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IZNIK osmanska keramika iz dubine Jadrana — Ottoman pottery from the depths of the Adriatic

IZNIK osmanska keramika

iz dubine Jadrana

Ottoman pottery from the depths of the Adriatic

15. srpnja – 30. rujna 2016.

15 July – 30 September 2016

15. srpnja – 30. rujna 2016. — 15 July – 30 September 2016 Žitnica Rupe /
15. srpnja – 30. rujna 2016. — 15 July – 30 September 2016 Žitnica Rupe /

Žitnica Rupe / Rupe Granary Dubrovnik, 2016.

Izložba je ostvarena sredstvima Ministarstva kulture Republike Hrvatske, Grada Dubrovnika i Hrvatskog restauratorskog zavoda.

Dubrovački muzeji i Hrvatski restauratorski zavod zahvaljuju svim institucijama i pojedincima koji su pripomogli pri ostvarenju izložbe.

Izložba je održana u Muzeju Mimara od 18. svibnja do 13. rujna 2015.

održana u Muzeju Mimara od 18. svibnja do 13. rujna 2015. The exhibition has been funded
održana u Muzeju Mimara od 18. svibnja do 13. rujna 2015. The exhibition has been funded

The exhibition has been funded by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia, City of Dubrovnik and Croatian Conservation Institute.

The Dubrovnik Museums and the Croatian Conservation Institute express their sincere gratitude to institutions and individuals for their contribution in the realization of this exhibition.

The exhibition was put on in the Mimara Museum from 18 May to 13 September 2015

Medijski pokrovitelji/ Media Sponsors:

to 13 September 2015 Medijski pokrovitelji/ Media Sponsors: Sponzor/ Sponsor: Partneri - Promotori / Partners -

Sponzor/ Sponsor:

Medijski pokrovitelji/ Media Sponsors: Sponzor/ Sponsor: Partneri - Promotori / Partners - promotors: Izložbu
Medijski pokrovitelji/ Media Sponsors: Sponzor/ Sponsor: Partneri - Promotori / Partners - promotors: Izložbu
Medijski pokrovitelji/ Media Sponsors: Sponzor/ Sponsor: Partneri - Promotori / Partners - promotors: Izložbu
Medijski pokrovitelji/ Media Sponsors: Sponzor/ Sponsor: Partneri - Promotori / Partners - promotors: Izložbu

Partneri - Promotori / Partners - promotors:

Sponsor: Partneri - Promotori / Partners - promotors: Izložbu organiziraju Dubrovački muzeji i Hrvatski
Sponsor: Partneri - Promotori / Partners - promotors: Izložbu organiziraju Dubrovački muzeji i Hrvatski

Izložbu organiziraju Dubrovački muzeji i Hrvatski restauratorski zavod u suradnji s Muzejom Mimara i Institutom Yunus Emre.

zavod u suradnji s Muzejom Mimara i Institutom Yunus Emre. The exhibition is organized by the
zavod u suradnji s Muzejom Mimara i Institutom Yunus Emre. The exhibition is organized by the

The exhibition is organized by the Dubrovnik Museums and the Croatian Conservation Institute in cooperation with the Mimara Museum and Yunus Emre Institute.

Dubrovački muzeji Pred Dvorom 3, Dubrovnik www.dumus.hr

Hrvatski restauratorski zavod N. Grškovića 23, Zagreb www.h-r-z.hr

Muzej Mimara Rooseveltov trg 5, Zagreb www.mimara.hr

Institut Yunus Emre Anafartalar Mahallesi Atatürk Bulvarı No : 11 06050 Ulus / Ankara www.yee.org.tr

Katalog izložbe / Exhibition catalogue „Iznik – osmanska keramika iz dubine Jadrana“ / „Iznik –

Katalog izložbe / Exhibition catalogue „Iznik – osmanska keramika iz dubine Jadrana“ / „Iznik – Ottoman pottery from the depths of the Adriatic”

Nakladnici / Publishers Dubrovački muzeji / Dubrovnik Museums Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb / Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb

Za nakladnike / For the publishers Pavica Vilać Mario Braun

Urednici / Editors Igor Miholjek Vesna Zmaić Kralj

Autori tekstova / Authors of texts Nurhan Atasoy Jurica Bezak Pavle Dugonjić Anita Ivanković Liljana Kovačić Igor Mihajlović Igor Miholjek Maša Vuković Biruš Vesna Zmaić Kralj

Prijevod na engleski / English translation Iva Stojević Graham McMaster

Lektura / LANGUAGE EDITORS Marijana Janjić (hrvatski / Croatian) Ana Đukić (engleski / English) Karmela Prosoli

Fotografije / Photographs Robert Mosković Jerko Macura Igor Miholjek Pavle Dugonjić Jurica Škudar Maša Vuković Biruš

Crteži / Drawings Suzana Čule Anita Ivanković Martina Rončević Vesna Zmaić Kralj

Oblikovanje kataloga, panoa i pozivnica / Catalogue, panel and invitation card design Maja Draganić, Typonine, Zabok

Zahvale / Acknowledgements Anđelko Vlašić Rosana Zepp

Tisak / Print Stega-tisak d.o.o., Zagreb

Naklada / EDITION

500

ISBN: 978-953-7037-66-6 (Dubrovački muzeji) ISBN: 978-953-7389-21-5 (hrz)

CIP zapis dostupan u računalnom Skupnom katalogu hrvatskih knjižnica pod brojem 560624029.

Izložba / Exhibition

„Iznik – osmanska keramika iz dubine Jadrana“

/ „Iznik – Ottoman pottery from the depths of the Adriatic“ 15. srpnja – 30. rujna 2016.

/ 15 July – 30 September 2016

Organizacija izložbe / Exhibition organisation Dubrovački muzeji / Dubrovnik Museums Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb / Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb

Autori izložbe / Authors of the exhibition Igor Miholjek Vesna Zmaić Kralj

Rekonstrukcija građe / Reconstruction of the exhibits Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Odjel za restauriranje

kopnenih nalaza, Zagreb / Croatian Conservation Institute, Department for Conservation of Archaeological Finds, Zagreb Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Odjel za restauriranje podvodnih arheoloških nalaza, Zadar / Croatian Conservation Institute, Department for Conservation of Underwater Archaeological Finds, Zadar Preparatorske radionice Dubrovačkih Muzeja

/ Preparation Workshops of the Dubrovnik Museums Renata Andjus Martina Ćurković Mihael Golubić Antonija Jozić Anita Jelić Mladen Mustaček Maša Vuković Biruš

Inventarizacija muzejske građe

/ Inventarisation of the museum’s collection Dubrovački muzeji / Dubrovnik Museums

Koordinator izložbe / Exhibition co-ordinator Ana Kaznačić Skurić

Oblikovanje i likovni postav izložbe

/ Exhibition design and set up Ivona Michl

Tehnička realizacija postava izložbe

/ Technical realization of the exhibition set up Nikša Uhodić Pasko Burin Nikša Đevoić Mišo Lečić Vinko Petrović

Marketing i pr / Marketing and pr Ivana Urošević

Edukativni programi / Educational program Aleksandra Piteša Orešković

sadržaj / contents

11

12

18

22

38

52

94

122

128

203

Popis autora / List of contributors

Predgovor / Foreword zlatko hasanbegović, Mario Braun, tugomir lukšić, Pavica Vilać

Keramika iz Iznika u svjetlu novih nalaza

/ The Arts of İznik Pottery in the Light of New Findings Nurhan Atasoy

O nalazima keramike Iznika u Hrvatskoj, trgovini

i importu na Jadranu s posebnim osvrtom na Dubrovnik

/ On the finds of Iznik pottery in Croatia, trade and import along the Adriatic with a special look on Dubrovnik Liljana Kovačić

Podvodna arheološka istraživanja brodoloma na pličini Sveti Pavao

/ Underwater archaeological excavations of the shipwreck in the Sveti Pavao shallows Igor Miholjek

Teret keramike osmanskog grada Iznika

/ Pottery cargo from the Ottoman town of Iznik Vesna Zmaić kralj

Brod - konstrukcija, naoružanje, svakodnevni život

/ The ship - construction, ordnance, life on board Igor Mihajlović, Jurica Bezak, Pavle Dugonjić, Anita Ivanković

Konzervacija i restauracija keramičkih nalaza s brodoloma Sveti Pavao

/ The conservation and restoration of the pottery finds from the Sveti Pavao shipwreck Maša Vuković Biruš

Katalog / Catalogue

Literatura / Bibliography

popis autora / list of contributors

Nurhan Atasoy Stručnjak za Iznik / Expert in Iznik pottery e-mail: nurhanatasoy@yahoo.com

Jurica Bezak

Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb

/ Croatian Conservation Institute

Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju

/ Department for Underwater Archaeology

e-mail: jbezak@h-r-z.hr

Pavle Dugonjić neovisni istraživač / independent researcher

vanjski suradnik Hrvatskog restauratorskog zavoda

/ associate of the Croatian Conservation Institute e-mail:pdugonjic@inet.hr

Anita Ivanković Arheološki muzej u Zagrebu

/ Archaeological Museum in Zagreb

e-mail:anita.ivankovic11@gmail.com

Liljana Kovačić

Dubrovački muzeji, Dubrovnik - Arheološki muzej

/ Dubrovnik Museums - Archaeological museum e-mail: liljana.kovacic@dumus.hr

Igor Mihajlović

Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb

/ Croatian Conservation Institute

Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju

/ Department for Underwater Archaeology e-mail: imihajlovic@h-r-z.hr

Igor Miholjek

Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb

/ Croatian Conservation Institute

Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju

/ Department for Underwater Archaeology e-mail: imiholjek@h-r-z.hr

Vesna Zmaić Kralj

Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb

/ Croatian Conservation Institute

Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju

/ Department for Underwater Archaeology e-mail: vzmaic@h-r-z.hr

Maša Vuković-Biruš

Hrvatski restauratorski zavod, Zagreb

/ Croatian Conservation Institute

Odjel za restauriranje kopnenih arheoloških nalaza

/ Department for Conservation of Archaeological finds e-mail: mbvukovic@h-r-z.hr

predgovor

zlatko hasanbegović Ministar kulture

Mario Braun Ravnatelj Hrvatskog restauratorskog zavoda

Tugomir Lukšić Ravnatelj Muzeja Mimara

Pavica Vilać Ravnateljica Dubrovačkih muzeja

foreword

zlatko hasanbegović The Minister of Culture

Mario Braun Director of the Croatian Conservation Institute

Tugomir Lukšić Director of the Mimara Museum

Pavica Vilać Director of the Dubrovnik Museums

I zložba „Iznik – osmanska keramika iz dubine Jadrana“, koja je tijekom 2015. godine predstavljena u Muzeju Mimara,

izazvala je veliku pozornost publike i međunarodne stručne javnosti. Prvi put izložena, dragocjena građa svjedočila je o velikome i još do kraja neistraženome bogatstvu jadransko- ga podmorja, u povijesti sjecištu važnih plovnih putova. Zahvaljujući kontinuiranim arheološkim istraživanjima, koja provode Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju Hrvatskoga restau- ratorskog zavoda, Međunarodni centar za podvodnu arheo- logiju u Zadru te arheolozi konzervatorskih odjela i filozof- skih fakulteta u suradnji s Ministarstvom kulture Republike Hrvatske, kao krovnom institucijom za zaštitu kulturne baštine, Hrvatska postaje referentno mjesto istraživanja, čuvanja i prezentacije podmorske kulturne baštine. Izložba kojom se predstavljaju arheološki nalazi s lokaliteta na pličini Sv. Pavao kod otoka Mljeta, gdje je pronađen potopljeni trgovački brod s kraja 16. stoljeća koji je prevozio teret vrijednoga keramičkog posuđa iz turskoga grada Iznika, korak je prema cjelovitoj interpretaciji me- đunarodnih veza euroazijske pomorske trgovine Sredoze- mljem, u kojoj je obala istočnoga Jadrana imala veliku ulogu. Prezentacijom ovoga vrijednog dijela hrvatske kulturne baštine, prepoznavanjem i vrjednovanjem njezi- noga kulturnog kapitala u kontekstu održiva i društveno odgovornoga razvoja, snažno povezujemo kulturu s drugim područjima, posebno turizmom, gospodarstvom, naobraz- bom.

Izložba u Dubrovačkim muzejima ima veliko zna- čenje za Ministarstvo kulture. U instituciji kojoj je građa povjerena na trajno čuvanje te daljnju zaštitu i obradbu, ona pronalazi svoj budući stalni dom. Zahvaljujem svima koji su omogućili ovu izložbu, ponajprije kustosima Dubrovačkih muzeja, Hrvatskomu restauratorskom zavodu te Institutu Yunus Emre.

dr.sc. zlatko hasanbegović Ministar kulture

T he exhibition “Iznik – Ottoman Ceramics from the Depths of the Adriatic”, which was presented in the

Mimara Museum in 2015, excited a great deal of attention from both the general public and the discipline worldwide. Shown for the first time, this invaluable material bore testi- mony to the great and still not entirely explored richness of the seabed of the Adriatic, which was at the intersection of numerous navigation routes during the course of history. Thanks to ongoing archaeological investigations that are carried out by the Underwater Archaeology Depart- ment of the Croatian Conservation Institute, the Inter- national Centre for Underwater Archaeology in Zadar, as well as by archaeologists of conservation departments and faculties of humanities in collaboration with the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia, the umbrella organisa- tion for the protection of the cultural heritage, Croatia has become a place of reference in the research into, preserva- tion and presentation of the underwater cultural heritage. The exhibition, which presents archaeological finds from the site of the Sv. Pavao shoals off Mljet Island, where a sunken merchantman of the 16th century carrying a cargo of valuable ceramic ware from the Turkish city of Iznik was discovered, is a step toward an integrated interpretation of the international connections of Eurasian maritime trade in the Mediterranean, in which the eastern shores of the Adriatic had a major role. Through the presentation of this valuable part of the Croatian cultural heritage, the recognition and evalua- tion of its cultural capital in the context of sustainable and socially accountable development, we are strongly connect- ing culture with other areas, particularly with tourism, the economy and education. The exhibition in Dubrovnik Museums is of great importance for the Ministry of Culture. In the institution to which the material has been confided for permanent keep- ing and further protection and study, it has found its future lasting home. I thank all who have made this exhibition possible, above all the curators of Dubrovnik Museums, the Croatian Conservation Institute and the Yunus Emre Institute.

dr.sc. zlatko hasanbegović Minister of Culture

K ada je prije 9 godina započelo istraživanje brodoloma na pličini Sveti Pavao na otoku Mljetu nitko nije ni pretpo-

stavljao da će rezultat tog istraživanja biti tako značajan ni tako atraktivan kao što je danas vidljivo, kada je istraživanje došlo

u svoju završnu fazu. S druge strane, još se manje vjerojatnim

činilo da će se ubrzo nakon pronalaska skulpture Apoksiomena,

u podmorju kod Malog Lošinja, naći još jedan svjetski znača-

jan podvodni arheološki lokalitet u Hrvatskoj. Prezentacija tih nalaza omogućava njihovu promociju i izlaganje a time i

formiranje novih i trajnih kulturnih vrijednosti. Veliki broj već registriranih podvodnih arheoloških lokaliteta na otoku Mljetu, njihova brojnost i vremenska raznolikost nesumnjivo otvaraju raznolike mogućnosti njihove prezentacije. Nakon istraživanja

i interpretiranja lokaliteta te restauriranja arheoloških nalaza koje tamo nalazimo, otvaraju nam se nove mogućnosti kao što

je izgradnja novog muzeja i logističke točke za buduća podvod-

na arheološka istraživanja čime bi se ujedno i dodatno obogatio

turistički sadržaj otoka Mljeta i proširila atraktivnost Nacional- nog parka. To otvara nove mogućnosti Hrvatskome restaura- torskom zavodu kao javnoj restauratorskoj ustanovi koja preu- zima aktivnu ulogu formiranja drugih djelatnosti i svojevrsnog producenta muzeološko-turističke djelatnosti. Zavod je i po svojem ustroju i po svojim stručnim mogućnostima spreman za takve nove izazove, od istraživanja, preko formiranja mreže međunarodnih suradnika do oblikovanja izložbi te traženja alternativnih izvora financiranja za nastavak radova. U tim proširenjima funkcije i djelovanja ključno je i neizbježno da financiranje Ministarstva kulture postane trajni stabilni izvor kojim se generiraju nužne participacije fondov- skog financiranja. Time će se ujedno poticati i razvijati suradnja domaćih i stranih ustanova, poticati partnerstvo, povezivanje

i nadograđivanje djelatnosti između ustanova i partnera za

buduće još uspješnije i kvalitetnije djelovanje. Izložba „Iznik – osmanska keramika iz dubine Jadrana“, otvorena od 15. srpnja do 30. rujna 2016. godine u Žitnici Rupe u Dubrovniku, nastavak je prve izložbe koja je 2015. godine prika- zana u Muzeju Mimara u Zagrebu, sa željom da se naša bogata podvodna kulturna baština predstavi javnosti. S obzirom na to bogatstvo, povijesnu i kulturnu vrijednost, veseli nas da će se sljedeća izložba u tom nizu održati u Istanbulu.

