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Introduction

3-1 Measures of Central Tendency


3-2 Measures of Variation
DATA 3-3 Measures of Position
3-4 Exploratory Data Analysis
DESCRIPTION

Summarize data using the measures of Identify the position of a data value in a
central tendency, such as the mean, data set, using various measures of
median, mode, and midrange. position, such as percentiles, deciles, and
quartiles.
Describe data using the measures of
variation, such as the range, variance, Use the techniques of exploratory data
standard deviation. analysis, including stem and leaf plots,
box plots and five-number summaries, to
discover various aspects of data.

In conducting surveys or researches, data In statistical study, the following two (2)
can be collected from population in order terms are often used by statisticians:
to obtain accurate measurements.
1) ____________: A characteristic or
However, in real life, sometimes the measure obtained using all the data
population is too large. Hence, instead of values from a specific population.
using the whole population, statisticians
often use samples taken from 2) ____________: A characteristic or
populations. measure obtained using the data values
from a sample.

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In this Data Description, three (3) types In this central tendency measurements,
of distributions are discussed: four (4) measurements are being studied:

1) Ungrouped Distribution A. Mean


2) Ungrouped Frequency Distribution B. Median
3) Grouped Frequency Distribution C. Mode
D. Midrange

A. MEAN: MEAN for Ungrouped Distribution:


Known as the SAMPLE case:
_____________________, it is found
by adding all the values of the data and X
X1 X 2 X 3 X n

X
n n
dividing by the total number of values.

where:
The mean is the sum of the data values,
- X : Sample mean (X-bar)
divided by the total number of value.
- n : Sample size
- : Summation (Capital letter of sigma)

POPULATION case: Example 1: The following data represent


the annual chocolate sales (in millions of
X1 X 2 X 3 X N X RM) for a sample of seven states in

N N Malaysia. Calculate the mean.

where:
2.0 4.9 6.5 2.1 5.1 3.2 16.6
- : Population mean (mu)
- N : Population size
- : Summation (Capital letter of sigma)

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Solution: Example 2: Seven motorists stopped at the


petrol station bought the following amount
Mean, of petrol. Assume this is the sample of
petrol bought, calculate the mean.

35 40 30 50 25 45 20

Solution: Example 3: A small company A consists of


the owner, the manager, the salesperson,
Mean,
and two technicians. Their salaries are
listed as RM 50000, RM 20000, RM 12000, RM
9000, and RM 9000, respectively. Assume
this is a population, find the mean.

Solution: Exercise 1: The weight of fishes sold at a


Mean, stall were recorded as follows. Find the
mean for this sample.
648 g, 240 g, 0.28 kg, 529 g, 124 g

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Exercise2: The number of fishes from Exercise 3: The weight of 10 men were
seven ponds were recorded as follows. Find recorded in kg as follows. Find the mean for
the mean for this population. this population.

23 56 45 36 28 33 37 66.4, 99.23, 90.6, 84.7, 53.6, 71.58, 85.91,


96.9, 52.52, 74.1

MEAN for Ungrouped Frequency POPULATION case:


Distribution:


SAMPLE case: f X

X
f X N
n
where
where - f : Frequency of the corresponding X
- f : Frequency of the corresponding X - N f : Total frequencies
- n f : Total frequencies

Example 4: The scores of 25 sample


students on a 4-point quiz are given in the
table. Find the mean score.

Score, X Frequency, f
0 2
1 4
2 12
3 4
4 3

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Exercise 4: The number of balls in 17 bags


Mean, were counted. Based on the distribution
below, find the mean if this is a population.

Number of balls Frequency, f


5 5
6 4
7 2
8 6

Solution: Exercise 5: Imagine that your school


baseball team scores the following number
of home runs in 10 games:

4, 5, 8, 5, 7, 8, 9, 8, 8, 7

What would the mean be?

