentation of the problem.
the. induced draft fan inlets. Thesetestsshowed that ap The field tests were performed using cold air at approx
proximately 54.6 percent of the gaswas going through the imately 60 percent of design velocity. This provided a
lower precipitator. Basedon t h i s result, the ,perfo;ated Reynoldsnumber approximately equal to that which
plate shown in Ex. 51 was installed to distribute more gas would be seen under actual full load operation. Example
to the upper precipitator. 54 presents an example of a typical field velocity profile
The velocity traverses conducted a t the inlet to the I.D. in the lower precipitator. Once these velocity profiles had
fans also revealed alateral imbalance of gas flow across the been obtained across the width of the precipitators they
precipitators. Example 52 shows the north I.D. fan was were reduced to numerical form. These velocity data
31
F LOW
.c
I
I I
32
33

FL
OPE MG
SUPPORT
STRUT
GAS FLOW
 PERFORATED
PLATE
1 L
T COLLECTING ELECTRODE
34
UPPER
PRECIPITATOR
F LOW
LOWER
PRECIPITATOR
1 1 0.5
0.3
I 1 1I.5
1 1 0.17 1 01.9 1.1I I 1.3
35
DISCHARGE
UPPER
PRECIPITATOR
VAVG 7
LOWER
h
PRECIPITATOR  t DISCHARGE
1 1 1 1 1 1 II 1 1 1 1 1
0.7
0.5 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7
1.O
V'VAVG
20
i l I I I I
18
16
14
ae
ui
5o 12
a
U
3
o
10
U
O
5
E3 8
2
E
6
O
0.2 O .4 0.6 0.8 1 .o 1.2 1.4 1.6 1 .S 2.0 2.2
NONDIMENSIONAL NORMAL COMPONENTS, V / VAVG
37
20
B f 25%
ACTUAL DATA = 35%
18
IGCl REQUIREMENT = 85%
16
14
3
u G f 40%
V ACTUAL DATA = 50%
2
W 12 IGCI'REQUIREMENTS = 100%
U
U
3
V
V
O
u 10
O
G
2
W
3 8
2U RMS
U
MODEL
CORRECTED
VERTICAL
GAS FLOW
DISTRIBUTION
LOWER PRECIPITATOR
OUTLET
.V/VAVG
EX, 510 VERTICAL GA FLOW DISTRIBUTION EX. 511 VERTICAL GAS FLOW DISTRIBUTION
LOWER PRECIPITATOR INLET LOWER PRECIPITATOR OUTLET
points were then numerically averaged to establish an nelswere installed in vertical orientation which formed
average vertical and horizontalvelocity profile for each contnuous vertical slots that would not plugfromthe
precipitator, Example 55 illustrates a simplified side residual fly ash leaving the precipitator. This satisfactorily
elevation view of the upper and lower precipitators show decoupled the I.D. fans from the precipitator. The vertical
ing the average vertical inlet velocity profile for each as slots were lined up with the centerline of the precipitator
obtained from the field tests. Approximately 58 percent ducts. The net free area required was found to be 15 per
of the gas was found to be passing through the upper pre cent open.
cipitator with the remainder passing through the lower. The net resultofthe above changes, .e., the installation
Example 56 demonstrates the dramatic effect that the of the inlet ladder vanes and the installation of a 15 per
outlet flue has on the velocity profile leaving the lower cent open picket fence at the lower precipitator outlet
precipitator. This pointed out a condition that had to be produced a flowdistribution slightly biased to the lower
corrected if reentrainment and hopper sweepage in the precipitator. The resultant corrected flow patterns for the
lower precipitator were to be eliminated. lower precipitator was shown in Ex. 51O for the inlet and
Examples 57 and 58 detail the statistical distribution Ex. 511 for the outlet. The gross improvement is noted
of the data points taken in the upper and lower precipita whenthesefiguresare compared to Ex. 55 and 56.
tors and also compare these results with the recommended Further analysis ofthe corrected model study data
criteria of the IGCl (Industrial Gascleaning Institute).The produced the following results:
vertical bars of these histograms represent the percentage
of the data points occurring a t each velocity range. The
actual velocity valueshavebeen normalized, that is, they Lower Precipitator
have been divided by the average velocity following stand Inlet: 10.6% RMS Deviation
ard practice. Outlet: 12.0% RMS Deviation
As can beseen, neither precipitator met the IGCl re
quirements with the upper precipitator being approxi Upper Precipitator
mately two times better than the lowerprecipitator. lt Inlet: 11 .l%RMS Deviation
was then decided to proceed with the construction of a Outlet: 9.2%RMS Deviation
1/I6 scale model study to produce the necessary corrective
devices and optimize the flow fields of the two precipi
tators. The model was made and is shown in Ex, 59. The
internals of this model reproduced the details of Ex. 51. Because of these favorable results, the full sized flues
Velocity traverses in the model effectively matched the were modified inaccordance with the model recommenda
dataof Ex. 55 through 58 within normal experimental tions. Once the modifications were completedawalk
accuracy,Theseresults confirmed that the model could through inspection was performed with the fans running.
reproduce the problems and then beused to arrive at No high velocity jets or hopper sweepage could be found.
design solutions. Due tosystem load requirements and the confidence*levels
It was decided that ladder vanes would beused to established with the model study results, field followup
replace the inlet radius vanes. Ladder vanes are a series of velocity traverses were not performed.
flat surfaces that are oriented perpendicular t o the direc The unit was permittedtooperate for atleast one month
tion ofthe duct inlet gas flow. The positioning of the inlet before performance testing. Three tests were then run. All
flue ladder vanes was optimized in the model study. three tests produced equal to or better than required dust
The model study also indicated that the floor of the collection efficiencies. The customer agreed to accept the
lower precipitator inlet flue would be subject to potential installation as having made i t s contractual guarantee.
fly ash dropout. It was, therefore, recommendedthat a dust It is recommended that gas flow distribution be studied
blower be installed in this area to keep the flue clean. , before an installation is built.The cost of a model study,
A major problem that still remained was the correction during the designstages of a system, is significantly less
of the lower precipitator outlet gas flow distribution. The expensive than finding and correcting the problems in the
lower precipitator outlet of the model was still experienc field. It hasbeen experienced that correcting an existing
ing both verticaland lateral gas flow problems. It was con installation can cause roughly ten to fifteen times the cost
cluded that this was the result of the close coupling of the of performinga designstage model study. It hasbeen
lower precipitator to theI.D. fans. shown, through the study reported here, that model studies
A pressure drop device was placed at the lower precipi and fullsize installations produce results which correlate
tator outlet to provide for a decoupling between the I.D. well within the range of experime.ntal error. The important
fans and the precipitator. Standard structural shaped chan factors in producing a reliable model study are complete
41
and
accurate reproduction o f .systemgeometry
being ABSTRACTED FROM
studied, and the propermodeling o f the system flow fields
and pressuregradients entering andleaving t h e model. C. L. Burton and D. A. Smith Precipitator Gas flow
Most o f thetime, this last requirement is easilysatisfied Distribution, page 191, EPA650/275016Symposium
by including major system components(heat exchangers, on ElectrostaticPrecipitators for the Control of Fine Par
fans, etc.) ahead o f and following the
model. ticulates and G E TIS4257.
