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Manufacturing encompass all functions frm receipt of prduct dfinitin to satisfctory cmpletion of an item.

It adds value Smooth tool motion on & off the part Entering or exiting material at a high feed rate puts a strain on cutting tool.
to material by changing its shape or properties. Constant cutting load Achievable by in-time adjustment of feed rates, cutting depths & stepovers based on
3 functions Business, Enginring, Prdction Isolatd isl&s Mrketing, Design, prcess planin, quality cntrl. knowledge of stocks & machining processes.
Traditional Approach- Over the wall documents to next deprtmnt aftr cmpltin, Little or no commnictin betwn Tool path strategies for HSM in industries
design& productin. Does not take into account all aspects of design phases Smooth tool engagement & retraction Smooth connection between tool paths Rounded corners in tool paths
Spiral t. p.s Curvilinear t. p. Race line t. p.s Trochoidal t. p.s Constant cutting load t. paths NURBS tool paths
Concurrent Engineering - systematic approach to integrated, concurrent design of products & their relatd processes, Post Processing - To sustain compatibility of mchines & programs, a library of postprocessors needs to be developed
of manufacture, support, maintenance, & other life-cycle cnsidrations, including test, inspection, reliability, safety.
breaks communication barriers. Goals to reduce time & cost to minimize prdct design & enginring changes Data embedded in a CAD/CAM System
Platforms: CAD/CAE/CAM, PDM, RP For concurrent design, technologies include design for assembly, Design for X. Shape data - Both geometric & topological info, as well as part or form features. Non-shape data - It includes
Design For Manufacturing principles, graphics data such as shaded images, & model global data as measuring units of the database & the resolution of
- Reduce total parts Develop modular design Use standard components Design parts to be multifunctional storing the database numerical values, Fonts, color, annotation. Design data - Info that designers generate from
Determining the Minimum Number of Parts geometric models for analysis purposes. Mass property & finite element mesh data belong to this type of data.
any relative motion between this part & assembled parts? Must the part be made of a different material or be Manufacturing data - consists of info as tooling, tolerancing, process planning, tool design, & bill of materials
isolated from all assembled parts? part have to be separated from assembly for access, replacement, or, repair?
Advantages of Integrated Parts Data formats of different CAD Systems
Do not have to be assembled Often less expensive to fabricate rather than the sum of each individual part Historical reasons ( .PRT .SLDPRT-.mc9) Direct & indirect solutions
Allows critical geometric features to be controlled by the part fabrication process versus a similar assembly process The direct solution entails translating the modeling data stored in a product database directly from one CAD/CAM
Design for Assemble (DFA) system format to another, usually in one step. On the other h&, the indirect solution is more general & adopts the
Intended to reduce assembly costs by simplifying the product structure Cause better reliability, better quality, etc philosophy of creating a neutral database structure (also called a neutral file) which is independent of any existing or
Assembly future CAD/CAM system. This structure acts as an intermediary & a focal point of communication among dissimilar
Part is inserted from top of assembly Self-aligning Does not need to be orientd requires only one for assembly database structures of CAD/CAM systems. The structure of the neutral database must be general, governed only by
Requires no tools Part is assembled in a single, linear motion Part is secured immediately upon insertion the minimum required definitions of any of the modeling data types, & be independent of any vendor format
Design for Disposability Advantages & disadvantages
High environmental cost of disposal of product at end of useful life is a major concern for society. New discipline to Direct translators provide a satisfactory solution when only a small number of systems r involved, but as this
tackle pollution at design stage Take-back laws in Germany for automobiles, acted on by BMW, VW, etc. increases number of translator programs that need to be written becomes prohibitive. On other h&, indirect
Design for Production Guidelines translators do not suffer from increasing numbers of programs to be written as in the case of direct ones. Moreover,
1. Minmize Total Parts 3. M. Part Variations 9. M. H&ling in Assembly 10. M. complexity of Design 2. Develop a indirect translator philosophy prvides stable cmmunication between CAD/CAM systems, protects against system
Modular Design 4. Design parts to be Multifunctional 5. Design p. for Multiuse 6. Design P. for Ease of Fabrication 7. obsolescence, & eliminates dependence on a single system supplier. Indirect translators based on stndrd neutral file
Avoid Separate Fasteners 8. Maximize Compliance in Assembly 11. Maximize common Jigs & Fixtures 12. Ease Access format r now cmmon practice.
