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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Pokmon (disambiguation).


The official logo of Pokmon for its international releases; Pokmon is

short for the original Japanese title of Pocket Monsters.

Created by Satoshi Tajiri

Ken Sugimori

Game Freak


Original work Pocket Monsters Red and Green (1996) (21

years ago)

Owner Nintendo


Game Freak

Print publications

Short stories Pokmon Junior

Comics Various Pokmon manga

Films and television

Film(s) See list of Pokmon films

Short film(s) Various Pikachu shorts

Animated series Pokmon (anime) (1997present)

Pokmon Chronicles (2006)

Television special(s) Mewtwo Returns (2000)

The Legend of Thunder (2001)

The Mastermind of Mirage Pokmon (2006)

Television film(s) Pokmon Origins (2013)

Theatrical presentations

Musical(s) Pokmon Live! (2000)


Traditional Pokmon Trading Card Game

Pokmon Trading Figure Game

Video game(s) Pokmon video game series

Super Smash Bros.


Soundtrack(s) Pokmon 2.B.A. Master(1999)

See also list of Pokmontheme songs


Theme park Pokpark

Official website


United States

United Kingdom
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Pokmon (Japanese: Hepburn: Pokemon, Japanese

pronunciation: [pokemo]; English: /pokemn/ POH-kay-mon or /pokmn/ POH-ki-
mon)[1][2] is a media franchisemanaged by The Pokmon Company, a Japanese consortium
between Nintendo, Game Freak, and Creatures.[3] The franchise copyright is shared by all
three companies, but Nintendo is the sole owner of the trademark.[4] The franchise was
created by Satoshi Tajiri in 1995,[5] and is centered on fictional creatures called "Pokmon",
which humans, known as Pokmon Trainers, catch and train to battle each other for sport.
The franchise began as a pair of video games for the original Game Boy that were
developed by Game Freak and published by Nintendo. It now spans video games, trading
card games, animated television shows and movies, comic books, and toys. Pokmon is
the second best-selling video game franchise, behind only Nintendo's Mariofranchise[6] and
the highest-grossing media franchise of all time. The franchise is also represented in other
Nintendo media, such as the Super Smash Bros. series.
Cumulative sales of the video games (including home console games, such as Hey You,
Pikachu! for the Nintendo 64) have reached more than 290 million copies.[7] In November
2005, 4Kids Entertainment, which had managed the non-game related licensing
of Pokmon, announced that it had agreed not to renew the Pokmon representation
agreement. The Pokmon Company International (formerly Pokmon USA Inc.), a
subsidiary of Japan's Pokmon Co., oversees all Pokmon licensing outside of Asia.[8] As of
March 2017, the Pokmon franchise has grossed revenues of 6.0 trillion
worldwide[7] (equivalent to US$55.15 billion).
The franchise celebrated its tenth anniversary in 2006.[9] 2016 marks the 20th anniversary
of the release of the original games, with the company celebrating by airing an ad
during Super Bowl 50, issuing re-releases of Pokmon Red, Blue, and Yellow, and
completely redesigning the way the newest games are played.[10][11] The mobile augmented
reality game Pokmon Go was released in July 2016.[12] The first seventh-generation
games Pokmon Sun and Moon were released worldwide on November 18, 2016.[13] A live-
action film adaptation based on Great Detective Pikachu began production in 2017.[14] The
English slogan for the franchise is "Gotta Catch 'Em All".[15][16]

3Video games
o 3.1Generations
3.1.1Generation 1
3.1.2Generation 2
3.1.3Generation 3
3.1.4Generation 4
3.1.5Generation 5
3.1.6Generation 6
3.1.7Generation 7
o 3.2Game mechanics
3.2.1Starter Pokmon
4In other media
o 4.1Anime series
o 4.2Films
o 4.3Soundtracks
o 4.4Pokmon Trading Card Game
o 4.5Manga
o 4.6Monopoly
5Criticism and controversy
o 5.1Morality and religious beliefs
o 5.2Animal cruelty
o 5.3Health
o 5.4Monster in My Pocket
o 5.5Pokmon Go
6Cultural influence
o 6.1Fan community
7See also
9External links