The substantial increase in physical siz e o f commercial general, the most effective use of heat transfer surface is
furnaces and auxiliary equipment, together with increasing accomplished within uniform flow distribution ofthe heat
emphasis on high. availability and minimum cost o f opera transfer fluids.
tion, puts a distinct premium on effective equipment It has been found that there is no single best modeling
design. Simple extrapolation o f previous designs often is technique to use as a guide for obtaining uniform flowdis
not enough, since tolerable flowmaldistributions of earlier tribution in thegas passages o f a boiler, Rather, it has been
designsmaybecome intolerable from the standpoint o f found that utilization o f a variety of modeling and test
heat transfer, pressure loss, corrosion, wear, material selec techniques often leads to the quickest and most accurate
tion, or overallperformance.Properlyapplied cold flow solution o f gas flow distribution problems. Twodimen
models are a useful tool for identifying all the major pit sionalsmoke table models,twodimensionalwatertable
fallsand many of the minor pitfallswhich should be avoided models, threedimensional water models, and threedimen
in duct and furnace gas flow design. One o f the principal sional air models canbe adapted to virtually any significant
areas o f interest has been the simulation or representation flow distribution problem in furnaces or ductwork, despite
of the flow of t h e products o f combustion in boiler furnaces the isothermal natureof each of these modeling techniques.
and gaspassages so that t h e engineer can select and locate None of the methods result in socalled true models, but
heat transfer surfaces in the most effectivemanner. In we can call them adequate models for lack o f a better term.
0757670 Cl052354 5
All that i s necessary for successful utilization of each of air heater in which the draft loss is ten or more times
the methods is recognition o f the similarity criteria which greater than the loss of the ductwork ahead o f it. The air
need to be maintained for each method. heater in this case tends to improve flow distribution due
One additional factor, which hasbeen found to be of t o the flow resistance.When modelingtheductwork,a
importance in flow model work, is visual impact. Several screen or perforated plate is used to simulate the air heater
earlier authors havestressed this point. It is agreed that resistance in the system, and approximates the effect of
visualobservationand photographic records are vital to the complicated airheater section.
the success in using the flow modeling technique. Smoke The basic smoke table apparatus consists of asupport
table modeling provides a quick methodof making avisual arrangement for two parallel sheets of glass plate, a smoke
assessment of the aerodynamic characteristicsof fluid flow generator, and a fan used to induce the air flow through
systems. This technique, shown in Ex. 61, lends itself to the model. The model i s mounted between the parallel
rapid screening o f a series of proposeddesignfeatures. sheets of glass. Smoke is introduced through a series of
Themodels are simple,inexpensive,easily set up,and jets a t the model inlet, and a flow of air induced by these
readily modified. Modeling is limited to twodimensional jets. When the inlet velocity of the induced airand the
flowstudies. This technique provides pertinent information smoke are equal, streamers o f smoke are carried through
as to areas in which further study,using more refined the model tracing out the flow pattern. Flow velocities in
models, should be carried out. In many cases, smoke table the model areas under study are maintained in the laminar
tests, in themselves,are sufficient lo provide a suitable flow range. Reynolds number range isapproximately 1000.
answer as to the effectiveness of a design. Qualitative data Theuse of laminar flow in this type of model produces
i s obtained from smokemodels,Records of model flow conservativeresults. Turbulent flow separation noted in
characteristicsmay be made by tracing the flow streamlines threedimensional air modelshas correlated directly with
on the glass top of the table, makingfreehand sketches of the laminar flow separation observed in the smoke table.
flow patterns, and by taking still photographs or movies Besides producing conservative observitions, the laminar
of the operating model. Relative values may be arrived a t flow enhances visualization. If the flow velocities are in
by scaling the size of the indicated eddies, stagnant areas, creased to the turbulent range, the smokestreamersdis
or the portion of a flow channel that is being effectively sipate in theairmakinginterpretation of results more
used. difficult.
Exact geometrical similarity with the prototype i s used These models are quite effective for demonstration pur
in the smoke table slice models. ln some instances, a com poses.Areaswhere flow separation from the boundaries
ponent upstream or downstream of the model i s not scale occur may be readily seen. Stagnant. areas and eddies are
modeled. An example of this would be a regenerative type apparent to the observer. Flow disturbances maybe traced
to their source and their magnitude assessed. The investi The same study of Ex. 61 and 62 was repeated in a
gator can readilyillustratethe flow streamlines,trace twodimensional water table to illustrate the effectiveness
effects of flow separation,and point out good and bad of this technique. The water table shown in Ex. 63 is a
design features. The fluid motion can be clearly seen, and portable device and can betransported to various facilities
judged without resorting to vectors, contours, orother to provide flow solution5 to local problems. Example 6 4
conventional graphical methods of presenting flow infor is a report of the flue geometry o f Ex. 61. It is obvious
mation. A series of models can be demonstrated quickly from Ex. 64 that the photographic record of the water
to show a sequence in devtlopmentofan acceptabledesign. table is superior to the smoke table. However, subsur.face
A typical before and after sequence is shown in Ex. 61 details are not readily discernible in the water table. Again,
and 62, which illustrates the boundary flow separation it takes engineering judgment to select the best technque
which can occur and the correction that canbemade in for a particular problem.
the flue gas ductivork between the economizerand the I.
are essentiallyindependent o f viscous forces.Previous For a cooling tower, however, the NFrf is on t h e order of
studiesconcur that identical Reynoldsnumbers are not 25, and the model is about 3100, both far in excess of the
necessary to assure dynamic similitude for blunt structure critical value. This implies that the plume momentum forces
flow as long as the Reynolds number is above 11,000. The far outweigh the buoyant and gravitational forces in deter
minimum Reynolds numberwas 13,200 for t h e wind speed mining the plume path near t h e model. Thus, NFr' scaling
and model size tested. It was thusconcluded thatgeometric or modeling of the buoyant forces, is not necessary in t h e
shape alone controlled the airflow pattern and the pressure presentmodel test to assureaccurate nearfieldplume
profiles and that the flow fields of the model did represent simulation.
those o f a full size tower. Hence, for the model size, velocities, and operating
A densimetric Froude number NF/, is pertinent when temperatures chosen, it is only necessary to satisfy gea
it is desired to model the behavior of a hot exhaust plume metric and kinematic similitude to simulate full sizepres
entering a colder air stream. It is defined as: sure profiles, flow fields and plume behavior.
