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Introduction

3-2 Measures of Variation

DATA 3-3 Measures of Position

3-4 Exploratory Data Analysis

DESCRIPTION

Summarize data using the measures of Identify the position of a data value in a

central tendency, such as the mean, data set, using various measures of

median, mode, and midrange. position, such as percentiles, deciles, and

quartiles.

Describe data using the measures of

variation, such as the range, variance, Use the techniques of exploratory data

standard deviation. analysis, including stem and leaf plots,

box plots and five-number summaries, to

discover various aspects of data.

In conducting surveys or researches, data In statistical study, the following two (2)

can be collected from population in order terms are often used by statisticians:

to obtain accurate measurements.

1) ____________: A characteristic or

However, in real life, sometimes the measure obtained using all the data

population is too large. Hence, instead of values from a specific population.

using the whole population, statisticians

often use samples taken from 2) ____________: A characteristic or

populations. measure obtained using the data values

from a sample.

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In this Data Description, three (3) types In this central tendency measurements,

of distributions are discussed: four (4) measurements are being studied:

2) Ungrouped Frequency Distribution B. Median

3) Grouped Frequency Distribution C. Mode

D. Midrange

Known as the SAMPLE case:

_____________________, it is found

by adding all the values of the data and X

X1 X 2 X 3 X n

X

n n

dividing by the total number of values.

where:

The mean is the sum of the data values,

- X : Sample mean (X-bar)

divided by the total number of value.

- n : Sample size

- : Summation (Capital letter of sigma)

the annual chocolate sales (in millions of

X1 X 2 X 3 X N X RM) for a sample of seven states in

N N Malaysia. Calculate the mean.

where:

2.0 4.9 6.5 2.1 5.1 3.2 16.6

- : Population mean (mu)

- N : Population size

- : Summation (Capital letter of sigma)

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petrol station bought the following amount

Mean, of petrol. Assume this is the sample of

petrol bought, calculate the mean.

35 40 30 50 25 45 20

the owner, the manager, the salesperson,

Mean,

and two technicians. Their salaries are

listed as RM 50000, RM 20000, RM 12000, RM

9000, and RM 9000, respectively. Assume

this is a population, find the mean.

Mean, stall were recorded as follows. Find the

mean for this sample.

648 g, 240 g, 0.28 kg, 529 g, 124 g

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Exercise2: The number of fishes from Exercise 3: The weight of 10 men were

seven ponds were recorded as follows. Find recorded in kg as follows. Find the mean for

the mean for this population. this population.

96.9, 52.52, 74.1

Distribution:

SAMPLE case: f X

X

f X N

n

where

where - f : Frequency of the corresponding X

- f : Frequency of the corresponding X - N f : Total frequencies

- n f : Total frequencies

students on a 4-point quiz are given in the

table. Find the mean score.

Score, X Frequency, f

0 2

1 4

2 12

3 4

4 3

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Mean, were counted. Based on the distribution

below, find the mean if this is a population.

5 5

6 4

7 2

8 6

baseball team scores the following number

of home runs in 10 games:

4, 5, 8, 5, 7, 8, 9, 8, 8, 7

Solution: Solution:

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Distribution:

SAMPLE case: f Xm UCL LCL

Xm

X

f X m

Xm

UCL LCL N 2

n 2

where where

- X m : Class midpoint - X m : Class midpoint

- f : Frequency of the corresponding X - f : Frequency of the corresponding X

- n f : Total frequencies - N f : Total frequencies

pods were showed in the distribution below.

Find the mean.

Length (cm) Frequency, f

4-8 2

9 13 4

14 18 7

19 23 14

24 28 8

29 33 5

Mean, needed by a population group of students to

complete a game are shown in the

distribution below. Find the mean time.

13 2

46 4

79 8

10 12 5

13 - 15 1

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Mean,

MEDIAN for Ungrouped Distribution: children are 1, 3, 4, 2, 3, 5, and 1. Find the

median.

When a data set is arranged in order, it is

known as ______________. Step 1: Arrange the data in order.

Step 2: Select the middle point.