The name Pokmon is the romanized contraction of the Japanese brand Pocket
Monsters ( Poketto Monsut).[17] The term Pokmon, in addition to
referring to the Pokmon franchise itself, also collectively refers to the 802 fictional
species that have made appearances in Pokmon media as of the release of the seventh
generation titles Pokmon Sun and Moon. "Pokmon" is identical in both the singular and
plural, as is each individual species name; it is grammatically correct to say "one Pokmon"
and "many Pokmon", as well as "one Pikachu" and "many Pikachu".[18]

An animated history of how Satoshi Tajiri came to conceive Pokmon

Tajiri first thought of Pokmon, albeit with a different concept and name, around 1989 or
1990, when the Game Boy was first released. The concept of the Pokmon universe, in
both the video games and the general fictional world of Pokmon, stems from the hobby
of insect collecting, a popular pastime which Pokmon executive director Satoshi Tajiri
enjoyed as a child.[19] Players are designated as Pokmon Trainers and have three general
goals: to complete the regional Pokdex by collecting all of the available Pokmon species
found in the fictional region where a game takes place, to complete the national Pokdex
by transferring Pokmon from other regions, and to train a team of powerful Pokmon from
those they have caught to compete against teams owned by other Trainers so they may
eventually win the Pokmon League and become the regional Champion. These themes of
collecting, training, and battling are present in almost every version of the Pokmon
franchise, including the video games, the anime and manga series, and the Pokmon
Trading Card Game.
In most incarnations of the Pokmon universe, a Trainer who encounters a wild Pokmon
is able to capture that Pokmon by throwing a specially designed, mass-producible
spherical tool called a Pok Ball at it. If the Pokmon is unable to escape the confines of
the Pok Ball, it is officially considered to be under the ownership of that Trainer.
Afterwards, it will obey whatever commands it receives from its new Trainer, unless the
Trainer demonstrates such a lack of experience that the Pokmon would rather act on its
own accord. Trainers can send out any of their Pokmon to wage non-lethal battles against
other Pokmon; if the opposing Pokmon is wild, the Trainer can capture that Pokmon
with a Pok Ball, increasing his or her collection of creatures. Pokmon already owned by
other Trainers cannot be captured, except under special circumstances in certain side
games. If a Pokmon fully defeats an opponent in battle so that the opponent is knocked
out ("faints"), the winning Pokmon gains experience points and may level up. When
leveling up, the Pokmon's statistics ("stats") of battling aptitude increase, such as Attack
and Speed. At certain levels, the Pokmon may also learn new moves, which are
techniques used in battle. In addition, many species of Pokmon can undergo a form
of metamorphosis and transform into a similar but stronger species of Pokmon, a process
called evolution.
In the main series, each game's single-player mode requires the Trainer to raise a team of
Pokmon to defeat many non-player character (NPC) Trainers and their Pokmon. Each
game lays out a somewhat linear path through a specific region of the Pokmon world for
the Trainer to journey through, completing events and battling opponents along the way
(including foiling the plans of an 'evil' team of Pokmon Trainers who serve as antagonists
to the player). Each game (excluding Sun and Moon) features eight especially powerful
Trainers, referred to as Gym Leaders, that the Trainer must defeat in order to progress. As
a reward, the Trainer receives a Gym Badge, and once all eight badges are collected, that
Trainer is eligible to challenge the region's Pokmon League, where four immensely
talented trainers (referred to collectively as the "Elite Four") challenge the Trainer to four
Pokmon battles in succession. If the trainer can overcome this gauntlet, he or she must
then challenge the Regional Champion, the master Trainer who had previously defeated
the Elite Four. Any Trainer who wins this last battle becomes the new champion.
In Sun and Moon, however, the Gym Leaders are not present, and are instead replaced
with "Trial Captains", a NPC who gives the Trainer a challenge to complete so as to earn a
special item. Once the player completes all of these on an island, the Trainer must take on
the Island Kahuna, the strongest Trainer on the island. Once the player beats all the
Kahunas, they must travel to the recently built Pokmon League, where they must re-
defeat two of the Kahunas and two strong Trainers, who now form the Elite Four, and then
defend their newly received title against challengers.