Conclusions
The magnitudeof the densimetric Froude numbermust (2) As tower length increases, recirculation increases.
be considered because of the influence of buoyant forces (3) As wind velocity increases, recirculation increases.
on the near field flow behavior of the warm exhaust air (4) As wind direction approaches 90 deg to the tower
from the cooling tower. The greater the density (tempera axis, recirculation increases.However, recirculation tends
ture) differencebetweenthe plume andtheoutsideair, to diminish for orientations of 67% deg and 90 deg when
the more influence the buoyant force has on the plume winds exceed 8 mph.
path, and thelower the NFr' number. Conversely, NFr' scal The model test is believed to accurately simulate actual
ing becomes unimportantat very largevalues. The"critical" tower behavior since the model plume behavior is consis
NFnumber has been determined to be approximately 0.8. tent with actualobserved cooling tower plume behavior
and magnitudes of recirculation determined by the model
*This is the square of the Froude number used in Example 2. test correlate generally with field t c s t experiencc.
46
7
P
COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
ANSllASME PTC 19.231 980 SECTION 2
Definition of the Problem the model. Due to the low speed, the pressure developed
by the compressor was, of course, low and the proper in
The problem was one of predicting the performanceof
cidence to the latterblade rows was obtained by adjusting
a huge 216,000 horsepower, 30 foot diameter, 600 rpm
(distorting) the rotor and stator bladeheightsandangle
axial flow compressor to beused in the transonic leg of
settings. The test results for different rotor bladeangles
the windtunnel a the Arnold Engineering Development
are shown on Ex. 83. .
Center (AEDC) at Tullahoma, Tennessee.
This three stage compressor (Ex. 81) wasan addition
Y"
~~~~~~~ ~
The second(moreexpensive)model$as
S& 
~
""
a li1 6 i
~.
Z"~
~ 
high speed (9600 rpm) model tested at full scale Mach
to four other compressors used in seriesparallel combina
number (Ex. 84).
tion inthe main leg of the windtunnel.
EX. 82 1/18 SIZE LOW PEED MODEL (100 HP) (74.6 kW)
1O0
80
60
40
20
O
O 2 4 6 8 19 12 14 16
EX. 83
48
t
COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Licensed by Information Handling Services
ANSI/ASME PTC 19.231980 SECTION 2
49
1.60
1.50
I
0 1.40
x
o
kK
W 1.30
K
3 (=J 1.000
8
Lu
cc
R.
1.210
1.20 . 0 1.429 
A 1.503
1.605
1.10 
t = l00deg F
t0
1 .o0
200 180 160 1140 120
Conclusions
The use of an inexpensive low speed model and later a *The flow at design point pressure ratio was 2.5 percent low but
more expensive high speed model enabled the prediction could be adjusted by changing the blade settings.
50 .
It i s generally accepted that river modeling includes The model was designed as a distorted model having a
studies with physical models of any free surface flow horizontal ratio of 1/465 and a vertical ratio of 1/60 in
through a body of water contained and encompassed by a order to avoid viscosity problems associated with small
geometrically modeled configuration such as a reservoir, models and correspondingsmall depth of water.The result
harbor, ocean, estuary or river. The purposes are numerous ing scale ratios are listed in Table 91 below:
and include definition of flow patterns, density currents,
forces on structures, bed movement, erosion of shoreline TABLE 91
and mixing characteristics. Horizontal distance /465 1
In considering problems in the river model context, the Vertical distance /60 1
advantages include the capabilities usually associated with Area (vertical) /27,900 1
models such as facility of change or modification,
oc accessi Vel ty 1/775
bility, control of test conditions and ability to reproduce Time 1/60
unusual natural phenomena. In additionsynoptic data, Flow rate 1/216,225
improved precision, and accuracy of readings are possible. K (heat transfer coeff.) 1I1
The scaling laws or relationships arebased on Froude Temperature 1/I
scaling since dynamic similitude for free surface flows in
volve the ratio of gravitational forces and the dynamic or The lower 11 miles of the York River Estuary, starting
inertia forces. It should be pointed out that for certain from the Chesapeake Bay were modeled in concrete with
model studies involving density effects (thermal problem pertinent structures fabricated from steel, plastics and
or esturine problem), the densimetric Froude number is wood. In addition the additional 22 miles of estuary were
applied. This means simply modifying the acceleration of reproduced as a labyrinth inorder to fully model the tidal
gravity (9) by the ratio of density difference and the fluid wedge (Ex. 91). An automated inflowcontrol and a water
density. level gate were both programmed to produce the tidal flow
Aparticular example could be the Yorktown Steam effects while a small pump and electric immersion heaters
Power Station o f the VirginiaElectric Power Company modeled the plant intake flow and heated outflow.
and the proposed addition of an 845 MW unit. The State Instrumentation comprised 240 copper constantan
of Virginia had imposed strict limits on the allowed tem thermocouples linked to a computer in order to provide
perature rise in the area of the plant discharge. A model simultaneoustemperatures printed
by
the
computer
study a t the Alden Research Laboratory of Worcester center on a planview o f the modeled area.
Polytechnic Institute was commissioned to aid in develop On the basis of the studies,an underwater multiport
ing and documenting a system to disperse the effluent and diffuser was developedand installed as the heated water
satisfy the state requirements. Since the plant site is in the outfall. The resulting surface temperature rises through
York River estuary, tidal conditions were involved, reverse the condenserswas 2F or less. (Ex. 92). Subsequent field
flow, salt water intrusion and navigation as well as aquatic tests of the installed manifold have confirmed the results
biology. indicated by the model.
SUMP
CONTROL
IiwLe T LlitlzR
EXTENSION
TEST ,4&,6JL71
SECTION BB DlSCHARGE SCHEME: 30 ANGLE
AM6,ENT RIVERTEMPERATURE: 78.2F
TlDAL RANGE: 2.6 FT
FRESH WATER RUNOFF: Ocfn
DEPTH AT
DRY BULB AIR TEMPERATURE: 6OSF
LOW WATER RELATIVE HUMIDITY: 91%
SECTION CC EQUILIBRIUM BOXTEMPERATURE: 76.2OF
\ 36 ft :\.