The median is the midpoint of the data

array, denoted by the symbol MD. o Data Array: 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5

o The median age, MD = 3

In the previous example, there is an odd Example 7: Six customers purchased these

number of values in the data set. numbers of magazines: 1, 7, 3, 2, 3, 4. Find

the median.

In this case it is easy to select the middle

number in the data array. Step 1: Arrange the data in order.

Step 2: Select the middle point.

When there is an even number of values in

the data set, the median is obtained by o Data Array: 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 7

taking the average of the two middle o The median, MD 3 3 3

numbers. 2

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integer to get the Median data.

data of this location add with its next data

and divide by 2 to get the Median data.

Exercise 7: Determine the median for each MEDIAN for Ungrouped Frequency

of the following data sets. Distribution:

distribution below:

Number of Books sold Frequency

b) 32 25 40 28 30 36 36 2 2

45 31 42

4 3

6 1

8 3

If the data in the distribution is expressed in Alternatively, one can examining the

terms of ungrouped distribution, the cumulative frequency of the Ungrouped

following data array is obtained: Frequency Distribution to locate the middle

place. Using the same example:

2 2 4 4 4 6 8 8 8 Number of Frequency Cumulative

Books sold Frequency

2 2 2

The MD = 4 since it is the middle point of 4 3 5

the distribution. 6 1 6

8 3 9

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the number of VCRs sold per week over a

year period.

Number of Sets Sold Frequency

1 4

2 9

3 6

4 2

5 3

Distribution:

distribution, calculating Median for Grouped

Frequency Distribution requires a formula,

since data are now in form of classes.

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Distribution is as follows: - Lm : Lower class boundary of median class

- cf : Cumulative frequency before median

class

n - f : Frequency of median class

cf

- W : Class width

MD Lm W

2

f - n : Sample size

following Grouped Frequency Distribution.

X Frequency, f

16 20 3

21 25 5

26 30 4

31 35 3

36 40 2

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After finding the median class, simply apply Exercise 8: Find the median for the

the formula and calculate the median: following distribution.

n X Frequency, f

cf

MD Lm W

2 5 14 5

f 15 24 7

17 25 34 19

8

MD 25.5

35 44 17

5 26.125

2

4 45 54 7

MODE for Ungrouped Distribution: highest frequency is said to be Unimodal.

The mode is defined to be the value that If the data set has two data with equal

occurs most often in a data set. highest frequencies, the data set is said to

be Bimodal.

A data set can have more than one mode.

A data set has no mode if all values occur

with equal frequency.

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Example 10: Find the mode for the number Example 11: Six strains of bacteria were

of children per family for 10 selected tested to see how long they could remain

families. alive outside their normal environment. The

time, in minutes, is given below. Find the

Data set: 2, 3, 5, 2, 2, 1, 6, 4, 7, 3. mode.

Ordered set: 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.

Data set: 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10

Hence, Mode = 2.

Hence, there is no mode, since all data

occurs equally at frequency of 1.

were tested at a speed for 15mph for Distribution:

stopping distance. The distance, in feet, is

given below. Find the mode. The mode for Ungrouped Frequency

Distribution is found by searching the data

Dataset: 15, 18, 18, 18, 20, 22, 24, 24, 24, that has the highest frequency.

26, 26.

Example 13: Find the mode by using the MODE for Grouped Frequency

following data. Distribution:

X Frequency, f

15 3 The mode of Grouped Frequency

20 5 Distribution is known as MODAL CLASS.

25 8

30 3 TheMODAL CLASS is the class with highest

35 2 frequency.

Hence, Mode = 25.

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Class with the highest frequency and the mode modal class

itself, which we calculate from the modal class f1 is the frequency of the modal class

using the formula below.

f0 is the frequency of the class before the

where

modal class in the frequency table

f2 is the frequency of the class after the

modal class in the frequency table

h is the class width of the modal class

following data.

X Frequency, f

5 14 5

15 24 7

25 34 19

35 44 17

45 54 7

distribution.

Number of Frequency

games

1-5 2

6 - 10 7

11 - 15 8

16 - 20 3

Hence, Modal Class = 11 - 15.

