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Course Code: MRD-103
Course Title: Rural Development Planning and Management
Assignment No. : MRD-103/AST/TMA-3/2016/2017
Note: The assignment has three sections. It contains questions, which require long, medium | 2
and short answers. Along answer should not exceed 1000 words. Medium answers should not
exceed 500 words each. Short answers should not exceed 100 words each.
Long Answers Questions Maximum Marks: 40
Attempt anyone of the following:
Q:-1. What do you mean by District Planning? Describe its various components.
I made a brief mention there of district planning. Historically, the district has been an
administrative unit below the State level. Its place in the overall planning system therefore,
assumes importance. In this unit, the concept of district planning in a decentralized planning
system will be discussed. The discussion would cover the need, concept, components and the
process of district planning, with illustrations from Indian experience.

District planning cannot be viewed in isolation from either the state plan, or the block plan, the
latter being another area-based plan at a lower administrative level. Essentially, district planning
should be a creative response to a particular set of prevailing circumstances in the State. District
planning should have enough flexibility, so that adjustments and modifications can be
introduced within the conceptual framework of the district plan. The district is only a sub-
system of multi-level planning and, so, vertical integration is important.
The scope of the district plan should be open-ended in recognition of the linkages available
beyond a district. Ideally, therefore, at the district level, all planning should be done by a single
planning agency. However, generally this is not being followed. In the latter case, district
planning exercise should coordinate the seemingly disparate efforts of sectoral departments
into a consistent framework. The planning activities should be so nested as to provide
necessary linkages and infrastructure support for different developmental programmes. |3
Spatial Component:-Since district planning is essentially area based planning, the special
component of district planning is very important. The 1984 Report on district planning noted
that spatial planning ( in a district plan) covers all spatial manifestations including those
arising out of human activities, both economic and social. A comprehensive spatial plan would
need to consider the physical resources, land use and all human settlements in a region, right
from the smallest settlement to the city. The spatial components of a district plan would be
such as to guide the development programmes through a vocational blue print, ensure
distributive justice and bring about rural-urban integration and continuity.
Economic Component:-Economic planning has traditionally been the core of planning, since a
principal aim of development planning has been to increase income and employment. Economic
planning is necessary also for better resources management. Essential prerequisites of
economic planning are knowledge about the state of the following in the district:
l resources
l demographic features
l agro-economic features
l socio-economic factors
l infrastructural features
l sectoral profiles
Social Component:-A district plan cannot afford to overlook the social component of planning.
The task of a district plan is also to reduce social inequalities, provide social services and ensure
public participation. For a district plan, public participation is both an important tool and a goal
for development, since planning is the medium of social transformation and means to bridge
the gap between the government and the people.
Administrative Component:-Success or failure of district planning is ultimately influences by the | 4
political and administrative set-up of the district planning machinery. Traditionally, the district
has been a territorially designed unit of administration, primarily concerned with law and order
and land revenue. The role of district administration as a part of development administration
came to be emphasized since the beginning of planning for development in India.

To conclude, District planning is an area-based planning exercise, which is required as a vital link
between the lowest levels of planning and the state and national plans. The district plan has
spatial, economic, social and administrative components. The process of preparing district plan
undergoes four stages: pre-planning, planning, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation.
Besides, a district plan has temporal dimensions, i.e., it could be perspective plan, five year plan,
or an annual plan. Ideally, every district should have all these.
Desai, Vasant (1988), Rural Development Programmes and Strategies.
Desai, Vasant (1988), Rural Development, Organisation and Management.