MAP SCALE
Definition  IT nD
Mach number
a
Model testing of largefans would be conducted only
when it is not possible to test the fullsizfd fan other than If the model scale factor, model speed, and model fluid
in i t s field installation. Theobjective o f themodel test properties were properly selected so that all o f the five
would be to obtain preliminary performance information dimensionless parameters were thesame for the model and
with the model fan tested in a scale model of the proto the prototype, then the prototype performance could be
type installation. accurately predicted from the measured model perform
Some fans required by industry today are very large in ance. However, it is usually not possible to do this without
sizeand require large amounts o f power to operate. Ex an elaborate and expensive model test rig thatwould permit
amples of applications of large fans are largewind tunnels, the useof differentfluids and possiblythe use o f operating
mechanical draft cooling towers, mine and tunnel ventila pressures and temperatures different from ambient condi
tion fans, etc. Some of these fans may beas large as 60 feet tions.
in diameter and require thousands o f horsepower to oper The applications mentioned above areprimarily air fans.
ate. The manufacturer of these large fans probably would If a 1/I O size model were operated with the same air con
not have the facilities required to test such fans because of ditions, the following model operating conditions would
its size and power requirements. occur if Mach number were held constant:
(1) The speed ( n )would be increased 10 times.
Method of Modeling Large Fans
(2) The flow rate (Q) would be decreased 1O0 times.
Dimensionless Performance Parameters
(3) The head rise ( H ) would remain the same.
The performance o f a family of fans is described by the (4) The power ( P ) would decrease 1O0 times.
volume flow rate (Q), thedevelopedhead (H), andthe (5) The Reynolds number would be reduced 10 times.
input shaft power ( P ) or efficiency. The performance is
The change in Reynolds number would be a deviation
also afunction ofthe speed (n),a characteristic dimension
( D ) , the fluid density ( P ) , the viscosity ( P ) and the speed from exact similarity that would cause the prototype per
formance results, scaled from the modeltest results to be in
o f sound (u). These eightvariables with three primary
dimensions (mass, length, time) can be combined into five error. The error would generally be in the conservative direc
dimensionless groupsthatcompletely describe the perform tion by predicting lower generated head and larger power
ance of a family o f geometrically similar fans by using the because of increasedlosses in themodel fan bladesand
Buckingham Pi Theorem.* attachedducts due to reduced model Reynoldsnumber.
The combination of five dimensionless groups that has A different set of assumptions for size scale, model fluid
proved to be the most meaningful for fans is the following: properties and what group o f variables should be held con
stant will lead to differentconclusions and differentsources
Flow coefficient  Q o f error between predicted prototype resultsandactual
3 field results.
Head
rise coefficient z gH Model Testing
The choice o f model parameters would be governed by

 P the testing facilities available for flow rate and power as
Power coefficient
pn3D well as the desire to obtain conservative model results. The
previous discussion assumes that all aspects o f t h e fan and
 np nD
 duct geometry are scaled including clearances, blade thick
Reynolds number
P nesses, roughness and blade shapes. The effect o f any vari
ation from geometric similarity must be considered along
*The Pi Theorem states that a functional relation involving Q di with any nonsimilarity between the model and prototype
mensional variables, whose dimensions can be expressed in terms dimensionless ratios whenevaluatingthemodelresults.
of N fundamental units (like M, L and T ) , can be reduced t o a
relation involving only ( Q  N )dimensionless variables. Example: The model fan should be tested according t o the Per
(5 quantities  3 units) = 2 dimensionless variables. formance Test Code for Fans.
54
SECTION 3
THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
scribed changes. This is the only characteristic of dimen cosity, acceleration of gravity, speed of sound, and surface
sions havingsignificancein the developmentof dimensional tension, respectively.
analysis. Innumerabledimensionless products can beformed from
For example, since 1 ft = 0.3048m and 1 min = 60 sec, the variables F, L, V, p, p, g, a, u. However, it is shown in
an acceleration of 1000 ft/min2 is transformed to the dimensionalanalysis that anydimensionless product of
metric system as follows: thesevariables is of the form (NRe)" NE^)', ( N F ~ ) ' ~
~ . , al, a2, a3, a4, as are constant
( N M ~ ) ' ~ ( N w ~in) 'which
exponents. On the other hand, the products (NRe), NE^),
(NF,.),( N M ~and
) (Nwe)are independent of each other, in
the sense that no one of these products is identically a
1
1000 X 0.3048 X = 0.0847 product of powers of the others. Examplesof other dimen
60
sionless products that can be formed from the given
The method illustrated by this example is perfectly variablesare V3p/pgand p F / p 2 . However,theseare not
general. new products, as they areexpressible in terms of t h e
preceding ones as follows:
2 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
Fourier observed that the lawsof nature are independent
of manmade systemsof measurement. Therefore,the equa
tions that represent natural phenomena should be inde
pendent of the units assigned to the fundamental entities;
for example, theyshould be the same for the metric system In general, a set of dimensionless productsof given vari
as for the Englishsystem. If an equation possesses this ables is said to be complete, if each product in the set is
property, it is said to be dimensionally homogeneous. For independent of the others, and every other dimensionless
example, a continuity equation V = Q/A is equally valid in product of the variables is a product of powers of dimen
all systems of measurement. Many empirical equations are sionless products in the set. Accordingly, (NRe, NE^, NF~,
not dimensionally homogeneous;hence they are applicable NM', Nwe) is a complete set of dimensionless products of
only for particularsystems of measurement. the variables (F, L, V, P, p, g,a, u). Dimensional analysis
Theconcept of dimensional homogeneity leads to a provides routine methods for composing complete sets of
general theory, called dimensional analysis. It may be re dimensionless products of any given variables.*
garded as the algebraic theory of equations that are invari The most significant property of a dimensionless prod
ant under arbitrary transformations of the size of the uct is that i t s numericalvalue does not dependonthe
fundamental units of measurement. One conclusion from units of the fundamental entities. For example, the critical
dimensional analysis is that an equation of the type value of Reynolds number for flow in a pipe is stated to
x = a + b t c + .... is dimensionally homogeneous if, and be about 2000, without regard for the system of measure
..
only if, the variablesx, a, b, c, ,, all have the same dimen ment.
sion. This theorem is useful for checking algebraic deriva Conversely, if an equation is dimensionally homogene
tions. If a derived equation contains a sum or difference ous, it can be reduced to a relationship among a complete
of two terms that have different dimensions, a mistake has set of dimensionless products.
been made. This theorem, which is generally attributed to E. Buck
Dimensionalanalysis is concerned primarily with di ingham, is the foundation of dimensional analysis.
mendonless products. Certain dimensionless products arise The result of a dimensional analysis of a problem is a
so frequently that they have received special names.A few reduction of the number of variables in t h e problem, since
of them are: the number of dimensionless products in a complete set is
generally less than the number of initial variables. For ex
Reynolds
number N R =~ VLp/p = VL/u (11 ample, the eight variables ( F , L, V, P, p, g, a, u ) provide
number
Euler orF/pV2L2
p/pV2 (2) only five independent dimensionless products (NRe,
Froude
number NFr = V / a o r V2/gL (31 N F ~NM',
, NWe). In general, if there arc n initial variables,
Mach number NM,= V/a (4) there are nr dimensionless products in a complete set,
number
Weber Nw, = V 2 p L/u (5) *Notice (according to Meyer) that the f i v e dimensionless numbers
given above are simply the viscosity, force, gravity, sonic velocity
in which F, P, L, V, p, p, g, a, u denote force, pressure, andsurfacctension,mcasurcd in terms of L, V and p taken as
length, velocity, mass density, dynamic coefficient of vis fundamental units themselves, to replace M, L and T.