Challenges Info loss
Low cst mnufcturin High quality prductsReducd cycle timeIncreased productivityReduced environmntal impact info loss can be due to a variety of reasons. - For instance, if a tolerance number is captured as a text string
placed in a drawing, its meaning, as well as the numerical value, are lost. - NURBS can define a variety of curves &
Computer Integrated M. Goal: integrate all enterprise oprations & activities around a commn data repository. surfaces. If circular cylinder is represented by NURBS, data indicating that part feature was a circular cylinder may be
Define-Integration of total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated systems & data communications lost. Such data would be useful to mnufacturin to identify as a hole to be drilled or bored than a surface to be milled
coupled with new managerial philosophies which improve organizational & personnel efficiency. Traditionlly International st&ards : PDES - Designed to support industrial application such as mechanical, electric, plant design,
separate functions r linked Changes in, eg material reqs, product types, or market demand can be accmmodated. & architecture & engineering construction & to include all types of data which is relevant to entire life-cycle of a
CIM Characteristics product: design, analysis, manufacturing, quality assurance, testing, support, etc. IGES - Most popular & Good in
CIM is the integration of business & manufacturing activities, using computer & communication systems. 2D & wire frame data & It is adopted by American National St&ards Institute (ANSI). Evolving from a 2-D geometric
It is the integration of design, engineering, manufacturing, logistics, warehousing & distribution, customers & info exchange tool, IGES exchanges primarily shape & non-shape data, which is referred as CADto-CAD exchange. IGES
suppliers, sale & marketing activities, financial management & the overall control of the enterprise. It can be codes a superset of common entities of all CAD/CAM systems to facilitate translation between various systems. STEP
described as far more than technology driven production but is rather a strategy which links all of the people who (ST&ard for the Exchange of Product model data) - An international st&ard (ISO 10303) for exchanging data between
work within & outside an enterprise. Very expensive yet cost effective Person to person contact is minimized Fast different systems (CAD, CAM, CAE, & PDM). It is a computer interpretable definition of physical & functional
& efficient (data sent in seconds where paperwork & human contact results in wasted time) Network mail, gateways characteristics of a product throughout its life cycle. Proven to be fast, reliable data exchange betwen partners &
to other systems, shared resources (printing, databases, data translation) FMS techniques suppliers using different systems.
Areas affected by CIM (all functns) Comunications Factry costs Databses Productn Mngmnt, labor reqs of firm.
Sub-systems in a CIM Feature -a physicl constituent of a prt,Building block for prduct definitin or geometric reasonin.(geometry+meaning )
Management Infrmtin System (MIS)(Mngmnt, Prductin plnnin & cntrl, Finance,Purchasing, MRP, etc.) In manufac., feature is something extracted from a prismatic material through a sequence of machine operations.
Technological Info system or Engineering Design Integrated System (EDI)( CAD, CAPP, CAM, NC program, etc.) Feature based manufac. - technology that defines mechanical prt as a set of features that include manufac.uring info.
Manufacturing Automation Systems (MAS),(CNC, FMC, FMS, Assembly system, Material h&ling, warehouse.)
Computer Aided Quality Control (CAQ Network/Data Base Computer Aided Process Planning(CAPP)
CIM Implementation - Systems integration cannot be purchased from a vendor or supplier The successful Process Planning Procedure to develop detailed list of manufac. operations required production of a product. Acts as
implementation of CIM is dependent on top management & the role that it takes. CIM involves the total operation a bridge betwn design & manufacturing by translating design specs into manufacturing details.