Q2:- Discuss the techniques and criteria of Project Evaluation in rural development

Evaluation is an important function of modern management system. It tells us about the
effectiveness of the programme in achieving the stated objectives. It needs to be clarified here
that evaluation is different from appraisal with respect to the time when it is carried out. As
explained earlier, an appraisal is an ex ante evaluation when the project details have been
estimated for the future. An evaluation is basically an ex post function when the project has
been implemented and events/activities concerned have occurred.
The application of various techniques depends on several factors, such as time, cost,
nature/type of questions the evaluation seeks to answer, and the expertise available. Use of
scientific method is desirable since it involves careful observation and it also controls the
subjective bias of evaluators. The validity of inferences and findings of the study is greater if
techniques are scientific. These methods ensure:
accurate and reliable data base, as the tools used for collection of data and also the data
collection procedures and sampling design are efficient, and
The analytical techniques used help to disaggregate the whole complex phenomenon, and,
thus, assess the programme effects in an unbiased and objective manner.
Criteria for Evaluation
The following five criteria are usually adopted in evaluation studies:
Efforts: In a summarized view, efforts refer to the total inputs to the programme. For example, a
criterion relating to the amount of effort put into the programme would include quantity and
quality of programme inputs (range of services), the coverage of population, programme
personnel, financial resources, etc.
Performance: This deals with the consequences of the programme inputs. The composite index
of performance should consider the magnitude and quality of benefits and changes in
behavioural dimensions. Thus, it refers to output generated from the system as a result of
programme inputs.
Adequacy: This is a relative measure indicating the relationship of the effort and performance of
the programme to the level of need for the programme. In other words, it is the extent of
successful (or effective) coverage of beneficiary population in the total population. It, thus,
refers to the relationship between output and the total need.
Efficiency: This measure connects the above three criteria, viz. effort, performance and
adequacy and is based on the minimax principle, i.e., minimization of effort and maximization of | 6
performance. In other words, it is simple input-output ratio. Naturally, the various inputs, such
as money, time and staff are being considered in evaluating the various alternatives.
Process: It is the study of the means of the programme in producing outputs (results) with a
view to establishing causality.
While evaluation is often terminal, in recent years stress is being laid on concurrent
evaluation, which is an ongoing activity carried out during the implementation of the project.
The utility of concurrent evaluation is that it enables decision makers to modify the project (if
necessary), alter the implementation strategy, examine the relevance or validity of the
assumptions relating to the programme, and identify the problems affecting the success of the
project with a view to provide corrective action.

In short, Evaluation enables not only measurement of progress in qualitative and quantitative
terms, but also assesses the impact and efficiency of the implementation machinery and the
identification of factors, which obstruct development. We noted that evaluation has several
dimensions viz., need, process, outcome, efficiency and purpose.

Baum, Warren C. and Stokes M. Tolbert (1985), Investing in Development: Lessons of World Bank Experience,
Oxford University Press, New York.
Casley, D.J. and D.A. Lury (1982), Monitoring and Evaluation of Agriculture and Rural Development Projects,
Johns Hopkins, Baltimore
Q3:- What do you understand by Voluntary Organizations (VOs) Elaborate the process of
formation and its registration.

Voluntarism and social service has a long history in India. It was the main source of welfare and
development since Vedic times except for the Maurya and Gupta periods, which had substantial
public welfare systems. The colonial period witnessed the large impact of Mahatma Gandhi and | 7
the Gandhian methods, on the growth of voluntarism. He was convinced that voluntary action
was the the most suitable instrument for development of the country. Besides the political
Independence, the objective of Gandhian voluntary organization was rural reconstruction.