Solution: Solution:

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MEAN for Grouped Frequency POPULATION case:


Distribution:


SAMPLE case: f Xm UCL LCL
Xm
X
f X m
Xm
UCL LCL N 2
n 2
where where
- X m : Class midpoint - X m : Class midpoint
- f : Frequency of the corresponding X - f : Frequency of the corresponding X
- n f : Total frequencies - N f : Total frequencies

Example 5: The length of 40 sample bean


pods were showed in the distribution below.
Find the mean.
Length (cm) Frequency, f
4-8 2
9 13 4
14 18 7
19 23 14
24 28 8
29 33 5

Exercise 6: The time (in minutes) that


Mean, needed by a population group of students to
complete a game are shown in the
distribution below. Find the mean time.

time (in minutes) Frequency, f


13 2
46 4
79 8
10 12 5
13 - 15 1

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Mean,

B. MEDIAN: Example 6: The ages of seven preschool


MEDIAN for Ungrouped Distribution: children are 1, 3, 4, 2, 3, 5, and 1. Find the
median.
When a data set is arranged in order, it is
known as ______________. Step 1: Arrange the data in order.
Step 2: Select the middle point.
The median is the midpoint of the data
array, denoted by the symbol MD. o Data Array: 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5
o The median age, MD = 3

In the previous example, there is an odd Example 7: Six customers purchased these
number of values in the data set. numbers of magazines: 1, 7, 3, 2, 3, 4. Find
the median.
In this case it is easy to select the middle
number in the data array. Step 1: Arrange the data in order.
Step 2: Select the middle point.
When there is an even number of values in
the data set, the median is obtained by o Data Array: 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 7
taking the average of the two middle o The median, MD 3 3 3
numbers. 2

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Ifvalue of L is decimals, round off to NEXT


integer to get the Median data.

Ifthe value computed is integer, take the


data of this location add with its next data
and divide by 2 to get the Median data.

Exercise 7: Determine the median for each MEDIAN for Ungrouped Frequency
of the following data sets. Distribution:

a) 2 3 1 1 6 9 8 Consider the ungrouped frequency


distribution below:
Number of Books sold Frequency
b) 32 25 40 28 30 36 36 2 2
45 31 42
4 3
6 1
8 3

If the data in the distribution is expressed in Alternatively, one can examining the
terms of ungrouped distribution, the cumulative frequency of the Ungrouped
following data array is obtained: Frequency Distribution to locate the middle
place. Using the same example:
2 2 4 4 4 6 8 8 8 Number of Frequency Cumulative
Books sold Frequency
2 2 2
The MD = 4 since it is the middle point of 4 3 5
the distribution. 6 1 6
8 3 9

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Example 8: A certain appliance recorded


the number of VCRs sold per week over a
year period.
Number of Sets Sold Frequency
1 4
2 9
3 6
4 2
5 3

MEDIAN for Grouped Frequency


Distribution:

Compared to the other two (2) types of


distribution, calculating Median for Grouped
Frequency Distribution requires a formula,
since data are now in form of classes.

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The Median formula for Grouped Frequency where:


Distribution is as follows: - Lm : Lower class boundary of median class
- cf : Cumulative frequency before median
class
n - f : Frequency of median class
cf
- W : Class width
MD Lm W
2
f - n : Sample size

Example 9: Find the median for the


following Grouped Frequency Distribution.

X Frequency, f
16 20 3
21 25 5
26 30 4
31 35 3
36 40 2

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After finding the median class, simply apply Exercise 8: Find the median for the
the formula and calculate the median: following distribution.

n X Frequency, f
cf
MD Lm W
2 5 14 5
f 15 24 7
17 25 34 19
8
MD 25.5
35 44 17
5 26.125
2
4 45 54 7

C. MODE: A data set that contains one data with


MODE for Ungrouped Distribution: highest frequency is said to be Unimodal.

The mode is defined to be the value that If the data set has two data with equal
occurs most often in a data set. highest frequencies, the data set is said to
be Bimodal.
A data set can have more than one mode.
A data set has no mode if all values occur
with equal frequency.

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Example 10: Find the mode for the number Example 11: Six strains of bacteria were
of children per family for 10 selected tested to see how long they could remain
families. alive outside their normal environment. The
time, in minutes, is given below. Find the
Data set: 2, 3, 5, 2, 2, 1, 6, 4, 7, 3. mode.
Ordered set: 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
Data set: 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10
Hence, Mode = 2.
Hence, there is no mode, since all data
occurs equally at frequency of 1.