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Lumpur, reported the following number of

waterline breaks per month in year 2010.

The data is as follows: 2, 3, 6, 8, 4, 1. Find

the midrange.

Midrange MD

and thus may not be a typical description of

the middle

per month is as follows: 2, 3, 6, 16, 4, 1. Frequency distribution can assume many

Find the midrange. shapes.

Midrange MD

However, there are three (3) shapes that

Note: 8.5 is not typical type of the average are most important:

monthly number of breaks, since an 1) Positively skewed

excessive high number of breaks, 16 occurred 2) Symmetrical

in one month.

3) Negatively skewed

Y Y

X X

Mode = Median = Mean

Mode < Median

Mean< >Mean

Median > Mode

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Y variation and dispersion of the data.

studied in this sub-topic:

A. Range

B. Variance

C. Standard Deviation

X

D. Coefficient of Variation

Mean < Median < Mode

B. VARIANCE:

Defined to be the average of squares of

the distance each value is from the mean.

C. STANDARD DEVIATION:

Defined to be the square root of the

variance.

Ungrouped Distribution:

X X X X

2

POPULATION case:

2

s2

and s

X

X

2 2

n 1 n 1

2

N and N

where: where:

- :Population mean (mu) - X : Sample mean

- :Population variance (lowercase sigma) - s : Sample variance

- N :Population size - n : Sample size

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constitute the population: 10, 60, 50, 30,

40, 20. Find the mean, variance and Mean,

standard deviation.

calculate the mean, variance, and standard

deviation. Mean,

35 45 30 35 40 25

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test; the resulting mark scored out of 10,

were as follows: Mean,

4 5 6 8 4 9

deviation of this population.

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standard deviation for the amount of

Malaysian auto sales for sample of 6 years Mean,

shown. The data are in millions of RM.

Ungrouped Frequency Distribution:

f X X f X X

2 2

s2 and s

POPULATION case: n 1 n 1

f X

2 f X

2 2

and

N N

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on a 4-point quiz are given in the table.

Find the mean, variance, and standard Mean,

deviation..

Score, X Frequency, f

0 2

1 4

2 12

3 4

4 3

Grouped Frequency Distribution:

f X X and f X X

2 2

s2 m

s m

POPULATION case: n 1 n 1

f X m

2 f X

2 2

and m

N N

Note:the midpoint X m is used in Grouped

Frequency Distribution.

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standard deviation for the population of

the following grouped frequency Mean,

distribution.

X Frequency, f

1 10 4

11 20 8

21 30 5

for 60 candidates are shown in the table.

Find the mean, variance, and standard

deviation for this population.

Score Frequency

0 19 8

20 39 13

40 59 24

60 79 11

80 99 4

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number of cars passed by UM hospital in a

random sample of days. Compute the

sample mean, variance, and standard

deviation.

Number of cars Frequency

111 120 2

121 130 4

131 140 15

141 150 10

151 - 160 7

D. COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION:

If two samples have the same units of

measure, the variance and standard

deviation can be compared directly.

different variables, we cannot compare

its variance and standard deviation

directly, since different variables have

different qualities in term of its

measurements.

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To compare the two different units / variable, Example: The sample mean of the number

statisticians use the coefficient of variation of sales of cars over a 3-month period is 87,

The coefficient of variation (CV) refers to a and the standard deviation is 5. The sample

statistical measure of the distribution of data

mean of the commission is RM 5225, with

points in a data series around the mean.

the standard deviation of RM 773. Compare

Coefficient of Variation is defined as the standard

deviation divided by the mean. The result is

these two variations.

expressed as a percentage.

Sample Population

s

CVar 100% CVar 100%

X

pages of a sample of womens fitness

magazines is 132, with a variance of 23. The

mean for the number of advertisements of

a sample of womens fitness magazines is

182, with a variance of 62. Compare the

variations.

The variance and standard deviation can be

used to determine the dispersion of

data/variable, that is, the larger the

variance or standard deviation, the more

the data disperse from its mean.

in terms of standard deviation,

Chebyshevs Theorem is developed.