The key to social welfare emerges from autonomous and flexible actions that are necessarily
voluntary in nature. It commences with focused action coupled with determined intention of
like-minded people to transform the socio-economic paradigm of society particularly for weaker
sections, based on social justice and not merely on philanthropy and charity.
The distinction between the voluntary effort and action must be clear at the outset, even
though it is often used synonymously. The prerequisite of the latter includes planning and
conscious action of a group to deal with certain issues; the former often does not entail this.
Thus, voluntary action is necessarily problem oriented which is not only geared towards
dealing with a problem but also towards prevention of its occurrence. When a group initiates
such focused action to act formally, it assumes the character of voluntary organization.
The Constitution of India guarantees its citizens right to form association under Article 19. The
provision is operationalised with the help of legislations such as the Societies Registration Act,
1860, (or similar state Acts), Indian Trusts Act, 1882, Companys Act, 1956, or Cooperative
Societys Act. A group of people associating themselves as a society, on registration under any of
these laws, become a separate legal entity whose legal identity is distinct from its constituting
members. A registered society/agency enjoys perpetual succession by virtue of this legal
recognition and enjoys continuity apart from the changes in its constituting members. This
legitimization of its distinct identity and existence entitles the agency to carry on a number of
activities that are in keeping with its goals and aspirations.
Registration entitles agency to acquire movable or immovable property in pursuance of its | 8
expressed objectives. It insulates the associating members from personal liability. The other
benefits of registration are that the surpluses generated as a result of the societys activities do
not accrue to an individual but are used to further the objectives of the society. It also makes
the society eligible to apply for and receive grants-in-aid from government and other funding
agencies. The agency can also apply for exemptions from income tax in respect of donations,
and other incomes.
Some VOs prefer not to register themselves, as registration brings with it government scrutiny
and fulfillment of the conditions stipulated under the Act concerned. Sometimes a voluntary
agency may want to work as a change agent and wish to be able to develop critical
consciousness among people. It may prefer to be free from government surveillance and control
and therefore desire a non-formal unstructured arrangement. Such agencies work in a highly
individualized manner and would come up against problems of continuity, mobilization of
resources, financial accountability, organisation and division of responsibilities, etc.
An application has to be made to the Registrar of Societies/Co-operatives/Companies/Charity
Commissioner, as the case may be, at the time of registration according to set procedure. The
Memorandum of Association and the Rules and Regulations governing the agency have to be
prepared and submitted. Although the procedure is more or less the same throughout the
country, there are slight variation in different states.
In short, there are several reasons why VOs want to collaborate and work with various other
bodies, committees, functionaries and professional teams. This is primarily because the target
group or community they serve need multifaceted development while an organisation is likely
to have limited capacity to deliver.
Specialization of VOs along sector lines also implies a corresponding division of tasks. More
frequently, organizations collaborate to overcome isolation and share their experiences and also | 9
pool their resources for effective and efficient delivery. Thus, organizations are increasingly
collaborating with various bodies and committees, often providing their specialized knowledge
in the process of policy formulation and often guided by recommendations of expert groups in
defining their own objectives.
Roy, Bunker (1990) Voluntary Agencies and Government , Social Welfare
Administration in India; Issues and Challenges.
Gulati Ravi and Gulati Kaval (1996), Strengthening Voluntary Action in India,.


Medium Answers Questions Maximum Marks: 15 each

Attempt any Two of the following:

Q: - 1. Briefly describe the various processes involved in the programme formulation of

Community Based Programmes and Projects.

In this question, I shall discuss how to develop a rural development programme that is
community based. First, we shall analyze the meaning of a community based programme.
Secondly, we shall learn how to plan a community based programme. Finally, we shall discuss
the processes involved in formulating a programme followed by a brief analysis on the
techniques in working with the community.

