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AB-23

CLASS C TUNED AMPLIFIER

ANALOG LAB
EXPERIMENT BOARD
Ver. 1.0

An ISO 9001: 2000 company


AB-23

94-101, Electronic Complex, Pardesipura INDORE-452010, India.


Tel.: 91-731-2570301 Fax: 91-731-2555643
Email: info@scientech.bz Web: www.scientech.bz

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AB-23

CLASS C TUNED AMPLIFIER


AB-23

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.Introduction 3
2. Theory 5
3.Experiment 1
To study the operation of Class C Tuned Amplifier. 9
4.Datasheet 12
5.Warranty 14
6.List of Service Centers 15
7.List of Accessories with AB-23 16

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AB-23

INTRODUCTION
AB-23 is a compact, ready to use CLASS C TUNED AMPLIFIER
experiment board. This board along with AB-21 and AB-22 boards is useful
for students to understand the working and operation of various power
amplifier categories. It can be used as stand alone unit with external DC
power supply or can be used with SCIENTECH ANALOG LAB ST-2612
which has built in DC power supply, AC power supply, function generator,
modulation generator, continuity tester, toggle switches and potentiometer.
List of Boards :
Model Name
AB-01 Diode characteristics (Si, Zener, LED)
AB-02 Transistor characteristics (CB NPN)
AB-03 Transistor characteristics (CB PNP)
AB-04 Transistor characteristics (CE NPN)
AB-05 Transistor characteristics (CE PNP)
AB-06 Transistor characteristics (CC NPN)
AB-07 Transistor characteristics (CC PNP)
AB-08 FET characteristics
AB-15 Common Emitter Amplifier
AB-16 Common Collector Amplifier
AB-17 Common Base Amplifier
AB-18 R-C Coupled Amplifier
AB-21 Class A Amplifier
AB-22 Class B Amplifier (push pull emitter follower)
AB-26 Phase Locked Loop (FM Demodulator &
Frequency Multiplier)
AB-28 Multivibrators (Astable / Monostable)
AB-29 F-V and V-F Converter
AB-30 V-I and I-V Converter
AB-31 Zener Voltage Regulator
AB-32 Transistor Series Voltage Regulator
AB-33 Transistor Shunt Voltage Regulator
AB-41 Differential Amplifier (Transistorized)
AB-42 Operational Amplifier (Inverting / Non-
inverting / Differentiator)
AB-43 Operational Amplifier (Adder/Scalar)

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AB-23

AB-90
AB-44 AB-91
AB-92
AB-45 AB-93
AB-51
AB-52 Operational Amplifier (Integrator/
AB-53 Differentiator)
AB-56 Schmitt Trigger and Comparator
AB-65 Active filters (Low Pass and High Pass)
Active Band Pass Filter
AB-66 Notch Filter
Fiber Optic Analog Link
AB-67 Phase Shift Oscillator
Wien Bridge Oscillator
AB-81 Colpitt Oscillator
Kirchoffs Laws (Kirchoffs Current Law &
Kirchoffs Voltage Law)
AB-82 Thevenins and Maximum power Transfer
Theorem
AB-83 Reciprocity and Superposition Theorem
Tellegens Theorem
Two port network parameter
AB-84 Optical Transducer (Photovoltaic cell)
Optical Transducer(Photoconductive cell/LDR)
Optical Transducer (PhotoTransistor)
and many more

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AB-23

THEORY
The power amplifiers are the amplifiers which deliver maximum
undistorted symmetrical output voltage swing to the low impedance load.
Generally any system (like a stereo, radio or television) consists of several
stages of amplification. When the signal passes through these stages, the
power level of signal rises so much that the later stages require high power
handling circuit elements such as power transistors. Also as the load
impedance of these later stages is very small (of the order of 8 ohm for
stereo amplifier speakers), heavy collector current flows. To handle this,
transistors heaving power rating of 1W or more are used in power
amplifiers.
Power amplifiers are broadly classified as :
1. Class A (Voltage Amplifier)
2. Class B (Push-Pull Emitter Follower)
3. Class C Tuned Amplifier
Class C Tuned Amplifier :
Class C amplifier is a power amplifier in which collector current of the
amplifying transistor flows for less than 180 of input AC signal.