Mario Braun, ravnatelj Hrvatskog restauratorskog zavoda

N ine years ago, when excavations of the shipwreck in the Sveti Pavao shallows began on the island of Mljet, no one

even guessed that the result of that research will be so signifi- cant, and so attractive as we see them today, when the research is in its final phase. On the other hand, it seemed even less like- ly that, so soon after the discovery of the Apoksiomenos statue in the waters of Mali Lošinj, there would be another archaeo- logical site of global importance in Croatia. The presentation of these finds enables their promotion and exhibition, and with it, the formation of all new permanent cultural values. A large number of already registered underwater archaeological sites on the island of Mljet, their great number and the diversity of time periods they belong to, open, without a doubt, a num- ber of different possibilities for their presentation. After the research and interpretation of the site, and the conservation of the recovered finds, new possibilities open, like the building of new museums and a logistical point for future underwater archaeological research which will additionally enrich the tour- istic offer of the island of Mljet and augment the attractiveness of the National Park. It opens new possibilities to the Croatian Conservation Institute as a public conservation institution that takes on an active role in forming other activities and the role of the producer of museological and tourist activities. The Institute is, by its organization and professional abilities, ready for such new challenges, from research and forming an international network of associates, to organizing exhibitions and finding alternative ways of funding the continuation of its work.

It is crucial that, in the expansions of the function and activities, the funding of the Ministry of Culture becomes a

solid and permanent source of necessary participation in finan- cial funds. That will also encourage and develop cooperation between national and foreign institutions, encourage partner- ship, connections and upgrades of activities between institu- tions and partners for successful and more quality research in the future. The exhibition “Iznik – Ottoman Ceramics from the

Depths of the Adriatic” will be open from

July 15 to September

30, 2016, in the Rupe Granary in Dubrovnik, and is a continua- tion of the first exhibition in a series presented in 2015 in the Mimara Museum in Zagreb, produced in the desire to present the wealth of the Croatian underwater cultural heritage. Be- cause of this richness, and its historical and cultural value, we are very glad that the next in the series of exhibitions will be shown in Istanbul.

Mario Braun, Director of the Croatian Conservation Institute

K ad je Hrvatski restauratorski zavod predložio da zajednički pripremimo izložbu “Iznik – osmanska keramika iz dubi-

ne Jadrana“ kako bismo javnosti pokazali arheološke nalaze brodoloma na pličini Sveti Pavao kraj otoka Mljeta, rado smo se odazvali. Jer riječ je o iznimnom podvigu hrvatskih podvodnih arheologa i restauratora, ali i o kulturno-povijesno i umjetnički vrlo vrijednoj građi koja je obogatila hrvatsku kulturnu baštinu. Od pamtivijeka su plovni putovi Sredozemnog mora omogućavali žive doticaje različitih naroda, kultura i vjera. Ali i živu trgovinu u kojoj su ponekad i umjetnine bila roba. Krajem 16. stoljeća, u vrijeme pobjedonosnog bujanja atlantske plovid- be nakon otkrića Amerike, na Sredozemlju su i dalje prevlast na moru zadržale Genova i Venecija, a uz njih i flota Osmanskog Carstva. Posebno se na Jadranskom moru odvijala intenzivna trgovačka plovidba pa su venecijanski brodovi učestalo prola- zili plovnim pravcima prema bogatim lukama Sjeverne Afrike i Azije, pogotovu prema Istanbulu, prijestolnici Osmanskog Carstva.

I tako se na pola puta između dva veličanstvena pomor- ska portala, Venecije kao vrata Europe i Istanbula kao vrata Azi- je, potopio brod. Među raznovrsnim predmetima arheološkog nalaza dosta ih je europskih ali još više osmanskih. Uglavnom su to luksuzne posude izrađene u oslikanoj keramici poznatoj kao keramika iz Iznika, namijenjenoj imućnijoj europskoj kli- jenteli. Ta je keramika, nazvana po turskome gradu u zapadnoj Anatoliji u kojem su se od druge polovice 15. do 17. stoljeća, s vrhuncem u 16. stoljeću, proizvodile glasovite keramičke ploči- ce za oblaganje džamija i keramičke posude, glavna građa naše izložbe.

Njenom ostvarenju pomogli su mnogi pa mi je zado- voljstvo zahvaliti Ministarstvu kulture Republike Hrvatske na pokroviteljstvu i financijskoj potpori. Gradu Zagrebu i sponzorima također na financijskoj potpori, te medijskim pokroviteljima. Hrvatsko turskoj udruzi prijateljstva, TINA (Turkish Institute of Nautical Archaeology) i Institutu Yunus Emre. Dubrovačkim muzejima koji će ubuduće skrbiti o ovoj građi kao svojem muzejskom inventaru te dakako Hrvatskom restauratorskom zavodu na sjajnoj suradnji. Zahvaljujem svim poduzećima, obrtima, pojedincima, bili oni vanjski suradnici ili djelatnici Muzeja Mimara, na pojedinim doprinosima u ostvare- nju izložbe.

Tugomir Lukšić Ravnatelj Muzeja Mimara

(do 21. studenoga 2015.)

W hen the Croatian Conservation Institute suggested a joint exhibition “Iznik – Ottoman pottery from the

depths of the Adriatic Sea”, that would reveal archaeological finds from the Sveti Pavao shallows on Mljet to the general public, we were happy to respond. This is indeed an exception- al exploit of underwater archaeologists and conservators, as well as a culturally, historically and artistically valuable materi- al that enriched Croatian cultural heritage. Since the beginning of time, the maritime routes across the Mediterranean have enabled contacts between different peoples, cultures, and religions. They also enabled trade, which sometimes included artworks as trading goods. At the end of the 16th century, in the times of the victorious rise of cross-At- lantic trade after the discovery of America, the Mediterranean was still dominated by Genoa and Venice, as well as the Otto- man fleet. The Adriatic Sea in particular was an area of intensive maritime trade, and Venetian ships often sailed across maritime routes towards rich harbors in North Africa and Asia, especially towards Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire. Half way between these great two maritime portals:

Venice at the gates of Europe and Istanbul at the gates of Asia, a ship sunk. Among the various finds archaeologists recovered, there were a lot of European artifacts, but even more of them were Ottoman – mostly luxurious elaborately decorated vessels from Iznik, intended for rich European clientele. Pottery, which is the main material displayed in this exhibition, was made in Iznik, an Ottoman town in western Anatolia which produced the famous ceramic wall tiles used for tiling mosques, as well as ceramic vessels from the second half of the 15th to the 17th century, peaking in the 16th century. The realization of this exhibition was enabled by many, so I am pleased to thank the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia for sponsorship and financial support, the City of Zagreb and other sponsors for their financial support, as well as media sponsors. To the Croatian-Turkish Friendship Society TINA (Turkish Institute of Nautical Archaeology) and the Yunus Emre Institute. To the Dubrovnik Museums that will continue to take care of this material as part of their museum inventory, and, of course, the Croatian Conservation Institute for their great cooperation. We thank all companies, businesses, individ- uals, whether they are associates or employees of the Mimara Museum for their individual contribution to the realization of this exhibition.

Tugomir Lukšić Director of the Mimara Museum

(until November 21, 2015)

P omorski muzej Dubrovačkih muzeja od 1972. godine sudje- lovao je u nizu podvodnih arheoloških istraživanja brodo-

lomâ u dubrovačkom podmorju, te stručno i znanstveno obra- dio pronađeni materijal, obogativši pritom umnogome fundus Muzeja, u kojem se danas čuva i predstavlja bogata podvodna baština Republike Hrvatske. Među prikupljenom arheološ- kom građom potrebno je istaknuti nekoliko najvažnijih nalaza. Primjerice, ostatci antičkog brodoloma na rtu Glavat na Mljetu jedinstveno su podvodno nalazište na Sredozemlju po količini izvađenoga sirovog stakla i olovnih ingota, a druga dva potonu- la broda u podmorju istoga otoka, kasnoantički u uvali Sobra i bizantski na rtu Stoba, iznjedrila su jedinstvene tipove amfora za prijevoz vina, ulja i usoljene ribe te keramičkog i staklenog posuđa, proizvedenoga u Siriji i Egiptu. Najstariji dosad prona- đeni primjerci opreme za navigaciju i brodskog naoružanja na hrvatskom Jadranu otkriveni su među ostatcima novovjekov- nog brodoloma iz 16. stoljeća u uvali Suđurađ na otoku Šipanu. Pomorski muzej, zajedno s Arheološkim muzejom Dubrovač- kih muzeja, i danas je uključen u nekoliko istraživanja brodo- lomâ na dubrovačkom području, koje sustavno provodi Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju Hrvatskoga restauratorskog zavoda, pa tako i u istraživanje jednoga od najvrjednijih novovjekovnih nalazišta potonulih brodova u hrvatskom podmorju – lokaliteta pličina Sveti Pavao kod otoka Mljeta, o kojem je ovdje riječ. U njemu mjerodavni muzeji Dubrovačkih muzeja sudjeluju od samoga početka, pridonoseći atribuiranju i datiranju nalazâ i brodolomâ. Tako je stručna ekspertiza Arheološkoga muzeja u Dubrovniku ustanovila da ostatci trgovačkog broda potječu iz druge polovine 16. stoljeća te da je prevozio luksuznu orijental- nu trgovačku robu, namijenjenu zapadnom tržištu. Višegodiš- nja zaštitna istraživanja koja su uslijedila, a koja je u razdoblju od 2007. do 2014. provodio Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju Hrvatskoga restauratorskog zavoda s vanjskim suradnicima, otkrila su iznimno bogat i vrijedan arheološki materijal na ostatcima potpuno sačuvanoga brodoloma, što je umnogome pridonijelo kvaliteti istraživanja i njegovoj interpretaciji. Nalazi koji su nakon vađenja i dokumentiranja postali muzejskom građom Pomorskoga muzeja u Dubrovniku, omogućit će tako cjelovitiju i kompleksniju prezentaciju velike dubrovačke po- morske povijesti. Uz predmete koji se odnose na inventar i opremu broda te brodsko naoružanje, muzejski fundus obogaćen je i je- dinstvenim nalazom većega broja cjelovito sačuvanoga stolnog posuđa, koje pripada skupocjenoj i nadaleko cijenjenoj izničkoj proizvodnji. Riječ je o visokokvalitetnoj glaziranoj osmanskoj keramici, koju je bogata klijentela sa Zapada kupovala u 16. sto- ljeću. Njezini su nalazi danas malobrojni i raritetni, a vrlo rijetki

T he Maritime Museum of the Dubrovnik Museums has been taking part in a number of underwater archaeological

researches on the territory of Dubrovnik since 1972, and has expertly and scientifically processed the uncovered material enriching the fund of the Museum that now cares for and exhibits Croatia’s rich underwater heritage. It is important to point out a few finds among the recovered artifacts that are considered most significant. For example, the Roman ship- wreck at Cape Glavat on Mljet represents a unique underwa- ter site in the Mediterranean due to the amount of raw glass and lead ingots recovered from the site, while the other two sunken ships at the seabed of the same island, the shipwreck from the period of Late Antiquity in the Sobra bay and the Byzantine shipwreck at Cape Stoba, yielded unique types of amphorae used for transport of wine, oil and salted fish, as well as pottery and glass vessels manufactured in Syria and Egypt. So far the oldest examples of navigation equipment and ship’s ordnance in the Adriatic were discovered among the remains of a Post- Medieval shipwreck from the 16th century in the Bay of Suđurađ near the island of Šipan. Even today, the Maritime Museum, along with the Archaeological Museum of the Dubrovnik Museums, is in- volved in a number of researches on shipwrecks systematically conducted by the Department of Underwater Archaeology of the Croatian Conservation Institute, including the research on the one ship in question, one of the most valuable Post-Medi- eval shipwreck sites in the Croatian waters - the Sveti Pavao shallows. The museums of competent jurisdiction of the Du- brovnik Museums have participated in this research from the very beginning, contributing to the attribution and dating of the finds and the shipwreck. That way, based on the scientific expertise made by the Archaeological Museum in Dubrovnik, it was determined that the shipwreck belongs to the second half of the 16th century and that it was shipping luxury ori- ental trading goods intended for the western market. In the years of rescue excavations that followed, conducted by the Department for Underwater Archaeology and their associates from 2007 to 2014, yielded exceptionally rich and valuable archaeological finds from the completely preserved remains of the shipwreck, which greatly contributed to the quality of re- search and the interpretation. The finds that were given to the Maritime Museum in Dubrovnik, after they were recovered and documented, will enable an integral and more complex presentation of Dubrovnik’s great maritime history. Along with artefacts pertaining to the ship’s inventory, equip- ment and ordnance, the Museum’s collection was enriched by a unique find of fully preserved tableware belonging to the

primjerci na tržištu dosežu iznimno visoke cijene. U Hrvat-

skoj je dosad pronađen velik broj ulomaka toga posuđa jedino

u Dubrovniku, uz samo nekoliko komada u sjeveroistočnoj

Hrvatskoj, pa se mljetski nalazi mogu držati najvažnijima, jer je riječ o cjelovitim ili gotovo cjelovitim primjercima. Zbog svoje iznimnosti i reprezentativnosti, odabrani su za središnju temu ove izložbe. Na posljetku, važno je istaknuti da ulomci pronađeni

u arheološkim istraživanjima na području povijesne jezgre Du-

brovnika svjedoče o prisutnosti raritetne produkcije iz Iznika i u ovom gradu u vrijeme najveće popularnosti te kreativnoga vrhunca ove keramike u 16. stoljeću, što se može objasniti

intenzivnim trgovačkim kontaktima Dubrovnika s Osmanskim Carstvom, ali i visokom razinom kulture življenja ovoga grada

državice, koji je, osobito u razdoblju svojega najvećeg procvata,

u 15. i 16. stoljeću, stajao uz bok drugim važnim centrima na

Sredozemlju. Dubrovački muzeji, kao suorganizatori izložbe i vla- snici izložene građe, svim sudionicima u projektu najiskrenije zahvaljuju na suradnji. Ljubazno zahvaljuju Ministarstvu kulture na svesrdnoj potpori projektu. Posebnu zahvalnost upućuju Odjelu za podvodnu arheologiju Hrvatskoga restauratorskog zavoda u Zagrebu i voditelju projekta Igoru Miholjeku, zajedno sa suradnicima, na predanom višegodišnjem istraživanju te trudu u pripremi i organizaciji izložbe. Ne manje zahvale duguju Odjelu za restauriranje podmorskih arheoloških nalaza Hrvatskoga restauratorskog zavoda u Zadru na restauraciji i rekonstrukciji nalazâ te ronilač- kom klubu Ronilačkog centra „Medveščak Sava“ iz Zagreba na visokoj razini svijesti o baštini i brzom reagiranju. Zahvalnost na suradnji također upućuju suradnicima Dipartimento di Scienze dell’Antichità e del Vicino Oriente Sveučilišta Ca’ Foscari iz Venecije, Institutu Yunus Emre, Turki- sh Institute of Nautical Archaeology, kao i Muzeju Mimara.

Pavica Vilać Ravnateljica Dubrovačkih muzeja

expensive and widely esteemed Iznik production. The high quality glazed Ottoman pottery was purchased by rich clients from the West in the 16th century. These finds are scarce and rare, and the few examples in the market reach exceptionally high prices. In Croatia, the largest amount of fragments of this kind of pottery has been found in Dubrovnik, with only a few specimens in northeast Croatia, so the finds from Mljet can be considered most significant because they are parts of whole or almost whole vessels. The fact that they are exceptional and representative made them the central subject of this exhibi- tion.

Lastly, it is important to point out that the fragments found in archaeological excavations in the historical core of Dubrovnik prove that the rare Iznik production in this town was present when its popularity was great, at the peak of its production in the 16th century, which can be explained through intensive trade contacts between Dubrovnik and the Ottoman Empire, as well as through a high level of culture of living of this town-state which, especially in the era of its greatest bloom, in the 15th and 16th centuries, stood side by side with other significant centres on the Mediterranean. The Dubrovnik Museums, as co-organisers of the exhibition and owners of the exhibits, are sincerely grateful to all project participants for their cooperation. We kindly thank the Ministry of Culture for their wholehearted support in this project. Special thanks is due to the Department of Under- water Archaeology of the Croatian Conservation Institute in Zagreb and the head of the project, Igor Miholjek, along with his associates for their years of dedicated research and effort in preparing and organising the exhibition. Many thanks are due also to the Department for Res- toration of Underwater Archaeological Finds of the Croatian Conservation Institute in Zadar for the restoration and recon- struction of the fins and also the “Sava-Medveščak” diving club from Zagreb for their high level of heritage awareness and prompt reaction. Thanks for their collaboration are also due to asso- ciates from the Dipartamente di science dell’Antichita e del Vicino Oriente, Universita ca’ Foscari, Venice, the Yunus Emre Institute, the Turkish Institute of Nautical Archaeology and the Mimara Museum.

Pavica Vilać The director of Dubrovnik Musemus

Keramika iz Iznika u svjetlu novih nalaza

uvod

Nurhan Atasoy Travanj 2014.