Speed E =
a
1 and u, to obtain (gHp/u)as a design number. ""
Head =
a2
1 Independent Variables by eliminating the fluid property ( u ) and the speed ( n ) . It
is .interestingto note that:
()! ):(
Volumetric flow =a (Q/aD2); mass f l o w =
=
n, Ds =?
T C
where = velocity ratio
r = (W/paD') De
Someobservations, with regard to specific speed (n,),
Fluid power (rH ) ' = (pQgH/pa3D ') =
pend
ent
may be of interest.
( P ha3D '); pf = PQsH
 Vari
Consider as design possibilities:
Stress =S = u/pgD ables
Pump efficiency ~p =P# = QgH/P, (1) Driving through a gear of ratio ( r )
(2) Dividing the head among ( z ) stages
For a given turbomachine: (3) Dividing the flow through ( f ) parallel turbines
a = a function of (E, H ) and ( N R e ) , (y) (Npr)
(pump inlets), (compressors), then the
speed formula becomes more generally
specific
Summarizing
The specific speed is a number, which is calculated using
Thus, the specific speedcanbe imagined as a dimen the design requirements of speed, flow rate, and head. The
sionlessvariable involving only the design conditions n, numerical value of the specific speed is an indication of
Q and H, after eliminating the size and fluid property.** the type of pump (or turbine) best suited to the given de
For some turbomachines, specificspeedcould beexpressed sign requirements. For example, Figs. l l and 12 show[l6]
in terms of shaft power( P 5 )rather than volumetric flow Q. the variation of efficiency and the type of pump impeller
selected by expert designers to satisfy the design require
mentsexpressed in terms of t h e singlevariablespecific
speed.
1O0
90
80
x
2Z
W 70
52
U.
U.
W
60
50
40
500 1O00 2000 3000 4000 10,000 15,000
rpm diFE
SPECIFIC SPEED =
H.3l4
FIG. 11 CENTRIFUGAL AND AXIAL FLOW PUMPS
59
law, F, = m', ..
. , yields the force scale factors, K F =~ Consequently, by Buckingham's theorem,
Km Kux, , , , or K F =~ Km K,/K; If the model is geomet
rically similar to the prototype, there is a single force scale
factor, KF= KmKL/K:= KpKf/Kz where Kp is the scale
factor for mass density.
in which @ denotesan unknown function. Equation (1 2)
The scale factors for a model and its prototype are said
signifies that, if two pumps of the same designbut different
to express the model law. In cases of geometrical similarity,
sizes operate at the same values of (Q/nD3)and (n D 2 / v ) ,
model lawsmay be derived by dimensional analysis. In
each has the same efficiency. This conclusion holds even
general, dimensional analysis reduces a relationship of the
though different*fluids are beingpumped by the two
formy = f ( x l ,x2, ....,
x,) to t h e form R = @(RI, , ... ,n P ) , machines. Reynolds number (n D2/v)represents the effect
in which (R,nl, ...., nP) are a complete set of dimension
of viscosity.
less products of (y,xl, ....
, x,). If the independent di If viscosity effects areneglected, an analysis like the
mensionless variables nl, n2,, ...., rP are adjusted to have
preceding oneshows that the shaft power P is given by
the samevalue for a mbdel as for the prototype, the
an equation of the form
dependent dimensionless variable obviously has the same
value for the model and prototype. The two systemsare
then said to be completely similar. If theseare fluid
systems,then they will have geometrically similar flow
patterns. Consequently, if pumps of t h e same design but different
sizes operate a t the same value of (Q/nD3),(which implies
5 EXAMPLES the same efficiency), their shaft powers varydirectly as the
5.1 Efficiency of a Centrifugal Pump density of the fluid, as thecube of their rotationalfrequen
A part of the shaft power of a pump is spent in over cies and as the fifth power of the impeller diameter. An
coming friction of the packing, but this is disregarded in alternative statement is: Foragiven tipspeed (u3 " n 3 D 3 )
this discussion. For purposes of dimensional analysis, a the power varies as pD2 which is proportional to the mass
centrifugal pump, or any other machine, is conveniently flow. Similarly, it may be shown that their delivered heads
specified by a characteristic length (e.g., the diameter D ( h ) vary as the squares of their rotational frequencies and
of the impeller), and the ratio of all other lengths to the as the squares of t h e impeller diameters (h u2 (nD)')).
N
characteristic length. These length ratios fix the shape of 5.2 FilmType Condensation in a Vertical Pipe
"
of the film is not constant along the pipe, the length L of 5.3 Dimensional Analysis of a Time Dependent Radia
the pipe affects the coefficient of heat transfer. The diam tive Model
eter of the pipe does not affect the thickness of the film
(and consequently it does not affect h), if it is large com The intensity of external radiation incident upon the
pared to the thickness of the film. Thevelocity of the vapor surface of a wall from one side only is denoted b y q (e.g.,
in the pipe influences the thickness of the film to some Btu per second incident upon a square foot of the surface;
extent, but this effect is small if the velocity is not large. Fig. 13). The dimension of q is ( H L2T1)where ( H ) de
If the interaction between the flow of vapor and the flow noted heat. The initial condition is specified to be 0 (x, O)
of condensate is neglected, the density of the vapor is ir by 8 0 = constant. The heat conduction within the wall is
relevant. Since the process under consideration involves no governed by the differential equation.
appreciable conversion of energy from work to heat, the
mechanical equivalent of heat is not involved.