of a company, if planned all at once, it can be prohibitively expensive. CIM should be planned from the top down & Subtasks of pro. Planning Operation plannin: elementary machining processes selction Setup plannin: grouping of
implemented from the bottom up. The implementation of CIM should be done Incrementally operations for a fixed orientation of part Fixture plannin: selection of fixtures for a setup NC program generation
Levels in CIM (Low High) - Shop floor automation / work cell: isl&s of automation Manufacturing Operations: Factors affect p. p. availability of manufacturing equipment same features realized through different method &
isl&s are linked together Info systems integration: Info shared across functional boundaries Strategic or Supply on different machine tools. Eg:Planer & 3-axis machine tool to cut straight slot. Precision reqs Different
Chain level: Integration extends up to customers & down to the Suppliers processes on different materials under different condition may generate different qualities. Once precision is changed,
Problems with implementation machining method changed accordingly. Eg: same hole, Roughness is 6.3 & 0.8 micron. Size & shape of design
Mchine integratin: Hrdwre doesnt cmmunicateNot a commn netwrk Incmpatible mchines to be replaced: cost features small & large hole: small is drilled or reamed. Due to limited size of drills, large is bored. curved &
Business function integration: Usually non-mechanical problems Needs new approaches Intelligence required? straight hole: straight machined though mechanical cutting; curved can only be machined through Electric Discharge
Machining. Cutting F & rigidity - Eg: Hole H1 produced before slot machined. If hole is machined after, because there
Manufacturing Automation System is no predrilled central drill holes, drill bit may bent. Dependency of operations: Eg: holes on inclined surface to be
CNC, DNC, Machine Centre Robot Material H&ling Flexible Manufacturing Cell Flexible Manufac.ing System prduced befre slot machined. If hole is machined after, because there is no predrilled central drill holes, drill bit may
FMC: NC machines are linked by a direct numerical control (DNC) system. A material h&ling system may be required. bent. Other factors batch size, processing time, set up time, etc.
FMS: Large scale of Manufac. Cell which is characterized by a higher level of computer control & more non-machine Steps of P P - Analysis of CAD Models of features, dimensions, & tolerance specs Determinin shape of raw
entities such as coordinate measuring machines, & part washers. Manufactring Cell is an FMS without central control. material- Material of part often determined by designer in designing phase in line with function of part. The shape of
raw material detrmined by process plannin engineer. Determinin Manufcturing operations & sequence eg: Casting,
Numerical Control: control of the various machining functions by the use of numerical data Drilling, Boring, Milling Selection of machine tools - factors considered: Availability of equipment: machine tool,
Has 2 compnnts:cnvntinal mchine tool, with srvos to drve leadscrws Mchine Cntrl Unit(MCU) cutter, fixture Precision req & quality Efficiency Production volume Selection of fixtures Determining cutting
NC vs Conventional Machines parameters : cut depth, feed rate, spindle speed, cutting tolerance, etc.
Based on the functionalities, both NC & conventional machines are similar The difference is positioning the tool & Problems in p p based on experience of engineers, is extremely time consuming Different engineer develop
control of the side functionalities are controlled by computer programs Positioning, speed Cooling on/off, turning different plans, plans over time not consistence Developing an efficient p p method requires significant amount of
work-piece & changing tool are controlled by machine control unit (MCU) Online measuring knowledge & experience. Coordinating all info manually takes long time.
Advantages - Flexibility. Does what manual machines can't do. Repeatability. Reduce or eliminate warehousing Computer aided p p can systematically produce accurate & consistent process plans can reduce cost & lead time
costs. Reduced lead time & tooling costs. Lower operator skill requirements.. of planning required planner skill is reduced Planner productivity increasd Applictin programs can be interfaced

Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Advantages: Variant process planning method is to generate process plans of a new part based on an existing system by recalling,
Improved reliability due to microprocessors of every Machine Editing at machine site Flexibility of changing identifying & retrieving an existing plan for a similar part & making necessary modifications for the new part.
programs Compatibility of machine tools with manufacturing info system. Detailed method- Define a coding system: adopt existing coding or classification schemes to label parts for purpose
CNC Controller of classification. Group parts into families: st&ard process plan is attached to each part family. Often, a number of
Controlling path of moving tool or workpiece Controlling rate at which the tool is fed into the workpiece traversed part types are associated with a family, thereby reducing total number of st&ard process plans. Develop a st&ard
(Feed Rate) Control rotating shaft speed Control the on/off of the coolant Changing tools during machining process plan for each part family based on common features of the part types. Retrieve & modify st&ard plan
Classification of Machining Types Advantages of variant approach 1. Once a st&ard plan written, component can be planned. 2. Comparatively simple
2.5 axis - Simultaneously control the tool along only X & Y axes, Z axis control plane is arbitrary oriented in space programming & installation is required to implement a planning system. 3. System is underst&able, & planner has
3 axis - Tool is controlled along 3 axes simultaneously, tool axis orientation does not change with tool motion control of final plan. 4. It is easy to learn, & easy to use
4-axis or 5-axis - Tool axis orientation varies with the tool motion in 3 dimension space Problems in variant systems 1. Components to be planned r limited to similar ones previously planned. 2. Experiencd
Milling machine: Z axis : Aligned with spindle that imparts cutting power. Positive motion increases separation process planners r still required to modify st&ard plan for specific component. 3. Plan details cannot be generated.