Example 12: Eleven different automobiles MODE for Ungrouped Frequency


were tested at a speed for 15mph for Distribution:
stopping distance. The distance, in feet, is
given below. Find the mode. The mode for Ungrouped Frequency
Distribution is found by searching the data
Dataset: 15, 18, 18, 18, 20, 22, 24, 24, 24, that has the highest frequency.
26, 26.

Hence, Mode = 18 and 24

Example 13: Find the mode by using the MODE for Grouped Frequency
following data. Distribution:
X Frequency, f
15 3 The mode of Grouped Frequency
20 5 Distribution is known as MODAL CLASS.
25 8
30 3 TheMODAL CLASS is the class with highest
35 2 frequency.
Hence, Mode = 25.

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Mode for Grouped Data L is the lower class boundaries of the


Class with the highest frequency and the mode modal class
itself, which we calculate from the modal class f1 is the frequency of the modal class
using the formula below.
f0 is the frequency of the class before the
where
modal class in the frequency table
f2 is the frequency of the class after the
modal class in the frequency table
h is the class width of the modal class

Example 14: Find the mode by using the Solution:


following data.
X Frequency, f
5 14 5
15 24 7
25 34 19
35 44 17
45 54 7

Hence, Modal Class = 25 34.

Exercise 9: Find the mode for the following Solution:


distribution.
Number of Frequency
games
1-5 2
6 - 10 7
11 - 15 8
16 - 20 3
Hence, Modal Class = 11 - 15.

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Example 15: In year 2011, the city of Kuala


Lumpur, reported the following number of
waterline breaks per month in year 2010.
The data is as follows: 2, 3, 6, 8, 4, 1. Find
the midrange.

Midrange MD

Note: Extreme value influence the midrange


and thus may not be a typical description of
the middle

Example 16: The number of waterline breaks DISTRIBUTION SHAPES:


per month is as follows: 2, 3, 6, 16, 4, 1. Frequency distribution can assume many
Find the midrange. shapes.
Midrange MD
However, there are three (3) shapes that
Note: 8.5 is not typical type of the average are most important:
monthly number of breaks, since an 1) Positively skewed
excessive high number of breaks, 16 occurred 2) Symmetrical
in one month.
3) Negatively skewed

1) POSITIVELY SKEWED: 2) SYMMETRICALLY SKEWED:


Y Y

X X
Mode = Median = Mean
Mode < Median
Mean< >Mean
Median > Mode

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3) NEGATIVELY SKEWED: Measures of variation deal with the


Y variation and dispersion of the data.

There are four (4) measurements being


studied in this sub-topic:
A. Range
B. Variance
C. Standard Deviation
X
D. Coefficient of Variation
Mean < Median < Mode

B. VARIANCE:
Defined to be the average of squares of
the distance each value is from the mean.

C. STANDARD DEVIATION:
Defined to be the square root of the
variance.

Variance and Standard Deviation for SAMPLE case:


Ungrouped Distribution:
X X X X
2
POPULATION case:
2

s2
and s
X
X
2 2
n 1 n 1
2

N and N
where: where:
- :Population mean (mu) - X : Sample mean
- :Population variance (lowercase sigma) - s : Sample variance
- N :Population size - n : Sample size

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Example 1: Consider the following data to Solution:


constitute the population: 10, 60, 50, 30,
40, 20. Find the mean, variance and Mean,
standard deviation.

Example 2: For the following sample, Solution:


calculate the mean, variance, and standard
deviation. Mean,

35 45 30 35 40 25

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Exercise1: A class of six (6) children sat a Solution:


test; the resulting mark scored out of 10,
were as follows: Mean,

4 5 6 8 4 9

Calculate the mean, variance, and standard


deviation of this population.

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Exercise2: Find the mean, variance, and Solution:


standard deviation for the amount of
Malaysian auto sales for sample of 6 years Mean,
shown. The data are in millions of RM.

11.2 11.9 12.0 12.8 13.4 14.3

Varianceand Standard Deviation for SAMPLE case:


Ungrouped Frequency Distribution:
f X X f X X
2 2

s2 and s
POPULATION case: n 1 n 1

f X
2 f X
2 2
and
N N

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Example: The scores of 25 sample students Solution:


on a 4-point quiz are given in the table.
Find the mean, variance, and standard Mean,
deviation..

