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MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp.

(52-59) 52
ISSN 2230-7621 MIT Publications

A Survey of Digital Watermarking Scheme

Rakesh Ahuja S.S. Bedi Himanshu Agarwal


Associate Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor
CS & IT Department Department of CS&IT CS & IT Department
MIT, Moradabad, India CET MJP Rohilkhand University MIT, Moradabad, India
e-mail: ahuja2305@rediffmail.com Bareilly, (U.P.), India

ABSTRACT
A Digital Watermark is a digital signal or pattern inserted into a digital data, which can also be named as a digital signature.
It is a key process in the protection of copyright ownership of electronic data, including text, image, videos, audio, etc.
This paper incorporate the detail study about the categories of watermarking process to tell where this scheme could be
applied. The second issue discussed is the parameters for providing the robustness of watermarking scheme for the copyright
protection for the Proof of ownership. The third section elaborate the requirement of watermarking process ad finally the
application areas where this technique can be utilized.

INTRODUCTION Spatial Domain: Pixels of one or two randomly selected


subsets of an image are modified based on perceptual analysis
The term watermarking comes from the invisible ink used to of the original image. Frequency or Transform Domain:
write secret messages. A digital watermark is a perceptually values of certain frequencies are altered.
transparent pattern inserted in digital data using an embedding
Meanwhile based on human perception, digital watermarks
algorithm and an embedding key. A detection algorithm using
can be divided into two categories as follows: Visible
the appropriate detection key can retrieve the watermark
Watermarking: is where the second translucent overlaid into
information.
the primary content and appears visible on a careful inspection.
A simple digital watermarking is shown in the following Invisible Watermarking: is embedded in such a way that any
Figure 1. Watermark is a design of the watermark signal W manipulation of the content would alter or destroy the content.
to be added to the host signal. The watermark signal, apart
From application point of view, digital watermarks could
from depending on the watermark information W, may also
also be Source based: is where a unique watermark identifying
depend on a key K and the host data I into which it is embedded.
the owner is introduced to all the copies of a particular content
W = f0 ( I, K, W) being distributed. Destination based: is where each distributed
In watermarking algorithm, image I is input to the marking copy get a unique watermark identifying the particular buyer.
algorithm and output the watermarked image I with the
following equation:
I W I
Verification algorithm is a design of the corresponding
extraction method and recovers the watermark information
from the signal mixture, perhaps with the help of the key and
the original.

TYPES OF WATERMARKING
Watermarking techniques can be divided into four cate-
gories[1] according to the type of document to be watermarked Figure 1: Simple Digital Watermarking
as follows, Text Watermarking, Image Watermarking, Audio
Watermarking and Video Watermarking. Though watermarking is a recent field of research, many
In the case of images, watermarking techniques are techniques have already been proposed both in the academic
commonly distinguished based on two working domains: as well as in the industry fields. Various techniques have
MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. (52-59) 53
ISSN 2230-7621 MIT Publications