between workpiece & tool. X-axis: Parallel to the work holding surface On machines with rotating tools, If the z- 4. Variant planning cannot be used in an entirely automated manufac. system, without additional process planning.
axis is horizontal, the positive x motion is to the right when looking from spindle to the workpiece If the z-axis is Generative CAPP method Here, process plans for a part are generated by decision logic, algorithm & geometry
vertical, the positive x motion is to the right when looking from spindle to the workpiece based data to perform uniquely the many processing decisions. Major components: (i) part description (ii)
Lathe Z-axis: Aligned with spindle that imparts cutting power. + motion increas separtion btwn wrkpiece & tool. manufacturing databases (iii) decision making logic & algorithms

Part Program: Program consisting of comm&s that control a NC machine to perform a machining tasks, like C++ Part family - A collection of parts which are similar either because they possess similarities in geometric shape & size,
G-Code part programming st&ard which is supported every model & maker of NC machines. or because similar processing steps are used in their manufacture
NC programming Manual part programming Computer-assisted part programming Design based part grouping: Basic external shape Basic internal shape Major dimensions Length/diameter ratio
Essential NC Prog. Elements where to go how to get there how fast to get there what to do when it arrives. Minor dimensions Material type Tolerances Surface finish Part function (Groover)
Manufactruing based part grouping: Major process Minor operations Operation sequence Surface finish
Computer Aided Manufac. - effective utilization of computer technology in management, control, & operations of Machine tool Required Fixtures Cutting tools Production time Batch size Annual production
mnufcturing facility thrugh either direct or indirect cmputer interference wth physical & human resource of company. GT is a philosophy that implies the notion of recognizing an exploiting similarities in three different ways: By prfrmin
Direct application device monitoring & control (CNC, PLC, Robot, Manufacturing Cell, FMS) like activities togther By stnardizin similr tasks By efficiently storing & retrievin info about recurring prblms.
Indirect applications mnufcturing support (MRP, process planning, scheduling, inventory control, shop floor control)
CNC systems interpolators: -Linear interpolator : line segments -Circular interpolator : piecewise circles Accelerate Product Development - typical mechanical designer can produce one discrete new parts per week. Thus,
even a small department designs hundreds of parts each year. As more new designs enter the system they become
High Speed Machining Advantages harder to track. They duplicate or near duplicate many existing parts. With GT, designr could track previous drawings.
High spindle speed & high feed rate lead to high metal removal rates. Shallow cut depths & small side steps make Smplify Prcess Plnning -reduces number & variety of prts. Prcess plnning 4 remainin parts is easier & mre consistnt.
it possible to apply small cutter which results in: better surface finishes down to 0.1 um in Ra, less or no Simplify Purchasing - Purchasing can group similar parts & achieve quantity discounts. For non-st&ard purchased
bench work followed, & overall machining time reduced, smaller cutting force which leads to minimal workpiece parts, grouping helps suppliers achieve savings & reduce price.
distortion smaller cutting force which leads to the possibility of cutting brittle materials & thin wall workpieces Reduce Engineering Cost - GT produces savings & benefits in almost every area of the business. It combines
High spindle speed, small cutting depth, small diameter of the cutter can be utilized to cut hardened materials tasks, equipment, gages, tooling & schedules into larger groups of similar elements for similar solutions.
directly for mold & die manufacturing. Approaches to form part families
Technical requirements of HSM on tool path strategies 1. Visual (intuitive) classification 2. Classification & coding The parts are classified to find part families that are similar
Smooth tool path Sharp features in tool pths may result in uneven cutting speeds & fluctuations of cutting forces. in form & maybe also have similar production requirements, such as tolerances, production quantities, etc. Coding:
Sharp changes may occur in tool path proper, at connection between adjacent tool paths or groups of tool paths. assigning a symbolic or a numerical description to the parts Classification: use the part code & other info to assign
parts to families. Coding can be used for classification purposes, & classification requirements must be considered parts for older models must be available 2. service manuals 3. testing equipment, e.g. testing onboard
during construction of a coding scheme. 3. Production flow analysis microprocessors, must be maintained 4. Management of product recalls e.g. Ford Replaced 13 million tires.