Fig. 1

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AB-23

In short a class C amplifier is one in which the operating point is chosen so


that the output current (or voltage) is zero for more than one half of an input
sinusoidal signal. The output signal would be distorted if this non-
sinusoidal current flows through the resistive load. To avoid the distortion
that would occur due to purely resistive load, load is usually a resonant tank
circuit (LC circuit), which therefore has a high resistive value at the
frequency of interest. Hence, the selected signal output is free from non-
linear distortions. The resonant tank circuit is tuned to the frequency of
input signal. When the circuit has a high quality factor (Q), parallel
resonance occurs at approximately.

Where,
L = inductance
C = capacitance
The AC equivalent circuit of base-emitter junction is as shown in Fig.2
when Q of the circuit is high enough.

Fig.2

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AB-23

As shown the input capacitor is a part of a negative clamper and hence the
signal is negatively clamped. On the positive half cycle of the input signal
the coupling capacitor charges to approx. VP with polarity shown as the
base-emitter diode conducts. On the negative half cycle, capacitor
discharges through R1. Capacitor continues to discharge till the period T of
the input signal is less than time constant R1C. As the base voltage swings
slightly above 0.7V the base-emitter diode turns on, thus recharging the
capacitor.

Fig. 3

Fig. 4

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AB-23

At the output side the collector current source drives a parallel resonant tank
circuit. At resonance, the AC load impedance is purely resistive and the
collector current is minimum and the peak-to-peak load voltage reaches a
maximum. Above and below the resonance, AC load impedance decreases
and the collector current increases, thus reducing the amplification level or
introducing distortion in the output signal. A class C amplifier is a
narrowband circuit it amplifies only the signals of resonant frequency and
near to it. As the amplification level reduces when input frequency is
moved up and down the resonant frequency, we can find out the bandwidth
of the amplifier. The bandwidth of the Class C amplifier can be find out as
follows,
BW = FH - FL
Where,
FH = upper half power frequency
FL = lower half power frequency
The half power frequencies are identical frequencies at which the voltage
gain equals 0.707 times the maximum gain. The smaller the difference,
narrower is the bandwidth of amplifier.
The dc collector current depends on the conduction angle and hence the
overall efficiency of the amplifier. In short as the duty cycle increases the
efficiency of the amplifier decreases. For the conduction angle of 180 the
amplifier efficiency is 78.5%. If we further reduce the conduction angle the
stage efficiency will increase. The class C amplifier efficiency can be 100%
at the maximum.
The following formulas are used for Class C Tuned Amplifier,
1. Input AC Power, Pi(ac) = Vp-p2 / 8 * Rs (Rs = Input impedance)
2. Output AC Power, Po(ac) = Vp-p2 / 8 * RL (RL= Output impedance)
3. Power Gain, Ap = Po(ac) / Pi(ac)
4. Input DC Power, Pi(dc) = Vcc * Idc (Idc = Input DC Current)
5. Efficiency, n% = Po(ac) * 100/ Pi(dc)

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AB-23

EXPERIMENT 1
Object :
To study the operation of Class C Tuned Amplifier.
Apparatus Required:
1. Analog board of AB-23.
2. Variable DC power supply +12V from external source or ST-2612
Analog Lab.
3. Function Generator from external source or ST-2612 Analog Lab.
4. Oscilloscope.
5. Ammeter.
6. 2 mm. patch cords.
Circuit Diagram :
Circuit used to study the operation of Class C Tuned Amplifier is shown
below

Fig. 5

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AB-23

Procedure :

Connect + 12V DC power supply at their indicated position from


external source or ST-2612 Analog Lab.
Connect 2Vp-p AC signal (10 KHz and above) at the Vin input of the
AB- 23 board.
1. Connect Oscilloscope at the output terminals of AB-23 and observer
the output waveform.
2. Connect ammeter between the points a and b.
3. Gradually increase the input signal frequency up to the value till the
maximum undistorted amplified output is obtained.
4. Vary the pot such that the output voltage amplitude increases. Adjust
the pot to get maximum undistorted (unclipped) output voltage.
5. Note the frequency at which this amplification is obtained and check
it against the theoretically calculated resonant frequency calculated
using Eq. l.
6. Observe the conduction angle at the test point TP1 on AB-23 board.
7. Calculate the peak-to peak value of the output signal.
8. Observe the output voltage level above and below to resonant
frequency by varying input frequency from 5 KHz to 100 KHz.
9. Carryout the following calculations.
10. Apply +15V or +10V to the input bias voltage instead of +12V and
observer the changes in the output voltage.
Results :
Input AC signal amplitude (Vin) : ........................................... Vp-p
Output AC signal amplitude (Vout) :........................................ Vp-p
Resonant Frequency (Fr) : (Practical value) : ........................ Hz
Resonant Frequency (fr) : (Theoretical value) : .....................Hz (From Eq.l)
Input AC Power (Pi(ac) = Vp-p2 /8 * Rs) : ..................................W.
Output AC Power (Po(ac) = Vp-p2 / 8 * RL):...............................W.