Video games
Main article: Pokmon (video game series)
The original Pokmon games were role-playing games (RPGs) with an element of strategy,
and were created by Satoshi Tajiri for the Game Boy. These RPGs, and their
sequels, remakes, and English language translations, are still considered the "main"
Pokmon games, and the games which most fans of the series are referring to when they
use the term "Pokmon games". All of the licensed Pokmon properties overseen by The
Pokmon Company International are divided roughly by generation. These generations are
roughly chronological divisions by release; every several years, when an official sequel in
the main RPG series is released that features new Pokmon, characters, and gameplay
concepts, that sequel is considered the start of a new generation of the franchise. The main
games and their spin-offs, the anime, manga, and trading card game are all updated with
the new Pokmon properties each time a new generation begins. The franchise began the
seventh generation on November 18, 2016.

A rival battle between a Bulbasaur and a Charmander in Pokmon Red and Blue[20]

Generation 1
The Pokmon franchise started off in its first generation with its initial release of Pocket
Monsters Aka and Midori ("Red" and "Green", respectively) for the Game Boy in Japan on
February 27, 1996. When these games proved extremely popular, an enhanced Ao ("Blue")
version was released sometime after, and the Ao version was reprogrammed as Pokmon
Red and Bluefor international release. The games launched in the United States on
September 30, 1998. The original Aka and Midori versions were never released outside
Japan.[21] Afterwards, a further enhanced version titled Pokmon Yellow: Special Pikachu
Edition was released to partially take advantage of the color palette of the Game Boy Color,
as well as to feature more elements from the popular Pokmon anime. This first generation
of games introduced the original 151 species of Pokmon, in National Pokdex order,
encompassing all Pokmon from Bulbasaur to Mew. It also introduced the basic game
concepts of capturing, training, battling, and trading Pokmon with both computer and
human players. These versions of the games take place within the fictional Kanto region,
inspired by the real world Kant region of Japan, though the name "Kanto" was not used
until the second generation.
Generation 2
The second generation of Pokmon began in 1999 with the release of Pokmon
Gold and Silver for Game Boy Color. Like the previous generation, an enhanced version
titled Pokmon Crystal was later released. The second generation introduced 100 new
species of Pokmon, starting with Chikorita and ending with Celebi. The Pokdex totaled
251 Pokmon to collect, train, and battle, set in Johto, inspired by Japan's Kansai region.
The Pokmon mini is a handheld game console released in November 2001 in North
America, December 2001 in Japan, and 2002 in Europe.
Generation 3
Pokmon entered its third generation with the 2002 release of Pokmon
Ruby and Sapphire for Game Boy Advance and continued with the Game Boy Advance
remakes of Pokmon Red and Blue, Pokmon FireRedand LeafGreen, and an enhanced
version of Pokmon Ruby and Sapphire titled Pokmon Emerald. The third generation
introduced 135 new Pokmon, starting with Treecko and ending with Deoxys, for a total of
386 species. Pokmon Ruby, Sapphire and Emerald are set in Hoenn, inspired by
Japan's Kyushu region. However, this generation also garnered some criticism for leaving
out several gameplay features, including the day-and-night system introduced in the
previous generation. It was also the first installment that encouraged the player to collect
merely a selected assortment of the total number of Pokmon rather than every existing
species. By contrast, 202 out of 386 species are catchable in
the Ruby and Sapphire versions.
Generation 4
In 2006, Japan began the fourth generation of the franchise with the release of Pokmon
Diamond and Pearl for Nintendo DS. The fourth generation introduced another 107 new
species of Pokmon, starting with Turtwigand ending with Arceus, bringing the total of
Pokmon species to 493.[22] The Nintendo DS "touch screen" allows new features to the
game such as cooking poffins with the stylus and using the "Poktch". New gameplay
concepts include a restructured move-classification system, online multiplayer trading and
battling via Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection, the return and expansion of the second
generation's day-and-night system, the expansion of the third generation's Pokmon
Contests into "Super Contests", and the new region of Sinnoh. This region was inspired by
Japan's Hokkaido region and part of Russia's Sakhalin, and has an underground
