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CONTROL ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION

Syed Hassaan Hussain


Lecturer, Mechanical Engg dept, DSU.

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COURSE MATERIALS
Text Book :
Modern Control Engineering, 5th edition,
by Katsuhiko Ogata.

Reference Books:
Linear Control System Analysis and Design,
by John J. DAzzo and C. H. Houpis.

Feedback Control Systems,


by John Van De Vegte.

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B.E (Mechanical, NEDUET) : 2006-2009
Assistant Manager (SUPARCO) : Feb. 2010 - Aug 2011
M.S (Mechatronics, S. Korea) : Sep 2011 - Aug 2013
Research Scientist (S. Korea) : Sep 2013- Aug 2014

Room no. : SF-230


Extension no. : 205
Email Id : h.hussain@dsu.edu.pk

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GRADING

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WHAT IS A CONTROL SYSTEM?
A control System is a device, or set of devices to manage,
command, direct or regulate the behaviour of other
device(s) or system(s).

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WHY CONTROL SYSTEM IS NEEDED

Actuate Sense
Throttle Speed

Compute
Ensure stability
System maintains desired operating point (hold steady speed).
Improve performance
System responds rapidly to changes (accelerate to 6 m/sec).
Guarantee robustness
System performs adequately under certain operation conditions.
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TYPES OF CONTROL SYSTEM
Natural Control System
Universe
Human Body (Why do we sweat?)
Manmade Control System
Vehicles
Aeroplanes
Ovens & furnaces
Air conditioners

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TYPES OF CONTROL SYSTEM
Manual Control Systems
Room Temperature regulation Via Electric Fan
Water Level Control

Automatic Control System


Room Temperature regulation Via A.C
Human Body Temperature Control

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PASSIVE VS ACTIVE SYSTEM
Active System: Active vibration control systems are closed loop
feedback systems consisting of sensors, controllers and actuators.

Passive System: Passive damping generally use viscoelastic materials


for vibration control i.e. spring and damper.

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PASSIVE CONTROL

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TYPES OF CONTROL SYSTEM

Open Loop vs. Closed Loop

Feedback vs. Feedforward

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OPEN LOOP CONTROL
Open-Loop Control Systems utilize a controller or control actuator to
obtain the desired response.
Output has no effect on the control action.
In other words output is neither measured nor fedback.

Input Output
Controller Process

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OPEN LOOP CONTROL

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CLOSED-LOOP / FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEMS
Closed-Loop Control Systems utilizes feedback to compare the actual
output to the desired output response.

Input Output
Comparator Controller Process

Measurement

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CLOSED-LOOP / FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEMS

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FEEDBACK CONTROL SYSTEM
Aileron,
Elevators,
rudder and
engine
power

Autopilot Control System

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Mechanical Control System

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FEEDBACK CONTROL

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HUMAN SENSORS

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EXAMPLE OF CONTROL SYSTEM

Open Loop

Closed Loop

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DSU FEEDBACK

Bad feedback

Good feedback

Feedback

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OPEN LOOP CLOSED LOOP / FEEDBACK

Simple construction / cheap Complex structure / expensive


Disturbances and changes in Have the ability to account for
system can adversely affect disturbances to an extent.
the performance. Output must be measured to
Convenient where output is reduce the error.
hard to measure. Suitable where output, system
Suitable where operating parameters or atmospheric
conditions and output are not conditions changes from time
changing. to time.

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FEEDFORWARD CONTROL
Feedforward input output
reference PLANT
Controller

Control element responds to change in command or


measured disturbance in a pre-defined way

Based on prediction of plant behavior (requires model)


Can react before error actually occurs
Overcome sluggish dynamics and delays
Does not jeopardize stability

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ONE IMPLEMENTATION OF FEEDFORWARD
Input needed
Desired output Inverse model for desired output
PLANT
of system output

Model-based prediction of input

Ideally consists of exact inverse model of the plant


Can compensate for known plant dynamics, delays (before
you get errors)
No sensors needed
System response must be predictable

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LIMITATIONS OF FEEDFORWARD CONTROL
Effects of disturbance or command input must be predictable
May not generalize to other conditions
Will not be accurate if the system changes
Example:
Car approaching hill See how steep the hill is
(measurement) Push on pedal to keep steady speed
Feedback is to wait for slowing before adjusting pedal.

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WHY USE FEEDBACK CONTROL
or better, why do you need a control system at all?

consider ovens, A/C units, airplanes, manufacturing, pumping


stations, etc

What are we controlling?


some physical quantity (constant)
a dynamic behavior (a function of time)

We need to 'tell' the system how we want it to behave

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OPEN, CLOSED AND FEEDFORWARD CONTROL

FeedBack/closed loop

FeedBack/closed loop + Feedforward

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HOW DO WE TELL A SYSTEM HOW TO BEHAVE?
turn a dial
type a number

But we need to know how well we are doing!


sensor data (temperature, pressure, speed, position, light, etc)

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DEFINITIONS
Manipulated Variable

Input
or Output
Set point Controller Process Or
or Controlled Variable
reference

Disturbances A disturbance is a signal that tends to adversely affect


the value of the system. It is an unwanted input of the system.
If a disturbance is generated within the system, it is called
internal disturbance. While an external disturbance is generated
outside the system.

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DEFINITIONS
Controlled Variable It is the quantity or condition that is measured
and Controlled. Normally controlled variable is the output of the
control system.

Manipulated Variable It is the quantity of the condition that is varied


by the controller so as to affect the value of controlled variable.

Control Control means measuring the value of controlled variable of


the system and applying the manipulated variable to the system to
correct or limit the deviation of the measured value from a desired
value.

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