GT coding systems Polycode (chain structure) ( Meaning of each digit is independent of other digits. Fixed Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a technology that produces models & prototype parts from 3D CAD model data, CT &
position, fixed meaning) Monocode (hierarchical) ( Meaning of each digit depends on the value of previous digits. MRI scan data, & model data created from 3D object digitizing systems
Digits have variable meaning.) Hybrid ( Combination of Monocode & Polycode.) Rapid Prototyping: additive material Traditional manufacturing:subtractive material
Opitz coding system best known coding system so far. uses hybrid code structure. It consists of a form code & a Why use AM? Decreases lead time Facilitates concurrent engineering Allows visualization of more ideas
supplementary code. Supplement code:It indicates some of the attributes that will be used In manufacturing Three stages: pre-processing, building, & post processing
(dimensions, material) Secondary code: It identifes the production operation type & sequence Types of AM technologies: - StereoLithography (SL) - Selective L. Sintering (SLS) - Fused Deposition Modeling
Application of GT Design Management CAPP Cellular manufacturing systems StereoLithography (SL)
Cellular manufacturing systems 1. Process based on hardening/curing a liquid photoploymer into a specific shape 2. UV/laser beam cures portion of
manufacturing cell is a cluster of machines or processes located in close proximity & dedicated to the manufacture of photopolymer. An additive process, building part in layers. May take few hours to days. Part may have steps
a family of parts. parts are similar in their processing requirements such as operations & machine tool capacities. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Design of Cellular Manufacturing Systems 1) A cartridge feeding system deposits a thin layer of heat fusible powder into a workspace container 2) The layer of
Structure issues Selection of part families Selection of machines Selection of tools, fixtures, & pallets Selection powder is heated to just below its melting point 3) Carbon-dioxide laser traces the cross section. Particles hit by laser
of material handling equipment Choice of equipment layout Procedure issues Organization of supervisory & are heated to sintering point & bond into a solid mass. 4) A new layer of material is deposited on top of previous layer
support personnel around the cellular structure Formulation of maintenance & inspection policies Design of 5) Process repeats
prcedures for production plannin, schedulin, cntrol Modifiction of cost cntrol syst. Interfacin with remainin syst.s SLS modelers use nylon/polycarbonate powders, which are health hazards. SLS does not require external support of
Similarity coefficient ratio of number of parts visiting both machines & number of parts visiting one of 2 machines. overhangs, as loose powder provides support for new layers. Improvements in SLS technology have exp&ed allowed
materials to ABS, PVC, & metals encapsulated in plastic. Some powdered metals have been directly sintered.
Material Requirements Planning (MRP) Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
MRP is a computerized Production Planning Info System: Create schedules identifying the specific parts & materials 1) A spool of thin plastic filament feeds material to FDM head 2) Inside FDM, filament is melted by a resistance heater
required to produce end items How many items are needed? When the items are needed 3) The semiliquid thermoplastic is extruded through FDM head 4) Material is deposited in a thin layer on formation
INPUT - Master Production Schedule Product Structure File Inventory Master File: Inventory Status 5) Material solidifies, forming a laminate 6) Next layer is formed on previous- lamina fuse together
Output of MRP Manufacturing Orders Purchasing Orders quantity of material to be ordered in each time period FDM modelers typically use nylon or some wax. The material is non toxic & can be used anywhere, including offices.
Various Reports Exception reports Performance reports Planning reports Machines can be equipped with second head to extrude a support structure (BASS breakaway support system).