Score, X Frequency, f
0 2
1 4
2 12
3 4
4 3

Varianceand Standard Deviation for SAMPLE case:


Grouped Frequency Distribution:
f X X and f X X
2 2

s2 m
s m

POPULATION case: n 1 n 1

f X m
2 f X
2 2
and m

N N
Note:the midpoint X m is used in Grouped
Frequency Distribution.

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Example: Find the mean, variance, and Solution:


standard deviation for the population of
the following grouped frequency Mean,
distribution.

X Frequency, f
1 10 4
11 20 8
21 30 5

Exercise 1: The scores in a statistics test


for 60 candidates are shown in the table.
Find the mean, variance, and standard
deviation for this population.

Score Frequency
0 19 8
20 39 13
40 59 24
60 79 11
80 99 4

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Exercise 2: The following table shows the


number of cars passed by UM hospital in a
random sample of days. Compute the
sample mean, variance, and standard
deviation.
Number of cars Frequency
111 120 2
121 130 4
131 140 15
141 150 10
151 - 160 7

D. COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION:
If two samples have the same units of
measure, the variance and standard
deviation can be compared directly.

However, if the two samples are of


different variables, we cannot compare
its variance and standard deviation
directly, since different variables have
different qualities in term of its
measurements.

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To compare the two different units / variable, Example: The sample mean of the number
statisticians use the coefficient of variation of sales of cars over a 3-month period is 87,
The coefficient of variation (CV) refers to a and the standard deviation is 5. The sample
statistical measure of the distribution of data
mean of the commission is RM 5225, with
points in a data series around the mean.
the standard deviation of RM 773. Compare
Coefficient of Variation is defined as the standard
deviation divided by the mean. The result is
these two variations.
expressed as a percentage.

Sample Population
s
CVar 100% CVar 100%
X

Solution: Exercise: The mean for the number of


pages of a sample of womens fitness
magazines is 132, with a variance of 23. The
mean for the number of advertisements of
a sample of womens fitness magazines is
182, with a variance of 62. Compare the
variations.

Solution: CHEBYSHEVS THEOREM:


The variance and standard deviation can be
used to determine the dispersion of
data/variable, that is, the larger the
variance or standard deviation, the more
the data disperse from its mean.

Tospecify the proportion of the dispersion


in terms of standard deviation,
Chebyshevs Theorem is developed.

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CHEBYSHEVS THEOREM: Examples:


The proportion of values from data set will 75% of the data values will lie within 2
fall within k standard deviation of the mean standard deviation from the mean.
will be at least:
1 88.89%of the data values will lie within 3
1 2 , k 1
k standard deviation from the mean.
Note: k NOT necessarily an integer.
The range of the data disperse from mean is 55.56%of the data values will lie within 1.5
given by: k for population standard deviation from the mean.
X ks for sample.

Exercise: The average score on a sample of solution


a special test of knowledge of wood
refinishing has a mean of 53 and standard
deviation of 6. Using Chebyshevs Theorem,
find the range of scores in which at least
84% of the scores lie within the mean.

solution Exercise: Suppose a distribution for a


X ks population has mean = 17.4 and standard
Therefore,
deviation = 3.2. What does Chebyshevs
Theorem tell us about the probability a
randomly selected value is between 12.6
and 22.2?

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solution solution

The values x = 12.6 and x = 22.2 correspond to z


= 1.5 and z = 1.5. So the interval can be written
as 1.5 to + 1.5, or as 1.5.
Chebyshevs Theorem now tells us that the
probability is at least

THE EMPIRICAL (NORMAL) RULE: THE EMPIRICAL (NORMAL) RULE:


Chebyshevs Theorem is applicable to any
distribution regardless of its shape. 1) Approximately 68% of the data will fall
within 1 standard deviation of the mean.
However, if the distribution is bell-shaped
(Normal), the Empirical Rule is use. 2) Approximately 95% of the data will fall
within 2 standard deviation of the mean.

3) Approximately99.7% of the data will fall


within 3 standard deviation of the mean.