component for multiplayer gameplay in addition to the main overworld. Pokmon Platinum,
the enhanced version of Diamond and Pearlmuch like Pokmon Yellow, Crystal,
and Emeraldwas released in September 2008 in Japan, March 2009 in North America,
and May 2009 in Australia and Europe. Spin-off titles in the fourth generation include
the Pokmon Stadium follow-up Pokmon Battle Revolution for Wii, which has Wi-Fi
connectivity as well.[23] Nintendo announced in May 2009 that enhanced remakes
of Pokmon Gold and Silver, entitled Pokmon HeartGold and SoulSilver, would be
released for the Nintendo DS system. HeartGold and SoulSilver are set in the Johto region
and were released in September 2009 in Japan[24] and March 2010 in North America.[25]
Generation 5
The fifth generation of Pokmon began on September 18, 2010, with the release
of Pokmon Black and White in Japan for Nintendo DS.[26] The games were originally
announced by the Pokmon Company on January 29, 2010, with a tentative release later
that year.[27][28] The final release date of September 18 was announced on June 27,
2010.[29] This version is set in the Unova region ( Isshu-chih, Isshu region),
inspired by New York City, and utilizes the Nintendo DS's 3-D rendering capabilities to a
greater extent than Platinum, HeartGold, and SoulSilver, as shown in game footage of the
player walking through the Castelia City ( Hiun Shiti) metropolis. A total of 156
new Pokmon were introduced, starting with Victini and ending with Genesect, bringing the
franchise's total to 649. This is currently the only time that the number of Pokmon
introduced surpasses the number introduced in the first generation.[30] It also deployed new
game mechanics such as the C Gear (C C Gia) wireless interactivity features[31] and
the ability to upload game data to the Internet and to the player's own
computer.[32] Pokmon Black and White was released in Europe on March 4, 2011, in North
America on March 6, 2011, and in Australia on March 10, 2011. On June 23, 2012,
Nintendo released Pokmon Black 2 and Pokmon White 2 in Japan for Nintendo DS, with
early October releases in North America and Europe. Black 2 and White 2 are sequels
to Black and White, with several events in the second games referencing events in the first;
they also allow players to link their previous Black or White with their Black 2 or White 2,
introducing several events based on how they played their previous game.
Generation 6
Officially announced on January 8, 2013, and released simultaneously worldwide on
October 12, 2013, Pokmon X and Y for the Nintendo 3DS are part of the sixth generation
of games.[33] Introducing the France-inspired Kalos region, these are the first Pokmon
games rendered in 3D, and the first released worldwide together.[34] A total of 72 new
Pokmon were introduced, starting with Chespin and ending with Volcanion, bringing the
franchise's total to 721. The fewest new Pokmon in a single generation so far; however,
the new Mega Evolution feature was added to the games to balance out the lack of new
characters. Another addition was the Fairy typing, the first new type since Dark and Steel in
the second generation. On May 7, 2014, Nintendo announced remakes of the third
generation games Pokmon Ruby and Sapphire titled Pokmon Omega Ruby and Alpha
Sapphire which were released in Japan, North America, Australia, and South Korea on
November 21, 2014, and in Europe on November 28, 2014.
Generation 7
Officially announced on February 26, 2016, Pokmon Sun and Moon for the Nintendo 3DS
are part of the seventh generation of games, and the celebrations for the 20th anniversary
of the franchise, introducing the Hawaii-inspired Alola region. Both games were released
worldwide on November 18, 2016, in nine languages; Japanese, English, French, Italian,
German, Spanish, Korean, and, for the first time, Chinese (Traditional and Simplified).[35] A
total of 81 new Pokmon were introduced, bringing the total to 802. Though no new mega
evolutions were added, a new type of form was added for specific Pokmon, changing their
types and move sets. A new type of move was added as well, called the Z-move. Usable by
any Pokmon, Z-moves are extremely powerful and as such can only be used once per
Game mechanics
Main article: Gameplay of Pokmon
The main staple of the Pokmon video game series revolves around the catching and
battling of Pokmon. Starting with a starter Pokmon, the player can catch wild Pokmon
by weakening them and catching them with Pok Balls. Conversely, they can choose to
defeat them in battle in order to gain experience for their Pokmon, raising their levels and
teaching them new moves. Most Pokmon have 'evolution families', a term which refers to