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The proportion of values from data set will 75% of the data values will lie within 2

fall within k standard deviation of the mean standard deviation from the mean.

will be at least:

1 88.89%of the data values will lie within 3

1 2 , k 1

k standard deviation from the mean.

Note: k NOT necessarily an integer.

The range of the data disperse from mean is 55.56%of the data values will lie within 1.5

given by: k for population standard deviation from the mean.

X ks for sample.

a special test of knowledge of wood

refinishing has a mean of 53 and standard

deviation of 6. Using Chebyshevs Theorem,

find the range of scores in which at least

84% of the scores lie within the mean.

X ks population has mean = 17.4 and standard

Therefore,

deviation = 3.2. What does Chebyshevs

Theorem tell us about the probability a

randomly selected value is between 12.6

and 22.2?

23

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solution solution

= 1.5 and z = 1.5. So the interval can be written

as 1.5 to + 1.5, or as 1.5.

Chebyshevs Theorem now tells us that the

probability is at least

Chebyshevs Theorem is applicable to any

distribution regardless of its shape. 1) Approximately 68% of the data will fall

within 1 standard deviation of the mean.

However, if the distribution is bell-shaped

(Normal), the Empirical Rule is use. 2) Approximately 95% of the data will fall

within 2 standard deviation of the mean.

within 3 standard deviation of the mean.

-- 95% achievement exam have a mean of 480 and

standard deviation of 90. If the scores are

normally distributed. Find the range of

scores that approximately 68%, 95% and

99.7% of the data values fall with the mean.

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and location of the data.

studied in measures of position:

A. Z Score (Standard Scores)

B. Percentiles

C. Deciles

D. Quartiles

Z score or standard score describes how shows that the data is above the mean.

many standard deviation a data value is

above or below the mean. Ifthe value of z score is negative value, it

Obtained by subtracting the mean from shows that the data is below the mean.

the value and dividing the result by the

standard deviation.

X X X

z z

s

POPULATION SAMPLE

Calculus test that had a mean of 50 and

standard deviation of 10. He scored 30 in

his Biology test with a mean of 25 and

standard deviation of 5. Compare his

relative position of the two tests.

to Biology, hence the relative position in his

Calculus test is higher than his Biology test

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and compare the relative position.

Test A X 38 X 40 s 5

Test B X 94 X 100 s 10

the score for test B.

10 students. The scores are shown below.

Find the percentile rank of the score of 12.

2 3 5 20 10

given percentile:

Step 2: Compute the position c,

n p

c

100

n : total number of values

p : percentile

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- If c is not a whole number, round up to percentile for the following data set:

the next whole number and find the

corresponding value. 18 12 3 5 15

8 10 2 6 20

- If c is a whole number, find the median of

the value of c and c+1

percentile for the following data set:

18 12 3 5 15

8 10 2 6 20

by adding the two values and

dividing by 2.

10 12

11

2

Anyone scoring 11 would have done better than 60%

of the class.

27

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C. DECILES: D. QUARTILES:

Divides the data set into 10 equal groups. Divides the data set into 4 groups:

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

Relationships between Percentiles and Relationships between Percentiles and

Deciles: Quartiles:

1) D1 corresponding to P10 1) Q1 corresponding to P25

2) D3 corresponding to P30 2) Q2 corresponding to P50

3) D6 corresponding to P60 3) Q3 corresponding to P75

4) D10 corresponding to P100 4) Q4 corresponding to P100

The formula of finding the Quartiles: If the location exist decimal places, the

digit before decimal point is the location of

1st Quartile (Q1): the Quartile:

- Location of 1st Quartile = n 1

1

4 - e.g. 20 21 34 54 70 89

3rd Quartile (Q3):

Location of 1st Quartile

- Location of 3rd Quartile =

3

n 1

4

1

n 1 1 7 7 1.75

4 4 4

Where n = total number of data

20 21 34 54 70 89 calculate the exact 1st Quartile, that is:

1.75 = 20 + (0.75)(1)

= 20.75

the location of 1st Quartile, that is data

value = 20 * The difference between the data of 1st

quartile location and its next data

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following sample data set.