Product Structure File (Bill of material (BOM)) (product tree) list of all components that make up the product. It
contains complete product description, materials & quantity, sequence in which the product is created. STL Files (*.stl)
(Bill of material (BOM) types Tree structure, indent structure STL files were based on a program called Silverscreen CAD Silverscreen CAD represent boundary with all surfaces
Drawbacks Assume cnstant leadtimes Reqire accurate forecasts MRP exploded dem& into required materials being approximated by polygons or groups of polygons *.stl files use triangles or groups of triangles to approximate
Advanced Planning Systems Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II):2 generation of MRP systems that connect surfaces. Accuracy depends on the triangle sizes Triangles assigned normal vectors for outward surface normal
to financial systems & help synchronize internal operations Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Info system Parts are defined by representing all their bounding surfaces as faceted surfaces, using the triangular patches
designed to integrate internal & external processes of a supply chain via a centralized database Important Properties
Vertices oriented counterclockwise around each facet Vertex-to-Vertex Rule:Each triangle must meet all adjacent
Product Data Management (PDM) triangles along common edges - every triangle must share exactly two common vertices with each adjacent triangle.
PDM is managemnt & classification of design data & specs for an engineered product & mangemnt of chnge to this Process - Part sliced (Slice files generated) Supports sliced AM technology parameters set layer thickness, scan
info Product-related info geometry, engineering drwings prt files, assembly diagrms project plns prduct specs, speed,... Send file to AM machine
bills of material, etc. Manages product data throughout enterprise, ensuring right info is available for right person
at right time & in right form. By using in right way, sharing of info between group members will be improved.
Why PDM needed: Large Number of products to be managed Huge data h&ling for individual products Storage
of related documents Updating drawings & documents Creating & maintaining revisions User management
PDM Systems: PTC (Pro/E, Creo): Windchill Dassault Systems (Catia): Enovia Smarteam Siemens (UGS NX):
TeamCenter Solidworks: Enterprise PDM Arena: Cloud PLM
Core functions Data vault & document management : provides secure storage & retrieval of product definition info.
Electronic vault is used to control product info. Types of data stored: - Product data generated in various applications
& Meta-data, which is data about PDM controlled info. Typical info stored as metadata are part number, date, revision
& file location. Supports Check-in & out to provide secure storage & access control. To ensure documents achieve
right status in its life cycle various pre-defined approval processes is used. Document management contains meta-
data tht stores info about prduct data so, chnges, release levels, approvl authorizations cn b tracked & audited.
Product structure management (Configuration Management):- PSM facilitates creation & management of product
configurations & BOM. PDM system tracks configuration changes of versions, effectivities & design variations. It allows
user & applications to link product definition data to parts & product structures, which allows users to easily
determine which info that will be affected by changes. PSM provides customised views of product info for different
usrs. PSM support transfr of product structure & othr data between PDM & enterprise resource plannin(ERP) systms.
Work flow management: - Work flow is movement of documents & tasks during the course of a project -Tracking
of the documents & tasks at various stages can be performed easily -Alerts can be generated for particular tasks
-PDM allows user to specify, execute, monitor & coordinate tasks in a work flow. Workflow & process management:-
PDM can interact with people that work with product data accrding to predefined processes of an enterprise to
achieve corporate objectives. Repetitive workflows & processes can be programmed as part of a PDM system to route
data & work packages automatically, to control & monitor processes, & to provide mnagement reporting. PDM system
controls process & procedures that manage how changes are proposed, reviewed, & approved & incorporated into a
product & its associated data items. Parts management (Classification):- Classification of parts allows similar parts,
processes, & other design info to be grouped by common attributes & retrieved for use in products. This lead to
product standardization, reduced redesign, savings in purchasing & fabrication, & less reinvention of wheel.
Program management:- This coordinates framework of project that deliver product to market. It provides work
breakdown structures (WBS) & allows resource scheduling & project tracking. Program management provides ability
to relate WBS tasks to the PDM systems knowledge of approval & product configurations. Tasks that are required to
complete the project are ordered within work breakdown structures, which can also be grouped into hierarchical
structures of dependencies. This provides a way to allocate resources & track progress. When project, actual used
resources r recorded against the plan. Completion of activities for each task is tracked & reported through approval.
Utility Functions: Communication & notification-Users of PDM systems can automatically be notified of critical
events concerning current state of project or product. PDM minimizes delays caused by misplaced communication. A
trigger functionality is used spawn notifications & other actions automatically. Data transport- Users do not need to
knw where data is stord while systm keeps tracks of data location & allows usrs to access it knwing only data name.
Data translation - Data translators can be pre-defined to convert data between different applications & to formats
for various display & output devices. These data translations can be done automatically by triggers. Visualization -
Image viewing allows usrs to view drawings & other design data without need of expensive application software.