The Arts of Iznik Pottery in the Light of New Findings

introduction

Nurhan Atasoy April, 2014

Proučavanje primjeraka keramike iz Iznika na ovom bro- dolomu ukazuje, što je možda najvažnije, kako je keramika iz Iznika dolazila na europske dvorove i ina kućanstva ne samo kao dar veleposlanika ili stranih putnika iz Osmanskog Carstva nego je doista bila vrijedan trgovački artefakt koji se izvozio u Europu. U ovom je slučaju keramika iz Iznika bila ukrcana na brod koji je plovio prema Europi. Ta činjenica pojašnjava zašto se na pojedinim primjercima keramike iz Iznika koji su nađeni u zbirkama europskih plemića nalaze grbovi određenih obitelji. Široka lepeza uzoraka te bogat- stvo prikaza svakoga uzorka u ovoj zbirci pokazuju širinu umjetničke kreativnosti keramike iz Iznika. Upravo je u tome iznimna važnost nalaza s ovoga brodoloma za prouča- vanje povijesti izničke keramike. Na brodolomu su pronađeni tipični primjerci klasič- ne izničke keramike. S druge strane nailazimo i na veličan- stvene primjerke te na izuzetne detalje. Tako na primjerku pod kat. br. 4. nalazimo iznimno lijepe ilustracije lišća u stilu saz. Takvi detalji nisu uobičajeni za keramiku iz Iznika, ali nam prizivaju u sjećanje jedan drugi stil iz 16. stoljeća. Listovi na ovom primjerku podsjećaju na one u djelima Karamemija, umjetnika koji je oslikao Antologiju Sulejmana Veličanstvenog, napisanu šezdesetih godina 16. stoljeća. Ka- ramemi je unio inovativne uzorke u otomansku umjetnost oslikavanja. Čini se da prikaz lišća na kat. br. 4 odražava Karamemijev utjecaj. Uzorak s kat. br. 6. na prvi pogled djeluje tipično, ali ima zanimljive detalje. Primjerak kat. br. 7. podsjeća na radove slikara Şahkulua koji je, također, stvarao za sultana Sulejmana Veličanstvenog. Na tanjuru pod kat. br. 11. nailazimo na izvanredan ukras, a primjerci pod kat. br. 25, 4 i 5. se mogu shvatiti kao skupina zbog sličnih prikaza lišća. Na posudi kat. br. 26. je prisutan vrlo tipičan rub kakav je poznat u keramici iz Iznika. Unatoč tomu, u središ- njem su dijelu vidljivi pokušaji ilustriranja potpuno novim ornamentalnim stilom. Slično tomu, i na kat. br. 29. se javljaju ilustracije u novom stilu. Primjerci kat. br. 27.- 31., 33. i 34. također tvore zasebnu skupinu. Jedan se te isti motiv „wheatsheaf“, koji je, zapravo vrlo sličan motivu rumi, naizmjenično upotrebljava. Primjerak pod kat. br. 42. ukrašen je prekrasnim medaljonom koji predstavlja središnji ornament kompozi- cije, ali kakav nije uobičajen za keramiku iz Iznika. Kao kon- trast tomu oko medaljona je raspoređena kompozicija koja se sastoji od uobičajenih uzoraka tradicionalne umjetnosti keramike iz Iznika. Isto je vidljivo i na kat. br. 43-45.

The most important conclusion that we can draw from the studies of İznik pottery found on this shipwreck is the fact that İznik pottery was not carried to European courts and households only through ambassadors or foreign travellers to the Ottoman Empire, but that it was In fact a commodity which was travelled to Europe via trade. In this particular example, İznik pottery was shipped out of İznik to the European peninsula by sea trade. This fact enables scholars to understand the reasons behind the examples of İznik pottery found in the collections of European nobility, and which are decorated with the Coat of Arms that represents each family. Observing this collection, we can also state that the repertoire of patterns and the richness of diverse depictions of each pattern display the extent of creativity in the arts of İznik pottery. For these reasons, the material found on this shipwreck is extremely important for the study of İznik pottery. The shipwreck contains typical examples of clas- sic İznik pottery. However, we find exceptional examples and extraordinary details. Cat. no. 4 has extraordinary and extremely beautiful illustrations of leaves in the saz style, which is not common in İznik pottery, but it brings to mind other sixteenth-century artistic influences. These leaves are similar to the ones that we come across in the artistic production of Karamemi - an artist who illuminated the An- thology of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman I – an anthology produced in the 1560s. Karamemi brought innovative designs to the Ottoman art of illumination. The depiction of the leaves on cat. no. 4. seems to have been influenced by Karamemi. The dish under cat. no. 6. seems quite typical at first sight, yet there are interesting details. Dish under cat. no. 7. resem- bles the works of the painter Şahkulu who was also active during the reign of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman I. The dish under cat. no. 11. has striking ornamenta- tion. Specimens under cat. no. 25., 4. and 5 can be grouped together because they show similar depictions of leaves. The cat. no. 26. has a very typical border found on İznik pottery. However, the central part displays attempts of illustrating a completely new ornamental style. Similarly, on the cat. no. 29, a new style is practiced as well. Cat. no. 27.- 31., 33. and 34. also form a group. The same motif, the “wheatsheaf”, is used in alternating compo- sitions. The “weathsheaf” pattern is actually very similar to the Rumi motif. The cat. no. 42. is ornamented with an extraordi- nary medallion. The medallion illustrated in the central

Slikanje na kat. br. 46 koje prikazuje dva pauna sučelice okrenuta ne susrećemo često u izničkoj keramici, ali je krajnje uobičajen uzorak na izničkim zidnim pločica- ma. Iako je primjerak kat. br. 47 oštećen, naziru se krajevi repova dvaju pauna. Vrčevi (kat. br. 12.-16.) su tipični i tradicionalni primjerci izničke keramike. Ipak, na njima je i nešto vrlo neobično, a to je da na svim primjercima ove skupine glavni uzorak s tijela svake posude prelazi na njezin vrat. Tako se uzorci koji ukrašavaju tijelo posude nastavljaju na vratu što

je vrlo neuobičajeno u tradicionalnoj izničkoj keramici. Na poklopcima (kat. br. 17-22.) nalazimo motiv kola sreće. Iako je kolo sreće čest uzorak na keramici iz Iznika, u ovim je primjercima motiv potpuno pojednostavljen te se s obzirom na apstrakcije i transformacije čini vjerojatnim da svjedočimo rođenju posve novoga uzorka. Poklopci kat. br.

17. i kat. 20. su vrlo slični primjerci, a na kat. br. 18. je upotri-

jebljen isti motiv, ali vrlo neorganizirano. Polukružna zdjelica (kat. br. 48) je prilično impre- sivan primjerak. U središnjem se dijelu ovog umjetničkog djela nalazi medaljon na kakav ne nailazimo igdje drugdje.

To je vjerojatno stoga što je ovaj medaljon koji osnažuje cijelu kompoziciju grb neke europske obitelji. Najvjerojatni- je je ove primjerke naručila obitelj koja je poslala svoj grb u izničke radionice. Isti se grb nalazi i na kat. br. 50. dok se na rubovima kompozicije nalaze kineski oblaci naslikani stilom slobodne ruke. Na primjerku kat. br. 51 nalazi se isti takav uzorak, a rubovi su ostavljeni praznima. I na primjerku kat. br. 52. je vidljiv isti uzorak okružen svicima koji su, ponovno, naslikani stilom slobodne ruke. Na primjercima kat. br. 51 i

53. vidljivi su motivi çintemani na granici ruba što ukazuje na

to da pripadaju istoj skupini.

Keramika iz Iznika s ovoga brodoloma vrlo je važna i vjeru- jem da će biti detaljnije proučena.

part of the composition is not common in İznik pottery. In contrast, the composition surrounding the medallion is ornamented with common patterns of the traditional arts of İznik pottery. The same observation is valid for cat. no.

43-45.

The cat. no. 46 shows two peacocks facing each other; a motif we do not come across in İznik pottery, but is a very common pattern on İznik wall tiles. Though cat. no. 47 is broken, we can still observe the end parts of the peacocks’ tails. The jugs (cat. no. 12.-16.) are typical and traditional examples of İznik pottery, but one aspect is quite unusual. In all these examples, the main pattern employed on the body of each vessel is carried on to the neck. Thus, the patterns ornamenting the body continue onto the neck as well, which is a very uncommon feature in traditional İznik pottery. The lids (cat. no. 17-22) all display the wheel of for- tune in their composition. Although the wheel of fortune is

a very common pattern appearing on İznik pottery, in these

particular examples the motif has been totally simplified, and it seems that a completely new pattern was being devel- oped by employing such abstractions and transformations. Lids under cat. no. 17. and 20. are very similar examples. The cat. no. 18. employs the same pattern, but in a completely disorganized manner. The hemispherical bowl (cat. no. 48) is quite a strik- ing example. There is a medallion in the centre of this piece of art which is not found anywhere else. This is probably due to the fact that the medallion empowering the com- position contained the Coat of Arms of a European family. These were most likely commissioned by a family which must have sent their coat of arms to İznik workshops. The cat. no. 50 bears the same coat of arms, and has Chinese clouds illustrated in a freehand style on the borders of the composition. The cat. no. 51 has the same pattern, but its borders are undecorated. The cat. no. 52. also displays the same pattern, but is surrounded by scrolls, yet again applied freehandedly. The cat. no. 51 and 53 have çintemani patterns at the rim of the border, which is why they were placed in the same group.

İznik pottery found in this shipwreck is very important and

I believe that it will be studied by scholars in detail.

O nalazima keramike Iznika u Hrvatskoj, trgovini i importu na Jadranu, s posebnim osvrtom na Dubrovnik

liljana Kovačić

On the finds of Iznik pottery in Croatia, trade and import along the Adriatic with a special look on Dubrovnik

liljana Kovačić

Dubrovnik je nepresušan izvor brojnih istraživačkih i znan- stvenih tema. Pri arheološkim istraživanjima koja su pret- hodila obnovi njegove povijesne jezgre, pronađen je znatan broj glasovite keramike iz osmanskog Iznika. Uz nalaze

cjelovitih ili gotovo cjelovitih primjeraka koje je iznjedrio brodolom kod otoka Mljeta, koji je povijesno oduvijek bio dio njegovoga teritorija, Dubrovnik je, prema dosadašnjim spoznajama, jedini grad u Hrvatskoj u kojem se u renesansi

u većim količinama koristilo izničko stolno posuđe. Neko-

liko je ulomaka pronađeno i pri istraživanju srednjovje- kovnoga grada Ružice, blizu Orahovice. U radu se, također, ukratko iznose i značenje Dubrovačke Republike u pomor- skoj i kopnenoj trgovini na Balkanu i Sredozemlju te njezini odnosi s moćnim europskim silama i Osmanskim Carstvom, kojemu je plaćala naknadu za slobodu i zaštitu svojih politič- kih i ekonomskih interesa. Budući da je navedeni brodolom doživio mletački brod, prikazana je i pomorska trgovina između Venecije i Osmanskog Carstva. Vrste posuđa i stol- nog pribora, te namirnicâ i različita jela dubrovačke kuhinje, dočaravaju djelić svakidašnjice renesansnoga Dubrovnika.

Značenje Dubrovnika u pomorskoj trgovini

na Sredozemlju Kao pomorska država, Dubrovnik se rano uklopio u opći ra- zvoj srednjovjekovne trgovine, koja je prolazila Jadranskim morem i Sredozemljem, a težište joj je bilo na posredničkoj trgovini između balkanskog zaleđa i razvijenih talijanskih, levantinskih, španjolskih i drugih potrošačkih mjesta. Već

u 12. stoljeću potvrđeno je postojanje uzajamnih ugovora

Dubrovnika s gradovima duž hrvatske obale, te s talijanskim gradovima Molfetom (1148.), Pisom (1169.), Ravennom (1188.), Anconom (1199.), Barijem (1201.), Papinskom Državom i mnogima drugima radi ostvarivanja trgovačkih povlastica i

oslobađanja od plaćanja raznih pristojba. Najstarija poznata isprava sa zaleđem, odnosno Bosnom, povelja je iz 1189., kojom ban Kulin potvrđuje ugovor o miru i prijateljstvu s Dubrovni¬kom, dajući dubrovačkim trgovcima povlastice,

a građanima slobodu kretanja i boravka. To je bio uvod u

dubrovačku trgovinu s Bosnom, osobito trgovinu rudnim bogatstvom (Brković 1990: 52). Iz toga razdoblja datiraju i trgovački kontakti s Albanijom, Makedonijom, Tesalijom, s Egiptom i Sirijom, Tunisom i Berberijom. U posljednjoj se četvrtini 12. stoljeća dubrovački trgovci spominju i u Alek- sandriji. Trgovačke veze s Antalijom i Egiptom krajem 13. i početkom 14. stoljeća dokazive su nalazom novca Ikonijskog sultanata, Ilkhanidske države i Mamelučkog sultanata na

Dubrovnik is an inexhaustible source of research and sci- entific topics. Archaeological excavations which preceded the restoration of the historic city core yielded a significant number of pottery finds from the Ottoman town of Iznik. Along with the finds of complete and almost complete vessels found on the shipwreck at the island of Mljet, which has been a part of its territory through the course of history, Dubrovnik was, according to recent discoveries, the only town in Croatia which used greater amounts of this kind of pottery during the Renaissance. A couple of fragments were found during the excavations of the medieval town of Ružica near Orhovica. This paper briefly discusses the sig- nificance of the Dubrovnik Republic for land and maritime trade in the Balkans and on the Mediterranean, as well as its relations with powerful European forces and the Otto- man Empire, to which it paid atonements for freedom and protection of its political and economic interests. Since we are dealing with a sunken Venetian ship, maritime trade be- tween Venice and the Ottoman Empire was also discussed in the paper. The forms of vessels and table utensils, as well as types of victuals and dishes typical of the Dubrovnik cuisine recreate a small part of everyday life in Dubrovnik during the Renaissance.

The significance of Dubrovnik in maritime trade on the Mediterranean As a naval republic, Dubrovnik very early became part of the general development of medieval trade passing through the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean, and was at the centre of the intermediary trade between the Balkan hinterland and the developed Italian, Levantine, Spanish and other consumer centres. The contracts signed by Dubrovnik with towns along the Adriatic coast date as early as the 12th cen- tury, along with the ones made with Italian cities of Molfet- ta (1148), Pisa (1169), Ravenna (1188), Ancona, Bari (1201), as well as with the Papal States and many others, and all with the intent of gaining trade privileges and getting absolution from paying various taxes. The oldest known document signed with the hinterland, i.e. Bosnia, is a charter from 1189, in which the governor Kulin confirms a contract of peace and friendship with Dubrovnik, granting the merchants privileges, and its citizens the freedom of travel and residence. This was the start of Dubrovnik’s trade with Bosnia, especially when dealing with its ores (Brković 1990: 52). Trade contacts with Albania, Macedonia, Thessaly, Egypt and Syria, Tunis and the Barbary Coast also date from

lokalitetu benediktinskog samostana sv. Marije od Kaštela (Ilkić i Topić 2013: 1–2). Iako je 13. stoljeće bilo početak dugotrajne mletačke vlasti u Dubrovniku (1205.–1358.), grad se razvio u međuna-

rodno pomorsko, trgovačko, prometno, tranzitno i brodo- građevno središte. To je stoljeće obilježeno razvojem institu- cija i pravnog sustava u svrhu zaštite i sigurnosti obavljanja trgovačkih i nautičko-lučkih komercijalnih poslova unutar grada, kao i u međunarodnom prometu. U Dubrovniku je tako 1395. potpisan jedan od najstarijih ugovora o pomor- skom osiguranju, dok ga je Genova imala 1347., a Pisa 1384. godine. Godine 1313. normiran je nadzor ukrcavanja tereta na brodove, a 1341. posebnim zakonskim propisima određu-

je se „crta“ najvećega ukrcaja tereta. Takav se propis u povi-

jesti pomorstva i brodarstva zapadnih zemalja spominje tek

u 17. i 18. stoljeću. Krajem 14. stoljeća Dubrovčani prvi u svi-

jetu izglasavaju poseban zakonski propis o subvencioniranju brodarstva za gradnju velikih trgovačkih brodova, a još prije (1377.) donosi se propis o karanteni i epidemiološkoj zaštiti, što pomorcima i trgovcima donosi sigurnost u trgovačkom poslovanju (Luetić 1997: 11–13, 22–23). Zakon o pomorskom

osiguranju iz 1568., Ordo super assecuratoribus, najstariji je u svijetu. U 14. stoljeću Dubrovnik je veletrgovački i velelučki grad s vlastitom trgovačkom organizacijom svojih proizvo- da i posredničkom tranzitnom trgovinom između Istoka i Zapada. Dubrovački su brodovi najviše plovili u takozvanoj „slobodnoj“ trgovini, tj. prevozili su tuđe terete između stranih luka, jer im je to donosilo najviše dobiti (Luetić 1997:

38). Pretpostavlja se da je Republika tada imala 180 brodova ukupne nosivosti 36.500 kola (tal. carro, oko 20 hektolita- ra žita, što je približno 56.810 tona), na kojima je plovilo 5500 pomoraca i 200–250 kapetana (Kozličić 1993: 178). Za usporedbu, trgovačka mornarica Mletačke Republike 1567. iznosila je 33.000 tona nosivosti, Genove 28.000 tona, dok

je najveće francusko pomorsko središte – Marseille imao

samo 4000 tona nosivosti (Luetić 1997: 41). O razgranatosti pomorsko-trgovačke i diplomatske mreže govori i 50 do 60 konzulata diljem Sredozemlja (Mitić 1971: 165). Krajem 16. i u prvim desetljećima 17. stoljeća du- brovačka novčana ulaganja u inozemstvu iznosila su više od 698.000 dubrovačkih dukata.