On the basis of the preceding discussion, we infer that
there is a relationshipof the form
in which u = k/C, with k being the coefficient of thermal
el k, pJ gJ P ) o (14) conductivity and C the volumetric specific heat (heat to
raise a unit volume one degree). The wall absorbs heat a t
in which fdenotes an undetermined function. The estab
the rate al q, where al is the coefficient of absorption of
lishment of an undetermined relationship, such as equa
the surface x = O. Also, the wall reradiates heat a t the rate
tion (14), is always the first step in dimensional analysis.
e1u04 where el is the emissivity, u is the Boltzmann con
The identification o f the significant variables, and the ex
clusion of the inconsequential ones, is the hardest part of stant, and d l is the absolute temperature at surface x = O.
dimensional analysis. It usually requires a good insight into Accordingly, the boundary condition a t x = O is
the phenomenon under consideration. Heat ( H ) may be
taken as a fifth dimension; the other four being F, L, T al q  e l a o 4 =  k  aaet x = O
ax (17)
and O . The dimensions of the variablesare then ( h ) =
(L 2 7 e I ( e ) = (e), ( L ) = (h) = (H
(k) = (H L T" 8  l ) , (pg) = (FL  3 ) J (p)=(FT L ').
Sevenvariablesare involved, and five dimensions. Con L
sequently, two dimensionless products may be expected
to form a complete set, This may be confirmed by Van
Driest's rule, or by verifying that th rank of the dimen
sional matrix is 5. Onestandarddimensionless product, 02
N N =~ (h L/k), called Nusselt's number, may be seen im
mediately. Another dimensionless product thatis obviously
independent of N N can ~ be found by inspection. Follow
ing the custom of denoting dimensionless products by pi,
k AO
we write it as pl =
s. The result of the dimensional
PSXL
analysis is, according to Buckingham's theorem,
61
Since the surfacex = L is not subjected to incident radia too low for the model to operate a t equal temperature and
tion, the boundary condition a t the surface is the model consequently does not reradiate as much heat
ae
e2 a d 4 =  k  a t x = L
as it should.
ax This example illustrates the danger in a naive approach
to dimensional analysis, in which the significant variables
With the initial condition, equations (16 ) , (17) and (1 8)
are not carefully identified.
present a purely mathematical problem, provided that e l ,
Failure to recognize that el and e2 occur only in the
e2 ,al areconstants.The problem is quite difficult, because
ratios k/el and k / e 2 , and substitutingk, e l , e2 separately
of the nonlinear O 4 appearing in the boundary conditions.
in the dimensional analysis, would have resulted in the
Even though the mathematical problem is difficult, the
dimensionless product qL/kOo. As KO = 1, this yields
equations serve to identify the significant variables. Con
K4 = I/KL, whichindicates that a smallmodelshould
sequently, dimensional analysis can be applied. Evidently,
receivemuchhigher radiationintensity than the proto
the solution is of the form, type. Actually, the radiation intensity imposed by Kq =
e = f ( e 0 , x , t , ~ , ~ , u , q , k / ~ l , k / e 2 , ~ 1 / ~ l ) , 1/KL might be disastrous for a small model. As the preced
ing dimensional analysis shows, the dimensionless product
since equations (1 7) and (1 8) may be divided through by qL/KOo really does notarise; rather, the product elqL/k60
el and e2, respectively. Dimensional analysis of this rela occurs. It can be obtained by multiplyingthe twoproducts
tionship yields q/ue: and u 0; Lel/k which occur in equation (19).
The product L2/at in equation (19) yields K r = Kr_.
This signifies that the time required to bring a body of
given shape up to a given temperature varies as the surface
It is known that a = e if equilibrium prevails (12). area of the body  not as the volume of the body.
Usually t h e condition is satisfactory for gray bodies, even In all of the aboveexamples  systematic, boundary
for nonequilibriumconditions. Consequently, the ratio and material properties have all been suitably defined or
allel is practically unity. Equation (19) yields the model assumed. However, there are problems wherephysical or
law for radiative heat transfer. thermodynamic properties are incompletely defined. At
Although a wall was considered, equation (19) applies tempts to model plows,road scrapers and other earth
for a body of any given shape. If the model is made of the moving machines have had only marginal successbecause
same material as the prototype, K d = 1 and Kk = 1. Also, the properties of soils are obscure. Also, models of highly
since u is a basic physical Boltzmann constant, KO= 1. If loaded mechanical structures, where the material is subject
the model and the prototype operate a t the same tempera to creep, will tend to be inconclusive because the creep
ture, KO = l . Then the product o 0, Lel//? in equation (19) phenomenon is still being studied and i s as yet illdefined.
yields K, = I/KL, and the product g/u 0, yields K, = 1. To some extent, the same problem arises in the modeling
These conclusions signify that a small model of a radia o f steamwater flow systems operating under transient
tive system should have greater surface emissivity than the conditions, Here the properties of steam are documented
prototype, and the intensity of incident radiation should for conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium. The
be the same as for the prototype. Unfortunately, the con enthalpy of superheatedwater* and subcooIedsteam*
dition K, = I/KL cannot be realized in most cases, since cannot be characterized for analysis using the usual
surfacefinishes for providing the required emissivity are mechanical measurements.Because of the limited under
unavailable. In fact, fora smallmodelthe condition standing of all of the prerequisite information similar to
K, = 1 /KL may require that e > 1, and this is impossible. thosedescribedabove, the user of model studies is cau
Consequently,models of radiative systemsare not very tioned that engineeringjudgment will be required to inter
satisfactory. Commenting on t h i s situation, Chaoand pret and correlate the results of a model study in terms of
Wedekind[ 3 1 state: When the model and the prototype the prototype system. This judgment is only gained through
are made of the same materials, the model operatesat tem practice and experience.
peratures higher than those of the prototype. The smaller
the scaled model, the higher the temperatures will be. One 6 THESIMILARITY LAWS OF REYNOLDS AND
thus encountersall the adverse effects inherently associated FROUDE
with such operation: namely,dimensional instability and
warpage, changes in surface and bu1k properties, deteriora If two flow systems are geometrically and dynamically
tion ofsurface paints,variations in jointconductances, etc. similar, there is a length scale factor K L , a time scale factor
These conditions occur because the emissivity of the sur *Thesephenomenacanbedemonstrated in thelaboratoryunder
face of the model being equal to that of the prototype is carefully controlled steadystate conditions.
K T , and a mass scale factor Km. The scale factor Kp for We suppose however, thatgeometric similarity is preserved,
mass density isdetermined by Km = Kp K f . By the defini except for minordetails. Then if L is a length of the proto
tions of velocity and acceleration, K v = KL/KT and Ku = type car and L is the corresponding length in the model,
KL/KF. Equivalence of Reynolds number yields Kp = LIL = KL isaconstant, irrespectiveof the particularlength
K,KVKL. Consequently, Newtons equation for viscous that is measured. The mass m of the prototype is propor
shearing stress, r = pd Vfdy, yields KT = KpKV/KL =Kp K;, tional to pL3, where p is the mass density of the material.