the Pokmon to evolve into or be evolved into more powerful forms by raising their levels or
using certain items. Throughout the game, players will have to battle other trainers in order
to progress, with the main goal to defeat various Gym Leaders/Trials and earn the right to
become the regional champion. Subsequent games in the series have introduced various
side games and side quests, including the Battle Frontiers that display unique battle types
and the Pokmon Contests where visual appearance is put on display.
Starter Pokmon
One of the consistent aspects of the Pokmon gamesspanning from Pokmon
Red and Blue on the Game Boy to the Nintendo 3DS games Pokmon Sun and Moonis
the choice of one of three different Pokmon at the start of the player's adventures; these
three are often labeled "starter Pokmon". Players can choose a Grass-type, a Fire-type, or
a Water-type.[36] For example, in Pokmon Red and Blue (and their respective
remakes, Pokmon FireRed and Pokmon LeafGreen), the player has the choice of
starting with Bulbasaur, Charmander, or Squirtle. The exception to this rule is Pokmon
Yellow (a remake of the original games that loosely follows the story of
the Pokmon anime), where players are given a Pikachu, an Electric-type mouse
Pokmon, famous for being the mascot of the Pokmon media franchise; in this game,
however, the three starter Pokmon from Red and Blue can be obtained by meeting certain
requirements in game, such as Pikachu having full happiness.[37] Another consistent aspect
is that the player's rival will always choose as his or her starter Pokmon the one that has a
type advantage over the player's Pokmon. For instance, if the player picks a Grass-type
Pokmon, the rival will always pick the Fire-type starter. An exception to this is
again Pokmon Yellow, in which the rival picks an Eevee, but whether this Eevee evolves
into Vaporeon, Jolteon, or Flareon is decided by when the player wins and loses to the rival
through the journey. Pokmon Sun and Moon are also an exception where the rival will pick
the starter weak toward the players, with the remaining starter used elsewhere.
The GameCube games Pokmon Colosseum and Pokmon XD: Gale of Darkness also
contain an exception; whereas in most games the player's initial Pokmon starts at Level 5,
in these two games the player's initial Pokmon starts at Levels 10 and 25, respectively.
In Colosseum the player's starter Pokmon are Espeon and Umbreon, while in Gale of
Darkness the player's starter is Eevee.
The Pokdex is an electronic device featured in the Pokmon video game and anime
series. In the games, whenever a Pokmon is first captured, its data will be added to a
player's Pokdex, but in the anime or manga, the Pokdex is a comprehensive electronic
reference encyclopedia, usually referred to in order to deliver exposition. "Pokdex" is also
used to refer to a list of Pokmon, usually a list of Pokmon by number. In the video
games, a Pokmon Trainer is issued a blank device at the start of the journey. A trainer
must then attempt to fill the Pokdex by encountering and at least briefly obtaining each of
the different species of Pokmon. A player will receive the name and image of a Pokmon
after encountering one that was not previously in the Pokdex, typically after battling said
Pokmon either in the wild or in a trainer battle (with the exceptions of link battles and
tournament battles, such as in the Battle Frontier). In Pokmon Red and Blue, some
Pokmon's data is added to the Pokdex simply by viewing the Pokmon, such as in the
zoo outside of the Safari Zone. Also, certain NPC characters may add to the Pokdex by
explaining what a Pokmon looks like during conversation.
More detailed information is available after the player obtains a member of the species,
either through capturing the Pokmon in the wild, evolving a previously captured Pokmon,
hatching a Pokmon egg (from the second generation onwards), or through a trade with
another trainer (either an NPC or another player). This information includes height, weight,
species type, typing, and a short description of the Pokmon. Later versions of the
Pokdex have more detailed information, like the size of a certain Pokmon compared to
the player character, or Pokmon being sorted by their habitat (so far, the latter feature is
only in the FireRed and LeafGreen versions). The most current forms of Pokdex are
capable of containing information on all Pokmon currently known. The GameCube
games, Pokmon Colosseum and Pokmon XD: Gale of Darkness, have a Pokmon
Digital Assistant (PDA) which is similar to the Pokdex, but also tells what types are
effective against a Pokmon and gives a description of its abilities.[38]