Exercise: The scores on a national


-- 95% achievement exam have a mean of 480 and
standard deviation of 90. If the scores are
normally distributed. Find the range of
scores that approximately 68%, 95% and
99.7% of the data values fall with the mean.

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solution Measures of position deal with the position


and location of the data.

There are four (4) measurements being


studied in measures of position:
A. Z Score (Standard Scores)
B. Percentiles
C. Deciles
D. Quartiles

A. Z SCORES (STANDARD SCORES): Ifthe value of z score is a positive value, it


Z score or standard score describes how shows that the data is above the mean.
many standard deviation a data value is
above or below the mean. Ifthe value of z score is negative value, it
Obtained by subtracting the mean from shows that the data is below the mean.
the value and dividing the result by the
standard deviation.
X X X
z z
s
POPULATION SAMPLE

Example 1: A student scored 65 in his Solution:


Calculus test that had a mean of 50 and
standard deviation of 10. He scored 30 in
his Biology test with a mean of 25 and
standard deviation of 5. Compare his
relative position of the two tests.

Since Calculus has higher z score compared


to Biology, hence the relative position in his
Calculus test is higher than his Biology test

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Exercise: Find the z score for each test, Solution:


and compare the relative position.

Test A X 38 X 40 s 5
Test B X 94 X 100 s 10

The score for test A is relatively higher than


the score for test B.

Example: A teacher gives a 20-point test to


10 students. The scores are shown below.
Find the percentile rank of the score of 12.

P1 P2 P3 P4 P98 P99 P100 18 15 12 6 8


2 3 5 20 10

To find a data value corresponding to a


given percentile:

Step 1: Arrange data in the order.


Step 2: Compute the position c,
n p
c
100
n : total number of values
p : percentile

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Step 3: Example: Find the value of the 25th


- If c is not a whole number, round up to percentile for the following data set:
the next whole number and find the
corresponding value. 18 12 3 5 15
8 10 2 6 20
- If c is a whole number, find the median of
the value of c and c+1

Solution Example: Find the value of the 60th


percentile for the following data set:

18 12 3 5 15
8 10 2 6 20

Solution 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 20

6th value 7th value

The value halfway between 10 and 12 is 11. Find it


by adding the two values and
dividing by 2.
10 12
11
2

Hence, 11 corresponds to the 60th percentile.


Anyone scoring 11 would have done better than 60%
of the class.

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C. DECILES: D. QUARTILES:
Divides the data set into 10 equal groups. Divides the data set into 4 groups:
D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
Relationships between Percentiles and Relationships between Percentiles and
Deciles: Quartiles:
1) D1 corresponding to P10 1) Q1 corresponding to P25
2) D3 corresponding to P30 2) Q2 corresponding to P50
3) D6 corresponding to P60 3) Q3 corresponding to P75
4) D10 corresponding to P100 4) Q4 corresponding to P100

The formula of finding the Quartiles: If the location exist decimal places, the
digit before decimal point is the location of
1st Quartile (Q1): the Quartile:
- Location of 1st Quartile = n 1
1
4 - e.g. 20 21 34 54 70 89
3rd Quartile (Q3):
Location of 1st Quartile
- Location of 3rd Quartile =
3
n 1
4

1
n 1 1 7 7 1.75
4 4 4
Where n = total number of data

Example: The remaining decimals, is used to


20 21 34 54 70 89 calculate the exact 1st Quartile, that is:

From the calculation: 1st Quartile = 20 + (0.75)(21 20)


1.75 = 20 + (0.75)(1)
= 20.75
the location of 1st Quartile, that is data
value = 20 * The difference between the data of 1st
quartile location and its next data

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Exercise: Find Q1, Q2 and Q3 for the Solution


following sample data set.

15 13 6 5 12
50 22 18

Solution Solution

OUTLIERS: To determine whether a set of data


An outlier is an extremely high or an contains outlier, the following procedure is
extremely low data value when compared helpful:
with the rest of the data values.
Step 1: Arrange the data set in order.
The Interquartile Range:
Step 2: Compute Q1 and Q3.
IQR Q3 Q1
Step 3: Find the Interquartile Range (IQR).

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Step4: Compute the Upper Boundary (UB) Example: Given the following data set,
and Lower Boundary (LB). determine any outlier.