Therefore, KFf = KTKt = K p K g Kini ,which Ff denotes The factor of proportionalitydepends on the design of the
the external frictional force onany part ofthe fluid. car. Hence, Km = KpKf where Km =mlm and Kp = p/p.
The inertial. force F;; on any part of the fluid is the Gravity has a significant effect upon the behavior of the
negative time rate of change of its momentum, hence, parts in a derailment. Consequently, the equation W = mg
KF;.= Km K v~KT. is essential. Hence, Kw = Km Kg. Since g is generally un
alterable, Kg = 1 and K v = Km. True modeling requires
that there be a single force scale factor KF, and,since
weight is a force,
3
K F = Km = Kp KL (22)
where the prime denotes the model. When the present approach to model analysis is used,
This conclusion may be stated as follows: one must be careful to introduce only relevant laws, and
ln geometrically and dynamically similar systems, the t o include all laws that are relevant. For example, if weight
ratios o f inertial force to frictional force are identical for were negligible, W = mg should not have been used. New
corresponding masses of fluidif the Reynolds numberso f tons law, F = ma, certainly would enter into any rational
the two flows are equal. This principle is known as Rey analysis of the motions of the parts of a derailed train.
nolds law of similarity. * By asimilar anabsis, Froudes law Consequently, KF = Km KO,With equation (22), this yields
of similarity is obtained. Ku = 1; .e., corresponding parts of the model and the pro
Namely: totype experience the same accelerations. As, by definition,
ln geometrically and dynamically similar systems, the a = d2x/dt2, Ku = KJKF, where KT is the time scale
ratios o f inertial force to weight are identical for corre factor. Hence,
sponding masses o f fluid if the Froude numbers o f the
two flows are equal.
KT= fi (23)
(It is implied above that geometrical and dynamic For example, if KL = 1/25, KT = I/5; .e., the whole
similarity leads to similarity in streamline pattern.) process or any particular movement (e.g., a gyration of a
car) occurs in only onefifth the time in which it occurs in
the prototype. Consequently, high speed photography
7 DERIVATIONOFMODEL LAWS FROM
BASIC
might beneeded to get all the details of the behavior of
PHYSICAL LAWS
the model.
Dimensional analysis is only one of several methods that Since velocity i s defined by V = dxfdt, K V = KL/KT.
can be used to derive model laws. A widely used method Therefore by
equation (23), K v = For example, if
rests on underlying physical laws which may be expressed KL = 1/25, the model should run at only onefifth the
in algebraic form or as differential equations. speed of the prototype.
As an example, the modeling of a derailmentof a train Motions of the cars andthe wheels in a derailment might
is considered. Theobjective is to obtain realistic motion pic be studied with a model of differentmaterialthan the
tures of the tumblingand slidingof thecars in aderailment. prototype. Then Kp f l . If Kp = 1, equation (22) yields
Separation of the wheel trucks might also be observed in K F = Kz. The relationships KF =Kiand K v = K a r e
the pictures. Simulation of mangling and rupture of the known as Froudes law in hydrodynamics; in fact, with a
cars requires consideration of properties of the material. slight change of wording, the preceding argument applies
For a model study of a derailment, the carsneedbe for a ship model instead of a train.
only crude reproductions of the prototype, although mass
distributions must be proportioned so that centers of grav Bibliography
ity are preserved andmoments of inertia are scaledproperly.
[I 1A Modern Approach to Dimensions,Parry Moon,
*This assumes, of course, thatviscousforcesareimportant. A t large
Jour. Franklin lnst., Dec,, 1969.
Reynolds numbers the friction loss coefficient is independent of [2] Dimensional Analysis, P. Bridgman,Yale Univer
viscosity and Reynolds number. sity Press, 2nd ed., 1931.
"_2E g13Ap,p2
pV?
heal Xfer lo fluid mass Xfer rate a l interface inertia force bulk mass Xfer
heat Xfer within body mass Xfer rale a l interior of wall viscous force diffusive mass Xfer
"
bulk heat Xwrl gravity force inertia force
radiative heat Xport surf. lens. force gravity lorce
"
viscous
  force,
""
(CoFe)
CONDENSATION1 CONDENSATION2 CRISPATION CROCCO
'
veioity
max. velocitv
pcessure force
inertia force
66
A(P.~+P~*) wdi
a PZ
magnetic force
viscous force
~ ~~
" "_
load force
viscous force
"
time constant
pulsation period
POH,'
c,AT P*!
joule heating energy
magnetic field energy
~~
67
d \.
( KoPe
LAGRANGE1
KOSSOVICH LAGRANGE2 LEVERET"
X"R,
CAT^
API

PV
P
PPWSE2
( y%
heat to evaporate moisture pressure force char. dim. of interface curvature
heat to raise body temp. viscous force char. dim. of pores
inertia force
elastic force
MAGNETIC
DYNAMIC
I MAGNETIC FORCE MAGNETIC
INTERACTION
MAGN ETlC
PRAN DTL
p,2Hm2GI
GVB'I PV
"" 
pv2
magnetic force
dynamic force
magnetic pressure
dynamic pressure
put3
OHNESORGE I PARTICLE
I
P ECL ET H EAT
XFER
P ECL ET MASS
XFER
"
PC,,VI

IV "
h,. D
viscous force
surf. tens. force I heat
 convection
. .  .. "
heat conduction
bu_lk mass X f e l
diffusme mass Xfer
68
(PiSt)
pv 61 hBT
h,
viscous pressure
"
inertia force
coriolir force inerlia force
buoyancy force see note 2
~_____ ~ ~ _ _
viscous farce
load force
spec, heat at const. pressure
""
SQUEEZE STO K ES
6T
hCAK
61
1I
heaIXferred lo fluid viscous force
heatxported by fluid gravityforce
___
heat radiated
heat conducted see note 2
."
. .. .
Note 2  6 y h x itdicates a gradient or rate f change coefficient between variables y and x .