applied in watermarking algorithm and they can be classified watermark [4] to protect images that are part of the digital
into different type from the point of view of the offered Vatican library project. The watermarking itself is only a small
functionalitys. In this synopsis, we have a brief review of the part of any controlled access and distribution scheme; a method
current discussion of audio, image and video watermarking for secure distribution would combine encryption with digital
schemes. A digital document may be authenticated with what watermarking. The following part introduces numbers of
is known as a digital watermark. A watermark is a secret code current proposed image watermarking schemes.
or image incorporated into an original content which acts to
verify both the owner and content of the document. The use of Spatial domain
perceptually invisible watermark is one of image Spatial method analyzes a data from the spatial point of view.
authentication. A watermarking method based on the spatial domain, scatters
A watermarking algorithm consists of three parts: information to be embedded to make the information hardly
watermark, marking algorithm and verification algorithm. Each detectable. It uses minor change of the value of pixel directly.
owner has a unique watermark. The marking algorithm This technique has an advantage which is strong to cropping
incorporates the watermark into the image or video. The and translation, but weak to attack like noise and compression.
verification algorithm authenticates the content, determining For spatial domain techniques, different approaches have be
both the owner and the integrity of the content. A variety of proposed, checksum techniques, two-dimensional spatial
imperceptible watermarking schemes have been proposed over watermark and spread spectrum approach.
the last few years.
Checksum Technique
This watermark is formed from the checksum value of the
seven most significant bits of all pixels. A checksum is the
modulo-2 addition of a sequence of fixed-length binary words;
it is a special type of hash function. The final checksum is
fifty-six bits. The technique then randomly chooses the
locations of the pixels that are to contain one bit of the
checksum. The pixel locations of the checksum, together with
the checksum itself, form the watermark, W. The last bit of
each chosen pixel is changed (if necessary) to equal the
corresponding checksum bit. W must be kept secret. To verify
this watermark the checksum of a test image Z is obtained,
and compared to the ideal version in W. The advantages of
this technique are these; first, embedding W only changes half
Figure 2: Types of Watermarking
of the pixels covered by W., this is not only reduces visual
distortion but also increases security. Second, an image may
The details discussions about the various mater schemes
hold many W as long as they do not overlap. The disadvantage
are as follows:
is that this watermarking method is fragile. Any change to either
the image data itself or the embedded checksum can cause the
Image Watermarking
verification procedure to fail. An attacker could remove the
entire watermark by replacing the LSB plane.
One early watermarking method obtains a checksum of the
image data, then embeds the checksum into the LSB of Basic M-sequence approach
randomly chosen pixels. Others add a modified maximal length This watermark is based on using a modified m-sequence. A
linear shift register sequence to the pixel data. They identify linear feedback shift register with n stages can form
the watermark by using spatial cross correlation function of pseudorandom binary sequences with periods as large as 2n -
the modified sequence and part of the watermarked image. 1. M-sequences achieve this maximum period, and have a very
Watermarks also can modify the images spectral or transform desirable autocorrelation and randomness properties. Two
coefficients directly. These algorithms often modulate DCT, types of sequences may be formed from an m-sequence
DFT or DWT coefficients according to a sequence known only unipolar and bipolar. This watermark is robust to small
to the owner. Watermarking techniques may be image amounts of noise introduced in the image. Multiple watermarks
dependent. These techniques increase the security level of the can overlap; successive watermarks treat the previously
watermark in the image while maintaining the imperceptibility watermarked image as a new X. However, the last two bit planes
of the mark. One method incorporate feature from most of the could be removed and replaced. An attacker can deduce W if
above techniques. Its wavelet [2], [3] implementation lends 2n consecutive bits in W are known. This method does not
itself to watermarking data rate-scalable video. Visible specifically protect the DC value of the pixels covered by an
watermarks also exist; IBM has developed a proprietary visible individual block.
MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. (52-59) 54
ISSN 2230-7621 MIT Publications

Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia bits, the retrieve label is verified by performing a XOR
This scheme inserts a watermark into the spectral components operation to the watermark code.
of the data using techniques analogous to spread spectrum
Hybrid Watermarking
communication, hiding a narrow band signal in a wideband
channel that is the data. The watermark is difficult for an Watermark not only can be embedded into one domain, they
attacker to remove; even when several individuals conspire can be inserted into both spatial and frequency domain or apply
together with independently watermarked copies of the data. different techniques onto one watermark, i.e. the hybrid
It is also robust to common signal and geometric distortions techniques. A Hybrid Watermark for Tamper Detection in
such as digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversion, Digital ImageA hybrid image authentication watermark
resampling, and requantization, including dithering and obtained as a combination of fragile and a robust watermark
recompression and rotation, translation, cropping and scaling. is presented. The fragile watermark has good localization and
The same digital watermarking algorithm can be applied to security properties but cannot be used to distinguish malicious
all three media under consideration with only minor changes from innocent image processing operations. The
modifications, making it especially appropriate for multimedia hybrid watermark can be used to accurately pinpoint changes
product. Retrieval of the watermark unambiguously identifies as well as distinguish malicious tamper from innocent
the owner, and the watermark can be constructing to make operations. The authentication can be done without accessing
counterfeiting almost impossible. any information about the original image.
Effective Hybrid Digital Watermarking Scheme Using
Frequency domain Direct Sequence-Spread Spectrum MethodThe proposed
Frequency Domain generally DCT, FFT and DWT are used scheme is that produced watermark image using personal ID
as the methods of data transformation. Wavelet transform of copyrighter is inserted into the original images, and the
decompose an image into a set of band limited components watermark image is detected from the watermarked image.
which can be reassembled to reconstruct the original image That is an extension of the spread-spectrum watermarking
without error. As pointed out in [5], linear programming which combine key with logo method. Binary image is used
optimized the Wavelet domain watermarking method. In [6], as watermark image, and degradation of image quality between
Object based image watermarking technique was proposed. original image and watermarked image in order to confirm
In these methods, a watermark that one wishes to embed in required invisibility in watermark system and watermark
distributed in overall domain of an original data, and the robustness to protect a attack from the outside are analyzed
watermark, if it is once embedded, is hardly to be deleted. using the values of PSNR and recovered rate of the watermark
image.
A Wavelet-Based Watermarking Algorithm for Ownership
Verification of Digital Image Audio Watermarking
This scheme first inserts the watermark into the middle- Comparing with the development of digital video and image
frequency range. Filter banks are very important and have to watermarking, digital audio watermarking provides a special
be saved for the watermark embedding and the middle- challenge because (1) data hiding must not be audible since
frequency band to insert the watermark is also chosen the otherwise it will mask the original audio signal it will be easily
coefficient in that band of the image is replace by the tampered with and removed, (2) the human auditory system
watermark. This achieve both spatial and frequency (HAS) operates over a wide dynamic range between 20 Hz
localization. It is both perceptual invisibility and robustness to 20 kHz, making it difficult to embed outside this rage,
to compression. It is robustness to noise, image processing (3) there is a limited area of embedding the data. Currently,
techniques, median filter, geometric transform. audio watermarking techniques [7] mainly focus on four
aspects: low bit coding, phase coding, spread spectrum-based
Hierarchical Watermarking Depending on Local Constraints
coding and echo hiding.
This propose the watermarking technique where the watermark
is embedded according to two keys. The first key is used to Low-Bit Coding
embed a code bit in a block of pixels. The second is used to The basic idea in low-but coding techniques is to embed the
generate the whole sequence of code bits. The watermark is watermark in an audio signal by replacing the least significant
embedded in spatial domain by adding or subtracting a random bit of each sampling point by a coded binary string
digital pattern to the given image signal depends on the local corresponding to the watermark
energy distribution. The embedding depth level depends on
the spectral density distribution of DCT coefficients and on Phase Coding
the JPEG quantization table and inserts the watermark in the A hidden datum is represented by a particular phase or phase
low frequency component. The label consists of a set of bits change in the phase spectral. Phase coding is one of the most
which are embedded locally in a rectangular set of blocks and effective coding schemes in term of the signal-to-noise ratio
it is repeated over the entire image. After detecting individual because experiments indicate that listeners might not hear any
MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. (52-59) 55
ISSN 2230-7621 MIT Publications