A community has a territorial base, a strong sense of identity and deep sense of togetherness.
Ones life may be lived wholly within it. Ones social relationships may be found within the
community. community based programme does not necessarily connote a programme which is
universal in its coverage and aims to benefit all or most of its members. | 10
It implies a programme that is planned, initiated, sustained and implemented with the
participation of the community. In other words, it connotes peoples involvement and
participation at every stage. A programme organised by an outside agency, even if it is a VO, will
not be community based if it does not follow the above criteria.
The assumptions behind community based programmes are the following:
Bottom-up Planning
There are limits to the extent to which outsiders can have insight into the problems of a
community. Local people too have capabilities in planning, activating and involving the cross-
section of the community in broad-based decision making, using a consensus-based approach
and team-work in implementation. It is essential that the creativity of the total community is
mobilized for effective developmental process.
The planning of community based programmes should stem from the needs of the community.
There may be some needs which are felt by the community.
There may be others which have not been identified by the community but which experts feel
are critical for the community, for instance, environmental sanitation and preventive health. In
such cases it would be necessary to sensitize the community to such needs.
Local Resources
However scarce the local resources may be, their mobilization and utilization are essential. Local
resources can be in the form of money, material or manpower. Availability of local resources
can not only draw funds from outside but also help in the sustenance of the programme when
such outside funding ceases.
Participation by the community is critically important because it initiates further action through | 11
democratization of decision making. Participation is the keystone for effective work.
Involvement of local people brings local knowledge and expertise into use and thus reduces
unnecessary dependence on technocrats and outsiders. It empowers people to take action
Programme formulation of Community Based Programmes and Projects.
Before going into the process of formulating a programme or project proposal let us look at the
kinds of policy and inter-organisational issues that need to be considered:
Setting Objectives
Having decided on the problems to be tackled, the objectives have to be clearly defined as a
first step while formulating a programme. Objectives are derived from the goals which are
stated in broader terms and have a longer time perspective. Objectives are precise statements
of intentions that can be translated into pragmatic programmes. As far as possible, it is better to
set a manageable number of objectives (not exceeding say four or five) which can be achieved
within a reasonable time frame. When objectives are quantified in a time frame, these are
called targets.
Determining Programme and Service Components
The objectives will determine the programme and service components. It is important that
these are prepared in sufficient detail so that monitoring becomes easy. Some of the aspects
that need to be covered are determining the beneficiary groups, the criteria for selection of
beneficiaries, the services that will be provided, the strategy for accessibility of the
beneficiaries, the use of the services by them, and the delivery system.
Identification of Beneficiaries
Identifying the beneficiaries is an important but at the same time a very complex task specially
when subsidies/loans or other forms of assistance are involved, or when local power structures
wish this to be done in a manner which furthers their interests or does not empower others in a | 12
manner which will challenge their dominance. Quite often, evaluation of development
programmes indicates that selection of beneficiaries was not done according to the criteria laid
down for the programme.

In short, that a community-based programme is one that is planned, initiated, sustained and
implemented with the participation of the community and characterized by the involvement
and participation of people at every stage. We noted that such programmes were need based,
involved the use of resources and were not entirely supported from outside. We also described
the ways of approaching the community, making community diagnosis and defining the needs.
We considered the various processes involved in formulating a programme and discussed in this
connection how objectives are determined, beneficiaries are identified, milestones are set,
resources are identified, budget estimates are prepared, and programme implementation is

Cox, F. M. , J. L. Elrich, J. Rothman and J. E. Tropman (1977), Tactics and Techniques of Community Practice,
F.E. Peacock Publishers : Illinois.
Handley, R.M., M. Cooper, P. Dale and G. Stacy (1987), A Community Social Workers Handbook, Tavistock
Publications, London.
Q2:- Explain the primary functions of management.

No matter how systematically a project is planned, there would still be deviations between what
is intended and what is actually achieved. The deviations may be in terms of time schedule or
resource use or flow of benefits from the project. The most common cause identified for such
deviations has been bad management. Naturally, a series of questions come up when a term
like management is used. For example, what is management? How does one define it? How do
we differentiate between good management and bad management? | 13

Management is a universal process. It is not merely restricted to a factory, shop or office. It is an

operative force in all organisations and tries to achieve stated objectives. Management is,
therefore, as much necessary for business firms as for government enterprises and