(StWe)
PZ PoutPi" I pV3l
fuel weight
centrifugal farce
"
viscous force

pressure margin above cavitation
pressure rise i n pump
"
ai; d:aR
P ail
WEBER WEISSENBERG
pv21
 (fz ta) V
Ut 4
viscous force see note 3
surf. tens. farce
70
NOMENCLATURE
a sonic speed (I /t) m, mass transfer rate or mass transfer coefficient (I/t)
pressure wave velocity (I It) particle mass (m)
2
A C
area (12)
cooling surface area per unit volume (11)
mP
mw
M
wing mass per unit length (m/I)
mass transfer per unit area per unit time (m/Pt)
As conducting area (P) M e mass of moisture evaporated per unit area per unit
Ar radiating area (P) time (m /Pt)
b carrier mobility, speed /voltage gradient (Qt/m) M" momemtum flux ( P p )
B magnetic induction (m /Qt) n number of nucleation centers per unit area (12)
C specific heat (12/PT) ne number of electrons per unit volume (13)
Co concentration (m /P) N natural vertical frequency of fluid element about i t s
CP specific heat at constant pressure ( P p T ) equilibrium altitude
in a densitystratified at
cv specific heat at constant volume (P/t2T) mosphere (t1)
cd ratio of dust mass to bed volume (m/13) P pressure (m/lt2)
CL slope of wing lift curve (dimensionless) Pa average static pressure (m /W)
d pipe or tube diameter (I) PC capillary pressure (m /W)
db bubble or droplet diameter (I) Pd dynamic pressure (m /W)
di impeller diameter (I) Pin total pressure at pump inlet (m /W)
jet diameter (I) Po atmosphere pressure (m /W)
di total pressure at pump outlet (m /W)
mean particle diameter (I) Pout
dm ..
particle diameter (I) PS local static pressure or pressure drop (m /W)
dP fluid vapor pressure (m/lt2)
D
D*
mass diffusivity (P/t)
axial mass diffusivity (P/t) 2P P pressure drop (m /W)
power input t o agitator (mP/t3)
Di mass diff usivity at interface (l*/t)
D
. , _._ mass diffusivity of moisture in body (P/t) . 9 charge (4)
Dmol.". molecular diffusivity(P/t) qe electron charge (9)
Dt thermal diff usivity (P/t) 9s space charge density (q/l3)
permittivity (Q2t2/ml3) Q liberated heat per unit mass (P/t2)
OP
permittivity of free space (QW/ml3) Of heat flux per unit area per unit time (m/t3)
OPS
es surface emissivity (dimensionless) Q 11 heat flow per unit time or heat flow rate (mP/tn)
QL heat liberated per unit volume per unit time (m/lt3)
E modulus of elasticity (m/ltZ) Qm mass flow rate (m It)
Eb fluid bulk modulus (m/lt2) Qv volume flow rate (13 It)
Eg torsion modulus of elasticity (m /It*) Qw fuel weight flow per unit time (ml /V)
Es shear modulus of elasticity (m /W)
Et tension modulus of elasticity (m /W) r radius from explosive to reference point (I)
rb . blast wave radius (I)
f frequency of formation (t1) rB bearing radius (I)
fP pulsation frequency (t1) rc bend radius of curvature (I)
FR bearing load per unit area (m/lt2) r hydraulic radius, ratio ofwetted cross sectional
Fb bearing load (ml/tz) area to perimeter (I)
Fi force on immersed body (ml/t2) PP probe radius (I)
FL bearing load /length (m/t2) rs shaft radius (I)
Fr resistance force on immersed body (ml/tz) rt tank radius (I)
g gravitational acceleration (I 112) rw wire radius (I)
G electrical conductivity (Q2t /ml,) R gas constant (P/t2T)
hc thermal conductioncoefficient or thermal conduc Rc fractional difference in moisture content of bodies
tivity (ml /tZT) (dimensionless)
hs thermal conductivity of gas (ml /t3T) R", fractional change in moisture content of
body
hr radiant heat transfer coefficient (m(t3T) (dimensionless)
ht heat transfer coefficient (m/taT) S ratio of particle area to volume (11)
H head loss (I) t time (t)
Hm magnetizing force (Q/It) tf ratio of average free path t o average velocity (t)
H, static head (I) tr reaction or relaxation time (t)
Hst head produced per stage (I) tt translation time (t)
I porosity, ratio of void t o solid volume (dimensionless) tl time constant (t)
k permeability (P) t:! time constant (t)
kH horizontal permeability (P) t3 time constant (t)
kL longitudinal permeability (P) T temperature (T)
K wing halfchord (I) TC sink temperature (T)
Tg ambient gas temperature (T)
I characteristic length or dimension (I) TH source temperature (T)
lb bearing length (I) Ti initial temperature of body (T)
k
b
reactor length (I)
mean free path of molecules (I)
Debye length (I)
TI
Tm
bulk liquid temperature (T)
wet bulb temperature at moist surface (T)
Tsnt saturation temperature (T)
Lr mean radiation path length (I) Tt total stagnation temperature (T)
mb mass of body (m) AT temperature differential (T)
71
NOMENCLATURE (Cont'd)
72
Poisson
Bond MAGNETICFIELDS
Bouscinesq Magnetic Reynolds
Buoyancy MASS ANDMOMENTUM
Capillarity 1 Biot Mass Transfer
Capillary Bodenstein
Centrifuge Kirpichev Mass Transfer
Ekman Lewis
Elasticity1 Mass Ratio
Euler Merke1
Froude Nusselt Mass Transfer
Galileo Peclet Mass Transfer
Goucher Prandtl Heat Transfer
Grashof Prandtl Mass Transfer
Gravity Structural Merit
Hartman PRESSURE
Hersey Cavitation
Hooke Fanning
Lagrange1 MagneticDynamic
Mach Magnetic Pressure
Magnetic Force Pipeline
Ocvirk Porous Flow
Ohnesorge Radiation Pressure
Poiseuille Thoma
Power TwoPhase Porous Flow
Prandtl velocity ratio RATES
Rayleigh Damkahler's First
Reynolds Damkohler's Second
Richardson Predvaditlev
Rossby STIFFNESS
Russell Aeroelastic
Sommerfeld Structural Merit
Stokes STRESS
Structural Merit Bingham
Taylor Fanning
Toms Truncation
TwoPhase Flow TEMPERATURE
Viscoelastic Carnot
Weber Gukhman
HEAT AND SPECIFIC HEAT TI M E
Bansen Damkhler's First
Biot Heat Transfer Hodgson
Boltzmann VELOCITY
Brinkman Alfven
Carnot Cowling
Damkhler's Third Crocco
Damkhler's Fourth Mach
Graetz Strouhal
74

!
75
INSTRUMENTS
SUPPLEMENTS ON INSTRUMENTSAND APPARATUS
AND NOW AVAILABLE
k
19.5.1, Weighing Scales. (1964)
PTC 19.6 ............
Electrical Measurements in Power Circuits. (1955)
PTC 19.7 Measurement of Shaft Horsepower................. (1961)
 ~ . _=_._I_'._"
~.
PTC 19.8 Measurement of Indicated Power.................. (1 970)
. . . . .
. . . " . " "~~
C 00047
COPYRIGHT American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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