In other media

Ash Ketchum holding Pikachu in the pilot episode, "Pokmon, I Choose You!"

Anime series
Main article: Pokmon (anime)
The Pokmon anime series and films are a meta-series of adventures usually separate
from the canon that most of the Pokmon video games follow (with the exception
of Pokmon Yellow, a game based loosely on the anime storyline). The anime follows the
quest of the main character, Ash Ketchum (known as Satoshi in Japan), a Pokmon Master
in training, as he and a small group of friends travel around the world of Pokmon along
with their Pokmon partners.[39]
The original series, titled Pocket Monsters, or simply Pokmon in Western countries (often
referred to as Pokmon: Gotta Catch 'Em All to distinguish it from the later series), begins
with Ash's first day as a Pokmon trainer. His first (and signature) Pokmon is a Pikachu,
differing from the games, where only Bulbasaur, Charmander, or Squirtle could be
chosen.[40] The series follows the storyline of the original games, Pokmon Red and Blue, in
the region of Kanto. Accompanying Ash on his journeys are Brock, the Pewter City Gym
Leader, and Misty, the youngest of the Gym Leader sisters from Cerulean City. Pokmon:
Adventures in the Orange Islands follows Ash's adventures in the Orange Islands, a place
unique to the anime, and replaces Brock with Tracey Sketchit, an artist and "Pokmon
watcher". The next series, based on the second generation of games, include Pokmon:
Johto Journeys, Pokmon: Johto League Champions, and Pokmon: Master Quest,
following the original trio of Ash, Brock, and Misty in the western Johto region.
The saga continues in Pokmon: Advanced, based on the third generation games. Ash and
company travel to Hoenn, a southern region in the Pokmon World. Ash takes on the role
of a teacher and mentor for a novice Pokmon trainer named May. Her
brother Max accompanies them, and though he isn't a trainer, he knows large amounts of
handy information. Brock (from the original series) soon catches up with Ash, but Misty has
returned to Cerulean City to tend to her duties as a gym leader (Misty, along with other
recurring characters, appears in the spin-off series Pokmon Chronicles).
The Advanced series concludes with the Battle Frontiersaga, based on the Emerald version
and including aspects of FireRed and LeafGreen. It ended with Max leaving to pick his
starter Pokmon and May going to the Grand Festival in Johto.
In the Diamond and Pearl series, based on the fourth generation games, Ash, Brock, and a
new companion, an aspiring Pokmon coordinator named Dawn, travel through the region
of Sinnoh. At the end of the series, Ash and Brock return to Kanto where Brock begins to
follow his newfound dream of becoming a Pokmon doctor himself.
Pocket Monsters: Best Wishes!, based on the fifth generation games, features Ash and
Pikachu traveling through the region of Unova (Isshu in Japan) alongside two new
companions, Iris and Cilan (Dent in Japan) who part ways with them after returning to
Pocket Monsters: XY (XY Poketo Monsut Ekkusu Wai), is the current
airing series based on the sixth generation games, following Ash and Pikachu's journey
through the region of Kalos, accompanied by Ash's childhood friend Serena and the
siblings Clemont and Bonnie.[41][42][43]
In addition to the TV series, nineteen Pokmon films have been made, with the pair of
films, Pokmon the Movie: BlackVictini and Reshiram and WhiteVictini and
Zekrom considered together as one. A twentieth is also in production. Collectible bonuses,
such as promotional trading cards, have been available with some of the films. Various
children's books, collectively known as Pokmon Junior, are also based on the anime.[44]