Dubrovnik između Osmanskog Carstva i Mletačke Republike Teritorijalno i vojno beznačajna Dubrovačka Republika svoju samostalnost, suverenost i gospodarski razvoj posti- gla je zahvaljujući vanjskoj politici, djelotvornoj diplomaciji

that period. In the last quarter of the 12th century mer- chants from Dubrovnik are mentioned in Alexandria. The connections with Antalya and Egypt at the end of the 13th century are attested by finds of currency from the Iconian Sultanate, Ilkhanid State and the Mamluk Sultanate on the site of the Benedictine monastery of St. Maria of Kaštela (IIlkić and Topić 2013: 1-2). Although the 13th century marked the beginning of the long Venetian rule in Dubrovnik (1205-1358), the city developed into an international seafaring, trade, transport, transit and shipbuilding centre. This was a century marked by the development of institutions and the legal system with the purpose of protecting and safely conducting trade and seaborne commercial affairs within the city and on an international level . The oldest contract of marine insur- ance in Dubrovnik was signed in 1395, with Genova signing one in 1347, and Pisa in 1384. In 1313, the surveillance of loading ship cargo was standardized, and in 1341 a separate legal act was isssued prescribing the “line” of maximal load. That kind of regulation is not mentioned in the history of seafaring and shipbuilding in the West until the 17th and 18th centuries. At the end of that century, the people of Du- brovnik were the first in the world to vote and issue a legal act on subsidizing shipbuilding for large merchant vessels and, even earlier, an act on quarantine and epidemiological protection, guaranteeing merchants and seafarers safety while conducting business of trade (J. Luetić 2007: 22-23). The marine insurance contract, Ordo super assecuratoribus, from 1568, is the oldest document of the sort in the world. In the 14th century, Dubrovnik was a town with a huge trade business containing a large port with well organized trading products, and also acted as an intermediary trading and transition point between the East and West. Its ships

mostly dealt with the, so called, ‘free trade’, i.e. they trans- ported foreign cargo between foreign ports because it was

most profitable (Luetić 2007: 38)

Republic had aproximatly 180 ships with a capacity of 36 5000 carts (Ital. carro, about 20 hectoliters, which is about 58 810 tons), with 5 500 sailors and between 200 and 250 captains (Kozličić 1993: 178). In comparison, the merchant navy of the Republic of Venice in 1567 had the barring capacity of 33 000 tons, the one from Genova 28 000 tons, and the greatest French navy centre, Marseille, only 4000 tons (Luetić 2007: 41). The outspread of trade and diplomatic network is attested to by the 50 to 60 consulates postioned along the Mediterranean (Mitić 1971: 165). At the end of the 16th and

It is estimated that the

i zaštiti moćnih država, Ugarsko-Hrvatskog Kraljevstva,

Osmanskog Carstva, Papinske Države, Španjolske i Napulj- skog kraljevstva. Od 1482. duž cijeloga kopnenog teritorija počinje graničiti s Osmanskim Carstvom (Hercegovački sandžak). Povijest odnosa između male aristokratske države i rastuće imperije počinje još za Mehmeda Osvajača, kada, u svrhu

zaštite svojih političkih i ekonomskih interesa, Dubrovnik počinje plaćati naknadu ili harač, koji se od 1481., za vla- davine miroljubivog sultana Bajezida II., ustalio na 12.500 zlatnika na godinu. U 17. stoljeću taj je iznos bio jednak količini od oko 42 kg zlata (Kunčević 2010: 190). Dubrovnik je od takvoga tributarnog odnosa imao veliku ekonomsku korist, jer je dobio ogromno područje kao tržište za svo- ju posredničku ulogu izvoznika sirovine i uvoznika robe. Dubrovački su poklisari na osmanskom teritoriju kupovali velike količine žita uz najnižu izvoznu carinu od samo 2%,

a u zaleđu, u Bosni, neograničene količine stoke. S druge

strane, Dubrovnik nije predstavljao nikakvu vojnu prijetnju, poput, primjerice, Venecije. Osmanlijama su trebali vješti i

sposobni dubrovački trgovci i dubrovačka luka za izvoz robe

u zapadne zemlje, te gotovi i luksuzni proizvodi iz tih zema-

lja, kao i vanjskopolitičke informacije. Zapadnim velesilama

trebale su, pak, obavještajne usluge dubrovačke diplomacije

o suprotnoj strani za kreiranje vanjske politike, dubrovačka

neutralna luka, te dubrovački brodovi i dubrovački trgovci, koji su uživali povlastice po cijelomu Osmanskom Carstvu. Zbog toga su sve sudionice podupirale postojanje, nezavi- snost i neutralnost Dubrovačke Republike. Incidenti na moru i kopnu bili su, međutim, gotovo svakidašnji. Tijekom 16. stoljeća dubrovačka je diploma- cija uspijevala isposlovati fermane o zaštiti dubrovačke trgovine i trgovaca, a posebno je važan bio ferman iz 1530., kojim Hajredin Barbarossa zabranjuje svojim gusarima da pljačkaju dubrovačke brodove. Poslije rata prve Svete lige 1550., u velikim trgovačkim gradovima Turske carine su za dubrovačku trgovinu povećane na 4%, i ta je uredba ostala nepromijenjena (Popović 1973: 387). Lokalni turski službeni- ci, ali i sama Porta, ovisno o ekonomsko-političkoj situaciji, pljačkali su dubrovačke karavane, trgovce i brodove, uvodili posebne namete, povremeno zabranjivali izvoz svih namir- nica (jasak), a stalni su se sukobi vodili i oko prodaje soli, jer je Dubrovnik imao monopol na njezinu prodaju osmanskim podanicima iz svojih solana u Stonu. Poslije smrti Barbaro- sse, u drugoj polovini 16. stoljeća, dubrovačka je pomorska trgovina postala opasna i neizvjesna, a ujedno su rasle i pretenzije bosanskih paša prema dubrovačkom teritoriju.

in the first decades of the 17th century, Dubrovnik’s finan- cial investments abroad amounted to 698 000 Dubrovnik ducats.

Dubrovnik between the Ottoman Empire and the Re- public of Venice The territorially and military-wise insignificant Republic of Dubrovnik obtained independence, sovereignty and economic growth through its external policies, efficient diplomacy, and protection given by powerful states like the Kingdom of Croatia and Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, the Papal State, Spain, and the Kingdom of Naples. Since 1482, it shared a border with the Ottoman Empire along its entire mainland territory (the Eyalet of Herzegovina). The historic relations between the small aris- tocratic state and the growing empire began during the rule of Mehmed the Conqueror, when, with the purpose of pro- tecting its political and economic interest, it started paying a fee, or kharaj, which stabilized in 1481 during the reign of the peaceful Sultan Bayezd II to 12.500 golden coins per an- num. In the 17th century, that amount equalled around 42 kilograms of gold (Kunčević 2010: 190). Dubrovnik greatly profited from this tributary relationship, since it obtained a large trading area, where it had a role as an intermediary in exporting raw materials, and importing commodities. Am- bassadors from Dubrovnik bought large amounts of grain on the territory of the Ottoman Empire, with the lowest export custom of merely 2%, and did the same in the hin- terlands of Bosnia, where they bought unlimited amounts of cattle. On the other hand, Dubrovnik did not represent a military threat like, for example, Venice. The Ottomans needed the skilful and capable merchants from Dubrovnik, as well as the Dubrovnik harbour, for exporting goods to the western countries and bringing finished luxurious prod- ucts, as well as finished products and information on for- eign affairs. Naturally, the powerful western states needed the information on their competitors, which Dubrovnik’s diplomats could provide, in order to create their external policies. They also needed a neutral port, and the ships and merchants from Dubrovnik who enjoyed privileges in the entire Ottoman Empire. This is why all sides encouraged the survival, independence, and neutrality of the Republic of Dubrovnik. However, incidents at sea, and on the mainland hap- pened almost daily. During the 16th century, Dubrovnik’s diplomacy succeeded in getting fermans protecting Du- brovnik’s trade and merchants, and a very significant

Dubrovačke kolonije u kopnenom zaleđu oslabjele su otva- ranjem splitske luke 1592., preko koje se naveliko počinje izvoziti iz Bosne (Popović 1973: 388). Najveći neprijatelj Dubrovnika bila je Republika Venecija (Mletačka Republika), moćna pomorska sila koja je imala iste gospodarske ciljeve. Uz Dalmaciju, težila je osvojiti i Dubrovnik ne bi li preuzela njegovu trgovinu po Jadranu i Sredozemlju. No zbog zaštite Španjolske, Papinske Države i Turske, Mlečani se nisu usudili vojno napasti Du- brovnik, a nisu imali snage osnovati kolonije u europskom dijelu Osmanskog Carstva i tako konkurirati dubrovačkoj trgovini. Venecija je ipak poduzimala brojne diplomatske akcije, špijuniranje, stalne tužbe, pljačku i otimanje dubro- vačkih brodova, uključujući i kratku okupaciju dubrovačkog teritorija – otoka Lastova, ne bi li oslabila, odnosno elimini- rala dubrovačku trgovinu. Važno je istaknuti kako, unatoč antagonizmu, trgovina između ovih dviju država nije nikada prestajala.

Trgovina između Osmanskog Carstva i Mletačke Republike Kolanje materijalnih dobara između Venecije i Osmanskog Carstva odvijalo se, uz trgovinu, i diplomatskim putem te hodočašćima u Svetu zemlju. Budući da je izmjena darova bila osnova protokola, venecijanski su diplomatski pred- stavnici darivali sultana i osmanske velikodostojnike, izme- đu ostaloga, skupocjenim tkaninama i odjećom, te sirom parmezanom koji se koristio jedino na osmanskom dvoru. U luksuzne darove ubrajaju se još krzna, glazbeni instrumenti i zlatni predmeti, a vrhunac je, prema sačuvanim podatcima, bila kaciga – kruna u vrijednosti od nevjerojatnih 144.400 dukata, koju su venecijanski zlatari 1532. izradili za sultana Sulejmana (Howard 2007: 142–149). Napete političke situaci- je obično su rezultirale i skupim darovima, odnosno narudž- bama poput prozorskih stakala i ukrašenih kožnatih tapeta. Od početka 16. stoljeća rastao je broj osmanskih trgovaca u Veneciji, no njihovo je skladište sa smještajem Fondaco dei Turchi uspostavljeno tek 1575., a početkom sljedećeg stoljeća za tu je svrhu bila određena palača, koja je prije pripadala vojvodi od Ferrare (Howard 2007: 155). U Veneciju su iz Osmanskog Carstva uz velike količine žita stizali i predmeti umjetničkog obrta, sirova svila, pamuk, svilene tkanine, vu- neni moher, tkanine od devine dlake, tepisi, kože, konjska oprema, oružje dekorirano arabeskama, keramika Iznika i razni kurioziteti, pa čak i arapski konji. Osobito je bila važna trgovina začinima. Iz Venecije su se izvozile velike količine stakla, luksuzne tkanine, zlatarski radovi, naočale, papir, sa-

ferman was issued in 1530, by which Hayeddin Barbarossa forbade his pirates to attack Dubrovnik’s ships. After the war with the First Holy League in 1550, large merchant towns in the Ottoman Empire raised customs for the Dubrovnik Republic to 4%, and that decree remained unchanged (Popović 1973: 387). Local Ottoman officials and Porta itself, depending on the economic and political situ- ation, pillaged Dubrovnik’s caravans and ships, introduced special taxes, and occasionally forbade the export of all jasak groceries. Conflicts also frequently arose over the salt trade, because Dubrovnik had a monopoly on the trade of salt between their salt pans in Ston and Ottoman cities. Af- ter Barbarossa’s death in the second half of the 16th century, Dubrovnik’s sea trade became dangerous and unsteady, and the aspirations of Bosnian pashas towards Dubrovnik’s territory rose. Dubrovnik’s colonies in the hinterlands were weakened by the opening of the port in Split in 1592, which started increasing export from Bosnia (Popović 1973: 388). Dubrovnik’s greatest enemy was the Republic of Venice, a powerful naval force which had the same eco- nomic goals. Along with conquering Dalmatia, Venice had aspirations towards the territory of Dubrovnik, in order to take over its trade on the Adriatic and the Mediterranean. However, due to the protection given to the Republic of Dubrovnik by Spain, the Papal State and the Ottoman Em- pire, the Venetians did not dare attack Dubrovnik with their army, and did not possess the power to establish colonies on the European part of the Ottoman Empire which could rival Dubrovnik’s trade. Nevertheless, they undertook many diplomatic actions, spied, constantly filed complaints, robbed and stole Dubrovnik’s ships, and even shortly occu- pied its territory on the island of Lastovo in order to weak- en, that is, to prevent Dubrovnik’s trade. It is important to mention that, despite all the antagonism, trade between these two states never ceased.

Trade between the Ottoman Empire and the Republic of Venice The circulation of material goods between Venice and the Ottoman Empire was conducted through trade, but also through diplomacy and pilgrimages to the Holy Land. Since the exchange of gifts was basic protocol, the Vene- tian ambassadors presented the Sultan and the Ottoman noblemen with expensive fabrics, clothes, and parmesan cheese, which were used only at the Court. Luxurious presents included furs, musical instruments and golden items, and the peak was, according to the preserved data,

pun, satovi. Iako se u Veneciji uglavnom koristilo bezbojno ili slabo kolorirano prozorsko staklo, muranski su staklari tada razvili široku paletu boja. Prozori Sulejmanove džamije bili su ukrašeni muranskim okruglim višebojnim staklom, umetnutim u okvire poput mozaika. Veliki je vezir Meh- med-paša Sokolović 1569. poslao dva crteža staklenih lampa za džamije, u prirodnoj veličini, koje su muranski staklari

trebali izraditi u tehnici reticello. Narudžba je iznosila 900 komada (Howard 2007: 157–158).

U 16. stoljeću u Veneciju se uvozi keramika iz Iznika.

Inventar venecijanskog kolekcionara Andree del Brezza iz 1587. uključivao je i 32 komada toga posuđa (Howard 2007:

164). Iako je iznička keramika bila privlačna Europljanima, arhivski su dokumenti vrlo oskudni. Jedan je od rijetkih dokaza za to pošiljka pločicâ habsburškog veleposlanika, namještenoga u Istanbulu, prema Veneciji, u vrijednosti od 100 dukata. Mletačka inventarna lista iz 1587. navodi samo 30 komada izničke keramike (Mack 2002: 109).

U Izniku su se krajem 16. stoljeća proizvodili i tanju-

ri s grbovima europskih vladara, a čini se da je jedan takav primjerak, nađen u Izniku, pripadao obitelji Spingarolli de Dessa iz Dalmacije (Passos Leite i Quieroz Ribero 2000: 65). Glasovita radionica Maestra Ludovica (aktivna od 1515. do 1526.) proizvodila je serije bijelog posuđa dekoriranoga ko- baltnoplavim ornamentima, poznatijima kao alla porcellana. Umjetnici su takve ornamente, poput onih na kineskom porculanu, mogli vidjeti i na izničkoj keramici sa spiralnim stilom – tuğrakeş. Izničke su radionice osim svojih glasovitih tanjura velikog promjera s rubom nalik listu, foliated, koji se rezao ručno, proizvodile i tanjure tipa tondino, što je izvorno bio talijanski izum s početka 16. stoljeća, a u izničku proi- zvodnju ulazi u razdoblju od 1525. do 1530. godine. Osobito su bili omiljeni tanjuri s gore spomenutim ukrasom. Iznička keramika koja je pronađena u džamiji Selima II. u Edirni, također je bila inspirirana venecijanskim staklom u ukrasnoj tehnici vetro a fili (Howard 2007: 168). Venecija je Jadransko more držala svojim morem, i stoga ga je zvala Golfo di Venezia. U početku se tako nazivalo tek područje između ušća rijeke Pad i Akvileje, no taj se naziv potom proširio do linije Pula – Ancona, a početkom 15. stoljeća, kada Ladislav Napuljski prodaje Zadar, Novigrad i Pag, Mletačka je Republika zagospodarila Dalmacijom i Jadranom. U tom području nisu smjeli ploviti vojni brodovi, a trgovački su brodovi morali imati dozvole, slijedeći strogo plovidbene rute i plaćajući Veneciji carinu. U 15. je stoljeću i sultan otkrio ekonomsku važnost Jadranskog mora. Iz 1403. datira prijateljski ugovor između osmanske i venecijanske

a helmet-crown made by Venetian goldsmiths for Sultan Suleiman in 1532 with an estimated value of 144 400 ducats (Howard 2007: 142-149). Tense political situations usually included expensive gifts, that is, orders of new window panes and decorated leather wall papers. The number of Ottoman merchants in Venice grew from the beginning of the 16th century, but their furniture warehouse, Fondaco dei Turchi, was not founded until 1575. At the beginning of the next century, the palace formerly owned by the duke of Ferrara served the same purpose (Howard 2007:155). Along with large amount of wheat, objects of applied arts, raw silk, cotton, silk cloths, wool mohair, camel hair fabrics, rugs, leather, horse gear, weapons decorated with arabesques, pottery from Iznik, and different extraordinary items, even Arabian horses arrived from the Ottoman Empire to Venice. The spice trade was especially important. Venice exported large amounts of glass, luxurious fabrics, the works of gold- smiths, eyeglasses, paper, soap, and watches. Even though transparent or mildly coloured glass was used in Venice, the glass workers in Murano already developed a wide palette of colours. The windows of Suleiman’s mosque were deco- rated with round polychrome Murano glass inserted into frames like mosaics. In 1569, the Grand Vizier Mehmed-pa- sha Sokolović sent life-size blueprints for two glass mosque lamps, which the Murano glassmakers had to make in the reticello technique. He ordered 900 pieces (Howard 2007:

157-158).