15 13 6 5 12

50 22 18

Solution Solution

An outlier is an extremely high or an contains outlier, the following procedure is

extremely low data value when compared helpful:

with the rest of the data values.

Step 1: Arrange the data set in order.

The Interquartile Range:

Step 2: Compute Q1 and Q3.

IQR Q3 Q1

Step 3: Find the Interquartile Range (IQR).

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Step4: Compute the Upper Boundary (UB) Example: Given the following data set,

and Lower Boundary (LB). determine any outlier.

LB Q1 1.5IQR 5 6 12 13 15

UB Q3 1.5IQR 18 22 50

outside the boundaries are considered as

OUTLIER(S).

Solution Solution

Solution Solution

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outliers if exists for the following data set.

2) 16, 17, 20, 24, 54, 31, 32, 14, 18, 19

3) 84, 85, 88, 100, 97, 72, 86

4) 200, 350, 327, 321, 343

Data plot that uses part of the data value Stem Leaves

as the stem and part of the data value as 4 2 4 5 6

the leaf to form groups or classes. 5 1 1 1 4 6 7

Stem Leaf Trailing Digit

the number of cardiograms performed each Arrange the data set in order:

day for 20 days is recorded. Construct a 02, 13, 14, 20, 23, 25, 31, 32, 32, 32, 32,

stem and leaf plot for the data. 33, 36, 43, 44, 44, 45, 51, 52, 57.

14 43 02 57 23 digit:

36 32 33 32 44 02 13, 14 20, 23, 25

32 52 44 51 45 31, 32, 32, 32, 32, 33, 36

43, 44, 44, 45 51, 52, 57

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The first digit be the leading digit, and the Exercise: The IQ scores for 24 male and

second digit of the data be the trailing female students are shown as below.

digit. Construct a stem and leaf plot.

Stem Leaves

Male scores:

106 121 113 128 110 112 106 110 131 103 105 117

Female score:

121 108 111 103 100 115 118 116 117 125 131 112

When a data set contains only a small Summary of the data set:

number of values, Box Plot is used to

graphically represent the data set. 1) Minimum Value

2) 1st Quartile

3) Median

4) 3rd Quartile

5) Maximum Value

1) If the median is near the center of the box,

the distribution of approximately

Minimum Maximum

value

Q1 Q2 Q3

value symmetric.

2) If the median falls to the left of the center

of the box, the distribution is positively

skewed.

3) If the median falls to the right of the

center of the box, the distribution is

negatively skewed.

32

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138, plot a box plot.

The Five-Number Summary:

5, 6, 12, 13, 15, 18, 22, 50 1) Minimum Value = 5

2) 1st Quartile = 7.5

3) Median = 14

4) 3rd Quartile = 21

5) Maximum Value = 22

After obtaining the Five-Number Summary, Exercise 1: 21 girls estimated the length of

box plot can be plotted using Graph Paper. a line, in mm. The results were as follows.

Draw a box plot and identify any outliers if

LB UB

Q1 Q2 Q3 exists. Hence, comment on the shape of the

min max outlier distribution of length.

51 45 31 43 97 16 18

23 34 35 35 85 62 20

-13.25 5 7.5 14 21 22 41.25 50 22 51 57 49 22 18 27

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box plot can be plotted using Graph Paper.

The Five-Number Summary: LB UB

1) Minimum Value = 16 Q1 Q2 Q3

min max outlier

2) 1st Quartile = 22

3) Median = 35

4) 3rd Quartile = 51

5) Maximum Value = 85 -21.5 16 22 35 51 85 94.5 97

number of customers visited to a

departmental store on eleven working days.

Construct a boxplot for these data and

identify any outliers. Hence, give comment

to the distribution.

20 32 36 37 38 39

40 41 42 45 62

34

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Solution:

1) Minimum Value = 32

2) 1st Quartile = 36

3) Median = 39

4) 3rd Quartile = 42

5) Maximum Value = 45

box plot can be plotted using Graph Paper.

LB UB

Q1 Q2 Q3

outlier min max outlier

20 27 32 36 39 42 45 51 62

35

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