Primary functions of management
i) Planning: We have already spent some time learning about the planning process. However, it
is worthwhile to note here that planning is future oriented and determines an organisations
direction. It is a kind of organized foresight as well as corrective hindsight.
ii) Organising: Organising involves
determining activities needed to fulfill the objectives;
grouping the activities into manageable units; and
assigning such groups of activities to managers. It determines authority and responsibility
relationships. These relationships have to be properly coordinated to achieve unity of
iii) Staffing: Staffing is the function of hiring and retaining a suitable workforce both at
managerial as well as non-managerial levels. This function is critical since people differ in their
intelligence, knowledge, skills, experience, physical condition, age and attitudes. Hence,
management must understand the sociological and psychological background of each member
of the work-force in addition to their technical and operational competence.
iv) Directing: This function is concerned with leadership, communication, motivation and
supervision in order to achieve desired goals. This function is directly concerned with the human
factors of an organisation.
v) Coordination: Management activities assigned to different departments of an organisation | 14
needs to be coordinated from the point of view of the objectives. Similarly, different activities
within a department need to be coordinated. This is necessary for the smooth functioning of an
organization and its departments.
vi) Reporting: Management has to keep itself informed about the performances of tasks
assigned to departments and sections and to the personnel working at different levels.
Reporting refers to information about the progress of tasks performed.
vii) Budgeting: Budgeting refers to the allocation of resources for organizations tasks and
further appropriating of available resource to different tasks to be performed by the
departments/sections. Besides the monetary budgeting, it also becomes necessary to budget
the time assigned for the performance of tasks, within the budgeted time and money.
viii) Controlling: It consists of those activities which are undertaken to ensure that the events do
not deviate from the planned paths. It involves actions like watching the progress and taking
corrective action when desired. The control process is also referred to as monitoring.

We identified the main functions of management as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and
controlling. It was observed that since people, area and activities form the setting for rural
development, their understanding is a prerequisite for effective management.

Mondy, R. Wayne, Robert E. Holmes and Edwin Flippo (1983), Management:
Concepts and Practices, 2nd ed
Stoner, James A.F. and Charles Wankel (1988), Management, 3rd ed.
Q3:- Discuss the main aspects of development approaches.

Rural development planning has gained prominence in recent times because of the growing
realization that benefits from development have, by and large, bypassed large segments of rural | 15
society. At the same time, it has been recognized that the organisation and structure of the
process of planning have to be modified, so that policies and programmes reflect the
development needs of rural areas.
The regional development approach, adopted in the developing countries, was derived mainly
from the models discussed above. Developing countries are characterized by a high degree of
regional imbalances, income inequalities and an agrarian economy with low rates of growth and
high unemployment and under-employment. So, such countries have reconstructed these
growth models in such a way that they would help in achieving the twin objectives of
development, viz., economic growth and distributive justice.
There has been considerable work in evolving methodologies for micro-level planning in India in
recent years, particularly after the Fourth Five Year Plan. The Planning Commission emphasized
the formulation of district plans, provided guidelines for district planning and suggested:
The first objective of the formulation of district plans is to set forth a long-term perspective
indicating the economic activities to be established in different subregions of the district and the
measures to be taken over the next 15 to 20 years to develop (and conserve) natural resources,
build up infrastructural facilities and social services and foster the growth of towns and cities in
a manner that would help the district to develop in the predetermined direction. The second
objective is to prepare an integrated programme of action for the next conditions and a realistic
assessment of the immediate problems, short-term priorities and available resources.
From the above statement, it is clear that in the beginning, the approach to development was
regional with emphasis on growth points and location of economic activities. Over the years,
there have been shifts in the national policy for rural development to achieve growth with
distributive justice by minimizing income inequalities between various sections of society and | 16
growth disparities between areas and regions. To achieve these objectives, area approach and
target group approach were added in the framework. Based on the progressive changes in the
approach, the methodologies evolved for rural development planning can be described under
three categories Growth Centre Approach, Area Development Approach and Integrated
Development Approach.
The various approaches to rural development planning. You came to know about the growth
centre approach, the area development approach and the integrated rural development
approach; You were also briefly acquainted with the main features of development projects that
were introduced to the concept of project cycle.