difference caused by a smooth phase shift, even though the this techniques involves segmenting an audio signal into frames
signal patterns may change dramatically. in time domain, classifying the frames as belongs to one of
several known classes, ad then encoding each frame with an
Spread Spectrum appropriate embedding scheme. To enchase the robustness and
The basic spread spectrum technique is designed to encrypt a taper-resistance of the embedded watermark, a multiple-bit
stream of information by spreading the encrypted data across hopping technique is employed. Instead of embedding one bit
as much of the frequency spectrum as possible. It turns out into an audio frame, multiple bits with different time delay
that may spread spectrum techniques adapt well to data hiding can be embedded into each audio sub-frame.
in audio signals.
Muteness-Based Audio Watermarking Technique
Echo Hiding This audio watermarking approach bears certain similarities
Echo hiding is a method for embedding information into an with the open space text watermarking. The audio counterparts
audio signal. It seeks to do so in a robust fashion, while not of text spaces are periods of silence. In audio signal, a mute
perceivably degrading the original signal. Echo hiding embeds period offers the following advantages: (1) a mute period is
data by introducing an echo. The value of a hidden datum an integral part of any audio signal. It cannot be omitted since
corresponds to the time delay of the echo and its amplitude. it represents an integral part of the studio signal. (2) It occurs
The echo delays are selected to be less than the detectable randomly in audio signal, which is generated by the music
hearing limited. Here are some developed audio watermarking process. (3) A mute period represents a real time interval that
schemes that applied the above techniques. will not be decreased when compressed. The audio
watermarking technique presented in this scheme is a
Affine Resistant Digital Audio Watermarking Using Template
muteness-based, which offers the following features: (1) It
Matching
extends the mute periods in an audio signal without any
This is an approach for embedding a digital watermark perceptual difference to the average human auditory system.
inaudibly into an audio clip, in the time domain, according to (2) The extension of mute periods carries the same amplitude
the difference between two half blocks of each block. The so it will blend with the original and will not attract any
proposed scheme does not require any host-related information attention. (3) It does not require the original signal to extract
for watermark extraction. The embedded watermark is robust the watermark.
to common audio signal manipulations, such as MP3
compression, time shifting, cropping, time scaling, D/A A/D Video Watermarking
conversion, insertion, deletion, re-sampling, re-quantization
Most of the proposed video watermarking scheme based on
and filtering. Two kinds of information are hidden in the audio:
the techniques of the image watermarking and applied to raw
the owners information and a synchronization template. The
video or the compressed video. As some issue in video
owners information is a binary image provided by the
watermarking is not present in image watermarking, such as
copyright owner, which can be words, numbers, a signature, a
video object and redundancy of the large amount video data,
personal seal or an organizations logo. The synchronization
researchers have make use of those characteristics to develop
template is generated by a random number generator controlled
different schemes,. The details of some schemes [8-11] would
by a secret key and is used for synchronizing the signal skew
be discussed in the following section.
caused by time shifting, cropping and time scaling attacks.
The two kinds of information are combined together and A Robust Watermarking Approach for Raw Video
dispersed by another secret key before embedding. The
This approach first extracts the brightness of the to-be-marked
proposed technique can be applied to automatically search
frame, computing its full-frame DFT and then taking the
for a protected audio from an audio database (or from the World
magnitude of the coefficients. The watermark is composed of
Wide Web) by first matching the synchronization template,
two alphanumerical strings. The DFT coefficient is altered,
and then show the owners information if it is claimed to have
then IDFT. Only the first frame of each GOP is watermarked,
been watermarked.
which was composed of twelve frames, leaving the other ones
Digital Audio Watermarking Based-on Multiple-Bit Hopping uncorrupted. It is good robustness to the usual image
and Human Auditory System processing as linear/non-linear filtering, sharpening, JPEG
To optimally balance in-audibility and robustness when compression and resist to geometric transformations as scaling,
embedding and extracting watermarks, the embedding scheme rotation and cropping. Decide to watermark one or more frames
is high related to audio content by making use of the properties in GOP, a trade-off between time spent for marking and the
of human auditory system and multiple-bit hopping technique. degree of robustness needed for the sequence can be achieve.
The watermark embedding design is based on audio content
A New Wavelet-Based Digital Watermarking for Video
and HAS. With content-adaptive embedding scheme, the
embedding parameter for setting up the embedding process This method proposes a method of embedding a digital
will vary with the content of the audio signal. In broad term, watermark image into the video watermarking, the decomposed
MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. (52-59) 56
ISSN 2230-7621 MIT Publications

watermark image with different resolutions embedding in the like watermark is statistically undetectable to prevent
corresponding resolution of the decomposed video by means unauthorized removal.
of multi resolution signal decomposing. The proposed method
is robust against the attack of frame dropping, averaging and
lossy compression.