Image service enhances productivity by facilitating exchange of info & comments among users. Collaboration -
Collaboration, between different units across geographically distributed sites, becomes possible with many
technologies employed in PDM systems. Examples of technologies are e-mail, audio- & teleconferencing, &
collaborative visualization tools. These technologies are designed to support distributed teams to synchronously work G-Code Part Programming: N: number of command G: preparatory coms (X: coordints along x, Y: co.s alo y, Z: co.s
together without the need to travel. Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) - EAI allows information & processes to alo. z, (I, J, K):arc center of circular tool motion) F: feed rate S:spindle speed T: tool ID M: miscellaneous coms.
be shared with other enterprise applications & includes technologies that enable business processes & data to Modal commnds: Commands effects until changed Non-modal commnds: one-off commands
communicate System administration - Administrator sets up operational parameters of PDM system & monitors its G00: air cutting G01: linear motion G02: Circular motion G03: Circular motion/counter clockwise G04: Pause
performance. Administrative functions include access & change permissions, authorizations, approval procedures, Tool radius problems G41: Compensation left G42: Compensation right G40: Cancel compensation
data back-up and security, & data archive. Tool length compensation G43: length compensation in + direction G44: in negative d. G49: offset cancelled
Benefits and drawbacks:- The information needed throughout a products life can be managed by a PDM system, offset = length difference in current and standard tool
making correct data accessible to all people and systems that have a need to use them. Implementing PDM-systems Reference Points: G28: return to reference point Via intermediate point if coordinates are supplied.
can benefit entire business design and engineering, production operations, purchasing, market and sale. While this G29: return from reference point Via intermediate point if coordinates are supplied.
work focus on product design and engineering, only benefits regarding this domain will be considered. Using PDM M codes M02: End M03: Spindle CW M04: spindle CCW M05: Spindle off M06: Tool change M07: coolant
designers and engineers can obtain comprehensive information either via traditionally part classification route or by (spray mist ) M08 coolant (flood) M09 turns off coolant.
interacting with graphical representation of the product structure to find key data. Another benefit is that PDM
workflows accelerate the review and approval of change packages, resource allocation and monitoring, new design,
design alternatives exploration and process capability evaluation. By monitoring parts and documents status level,
PDM facilitates rapid change early in the design cycle, but ensures security and control when design stabilizes.
Implementing PDM allows smooth data flow between design and other involved departments.

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM):- An integrated, info-driven approach to all aspects of products life, frm its
dsign through manufcture, deploymnt, & maintenance culminatin in products removal frm service & final disposal. Clearance : Z-value at or above which tool may move at rapid rate with no danger of colliding with the workpiece.
[Centralized DB] {Item Management, Product Structure, Security, Engineering Changes, Task Management} Level: The Z-value below which cutting is liable to start (moving downwards). Top-most point of the shapes.
{Item Management}( CAD, CAE, Tooling Design) Item could be: CAD doc, Text doc, Design spreadsheet, program, Retract: produce a 'secondary' clearance value Depth: added to Level to produce the level at which cutting is to stop
Process Plan, SOP, Customer complaint, Service records Product Structure:- product architecture plannin - spec(BOM
tree,hierarchical model)-Instantiation(parametric) frm templats Security:-Authority Views-Access cntrol
Engineering Changes:-ECR -Design modifications -Confirmation/approval cycle - ECN - Info storage/retrieval Task
Management :- -team spec -task assignments -milestones setting, management -critical path -deadline notifications
Potential Benefits of PLM:- Reduced Time-to-Market, Improved Design Productivity, Improved Design & Manufac.
Accuracy, Data Integrity Safeguarded, Better Project Planning, Better Management of Engineering Change
Industry adaptations: Hewlett-Packard Co. uses Windchill from PTC: -- achieved 80% improvement in design &
process reuse - They reduced time-to-market, product cost, and warranty cost.
Perspectives on adaptation of PLM MARKETING - firmware upgrades on digital cameras, mp3 players; company
captures market by early release & later upgrades functionality PRODUCT STRATEGY- Mass customization & modular
product design companies need efficient product architectures to allow part/process reuse over generations GREEN
- Companies responsible for recycling of sold products e.g. printer toner cartridges, aluminium cans, plastic/glass
bottle SERVICE:- companies with long-life products, that need continued repair, service etc.e.g. automobiles. 1. spare