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Power Gain (Ap = Po(ac) / Pi(ac)) : ............................................


Input DC power (Pi(dc) = Vcc * Idc) : ...................................... W
(Note: To calculating DC power, switch off the AC signal and now read the
ammeter for DC current Idc)
Efficiency (n % = Po(ac) * 100 / Pi(dc)) : .................................. %
3dB voltage (Vout (max) - ( Vout (max) * 0.707)) :............................. Vp-p
Higher Cutoff Frequency (FH) :.............................................. Hz
Lower Cutoff Frequency (FL) :............................................... Hz
Bandwidth (BW = FH - FL) :....................................................
Carry out the same calculations after applying +15V and +10V and observe
the changes.

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DATASHEET

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WARRANTY
1) We guarantee the instrument against all manufacturing defects during
24 months from the date of sale by us or through our dealers.
2) The guarantee covers manufacturing defects in respect of indigenous
components and material limited to the warranty extended to us by the
original manufacturer, and defect will be rectified as far as lies within
our control.
3) The guarantee will become INVALID.
a) If the instrument is not operated as per instruction given in the
instruction manual.
b) If the agreed payment terms and other conditions of sale are not
followed.
c) If the customer resells the instrument to another party.
d) Provided no attempt have been made to service and modify the
instrument.
4) The non-working of the instrument is to be communicated to us
immediately giving full details of the complaints and defects noticed
specifically mentioning the type and sr. no. of the instrument, date of
purchase etc.
5) The repair work will be carried out, provided the instrument is
dispatched securely packed and insured with the railways. To and fro
charges will be to the account of the customer.
DESPATCH PROCEDURE FOR SERVICE
Should it become necessary to send back the instrument to factory please
observe the following procedure:
1) Before dispatching the instrument please write to us giving full details
of the fault noticed.
2) After receipt of your letter our repairs dept. will advise you whether it
is necessary to send the instrument back to us for repairs or the
adjustment is possible in your premises.
Dispatch the instrument (only on the receipt of our advice) securely packed
in original packing duly insured and freight paid along with accessories and
a copy of the details noticed to us at our factory address.

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AB-23

LIST OF SERVICE CENTERS

1. Scientech Technologies P. Ltd.


90, Electronic Complex Ph: (0731) 5202959
Pardesipura, Email: info@scientech.bz
INDORE 452010
2. Scientech Technologies P. Ltd.
First Floor, Ph.: (011) 26513912, 26864943
14, Uday Park, Fax: (011) 26864943.
NEW DELHI 110049 Email: ndel@scientech-india.com
3. Scientech Technologies P. Ltd.
New no.2, Old no.10, 4th street Ph.: (044) 52187548, 52187549
Venkateswara nagar, Adyar Fax: (044) 52187549
CHENNAI 600025 Email: chennai@scientech-india.com
4. Scientech Technologies P. Ltd.
202/19, 4th main street Ph.: (080) 51285011
Ganganagar, Fax: (080) 51285022
BANGALORE- 560032 Email: bangalore@scientech.bz
5. Scientech Technologies P. Ltd.
First floor, L block Ph.: (022) 56299547
Ranjit studio compound, Fax: (022) 24155984
Dada Saheb Phalke road, Email: stplmum@vsnl.net
Dadar (East)
MUMBAI 400014
6. Scientech Technologies P. Ltd.
988, Sadashiv Peth, Ph.: (020) 24461673
Gyan Prabodhini Lane, Fax: (020) 24482403
PUNE 411030 Email: pune@scientech-india.com
7. Scientech Technologies P. Ltd
4, Balaji Nagar Mobile: 98231-94992
Hingna Road, E mail: ckolhekar@yahoo.com
Opp. N.N.S. Bank Ltd.
NAGPUR- 440016

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AB-23

LIST OF ACCESSORIES
1. 2mm Patch cord (red) .........................................................1 Nos.
2. 2mm Patch cord (black) ......................................................3 Nos.
3. 2mm Patch cord (blue) ........................................................3 Nos.

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