Multi-resolution Video Watermarking using Perceptual


Models and Scene Segmentation
The watermark consists of static and dynamic temporal
components that are generated from a temporal wavelet
transform of the video scenes. To generate the watermark, the Figure 1.3: Flow Diagram of a simple additive watermark
resulting wavelet coefficient frames are modified by a method with Drift Compensation
perceptually shaped pseudo-random sequence representing the
author. The noise-like watermark is statically undetectable to Video Object-based Watermarking: A Rotation and Flipping
thwart unauthorized removal. Furthermore, the author Resilient Scheme
representation resolves the deadlock problem. The multi
Video object is very important concept in Mpeg4 standard.
resolution watermark may be detected on single frames without
Video object may be purposely cut and pasted for illegal use.
knowledge of the location of the frames in the video scene.
In this paper, a robust watermarking scheme foe video object
Combating Geometrical Attacks in a DWT Based Blind Video protection is proposed. For each segmented video object, a
Watermarking System. watermark is embedded by a new technology designed based
in the concept of communication with side information. To
This scheme is a high capacity blind video watermarking
solve the asynchronous problem caused by object placement,
system invariant to geometrical attacks such as shift, rotation,
it proposes to use eigenvectors of a video object for
scaling and cropping. A spatial domain reference watermark
synchronization of rotation and flipping.
is used to obtain invariance to geometric attacks by employing
image registration techniques to determine and invert the Direct Sequence Watermarking for Digital Video using
attacks. A second, high capacity watermark, which carries the m-frames
data payload, is embedded in the wavelet domain according
This scheme applies a direct sequence spread spectrum model
to a human visual system model.
to the watermarking of the digital video. First, video signal is
Scrambling Technique for Video Object Watermarking modeled as a sequence of bit planes arranged along the time
Resisting to Mpeg-4 axis. Watermarking of this sequence is a two layer operation.
A controlling m-sequence first establishes a pseudorandom
This method presents a so-called scrambling technique which
order in the bit plane stream for later watermarking. Watermark,
allows adapting any classical spread spectrum watermarking
defined as m-frames, supplant the tagged bit planes. Moreover,
scheme operating in the spatial domain to the Mpeg-4
attempts in corrupting the image to destroy the watermark
requirements concerning VO manipulation. This technique can
render the video useless before damaging.
be easily added to the embedding and detection schemes
without changing the watermarking algorithm. It modifies After embedding WM, the final bit rate may change. Hence
some predefined pairs of quantized DCT coefficient in the some rate-control algorithm must employ. Since motion vector
luminance block of pseudo-randomly selected MBs. It is based and MB modes are unchanged, the only parameter for rate
on spread-spectrum techniques. Dividing the image into blocks control is modifying the residuals. In other words, WM is
of equal size, them binary sequence is generated using secret embedded in the residuals, and later residuals are removed
key, and then adds to the image. Special decomposition of for rate control.
mpeg-4 include the fact that VO have significant value To summarize this, since motion vector and MB modes are
Watermark information has to present in each VO. not changed during watermarking, the bit rate increase is
caused by the additional residuals. If we minimize the
Object-Based Transparent Video Watermarking dependence of watermark on the residual, we must minimize
It presents a watermarking procedure to embed copyright the impact of WM on the bit rate. This can be achieved by
protection into video sequences. To address issues associated designing the WM such that it can be predicted by the motion
with video motion and redundancy, individual watermarks are vectors [12] and the MB modes as extracted by the bit stream.
created for objects within the video. Each watermark is created The watermarked video is also robust to video editing
by shaping an author and video dependent pseudo-random attempts such as sub sampling, frame reordering etc. The
sequence according to the perceptual masking characteristics watermark is also identifiable from very short segment of
of the video. As a result, the watermark adapts to each video video. Individual frames extracted from the video will also
to ensure invisibility and robustness. Furthermore, the noise contain the copyright information.
MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. (52-59) 57
ISSN 2230-7621 MIT Publications

Watermarking of compressed Video The optimization of the parameters is mutually competitive