In the 16th century, Venice imported pottery from Iznik. The inventory of a 1578 Venetian collector, Andrea del Brezzo, included 32 pieces of this kind of pottery (Howard 2007: 164). Although these ceramic products were engaging to Europeans, the archival records are scarce. One of the ex- amples is a shipment of tiles worth 100 ducats made by the Hapsburg ambassador in Istanbul which was sent to Venice. The Venetian inventory list from 1587 lists only 30 pieces of Iznik pottery (Mack 2002: 109). At the end of the 16th century, Iznik produced plates depicting the coats of arms of European rulers, and it seems that one such plate belonged to the Spingarolli de Dessa family from Dalmatia (Passos Leite and Quieroz Ribero 2000: 65). The famous workshop of Maestro Ludovi- co (in business from 1515-1526) made series of white vessels decorated with cobalt blue ornaments known by the name of alla porcellana. The artists saw these kinds of decorations on Chinese porcelain, as well as on Iznik pottery of the tuğrakeş spiral style. The workshops in Iznik, apart from their leaf-like rim (foliated), which was hand cut, produced

mornarice. Oni su Jadransko more držali zaljevom – nazivali su ga Ak Deni, u prijevodu Bijelo more, što je u početku bio naziv za Mramorno more. Kada 1479. od Venecije preuzi- maju prevlast nad Egejskim morem, isti naziv proširuju na njega, a poslije su tako nazivali cijelo Sredozemlje. Karto- graf Piri Reis u 16. stoljeću koristi naziv Venedik Körfezi kada govori o području između Korčule i Vojvodstva od Ferrare na drugoj obali, što se vjerojatno odnosilo na prisutnost ne- zavisne Dubrovačke Republike (Pedani 2008: 156). Osman- ski trgovci počinju ploviti Jadranom u 15. stoljeću, nakon osvajanja Albanije, Srbije te Bosne i Hercegovine. Trguju s Venecijom i Anconom. Iako je između tih država dolazilo do ratova, trgovina nikada nije prestajala. Tijekom 16. i 17. stoljeća vrijedio je mirovni spo-razum, prema kojem između Krfa i Venecije nitko nije smio štetiti trgovačkim brodovi- ma, osobito ne venecijanskima. Unatoč tomu, trgovinu je ometala moćna nazočnost gusara, zbog kojih su velike ma- terijalne štete, te gubitke u robi, brodovima i ljudima trpjeli dubrovački teritorij i dubrovački brodovi, ali i dalmatinska obala i otoci. Venecijanske brodove napadali su uskoci, koji su bili podložni Habsburškoj Monarhiji. O broju osmanskih trgovaca u Veneciji govori ar- hivski zapis iz 1570., u vrijeme rata tzv. Svete lige, kada je u Veneciji bilo zadržano 75 osmanskih i 97 židovskih trgovaca, a tri godine poslije, nastupanjem mira, njihov se broj još povećao. Način funkcioniranja trgovine i novčanih iznosa ilustrira primjer trgovca Çelebija Mehmeda Reisa, zabilježen 1573., poslije spomenutoga rata, a koji je vjerojatno bio uklju- čen u trgovinu prije rata, kao i tijekom njega, kada se ona prekidala samo privremeno. Trgovao je između Istanbula, Venecije i Kandije, ponajprije svilenom i vunenom odjećom, kožom, no bavio se i novčanim transakcijama. Njegova osoba za kontakt u Veneciji bio je jedan od poznatih tamoš- njih trgovaca Lorenzo Girardi, kojega u pismu oslovljuje kao »amico carrisimo signor Lorenzo«. Obojica trguju preko agenata, a tada su to obično bili članovi obitelji. Mehmed ša- lje Lorenzu robu u Veneciju preko »svojeg čovjeka«. Girardi ima Mehmedovo odobrenje da se u njegovu korist pojavljuje pred venecijanskim vijećem i trguje u njegovo ime bez po- srednika. Kako bi dodatno zaštitio svoje interese, Mehmed u Veneciju šalje i svojega agenta, kojemu naređuje da u vene- cijanskom notarijatu prijavi da mu Lorenzo Girardi ništa ne duguje i da ima ovlasti trgovati u njegovo ime. Agent ima još i potvrdu od kadije iz Istanbula da su podatci vjerodo- stojni. Prema Mehmedovoj procjeni, porez od samo njegove trgovine Veneciji je godišnje donosio više od 2000 dukata (Dursteler 2002: 113). U tu unosnu trgovinu bili su uključeni

plates of the tondino type, originally an Italian invention from the beginning of the 16th century which entered the Iznik production between about 1525 and 1530. Plates with the above mentioned decorations were especially popular. Additionally, Iznik pottery found in the mosque of Selim II in Edirne was inspired by Venetian glass decorated done in the vetro a fili technique (Howard 2007: 168). Venice considered the Adriatic Sea as its own, and called it Golfo di Venezia. At first, that name was used for the area between the Po Valley and Aquileia, and then the name spread to the Pula-Ancona area, and, at the beginning of the 15th century, when Ladislaus of Naples sold Zadar, Novigrad and Pag, the Republic of Venice ruled Dalmatia and the Adriatic. That area was off limits to naval ships, and merchant vessels had to have licences and strictly follow maritime routes, as well as pay customs to Venice. In the 15th century, the Sultan discovered the importance of the Adriatic Sea. The friendly contract between the Ottoman and Venetian navy was signed in 1403. They regarded the Adriatic Sea as a bay, and called it Ak Deni, the White Sea, a name formerly used for the Sea of Marmara. When they took the Aegean Sea from Venice in 1479, the Ottomans expanded this name so it would include their newly con- quered area, and later used it to refer to the entire Medi- terranean. The 16th century cartographer, Piri Reis, used the name Venedik Körfezi when speaking about the area between the island of Korčula and the Duchy of Ferrara on the opposite coast, which probably implied the presence of the independent Republic of Dubrovnik (Pedani 2008:

156). The Ottoman merchants began to sail the Adriatic in the 15th century, after the conquest of Albania, Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. They traded with Venice and Ancona. Although these Republics waged wars, the trade never stopped. During the 16th and the 17th centuries, a peace treaty was signed between Corfu and Venice, and no one was allowed to compromise merchant ships, especially Venetian ones. Despite that, the trade was disrupted by a powerful presence of pirates, which caused great damage to the territory of Dubrovnik, the Dalmatian coast and islands through loss of merchandise, ships, and men. Ve- netian ships were attacked by uskoks who answered to the Hapsburg Monarchy. The number of Ottoman merchants in Venice is attested to by an archive record from 1579, in the times of the so called Holy League, when 75 Ottoman and 97 Jew- ish merchants were detained in Venice. Three years later, when peace ensued, their number grew. The way trade

i osmanski visoki državni službenici, pa čak i veliki vezir. Tako su 1598. dva uspješna venecijanska trgovca u Istanbulu primila 190.680 akča od agenta velikog vezira Ibrahima, koje su morali uručiti njegovu partneru u Veneciji Pasqualinu Leoniju, za isporuku svilene odjeće službenicima Porte (Dursteler 2002: 121). Drugi je primjer visoki dužnosnik Re- sul Ağa, koji je trgovao svilom, voskom i papirom, a robu je slao uglavnom karavanama u Split, a zatim brodom u Vene- ciju. Zabilježen je i incident, kada mu je u Jadranu opljačkan brod, a Venecijanci su mu iz straha da to ne prouzroči prijet- nju trgovini nadoknadili štetu, i još pogubili venecijanskog dragomana. Tada se govorilo da je vrijednost njegove robe u Veneciji iznosila 8000 dukata (Dursteler 2002: 114).

Stolno posuđe i kulinarstvo renesanse s osvrtom na Dubrovnik Svaka je epoha ljudske povijesti dala svoj doprinos razvoju stolnog posuđa i pribora, a oblici su odražavali opći likovni izraz razdoblja u kojem su nastali. Renesansa je tako najkreativnije razdoblje u gradi- teljstvu, umjetnosti i književnosti. Humanizam u središte vrijednosti stavlja čovjeka, potiče stjecanje novih znanja, slobodan i kreativan duh. Razvoj manufaktura, trgovine, zemljoradnje i velika pomorska otkrića utjecali su na pobolj- šanje prehrane, a jelo i piće postali su izvor užitka. Bogati stalež u svoju kuhinju unosi nove namirnice, kojih s proširenjem trgovine ima sve više. Uvoze se začini s Istoka, bademi, šećer, riža i patlidžani stižu iz maurske kuhi- nje, a pojavljuju se i slatkiši. Jelovnici svečanih gozbi postaju složeni i pretrpani, a redoslijed jela za današnje je pojmo- ve dosta neobičan. Raznovrsnost jela uvjetovala je veliku raznovrsnost u oblicima stolnog i kuhinjskog posuđa. Osim skupocjenoga srebrnog posuđa, muranskog stakla i posuđa od kositra, najviše je u uporabi keramičko posuđe. Prema sačuvanim prikazima, uočava se da se do 15. stoljeća na stolu istodobno koristi keramičko, stakleno, metalno i drveno posuđe. Najviše je keramičkih vrčeva i zdjelica, koje su se mogle upotrijebiti i za piće. Na sredini stola bile su veće zdjele ili tanjuri, iz kojih se hrana uzimala prstima. Postu- pno se uvodi pribor za jelo, žlica i nož sa šiljastom oštricom za nabadanje mesa. Vilica je, pak, dobila današnju funkciju u 16. stoljeću. U dalmatinskim su gradovima u oporuka- ma zabilježeni ostakljeni ormari za kvalitetno posuđe, tzv. credenziere, stolovi ukrašeni intarzijama, stolnjaci i ubrusi. Od sredine 16. stoljeća govori se o servisima, a osobito se ta- njuri klasificiraju prema jelu, odnosno vrsti mesa. Tanjuri od majolike i kositra raznih veličina brojni su u svim kućama.

functioned and the amount of money in circulation is illus- trated by the example of merchant Çelebi Mehmeda Reis’s recorded from 1573. He started trading after the aforemen- tioned war, and probably even during the war, when trade was occasionally interrupted. He primarily traded silk and woollen clothes between Istanbul, Venice and Kandia, but he also conducted monetary transactions. His contact was one of Venice’s distinguished merchants, Girardi, whom he addresses in his letters as ‘amico carrisimo signor Lorenzo’. They both traded through agents, who, at that time, were usually family members. Mehmed sent Lorenzo merchan- dise to Venice through ‘his man’. Girardi had his approval to appear in front of the Council in Venice on his behalf, and to conduct business in his name without an intermediary. To additionally protect his interests, Mehmed sent his agent to Venice and ordered him to report to the Venetian Notary Public that Lorenzo Girardi owes him nothing, and that he may do business on his behalf. The agent had a certificate from the quadi of Istanbul proving that the data was valid. According to Medmed’s assessment, only taxes raised from his trade provided Venice with more than 2000 ducats (Dursteler 2002: 113). Ottoman high state officials, and even the Grand Vizier, were included in this lucrative trade. An example of this happened in 1589 when two successful Venetian merchants in Istanbul received 190 680 akçes from the agent of the Grand Vizier Ibrahim, which they had to hand to his partner in Venice, Pasqualin Leoni, for a ship- ment of silk clothes to the officials of Porta (Dursteler 2002:

121). A second example is that of the high official Resul Ağa who traded in silk, wax and paper, and who sent his goods by caravan to Split, and then shipped them to Venice. An- other incident was noted when one of his ships was looted at sea, and the Venetians, in fear of losing the business, paid his damages and also had the Venetian dragoman executed. At the time, his merchandise in Venice was estimated at 8000 ducats (Dursteler 2002:114).

Table ware and cuisine in the Renaissance with respect to Dubrovnik Each period in human history contributed to the development of table ware and utensils, and their forms reflected the gener- al artistic expression of the period in which they were made. The Renaissance was the most creative period in archi- tecture, art, and literature. The value of man became the centre of humanism which also incited the acquisition of new knowledge and supported the free and creative spirit. Developments in manufacture, trade, agriculture, and the

Tako jedna zadarska obitelj ima 64 majolička i 60 kositrenih tanjura. Posebno se spominju tanjuri za kopune (kastrirane pijetlove), tanjuri za ubruse, podmetači za čaše te drveni pladnjevi. Posude za pripremanje jela od ribe nazivaju se brodetto, a zeleni keramički lončići za spremanje začina go- rušice mostarda (Bezić-Božanić 1996: 284–285). Kuhinjske su žlice i vilice bile mjedene, one kvalitetne od srebra, a noževi su uvijek imali željeznu oštricu i dršku od srebra ili bjelo- kosti. Poseban se nož rabio za rezanje pršuta i sira. Za piće su se koristili vrčevi od majolike i kositra te čaše od stakla i kristala. U Dubrovniku je pronađeno mnoštvo majoličkih vrčeva te staklenih čaša, osobito onih s nogom. Kulinarstvo renesansnog razdoblja sačuvano je u brojnim knjigama recepata i priručnicima za posluživanje jela. Motiv hrane prisutan je i u mnogim djelima najvećega dubrovačkog književnika renesanse komediografa Marina Držića. Namirnice i jela koje Držić spominje prikazuju sva- kidašnji dubrovački život. Jedenje je povezano s užitkom, ali hrana postaje i sredstvo diferencijacije i instrument politič- ke moći. Bogati na svojim trpezama imaju teletinu, divljač, perad i kopune, a u iznimnim prilikama kavijar, te u Du- brovniku zabranjeni marcipan, što je naziv za kolač punjen smjesom badema i šećera (Ivanišević 2011: 15–18). U Dubrovniku je poznat i svadbeni kolač okruglog oblika – tartara, te mantala, koja se i danas priprema od ukuhanog mošta s kvalitetnim pšeničnim brašnom, pinjo- lima i začinima (Stojan 2007: 181). Uz meso se dosta koristio sir, koji se proizvodio u okolici i uvozio. Slani su sir jeli na dugim putovanjima, a prodavale su ga uglavnom žene. U povijesti je zabilježeno ime jedne od njih, Đivane Milaši- ce, koja ga je prodavala kod Orlandova stupa (Stojan 2007:

46). Na gozbi koja je 1757. priređena u Gružu za visokoga turskog dužnosnika kapidži-bašu bili su posluženi: teletina, bravetina, kokoši, ptice, riba, jezik te talijanski sir. Dubro- vačke redovnice sv. Marije pripremile su predjela i torte od jaja, mlijeka, skorupa i ružine vodice, a glavna su jela tri dana pripremala dva kuhara i tri pomoćnika. Bogati su se sladili desertnim vinom, glasovitom malvasijom, kojom su se darivali osmanski dostojanstvenici, te likerom od ruža – rozolinom. Za siromašne su bili usoljeno i dimljeno meso, iznutrice, juhe od sočiva, kupusa, srdele i prikle. Osobite poslastice bile su kobasice salčice, mortadela i đelatina. Držić spominje i nekoliko tipova ugostiteljskih objekata – voštarije, tovjerne, taberne, koji su nudili hranu i piće, a u nekima se moglo i prenoćiti (Ivanišević 2011: 9–25). Istraživanje u vrtu današnje osnovne škole u središtu povijesne jezgre Dubrov- nika otkrilo je najveći broj ulomaka kamenoga namještaja i

big discoveries overseas helped improve the diet, and food and drink became a source of pleasure. The privileged class introduced new ingredients into their cuisine, the number of which grew as trade ex- panded. They imported spices from the East, almonds, and sugar, rice and eggplants, along with candy, from Moorish cuisine. The menus of ceremonial feasts were complex and abundant, and the courses were unusual for today’s standards. The diversity of the dishes caused the diversity in the forms of table- and kitchenware. Apart from expen- sive silver vessels, Murano glass and pewter vessels, and ceramic vessels were mostly used. According to preserved depictions, we see that ceramic, glass, metal and wooden ware was used on the 15th century table at the same time. The most common forms were ceramic jugs and small bowls which could be used for serving drinks. Larger bowls and plates were placed in the middle of the table, and food was taken from them with hands. Gradually, cutlery was introduced - a fork, and a knife with a pointy blade used for stabbing meat. The fork acquired its present function in the 16th century. Last testaments from some Dalmatian towns included cupboards with glass panes, credenziere, tables decorated with intarsia, table cloths and napkins. From the mid-sixteenth century, table ware, especially plates, was classified according to the dish, that is, the kind of meat, served in it. Plates of different sizes made of majolica and pewter were a common household item. A family from Za- dar had 64 plates made of majolica and 60 made of pewter. A special note was made about plates for capons (castrated roosters), plates for napkins, cup coasters, and wooden platters. Vessels for preparing fish were called brodetto, and small green ceramic pots for making mustard spices were called mostarda (Bezić-Božanić 1996: 284-285). Kitch- en spoons and forks were made of brass, those of higher quality were made of silver, the knives always had an iron blade and a hilt made of silver or ivory, and a special knife was used to cut prosciutto and cheese. Drinks were served in glass and crystal cups, as well as jugs made of majolica and pewter. Many fragments of majolica jugs and glass cups, especially ones with a foot, were found in Dubrovnik. Renaissance cuisine was preserved in many recipe books and manuals for serving food. Food is mentioned in many works of Dubrovnik’s greatest Renaissance author and comedy playwright, Marin Držić. The ingredients and dishes described by Marin Držić provide an insight into ev- eryday life in Dubrovnik. Eating was connected to pleasure, and food became a means of differentiation as well as an

opreme kuća, te keramike i stakla, a nađen je i nadvratnik s natpisom koji poziva na sve pogodnosti stola: SIVE EGO SV SEDES VRNARIA SIVE LAVACRUM SIVE ABACUS MEN- SAE COMMODA MULTA DAMUS (Menalo 2004: 253–280).