Chakravarty, Sukhamoy (1987), Development Planning: The Indian Experience, Claredon Press, and Oxford.
Ghatak, Subrata (1986), An Introduction to Development Economics, Allen and Unwin, London.


Short Answers Questions Maximum Marks: 6 each

Write short notes on any Five of the following:
Q:-1. Perspective District Plan.
SOLUTION :- A temporal frame for district plans needs to be spelled out. Although the
process of planning outlined above broadly covers all the stages, planning is not complete
unless a time frame for such planning is indicated. Every district needs to have a perspective
plan, covering 10 to 15 years, for the long-term development of the district and reducing
regional disparities in development. Ideally, this should cover both physical and human
resources with special focus on the disadvantaged. The perspective plan should aim for the
long-term development of the district. | 17
Desai, Vasant (1988), Rural Development Programmes and Strategies.

Q2:- Prerequisites of Evaluation.

SOLUTION : - While evaluation is often terminal, in recent years stress is being laid on
concurrent evaluation, which is an ongoing activity carried out during the implementation of the
project. The utility of concurrent evaluation is that it enables decision makers to modify the
project (if necessary), alter the implementation strategy, examine the relevance or validity of
the assumptions relating to the programme, and identify the problems affecting the success of
the project with a view to provide corrective action.

Clayton, E.S. (1983), Agriculture, Poverty and Freedom
Q3:- Need for Planning.
SOLUTION : - Planning is essential because it enables us to formulate, with some
precision, what we intend to achieve within a given time frame. Prioritization among various
objectives enables us to demarcate more important objectives from those, which are less so.
Once this is done, one can decide what is feasible, considering the resources at hand and how
additional resources can be mobilized. Therefore, planning is a more scientific path towards
achieving development objectives, and for bringing about economic and social transformation in
a systematic manner.

Chakravarty, Sukhamoy (1987), Development Planning: The Indian Experience.
Q4:- (CAPART).
SOLUTION :- The Council for Advancement of Peoples Action and Rural Technology
(CAPART) was set up as a pioneer organisation in September, 1986 as a nodal agency by merging Page
| 18
two organisations, namely, Peoples Action for Development (India) PAD(I) and Council for
Advancement of Rural Technology (CART) with a mandate to promote voluntary action and
propagate appropriate rural technologies for the benefit of rural masses. Since then, it has been
contributing its mite by involving people in the development process through the medium of
VOs to supplement Government efforts.
Government of India, (1985). Seventh Five Year Plan, 1985-90. Vol.II, Planning Commission: New Delhi.
Q5:- Strengthening Voluntary Effort.

SOLUTION : - Now that you are familiar with the role of VOs, their strengths, and some
of their problems, you should also know some of the measures that could be taken to improve
the situation. In this section we shall take a look at the suggestions for promoting and
strengthening voluntary effort. After going through them see if you can add some of your own.
_ The leaders should, through word and deed, promote voluntary effort.
Industrialists, professionals and the academic community should demonstrate their
commitment in this regard. This will give them much greater insight into the development
problems of the poor.
_ There should be a radical change in the manner in which the bureaucracy deals with VOs. An
extension oriented promotive style of functioning is very important to accomplish the
_ Grants-in-aid programmes should be widely publicized among VOs and assisted in applying for
these grants since many of them have little experience in this regard.
_ The flow of grants-in-aid is affected if there are no agencies to take them.
Hence special effort at promoting voluntary effort should be made in those states or areas
where voluntary agencies are non-existent.
Q6:- Social Action. | 19

SOLUTION : - Social action has been a part of the process of development of human
society. There has hardly been any time in social evolution when people have not organized
themselves and enjoined to protest against injustice, to seek redressal of grievances or
alterations in unjust social, economic and political structures. The struggles that ensued did not
always achieve their goals but they represented important expressions of deprived peoples
attempts to secure a more humane society.

Britto, Gabriel A.A. (1984), Some Principles of Social Action