The following figure shows the common method of embedding and cannot be clearly done at the same time. If we want to
watermark in the pre-coded bit stream. Three informations embed a large message, we cannot require large robustness
are extracted from the bit stream such as motion vectors, simultaneously. A reasonable compromise is always a necessity.
residuals and WM mode. The watermark is embedded in the On the other hand, if robustness to strong distortion is an issue,
residuals. Due to motion compensation, any effect on the the message that can be reliably hidden must not be too long.
residuals will propagate in time and spread to other frames.
To avoid this, drift compensation is performed by applying APPLICATIONS
motion compensation to the watermark embedded in the
previous frames performs drift compensation. Digital watermarking is a flexible technology used in a broad
range of applications. The first watermarking approaches were
directed at owner authentication or copyright protection,
REQUIREMENT OF WATERMARKING where an owner or producer identification is embedded to
The most important properties of digital watermarking prove ownership or source of the cover. A more recent
techniques are transparency, robustness, security, capacity, approach to copyright protection is to use digital watermarking
invertability (reversibility) and complexity and possibility of to identify single copies of an original media file by e.g.
verification. Based on these parameters, the algorithms can embedding a transaction code, a customer ID or a simple
be evaluated if a specific program had adequate properties continuous number into each copy. Whenever a copy is found,
and can be used for a certain application area. Transparency the watermark can be retrieved and the source can be identified
relates to the properties of the human sensory. A transparent by the embedded individual information. The customer is free
watermark causes no artifacts or quality loss. to use and consume the media data he bought in any way and
on any device he likes. But if he passes the content into illegal
Robustness environments and copies are found, he can be identified.
Therefore this application is called customer identification or
describes whether the watermark can be reliably detected after
customer tracing watermarking.
media operations. It is important to note that robustness does
not include attacks on the embedding scheme that are based The embedding of additional information into a cover or a
on the knowledge of the embedding algorithm or on the set of covers is called annotation watermarking. An annotation
availability of the detector function. Robustness means watermark only needs to be robust against a specified set of
resistance to blind, non-targeted modifications, or common transformations which are known to occur in the application
media operations. For example the Stirmark or Mosaik tools scenario.
attack the robustness of watermarking algorithms with Watermarking can also be used to identify specific content
geometrical distortions. For manipulation recognition the in a broadcast monitoring system. The watermark is embedded
watermark has to be fragile to detect altered media. to identify a cover in a broadcast channel to monitor its usage,
for example for the automatic generation of song tracking lists.
Security The requirements are similar to copyright protection
Security describes whether the embedded watermarking watermarking with respect to transparency and robustness. But
information cannot be removed beyond reliable detection by in addition, a low complexity at watermarking detection is
targeted attacks based on a full knowledge of the embedding necessary to enable real-time monitoring on multiple channels.
algorithm and the detector, except the key, and the knowledge Integrity protection is an application domain where the
of at least one watermarked data. The concept of security watermark enables to verify the integrity of the cover, to
includes procedural attacks, such as the IBM attack, or attacks recognize manipulations and sometimes even to recover the
based on a partial knowledge of the carrier modifications due original information after manipulations without the need to
to message embedding or embedding of templates. The security access the original cover. This can be achieved with or without
aspect also includes the false positive detection rates. knowledge of the content.
Digital watermarking can be use in Broadcast monitoring
Capacity specially for advertisement and its entertainment industries,
Capacity describes how many information bits can be to monitor content being broadcasted as contracted and by the
embedded. It addresses also the possibility of embedding authorized source.
multiple watermarks in one document in parallel. Fingerprint sometimes referred to as transaction tracking
or traitor tracking, to track back illegal duplication and
Invertibility distribution of the content. Multimedia fingerprint is a way to
Invertibility describes the possibility to produce the original prevent illegal redistribution of media content. Prior to
data during the watermark retrieval. distribution, each copy of the media document is uniquely
MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. (52-59) 58
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embedded with an ID, known as digital fingerprint. When an be invertible or to be copied. A copy attack, for example, would
unexpected copy is found, the embedded fingerprint can be aim at copying a watermark from one media into another
extracted and used to track back to the source of leak. To escape without knowledge of the secret key.
from detection, attackers may employ various attacks to try to
remove the fingerprints. Collision attack can be categorized CONCLUSION
into coded and non-coded fingerprint scheme. Orthogonal
fingerprinting is a typical example of non-coded fingerprinting, For India, having being endowed with a rich heritage of art
where mutually orthogonal spreading sequences are assigned and culture, copyright is perceived to offer potential rewards.
to users as fingerprint. The entertainment industry is one of the fastest growing sectors
Medical application: known as invertible watermarking, in the Indian economy. At present, India is not a signatory to
to provide both authentication and confidentiality in a reverse the WIPO Internet Treaties, but the government has proposed
manner without affecting the medical image in any way. amendments to the extant legislation to incorporate Digital
Rights Management (DRM) as enshrined in them.
Conventionally the western entertainment industry has viewed
EVALUATION AND BENCHMARKING OF DRM as an important tool to combat piracy pervasive on the
WATERMARKING ALGORITHMS internet. DRM involves the application of a set of technical
and legal mechanisms that allow copyright owners to control
Successful attacks on watermarks can be divided into four large
the access to their works, determine the types of permissible
categories are as followsremoval attacks, geometrical
uses and terms of such uses and the ultimate distribution of
attacks, cryptographic attacks and protocol attacks.
their works in the digital world. With the growing popularity
Removal Attack of Indian cinema abroad, the entertainment industry is
attracting increasing foreign investment, is gradually being
If somebody tries to eliminate the watermark from the data corporatized and thus it is felt that such investments need to
we speak from removal attack. Denoising the marked be protected. DRM is considered to be one of the solutions as
watermarked data through median or high pass filtering as it prevents loss due to unlimited unauthorized reproduction of
well as non-linear truncation or spatial watermark prediction works, introduces more effective market segmentation and
are methods considered very likely to succeed. promotes the incentive to create, facilitating the maximum
exploitation of works in the digital world. However, for India,
Geometrical Attacks a developing economy, such a path is to be treated with caution.
These attacks are not directly aimed to remove the watermark, DRM is an extra-statutory measure, with perceived potential
but try to either weaken it or disable its detection. This can be impact on consumer privacy, innovation and limiting legitimate
done using programs like Unzign or Stirmark. These introduce exceptions.
either local jittering or local geometrical bending in addition Creation, marketing and distribution of entertainment
to a global geometrical transformation. As a consequence, most products involves a lot of financial risks. These risks are
watermark detector looses synchronization with the embedded enhanced in the digital world as it facilitates the near perfect
information and therefore today these attacks are also referred reproduction of the original product and its rapid distribution
to as synchronization attacks. throughout the globe. In a digital age such as ours, music and
films are being increasing consumed over the internet. This is
Security Attack where the role of Digital Rights Management (DRM) becomes
In particular, if the watermarking algorithm is known, an vital as it is perceived to provide a safe environment for
attacker can further try to perform modifications to render the transaction of copyrighted content in the networked world by
watermark invalid or to estimate and modify the watermark. preventing access to it without the content owners
In this case, we talk about an attack on security. The authorization, making consumers usage rights explicit and
watermarking algorithm is considered secure if the embedded thereby establishing.
information cannot be destroyed, detected or forged, given
that the attacker has full knowledge of the watermarking REFERENCES
technique, has access to at least one piece of marked data
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Protocol Attack IEEE International Conference of Telecommunications and
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information nor at disabling the detection of the embedded [2] Ahmed Salama, Randa Atta and Rawya Rizk, Fayez Wanes,
information (deactivation of the watermark). Rather than that, A Robust Digital Image Watermarking Technique Based on
they take advantage of semantic deficits of the watermarks Wavelet Transform, IEEE International Conference on
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MIT International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. (52-59) 59
ISSN 2230-7621 MIT Publications