Orijentalni proizvodi u Dubrovniku

U inventarima domova i oporukama od 16. stoljeća pa sve do

potresa 1667. nalaze se podatci o proizvodima osmanskog ili uopće orijentalnog podrijetla. Uvozili su se tepisi, prostirke, jastuci, vezeni stol-

njaci, pozlaćene kože, rasvjetna tijela, kutije i kovčezi, koji mogu biti od skupocjenih materijala, obloženi ili raskošno ukrašeni. U modi su bili i dijelovi turske nošnje, kape, rupci

i puceta, te obične i luksuzne turske tkanine, poput skupo-

cjene kamoke, crvene ili zelene boje, koja je bila protkana zlatnom žicom, s vegetabilnim i zoomorfnim motivima,

a od koje su pripadnici plemstva u 15. stoljeću izrađivali

odjeću (Han 1958: 95–96). U prvoj polovini 16. stoljeća često

su u uporabi pokrivači za krevete – coperta. Tako se u kući Lukarević 1501. spominje svileni pokrivač vezen zlatom, a

1539. jedan je takav pokrivač s cvjetovima od zlatnih listića

procijenjen na 12 dukata. Za usporedbu, crveno bojena i pozlaćena škrinja iz Venecije stajala je 2 dukata, a krevet od orahovine 3 dukata (Han 1958: 125). U arhivskim se dokumentima rijetko navode vrste posuda i njihovo podrijetlo. Češće se spominje metalno

posuđe, poput bakrenih tepsija, zdjela, tanjura, pladnjeva, bokala za vodu ili ibrika za kavu. Skupocjeniji su primjerci bili od srebra, primjerice pladnjevi za posluživanje jela i no- ževi s lančićem (Bajalović-Hadži-Pešić 1984: 121–123). Rijedak

je tip bokala maşrapa, koji se u dubrovačkim dokumentima

spominje kao mastrappa, bez oznake materijala (Bajalo- vić-Hadži-Pešić 1984: 121–123). Među dubrovačkim nalazima identificiran je jedan ulomak zahvaljujući ostatku uglate

ručke, koji vjerojatno odgovara tomu tipu, a ukrašen je na- turalističkim cvjetnim stilom (sl. 1) (Kovačić 2012: 78, kat. br. 12). Više je podataka o keramičkom posuđu sačuvano iz 17. stoljeća, a kao mjesto nastanka najčešće se navodi Istanbul, jer su se predmeti tamo kupovali, a rijetko Iznik. Godine

1651. u Rijeci dubrovačkoj „u Ombli“, zabi¬lježeni su tanjuri i

bokali iz Istanbula i Tunisa. I u inventaru kuće brijača Lovra

s Lopuda nalaze se zemljani pladnjevi iz Tunisa. Prema

inventaru dubrovačkog trgovca Smilčića, koji je poslovao u

Budimu, uz ostalo posuđe rabi se i izničko, jer se spominju jedan bokal i dva tanjura alla Turchese (Han 1958: 123). Najve-

ća se pošiljka izničkog posuđa spominje u pismu iz 1603. go-

dine, koje je iz Istanbula u Dubrovnik uputio brijač Giovanni

instrument of political power. The rich ate veal, wild game, poultry and capons, and, on special occasions, caviar and marcipan, a cake forbidden in Dubrovnik, made of a mixture of almonds and sugar (Ivanišević 2011: 15-18). In Dubrovnik, we know of the round wedding cake, the tartara, and must cake, the mantala, which is still prepared today from boiled must and quality wheat flower, pine nuts and spices (Stojan 2007: 181). Along with meat, locally produced cheese was used and exported. Salty cheese was eaten on long journeys, and was sold mostly by women. The name of one Đivana Milašica, a cheese seller who worked near the Orlando column, was recorded (Stojan 2007: 46). At a feast organised in 1757 in Gruž for a high Turkish official, Kapiji-Bhashi, veal, mutton, hen, birds, fish, tongue, and Italian cheese were served. Nuns from the Saint Mary monastery in Dubrovnik made appetizers and cakes using eggs, milk, cream and rose water, and the main courses were made by two chefs and three assistants. The rich enjoyed dessert wine, the infamous malvasia which was given as a gift to Ottoman high officials, and rose liqueur, rozolina. The poor ate salted and smoked meat, entrails, soups made from lentil, cabbage, sardines and prikla (fritter). As special treats they ate sausages, salčice, mortadela, and đelatina. Držić mentions a few types of eating establish- ments, voštarije, tovjerne, and taberne, which served food and drinks, and in some of them one could even stay the night (Ivanišević 2011: 9-25). Excavations of the garden of today’s primary school in the centre of the historic town core of the town yielded the greatest number of fragments of stone furniture and house utensils, pottery and glass, also yielded a transom with an inscription that which emphasizes all benefits of the table: SIVE EGO SV SEDES VRNARIA SIVE LAVACRUM SIVE ABACUS MENSAE COMMODA MULTA DAMUS (Menalo 2004: 253-280).

Oriental products in Dubrovnik In home records and last wills and testaments ranging from the 16th century to the earthquake in 1667, we find infor- mation on Ottoman and oriental items. People imported carpets, mats, pillows, embroidered table cloths, gilded hides, lamps, boxes and cases which were sometimes made of precious materials, padded and richly decorated. They wore parts of Turkish national costumes, caps, scarves and buttons, but also plain, as well as luxurious Turkish fab- rics like the expensive kamoka in red or green, woven with golden wires, with vegetative and zoomorphic motifs, used by 15th century noblemen for making clothes (Han 1958: 95-

Sl. 1 Ulomak bokala, Iznik, posljednja četvrtina 16. st., Dubrovački muzeji Fig. 1 Fragment of

Sl. 1 Ulomak bokala, Iznik, posljednja četvrtina 16. st., Dubrovački muzeji Fig. 1 Fragment of a jug, last quarter of the 16th century, Dubrovnik Museums

de Josepho prijatelju krojaču Pieru de Marinu, a u kojem mu javlja da se na brodu kapetana Giovannija Colende, koji plovi za Dubrovnik, nalazi kopa sa 88 majoličkih tanjura, zdjela, zdjelica i bokala. To je ujedno i najveća količina posuđa. Još se jednom spominje 14 tanjura srednje veličine, a većinom manji broj, od jednoga do najviše 7 komada. Po tome bi se moglo zaključiti da je to posuđe bilo daleko skuplje od isto- dobnoga talijanskoga. Takvo što da se naslutiti i iz podatka da u kući vlastelina Luka Zamanje godinu dana prije razor- nog potresa postoje samo tri takva velika tanjura i bokal (Han 1958: 123).

Nalazi izničke keramike u Dubrovniku Dubrovnik se izgrađivao stoljećima, a razne nedaće, poput kuge, potresa i stalne prijetnje osvajanjem njegova teritorija, prouzročile su rušenja, pregrađivanja i prenamjene objekata i pojedinih prostornih cjelina, te nestajanja pojedinih obi- telji. Pogotovo je katastrofalne razmjere imao potres 1667. godine, praćen požarom, koji je porušio katedralu i većinu crkvenih objekata, teško oštetio sjedište vlasti Knežev dvor, porušio stambene četvrti i odnio polovinu stanovnika. Tako su nestajali i oprema kuća, pokretnine, predmeti umjetnič- kog obrta i kućanski predmeti koji su stizali razgranatom

96). In the first half of the 16th century these were used as blankets (coperta), like the one from the house of Lukarević mentioned in 1501 made of silk and embroidered with gold thread. The price of such a blanket with flowers made of small golden leaves was estimated at 12 ducats. In compari- son, a red coloured gilded chest from Venice was priced at 2, and an oak wood bed at 3 ducats (Han 1958: 125). Archive records rarely list the types of pottery ves- sels and their origin, and more often mention metal ware like copper pans, bowls, plates, platters, water jugs, and coffee ewers. More expensive items were made of silver, for example platters for serving food and knives with a small chain (Bajalović-Hadži-Pešić 1984: 121-123). A rare type of pitchers is called the maşrap (named mastrappa in docu- ments from Dubrovnik), with no mention of the material it was made of (Bajalović-Hadži-Pešić 1984: 121-123). Among the finds from Dubrovnik, one fragment was identified thanks to the remains of an angular handle, probably be- longing to this type of pitcher, decorated with a naturalistic flower motif (fig.1.) (Kovačić 2012: 78, cat.no.12). More data on ceramic vessels originates from the 17th century, naming mostly Istanbul as the place of origin, because that is where the items were purchased, and only rarely Iznik. In 1651 in Rijeka Dubrovačka in Ombla, plates and jugs were record- ed which came from Istanbul and Tunisia. Clay platters from Tunisia were recorded in the inventory of a house of the Lovro, a barber from Lopud who was, according to the inventory list from Smilčić, a merchant from Dubrovnik trading in Budim. Pottery from Iznik was used with other vessels, and the ship’s inventory also includes a jug and two plates alla Turchese (Han 1958: 123). The biggest shipment of Iznik pottery was recorded in a letter from 1603, when Giovani de Josepho, a barber, went from Dubrovnik to Istanbul to visit his friend, a tailor by the name of Pier di Marino. In the letter he writes about a ship captained by Giovanni Colenda sailing towards Dubrovnik and carrying 88 majolica plates, bowls, small bowls, and jugs. That is also the biggest recorded amount of vessels. Additionally, re- cords mention 14 middle-sized plates, but more often refer to a smaller number, seven pieces at most. Based on all this, we can conclude that these vessels were more expensive than Italian ware. This is additionally attested to by the fact that the nobleman Luka Zamanja had only three large plates and one jug of this type in his house a year prior to the earthquake (Han 1958: 123).

kopnenom i pomorskom trgovinom ovoga grada države sa Sredozemljem i Osmanskim Carstvom. Kao najčešći nalazi brojnih arheoloških istraživanja unutar stare jezgre Dubrovnika pojavljuju se keramički ulomci, koji se odnose na kuhinjsko i stolno posuđe kakvo se uvozilo uglavnom iz Italije, rjeđe iz Osmanskog Carstva i još rjeđe iz Španjolske. Nalazi obuhvaćaju razdoblje od 14. do početka 20. stoljeća, a najvećim su dijelom proizvodi ra- dioničkih središta 15., 16. i prve polovine 17. stoljeća, što je i doba velikoga gospodarskog uspona Dubrovačke Republike. Gotovo sva kasnosrednjovjekovna i novovjekovna kerami- čka proizvodnja zastupljena je u nalazima u Dubrovniku. Prema uobičajenoj podjeli, razlikujemo keramiku s prozir- nom glazurom – invetriata, i onu s neprozirnom glazurom – smaltata. Brojniji su otvoreni oblici, a najzastupljenije su manje, duboke zdjelice, jer su jela običnog puka većinom bila jušna, to jest kašasta. Najbrojniji su nalazi stolne keramike primjerci tali- janske gravirane keramike, ceramica graffita, ali ne zaostaje ni luksuzno majoličko posuđe cvjetne gotike i renesanse, ukrašeno brojnim dekorativnim motivima, od kojih su najljepši oni s povijesnim i biblijskim scenama. Odlikuje ih intenzivan kolorit i istančan osjećaj za polutonove. Među tim se nalazima bojom, sastavom i kvalitetom smjese neusporedive tvrdoće, te izborom motiva i svježi- nom boja, s dominacijom kobaltnoplave i koraljnocrvene, ističe produkcija osmanskoga grada Iznika. Iako su nalazi te keramike često usitnjeni, pa uvijek ne dopuštaju određiva- nje tipa posude, prevladavaju otvoreni oblici, najviše tanjuri, potom zdjelice ili šalice, zdjele na nozi, rjeđe bokali. Kineske su šalice u središnje osmanske pokrajine donosili hodoča- snici na povratku iz Meke. Njihov se uvoz iz Kine proširio u 16. i 17. stoljeću, čemu je najviše pogodovala navika ispijanja kave koja je povezana s prihvaćanjem egzotičnih proizvoda, iako se tada u Kini kava nije pila. U drugoj polovini 16. sto- ljeća, usprkos protivljenju osmanske vlasti, uživanje u kavi proširilo se u sve dijelove Carstva, sve do Balkana (Rumelije). Mlečani se nisu okoristili trgovinom tom namirnicom, jer je Europa upoznala kavu tek krajem 17. stoljeća (Faroqhi 2009:

73). Ukrasni dezeni dubrovačkih nalaza daju potpunu pro- dukciju Iznika, počevši od ranoga plavo-bijelog stila „Baba Nakkaş“ (1475.–1520.), što je vrijeme tehničke i umjetničke izvrsnosti bez premca u islamskom svijetu, pa do 17. stoljeća, koje se raspoznaje po sastavu keramičkog tijela te glazuri koja sadržava nečistoće, po bojama koje su prelivene preko kontura crteža te po crvenoj boji koja postaje žuto-smeđa ili smeđa.