LB Q1 1.5IQR 5 6 12 13 15
UB Q3 1.5IQR 18 22 50

Observe all the data value, any data lies


outside the boundaries are considered as
OUTLIER(S).

Solution Solution

Solution Solution

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Exercises: Verify and determine any


outliers if exists for the following data set.

1) 17, 3, 16, 21, 22, 20, 18, 19


2) 16, 17, 20, 24, 54, 31, 32, 14, 18, 19
3) 84, 85, 88, 100, 97, 72, 86
4) 200, 350, 327, 321, 343

A. STEM AND LEAF PLOT: Example of Stem and Leaf Plot:


Data plot that uses part of the data value Stem Leaves
as the stem and part of the data value as 4 2 4 5 6
the leaf to form groups or classes. 5 1 1 1 4 6 7

Leaf Stem Leading Digit


Stem Leaf Trailing Digit

Example: At an outpatient testing center, Solution:


the number of cardiograms performed each Arrange the data set in order:
day for 20 days is recorded. Construct a 02, 13, 14, 20, 23, 25, 31, 32, 32, 32, 32,
stem and leaf plot for the data. 33, 36, 43, 44, 44, 45, 51, 52, 57.

25 31 20 32 13 Separate the data according to the first


14 43 02 57 23 digit:
36 32 33 32 44 02 13, 14 20, 23, 25
32 52 44 51 45 31, 32, 32, 32, 32, 33, 36
43, 44, 44, 45 51, 52, 57

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The first digit be the leading digit, and the Exercise: The IQ scores for 24 male and
second digit of the data be the trailing female students are shown as below.
digit. Construct a stem and leaf plot.
Stem Leaves
Male scores:
106 121 113 128 110 112 106 110 131 103 105 117

Female score:
121 108 111 103 100 115 118 116 117 125 131 112

B. BOX PLOT: This plot involves the Five-Number


When a data set contains only a small Summary of the data set:
number of values, Box Plot is used to
graphically represent the data set. 1) Minimum Value
2) 1st Quartile
3) Median
4) 3rd Quartile
5) Maximum Value

Example of Box Plot: Information Obtained from the Box Plot:


1) If the median is near the center of the box,
the distribution of approximately
Minimum Maximum
value
Q1 Q2 Q3
value symmetric.
2) If the median falls to the left of the center
of the box, the distribution is positively
skewed.
3) If the median falls to the right of the
center of the box, the distribution is
negatively skewed.

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Example: Using the example from slide Solution:


138, plot a box plot.
The Five-Number Summary:
5, 6, 12, 13, 15, 18, 22, 50 1) Minimum Value = 5
2) 1st Quartile = 7.5
3) Median = 14
4) 3rd Quartile = 21
5) Maximum Value = 22

After obtaining the Five-Number Summary, Exercise 1: 21 girls estimated the length of
box plot can be plotted using Graph Paper. a line, in mm. The results were as follows.
Draw a box plot and identify any outliers if
LB UB
Q1 Q2 Q3 exists. Hence, comment on the shape of the
min max outlier distribution of length.

51 45 31 43 97 16 18
23 34 35 35 85 62 20
-13.25 5 7.5 14 21 22 41.25 50 22 51 57 49 22 18 27

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Solution: After obtaining the Five-Number Summary,


box plot can be plotted using Graph Paper.
The Five-Number Summary: LB UB
1) Minimum Value = 16 Q1 Q2 Q3
min max outlier
2) 1st Quartile = 22
3) Median = 35
4) 3rd Quartile = 51
5) Maximum Value = 85 -21.5 16 22 35 51 85 94.5 97

Exercise 2: The following data shows the


number of customers visited to a
departmental store on eleven working days.
Construct a boxplot for these data and
identify any outliers. Hence, give comment
to the distribution.

20 32 36 37 38 39
40 41 42 45 62

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Solution:

The Five-Number Summary:


1) Minimum Value = 32
2) 1st Quartile = 36
3) Median = 39
4) 3rd Quartile = 42
5) Maximum Value = 45

After obtaining the Five-Number Summary,


box plot can be plotted using Graph Paper.
LB UB
Q1 Q2 Q3
outlier min max outlier

20 27 32 36 39 42 45 51 62

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