[3] C.S. Woo, J. Du and B. Pham, Performance Factors Analysis [9] Chan Pik Wah, Digital Video Watermarking Techniques for
of a Wavelet based Watermarking Method, Proc. 3rd Secure Multimedia Creation and Delivery, Proc. of the 2006
Australian Information Security Workshop. IEEE.
[4] Gordon W. Braudaway, and A.R. Rao, Minerva M. Yeung, [10] Maher ELARBI, Chokri BEN AMAR1 and Henri
Frederick C. Mintzer, Digital Watermarking for High-quality NICOLAS2, A Video Watermarking Scheme Resistant To
Imaging, Proc. of IEEE 2007. Geometric Transformation, IEEE International Conference
[5] S. Pereira, S. Voloshynovskiy and T. Pun, Optimized Wavelet on Image Processing, ICIP07, Vol. 55, 2007.
Domain Watermark Embedding Startegy Using Linear [11] Po-Chyi Su, Ming-Lun Li and Ing-Fun Chen A Content
Programming. Adaptive Digital Watermarking Scheme in H.264/AVC
[6] J. Zan, M.O. Ahmad and M.N. Swamy, Object-based image Comressed Video, 2008 International Conference of IEEE,
watermarking using wavelet, Proc. IEEE Canadan Conf. on pp. 849-852.
Electrical and Computer Engin., Vol. 2, May, 2004. [12] Yoshito Ueno, A Digital Video Watermarking Method by
[7] Chan Pik Wah, Digital Video Watermarking Techniques for Associating with the Motion Estimation, iCSPO4
Secure Multimedia Creation and Delivery Term Paper Proceedings of 2004 IEEE.
(Spring 2003) [13] Oztan harmonic, M. kivance, A.Murat Tekalp, Watermarking
[8] Yang Gaobo SUN Xingming, Wang Xiaojing, A Genetic and Streaming Compressed Video, Proc. of the 2007 IEEE
Algorithm based Video Watermarking in the DWT Domain, International Conference, pp. 833-836.
Proc. Of the 2006 IEEE Digital Object Identifier./ICCIAS.6.5,
pp. 1209-1210