Finds of Iznik pottery in Dubrovnik Dubrovnik was built over centuries, and different adversi- ties like the plague, numerous earthquakes and the constant threat of loss of territory, caused demolitions, expansions and adaptations of buildings and complexes of buildings, as well as the disappearance of certain families. The earth- quake in 1667 was disastrous, and was followed by a fire which demolished the Cathedral and most sacral buildings, heavily damaged the Rector’s Palace, tore down residential quarters and took the lives of half of the citizens. House utensils, furniture, artworks and household items which arrived to this state-town through sea- and land-trade from the Mediterranean and the Ottoman Empire were also destroyed. The most common finds on numerous archaeolog- ical excavations in the old core of Dubrovnik were frag- ments of pottery kitchen- and table-ware imported mostly from Italy, more seldom from the Ottoman Empire, and quite rarely from Spain. The finds were dated to a period between the 14th and the beginning of the 20th century, and mostly included products made in workshop centres active in the 15th, the 16th, and the first half of the 17th century, a time of great economical growth of the Dubrovnik Republic. Almost all pottery production of the Medieval and post-Medieval peri- od is represented in the finds from Dubrovnik. The usual classification of finds differentiates pottery with a clear glaze, invetriata, and pottery with an opaque glaze, smaltata. There are numerous open forms, and most of them, because the food was mostly soup-like, that is, gruel, fall into the category of deep small bowls. The most numerous finds of table ware are examples of Italian incised pottery, ceramic garffita, but also majolica vessels of floral Gothic and Renaissance styles, decorated with numerous motifs, the most beautiful ones portraying historic and biblical scenes. They are distinguished by in- tensive colours, and a heightened sense of colour transition and semitones. Among the finds, Iznik pottery stands out due to its colour, composition, and the quality of the exceptionally hard blend, the choice of motifs, and the freshness of the colours dominated by cobalt blue and coral red. Although these finds are often fragmented and cannot be associated with a vessel form, open forms prevail, mostly including plates, small bowls or cups, bowls on a foot, and the occa- sional jug. Chinese cups were brought to central Ottoman regions by pilgrims on their way from Mecca. Their import

Sl. 2, 2a Ulomci umivaonika, poč. 16. st., Iznik, Dubrovački muzeji Fig. 2, 2a Fragments of a basin, beginning of the 16th century, Dubrovnik Museums

of a basin, beginning of the 16th century, Dubrovnik Museums Kuriozitet je da su u Dubrovniku
of a basin, beginning of the 16th century, Dubrovnik Museums Kuriozitet je da su u Dubrovniku

Kuriozitet je da su u Dubrovniku iz ranog razdoblja izničke proizvodnje pronađeni ulomci velike posude polukružnog oblika, promjera oko 45 cm i stope od 20 do 28 cm (sl. 2, 2a). Najvjerojatnije je riječ o umivaoniku, iako još nije do kraja razjašnjena funkcija te posude. Takva forma nije zabilježena u osmanskim dokumentima. Može ju se naći tek na mini- jaturama s prikazom svečanih gozbi, na kojima su takve posude bile postavljene između tanjura, što upućuje na to da su služile za pranje ruku poslije jela. Na ilustraciji s prikazom proroka Muhameda pri ritualnom pranju, sluga izlijeva vodu iz vrča iznad metalne posude takvog oblika, pa joj stoga autori velike studije o Izniku dodjeljuju takvu namjenu. Rijetki su sačuvani primjerci iz prve polovine 16. stoljeća, a s obzirom na bogat i složen ukras na obje strane i cijenu od 100 akča, koja je zabilježe¬na na jednom cjenovni- ku, takve si je posude mogla priuštiti samo otomanska elita. Odlikuje ju složeni crtež kvalitetne izvedbe, karakteristične za stil „Baba Nakkaş“. Uzori su oblika posuda i dekoracija iz toga razdoblja kineski plavo-bijeli porculan iz 14. i 15. stolje- ća te osmanske metalne forme. Dekorirana je kombinacijom osmanske arabeske, kineskog lotosa i složenim motivom uzla trodimenzionalnog izgleda, nalik tkanju, koji se kao motiv koristio kratko.

from China spread in the 16th and 17th century, owing mostly to the consummation of coffee, which is associated with the acceptance of exotic products, even though we must mention that coffee was not consummated in China at the time. In the second half of the 16th century, despite the opposition from the Ottoman government, drinking coffee spread to all parts of the Empire, all the way to the Balkans (Rumelia). The Venetians did not benefit from the trade of this merchandise because coffee was not introduced to Europe until the 17th century (Faroqhi 2009: 73). The decorative patterns on the finds from Dubrovnik reveal the complete production of Iznik, starting from the early blue and white Baba Nakkaş style (1475-1520) when the technical and artistic work reached a point of excellence unparalleled in the Islamic world, to the 17th century recognisable from the compound of the ceramic body and glaze with impuri- ties, colours spilled across the lines of the drawings, and the colour red which became yellowish-brown and brown. It is interesting to mention that fragments of a large hemi- spherical bowl 45cm in diameter, and a 20-28cm foot from an early period of Iznik production were found in Du- brovnik (fig. 2, 2a). It was most probably a wash basin, although its function is not completely clear. The form was not record- ed in Ottoman documents, only on miniatures depicting ceremonial feats which show this vessel between the plates, implying that it could have been used for washing hands after the meal. On an illustration of the prophet Mohamed performing his ritual washing, a servant pours water from a jug above a metal vessel of such form, so the authors of the great study of Iznik ascribed this function to the fragment they found. Rare examples can be dated to the first part of the 16th century, and, considering the rich and elaborate decoration on both sides, as well as the price of a hundred akçes recorded on one price list, only the Ottoman elite could afford it. It has an elaborate quality drawing, typical for the Baba Nakkaş style (1475–1520). The vessel forms and decorations of that period had role models in Chinese blue and white porcelain of the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as in Ottoman metal vessels. These were decorated with a combination of the Ottoman arabesque, the Chinese lotus, and a complex three dimensional knot resembling a weave which was used for a short period of time. The decoration was applied on a blue opaque sur- face, and, vice versa, with a cobalt blue drawing on a white surface under a shiny glaze. The creation of the knot is ascribed to an unknown artist who was called the “Master

Sl. 3, 4, 4a Umivaonici, poč. 16. st., Victoria & Albert Museum, London (iz N. Atasoy-J. Raby, 1989., 92-93) Fig. 3, 4, 4a Basins, beginning of the 16th century, Victoria & Albert Museum, London (taken from: N. Atasoy-J. Raby, 1989,

92-93)

Museum, London (taken from: N. Atasoy-J. Raby, 1989, 92-93) Dekoracija je izvedena na kobaltnoplavoj, neprozir- noj
Museum, London (taken from: N. Atasoy-J. Raby, 1989, 92-93) Dekoracija je izvedena na kobaltnoplavoj, neprozir- noj
Museum, London (taken from: N. Atasoy-J. Raby, 1989, 92-93) Dekoracija je izvedena na kobaltnoplavoj, neprozir- noj

Dekoracija je izvedena na kobaltnoplavoj, neprozir- noj podlozi, i obratno, kobaltnoplavim crtežom na bijeloj pozadini ispod briljantne glazure. Kreiranje uzla pripisuje se nepoznatom umjetniku, koji je dobio nadimak „Umjetnik uzla“. S vanjske strane dominira veliki, stilizirani lotosov cvijet na tankim viticama. Takav je lotos kreacija anonimno- ga nadarenog pojedinca, koji je dobio nadimak „Umjetnik lo- tosa“. Nekoliko se primjeraka tako dekoriranog umivaonika datira u oko 1520., čime je i datacija dubrovačkog primjerka pobliže označena. Motiv u unutrašnjosti posude identičan je cjelo¬vitom primjerku iz Muzeja Victoria and Albert, datiranomu u oko 1510. godinu (sl. 3, 4, 4a) (Atasoy i Raby 1989: 93). Iz toga ranog razdoblja potječe i ulomak zdjelice na prstena¬stoj nozi, koji je pronađen tijekom istraživanja benediktin-skog samostana sv. Marije od Kaštela (Milošević i Topić 2010: 153). Rekonstruirani bokal i ulomak dna zdjelice primjer su imitacije orijentalnih oblika i ukrasnih motiva u vrijeme povećane potražnje tih predmeta na Zapadu (sl. 5, 6). Oba predmeta imaju vrlo tanke stijenke, od samo 0,2 cm na rubu oboda do 0,4 cm debljine pri dnu. Keramika je u presjeku slamnato žute boje, a zdjelica je sa sivoplavim neprozirnim premazom, karakterističnim za talijansku majoliku berettinu.

of the Knot”. The other side of the find is dominated by a big stylized lotus flower on thin scrolls. That kind of lotus flower was a creation of a gifted individual who was desig- nated “The Master of the Lotuses”. A couple of examples of washbasins decorated in this way were dated to around 1520, which is also the datation of the Dubrovnik find. The motif on the interior of the vessel is identical to a complete- ly preserved example from the Victoria and Albert Museum, dated to around 1510 (fig. 3, 4, 4a) (Atasoy and Raby 1989: 93). A fragment of a small bowl a on ring like foot found in the Benedictine monastery of Saint Mary of Kaštela is also from this early period (Milošević and Topić 2010: 153). A reconstructed jug and a base shard of a small bowl are examples of the imitation of oriental forms and decora- tive motifs at the time of increased demand for these items in the West (fig. 5, 6). Both vessels have very thin walls of merely 0.2cm in width on the rim, and up to 0.4cm at the base. The pottery is of straw yellow colour, and the bowl covered with an opaque slip is typical for the Italian majol- ica berettina. The inscription in Arab at the bottom is done in cobalt blue. The jug has a typical Ottoman form, and the decoration is divided into zones. The colours include navy blue, emerald green, and black, but also some watery and

Sl. 5, 6 Bokal i ulomak zdjelice, Italija (?), poč. 17. st., Dubrovački muzeji Fig. 5, 6 Jug and a fragment of a small bowl, Italy (?), beginning of the 17th century, Dubrovnik Museums

Italy (?), beginning of the 17th century, Dubrovnik Museums Arapski je natpis na dnu izveden kobaltnoplavom

Arapski je natpis na dnu izveden kobaltnoplavom bojom. Bokal je tipično osmanske forme, kao i dekoracija podijelje- na na pojaseve. Boje su tamnoplava, smaragdnozelena i crna, ali vodenaste i bez sjaja. Prema svemu sudeći, proizvedeni su u Italiji, a kvaliteta upućuje na to da su bili namijenjeni širokoj potrošnji. Italija je od kraja 16. stoljeća i cijelo 17. stoljeće proizvodila posuđe s višebojnim slikanim ukrasom, poznatim pod nazivom majolika candiana. Bila je to imitacija cvjetnog naturalizma Iznika, s tom razlikom da talijanski majoličari nikada nisu uspjeli proizvesti crvenu boju. Još jedna keramika koja se ističe motivima i bojom jest ona podrijetlom iz Španjolske. Svoju je popularnost i skupocjenost stekla zahvaljujući neprozirnom, kositrenom premazu, na koji se nanosio crtež bojama nastalima na os- novi metalnih oksida. Njezina je posebnost složena tehnika apliciranja metalnog lustra kao dekorativnog elementa kojim se oponašalo skupocjeno posuđe od plemenitih me- tala, a kakvo je Kuran zabranjivao za svakidašnju uporabu. To posuđe, kao i pločice za popločivanje podova – azulejos, stizali su vjerojatno u Dubrovnik posredstvom dubrovačkih i katalonskih trgovaca, jer je dubrovačka diplomacija rano uspostavila trgovinu s Katalonijom, pa se već u prvim deset- ljećima 14. stoljeća spominju katalonski brodovi i trgovci u dubrovačkoj luci. Tijekom 15. stoljeća gospodarski i politički

luci. Tijekom 15. stoljeća gospodarski i politički matt ones. All things considered, based on their quality,

matt ones. All things considered, based on their quality, the vessels were probably made in Italy and were intended for widespread use. From the end of the 16th, and all through the 17th century, Italy produced pottery with painted polychrome decorations known as majolica candiana, which was an imitation of Iznik’s flower naturalism. The masters of majolica, however, never managed to produce the colour red.

Other pottery which stands out because of its motifs and colours originated from Spain, and reached its popularity and market price thanks to the opaque tin slip onto which the drawing was applied with colours made of metal oxides. Its main feature is the complex technique of applying metal lustra as a decorative element, by which the potters strived to imitate vessels made of precious metals, forbidden for daily use by the Quran. These vessels, as well as tiles for paving floors (azulejos), were most prob- ably brought to Dubrovnik by merchants from Dubrovnik and Catalonia, because Dubrovnik’s diplomats established trade with Catalonia very early on, and Catalonian ships and merchants were mentioned in Dubrovnik’s harbour as early as the first decades of the 14th century. During the 15th century, economic and politic relations intensified, and Dubrovnik started importing Sicilian wheat, as well as

odnosi su se intenzivirali, a Dubrovnik je uz sicilijansko žito uvozio i katalonsku vunu za svoju djelotvornu manufaktu- ru sukna. Najvažniji su izvozni proizvodi srebro i olovo, no katalonski su trgovci u Dubrovniku nabavljali i cijenjeni aleksandrijski lan i sol. Španjolska keramika u Dubrovnik je mogla stizati i preko Venecije, Ligurije i Pise. U Veneciji se tada proizvodila samo gravirana keramika s olovnom glazu- rom, te su Mleci, štiteći vlastitu proizvodnju, u više navrata tijekom 15. stoljeća zabranjivali uvoz strane keramike, osim one iz Valencije i Majorke. Genova, Savona i Pisa rano su uspostavile komercijalne odnose s Valencijom. Pronađeni arhiv toskanskog trgovca Francesca Datinija svjedoči da je on krajem 14. stoljeća imao skladišta u Valenciji, Barce- loni i Majorci, i bio glavni dobavljač španjolske majolike za Sredozemlje i Europu. Prvih godina 15. stoljeća robom ga je opskrbljivao maurski keramičar iz Manisesa, imenom Asmet Zuleima (Bradara 2005: 93; Saccardo 2003.). Pojedi- načne komade po¬suđa mogle su donijeti i židovske izbjegli- ce, koje su se poslije pada Granade doselile u Dubrovnik. U inventarima građana navode se i španjolski tepisi, pozlaćene kože i svileni prekrivači, izrađeni na maurski način.

Nalazi izničke keramike u Hrvatskoj Osim u Dubrovniku, prema dosad objavljenim radovima o nalazima kasnosrednjovjekovne i novovjekovne keramike, iznička keramika nije nađena u dalmatinskim gradovima. Iznimka je srednjovjekovni grad Ružica kraj Orahovice u Vi- rovitičko-podravskoj županiji, gdje je u istraživanjima otkri- veno samo nekoliko ulomaka (Radić i Bojčić 2004: 214–215). Budući da su nalazi te keramike i u Dubrovniku malobrojni u odnosu na keramiku brojnih manufaktura na Apeninskom poluotoku, može se zaključiti da su u 16. stoljeću, zlatnom dobu Dubrovačke Republike, izničko posuđe mogla kupiti samo vlastela. Poznati kao pragmatični i štedljivi, Dubrov- čani se nisu razmetali kupnjom takvoga posuđa, koje je zasigurno bilo skupo ako je poznato da se ono, uz kineski porculan, koristilo i u sultanovoj palači. Iz popisa imetka osmanske vojničke elite dolazi manji broj komada, a samo su rijetki imali kineski porculan (Atasoy i Raby 1989: 14). Osim trgovinom, pojedinačni komadi sigurno su dolazili i kao da- rovi brojnih predstavnika carske vlasti koji su radi obavljanja raznih poslova boravili u Dubrovniku. Poslije potresa 1667. i obnove grada, započelo je novo umjetničko razdoblje baroka, koje je donijelo promje- nu modnih izričaja. Time se znatno umanjila potreba za orijentalnim predmetima umjetničkog obrta.

Catalonian wool in order to continue its efficient cloth man- ufacture. The most important exports were silver and lead, but merchants from Catalonia obtained the prized Alex- andrian flax and salt in Dubrovnik as well. Spanish pottery could have also come to Dubrovnik via Venice, Liguria and Pisa. At the time, Venice produced only engraved pottery with a lead glaze, and had, in an attempt to protect its own production, forbidden imports of foreign pottery on many occasions during the 15th century, with the exception of that from Valencia and Majorca. Genoa, Savona and Pisa es- tablished trade relations with Valencia early on. The recov- ered archive of a merchant from Toscana, Francesco Datini, states that he had storage houses in Valencia, Barcelona and Majorca, and was the main supplier of Spanish majolica for the Mediterranean and Europe at the end of the 14th centu- ry. During the first years of the 15th century, he acquired his merchandise through a Moor potter from Manises, called Asmet Zuleima (Bradara 2005: 93; Saccardo 2003). Individ- ual pieces of pottery could have been brought by Jewish refugees who moved to Dubrovnik after the fall of Granada. The inventories of citizens also list Spanish carpets, gilded hides, and silk covers made in a Moorish fashion.

Finds of Iznik pottery in Croatia According to recently published papers on the Late Medie- val and Medieval pottery, apart from Dubrovnik, Iznik pot- tery was found in no other city in Dalmatia. The exception being the medieval town of Ružica near Orhovica in Virovit- ica-Podravina County where only a couple of fragments was found (Radić and Bojčić 2004, 2014-2015). Since the finds of this kind of pottery in Dubrovnik are scarce in comparison to the finds from the workshops on the Apennine Peninsula, we may conclude that in the 16th century, the golden age of the Dubrovnik Republic, only noblemen could afford these vessels. Known as pragmatic and prudent, they did not flaunt the acquisition of this ware, which must have been expensive if we take into account that it was used in the Sultan’s palace along with Chinese porcelain (Atasoy and Raby 1989: 14). Apart from being traded, individual pieces must have come as gifts from numerous representatives of the Imperial rule who stayed in Dubrovnik in order to conduct their business. After the earthquake in 1667 and the restoration of the town, a new artistic era began – the Baroque, which brought about a change in fashion. With it, the need for oriental items in applied arts decreased.

Podvodna arheološka istraživanja brodoloma na pličini Sveti Pavao

Igor Miholjek

Underwater archaeological excavations of the shipwreck in the Sveti Pavao shallows

Igor Miholjek

Početkom 15. stoljeća Venecija širi svoju dominaciju na Jadranu i osvaja većinu gradova na istočnoj obali. Cres, Osor, Trogir i Split osvajaju silom, dok se Hvar, Brač i Vis predaju bez otpora. U Korčuli živi pretežno romansko stanovništvo pa tako korčulanski plemići prisežu trajnu vjernost Veneciji. Poslije osvajanja dalmatinskih gradova, ista sudbina zade- sila je i bokokotarske gradove Perast, Kotor i Bar. Jedino Dubrovačka Republika, uz visoku cijenu slobode koju plaća Osmanskom Carstvu, ostaje neosvojena sve do dolaska Napoleona u 19. stoljeću. Nakon skoro stoljetne dominaci- je Venecije Jadranom, krajem 15. i početkom 16. stoljeća u Jadranu se pojavljuje osmanska flota. Širenjem Osmanskog carstva na kopnu javlja se potreba za prevlasti i na moru. Sve do dolaska sultana Sulejmana Veličanstvenog osmanska flota ne predstavlja pravu opasnost, no za njegove vladavine i vladavine Selima II. Turci odlučuju zagospodariti Meditera- nom i Jadranom. Jadran je u 16. stoljeću poprište većih i manjih po- morskih bitaka u kojima jačaju pomorske sile Osmanskog Carstva i Španjolske, a slabi Mletačka Republika. Kako je time narušena mirna plovidba i trgovina, europske zemlje odlučuju se udružiti i organizirati kršćansku flotu poznatiju kao Sveta Liga. Više stotina raznih brodova predvođenih Don Juanom Austrijskim kreće iz Messine i 7. listopada 1571. sukobljava se s otomanskom flotom od preko 250 brodova usidrenom pored Lepanta u današnjoj Grčkoj. Lepantska bitka najveća je i najvažnija pomorska bitka u Mediteranu ikada. Pobjedu je, uz strašne gubitke u ljudstvu i u brodovi- ma na obje strane, slavila kršćanska Sveta Liga. U Bitci kod Lepanta sudjelovali su i brodovi istarskih i dalmatinskih gra- dova (sl. 7). Nakon te bitke osmanska flota više nikada nije ulazila u Jadran, te Venecija vraća svoju prevlast u Jadranu i ponovo uspostavlja trgovinu između Istoka i Zapada (Tali- jančić 1989: 88-98). Najnovije otkriće brodoloma iz 15. stoljeća s teretom venetske keramike i 13 željeznih sidara na otoku Visu samo potvrđuje da hrvatsko podmorje još nije istraženo. U po- sljednjih četrdeset godina podvodni arheolozi u Hrvatskoj istraživali su manji broj novovjekovnih brodoloma, da bi se u posljednjih nekoliko godina istraživanja intenzivirala. Danas možemo slobodno zaključiti da su istraživanja brodoloma iz perioda od 15. do 18. stoljeća postala važna tema znanstvenih istraživanja. To možemo zahvaliti spletu sretnih okolnosti to jest učestalijim prijavama novih brodoloma, ali prije svega predanom radu, te napretku metoda i tehnologija istraživa- nja. Do otkrića brodoloma Sveti Pavao na Mljetu najpozna- tiji brodolomi iz druge polovice 16. stoljeća bili su oni kod

At the beginning of the 15th century Venice spread its dom- inance on the Adriatic and conquered most of the cities on the eastern coast. Cres, Osor, Trogir and Split were taken by force, while Hvar, Brač and Vis surrendered without resis- tance. Korčula was mostly inhabited by Romanized people, so Korčula’s noblemen swore permanent allegiance to Ven- ice. After the Dalmatian cities were conquered, the towns in Boka Kotorska: Perast, Kotor and Bar suffered the same fate. Only the Republic of Dubrovnik, with a high price of liberty it paid to the Ottoman Empire, remained uncon- quered until Napoleon’s arrival in the 19th century. After almost a century of Venetian domination on the Adriatic, at the end of the 15th and the beginning of 16th centuries, the Ottoman fleet appeared on the Adriatic. With the expansion of the Ottoman Empire on land, the need for dominance at sea appeared. Up until the rule of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman fleet posed no real threat, but during his, and the reign of Selim II, the Ottomans decided to take over the Mediterranean and the Adriatic. In the 16th century, great and small battles took place on the Adriatic, which empowered the Ottoman Em- pire and Spain, and weakened the Republic of Venice. When sailing and trade were disrupted, the European countries decided to join and organize a Christian fleet, known as the Holy League. Several hundreds of different ships led by Don John of Austria sailed from Messina on October 7, 1571, and clashed with the Ottoman fleet of over 250 ships which were anchored near Lepanto in today’s Greece. The Battle of Lepanto that took place on that day is the greatest and the most important battle on the Mediterranean in history. The victory, with huge losses in men and ships on both sides, was won by the Christian Holy League. Ships from Istrian and Dalmatian towns took part in the Battle of Lepanto (fig. 7.). After the battle, the Ottoman fleet never entered the Adriatic, so Venice took back its dominance over the Adriatic and reinstated trade between the East and the West (Talijančić 1989: 88-98). The latest discovery of a 15th century shipwreck with a cargo of Venetian pottery and 13 iron anchors on the island of Vis only confirms that Croatian waters are still un- explored. During the last forty years, underwater archaeol- ogists in Croatia excavated a small number of post-Medieval shipwrecks, only to intensify the research in the last couple of years. Today, we can say with certainty that the research of shipwrecks dated to the period between the 15th and the 18th century is an important subject in academic research. This is due to a series of fortunate circumstance, that is, to

Sl. 7. Lepanska bitka, fotografija karte iz Zavičajnog muzeja grada Rovinja Fig. 7. The Battle of Lepanto, photo taken in the Rovinj Native Museum

Battle of Lepanto, photo taken in the Rovinj Native Museum otočića Gnalića (Radulić 1970: 4-7) i

otočića Gnalića (Radulić 1970: 4-7) i otoka Šipana (Kisić 1979:

73-98), a iz 17. je stoljeća najpoznatiji brodolom kod Dre- vina u Koločepskom kanalu blizu Dubrovnika (Kisić 1982:

143-163). U više se navrata istraživalo brodolom iz 17.st. kod otočića Bisage u Kornatima (Brusić 1986: 473 – 490). Brod je bio dobro naoružan sa 7 topova a prevozio je kineski porcu- lan dinastije Ming (1368- 1644.) i Qing (1644-1912.). Još dva brodoloma pronađena su u Dubrovačkom akvatoriju, blizu Brsečina (Jurišić, Mihajlović 2010: 103-113) i ispred Cavtata, a treći na pličini Mijoka blizu Murtera. Prema izvađenim dijelovima topova, brodolom se kod Brsečina vjerojatno dogodio krajem 16. stoljeća (Ridella 2011: 39-56) ili kasnije, a nalazište ispred Cavtata potječe iz razdoblja Napoleonskih ratova. Brodolom kod pličine Mijoka blizu Murtera potječe, prema nalazima sličnima materijalu pronađenom kod Gna- lića, s početka 17. stoljeća (Zmaić 2009: 430-442). Od dva brodoloma iz 16. stoljeća sa sličnim teretom jedan se nalazi na južnoj strani otoka Korčule (Radić Rossi 2001: 227-236), a drugi kod otoka Biševa (Radić 1990: 213-227). Brodovi su prevozili raznoliki teret poluproizvoda od mjedi. U podmor- ju Lastova također je pronađen brodolom iz 16. stoljeća. No- vovjekovni brodolomi nisu rijetkost u hrvatskom podmorju, ali ih se rijetko pronalazi u ovako netaknutom stanju i uz to rijetko govorimo o sustavno istraživanim novovjekovnim brodolomima (sl. 8).

the fact that reports of new shipwrecks have become more common, and primarily due to dedicated work and the progress of research methods and technologies. Until the discovery of the Sveti Pavao shipwreck on Mljet, the most famous shipwrecks from the second half of the 16th cen- tury were the ones found near the islet of Gnalić (Radulić 1970: 4-7) and the island of Šipan (Kisić 1979:73-98), and, from the 17th century, the most important wreck is Drevine in the channel of Koločep near Dubrovnik (Kisić 1982:143- 163). The 17th century shipwreck near the islet of Bisage in the Kornati archipelago was excavated on a number of occasions (Brusić 1986: 473 – 490). The ship was well armed, with 7 artillery pieces and a cargo of Chinese porcelain dat- ed to the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1912) dynasties. Two more sites were found in the Dubrovnik underwater area, one near Brsečine (Jurišić, Mihajlović 2010: 103-113) and one in front of Cavtat. A third ship was found near the Mi- joka shallows close to the island of Murter. According to the retrieved cannon parts, the shipwreck near Brsečine can be dated to the end of the 16th century (Ridella 2011: 39-56) or later, and the site in front of Cavtat to the time of the Napo- leonic wars. The shipwreck near the Mijoka shallows near Murter can, based on material which is similar to one part of the material found at Gnalić, be dated to the beginning of the 17th century (Zmaić 2009: 430-442). Similar cargo was

the 17th century (Zmaić 2009: 430-442). Similar cargo was Sl. 8. Karta Jadrana s pozicijama novovjekovnih

Sl. 8. Karta Jadrana s pozicijama novovjekovnih brodoloma – PIRI REIS (s dopuštenjem "The Walters Art Museum") Fig. 8. Map of the Adriatic with positions of post- Medieval shipwrecks- PIRI REIS (with the permission of the Walters Art Museum)

1.

Otočić Gnalić, Biograd

/

islet of Gnalić, Biograd

2.

Otočić Bisaga, otočje Kornati

/

islet of Bisaga, Kornati archipelago

3.

Pličina Mijoka, otok Murter

/

Mijoka shallows, Murter Island

4. Otočić Greben, otok Vis

/

islet Greben, Island of Vis

5.

Uvala Labotovo, otok Vis

/ Labotovo bay, Island of Vis

6. Otok Biševo/ island of Biševo

7. Otočić Otočac, otok Korčula / islet

of Otočac, island of Korčula

8. Rt Cuf, otok Lastovo

/ Cape Cuf, island of Lastovo

9. Pličina Sveti Pavao, otok Mljet

/ Sveti Pavao shallows,

island of Mljet

10. Uvala Brsečine, Dubrovnik

/ Brsečine Bay, Dubrovnik

11. Uvala Suđurađ, otok Šipan

/ Suđurađ Bay, island of Šipan

12. Drevine, Koločepski kanal

/ Drevine, Koločep Channel

13. Rt Ratac, otok Koločep

/ Cape Ratac, island of Koločep

found on two 16th-century shipwrecks, one on the south- ern side of the island of Korčula (Radić Rossi 2001: 227-236) and one near the island of Biševo (Radić 1990: 213-227). The ships were transporting various cargos of brass semi-prod- ucts. A post-Medieval shipwreck from the 16th century was also found in the waters around the island of Lastovo. Although post-Medieval wrecks are not a rarity on the Cro- atian seabed, they are seldom found in such an intact state, and we can rarely talk about systematically investigated post-Medieval wrecks (fig. 8.). The island of Mljet is situated 22 nautical miles north-west of Dubrovnik. Any type of SCUBA diving is prohibited in the waters around the island of Mljet, except diving activities which are strictly regulated by the Min- istry of Culture that issues special permissions for those purposes. The Sava-Medveščak diving club was issued that permission for their SCUBA diving camp, and was obligat- ed to report any and all potential finds within the waters around the islandof Mljet. The club held a diving camp on the southern part of the island of Mljet during August 2006. Remains of the site were found in the Sveti Pavao shallows during a dive led by Jurica Bezak on the southern side of the island of Mljet, around 200 m from the shore. He informed the Ministry of Culture and the Department for Underwa- ter Archaeology of the Croatian Conservation Institute, and they organised rescue excavations held the following year (fig. 9.).

The goal of the first research campaign was to draw a draft of the site and take photographs of the situation at the site. Due to the great value of bronze artillery pieces and other preserved objects it was decided that all objects that were documented could be raised to the surface, in order to prevent devastation (fig. 10.). The sea bottom lowers to the depth of 46 m forming cascades; the rocks, overgrown with vegetation, are followed by a sandy bottom which forms a

mild slope towards a deeper region. The biggest concentra- tion of finds is visible on the last two cascades. The concen-

tration of finds covers approximately 50 m2, between the

depth of 40 and 42 m, except for two artillery pieces which were found 10 m east of the main assemblage, at a depth

of 37 m. The remains of the ship’s construction and the

anchors lie at the depth between 38 and 46 m. In order to precisely document the site it was necessary to place seven

orientation points. They were named using letters from A to G (see the big plan of the site, Plan 1). These points were used to measure the position of the finds using triangula-

tion, so each find was given an exact position, depth and relation to other finds. After the finds were documented

Sl. 9. Karta Mljeta s pozicijom brodoloma Sveti Pavao, (preuzeto iz: Piri Reis, The Book of Bahriye, Istanbul 2013, 103) Fig. 9. Map of Mljet with the location of the Sveti Pavao shipwreck (taken from: Piri Reis, The Book of Bahriye, Istanbul 2013, 103)

from: Piri Reis, The Book of Bahriye, Istanbul 2013, 103) Otok Mljet nalazi se 22 nautičke

Otok Mljet nalazi se 22 nautičke milje sjeverozapadno od Dubrovnika. Ronjenje je u moru oko otoka Mljeta zabra- njeno osim ako ga odobri Ministarstvo kulture koje izdaje posebne dozvole u te svrhe. Ronilački klub Sava-Medveščak dobio je dozvolu za svoj ronilački kamp uz obavezu prijave svih nalaza u vodama oko otoka Mljeta. Klub je organizirao kamp na južnom dijelu otoka u kolovozu 2006. Ostaci nala- zišta nađeni su tijekom urona koji je vodio Jurica Bezak na južnoj strani otoka oko 200 m od obale. Obavijestio je Mini- starstvo kulture i Odjel za podvodnu arheologiju Hrvatskog restauratorskog zavoda te je već sljedeće godine organizira- no zaštitno istraživanje (sl. 9). Cilj prve istraživačke kampanje bio je izrada skice i fotografija situacije na nalazištu. Zbog velike vrijednosti pronađenog naoružanja i ostalih predmeta, odlučeno je da će predmeti koji su dokumentirani biti izvađeni ne bi li se spriječila devastacija (sl. 10). Morsko se dno spušta na dubinu od 46 m u kaskadama. Stijene su obrasle, a nakon njih slijedi pjeskovito dno oblikujući blagu kosinu u dubinu. Najveća koncentracija nalaza vidljiva je na zadnje dvije kaskade. Nalazi se protežu na oko 50 m2, na dubini između 40 i 42 metra. Jedino su dva topa nađena 10 metara istočno od glavne koncentracije nalaza, na dubini od 37 metara. Ostaci brodske konstrukcije i sidara nalaze se na dubini od 38 do

and photographed with their associated number, they were brought up to the surface so they could be individually doc- umented and drawn. Smaller objects were put into nets and carefully taken up to the surface, and artillery pieces were taken out individually using an airlift (fig. 11.). The first excavations lasted four days, included 33 dives conducted by the team, and during which 37 objects were documented and retrieved from the seabed. Excava- tions of this kind require experienced divers with appro- priate certificates for deep dives. Divers used the Enriched Air Nitrox gas mixture with 26% of oxygen which allowed longer bottom time and made the whole dive a lot safer . The gas mixture during the decompression stops was again Enriched Air Nitrox gas mixture with 80% of oxygen, or in some cases pure oxygen (O2 100%). An additional safety factor was added by putting one spare diving tank at the bottom. Every day before the beginning of the diving oper- ation, a briefing was carried out, where general assignments for all divers were laid out and the diving plan was arranged. Smaller briefings were carried out before every dive with each diving group to confirm their tasks. Unlike the previous year when triangulation was used as the measuring technique, in 2008 a documenta- tion grid was placed, using points fixed in the previous campaign (fig. 12.). This allowed for a precise measuring of both various finds and the site. In this research phase 51 objects were documented and recovered from the seabed. Nine limestone shots were found (fig. 13.) along with one small lead shot which was found inside the sand layer at the bottom of the trench. This shows the ship was armed not only with artillery pieces but also with harquebuses. Metal objects were also found at the site, including a copper food warmer with a horizontally hammered relief band below the rim. Other items include a bronze convex pan of a pan balance (libbra), measuring 6.2 cm in diameter, with three small hanging holes, a lock cartridge measuring 14x6 cm; a glass bead measuring 10 mm in diameter and a large num- ber of animal bones. An iron anchor, found at the depth of 37 m and 25 m north of Sector 1, i. e. the area with the highest concentration of finds (Plan 2) was also documented and named Sector 3 (Plan 1). It was 2.20 m long with a tilt on top, measuring 60 cm in diameter. The lower part of the anchor was buried in the sand and only one arm could be seen protruding from the seabed. Considering the fact that the site was found intact, it was necessary to maintain the conditions that preserved the ship’s hull during all under- water investigations (digging, documentation, etc.)

under- water investigations (digging, documentation, etc.) Plan 1. - Plan nalazišta na pličini Sveti Pavao, sva

Plan 1. - Plan nalazišta na pličini Sveti Pavao, sva četiri sektora Plan 1. - Plan of the site in the Sveti Pavao shallows, all four sectors

Plan 2. - Plan nalazišta na pličini Sveti Pavao, Sektor 1 Plan 2. - Plan

Plan 2. - Plan nalazišta na pličini Sveti Pavao, Sektor 1 Plan 2. - Plan of the site in the Sveti Pavao shallows, Sector 1

2. - Plan of the site in the Sveti Pavao shallows, Sector 1 Sl. 10. Dokumentiranje

Sl. 10. Dokumentiranje nakon otkrića lokaliteta Fig. 10. Documentation after the discovery of the site

46 m. Kako bi nalazište bilo precizno dokumentirano bilo je nužno postaviti sedam orijentacijskih točaka. Točke su nazvane slovima od A do G (v. veliki plan nalazišta, Plan 1.). Ove su točke korištene za mjerenje pozicije nalaza pomoću triangulacije, tako da je svakom nalazu određena pozicija, dubina i odnos prema drugim nalazima. Nakon što su nalazi dokumentirani i fotografirani s dodijeljenim brojem, izvađe- ni su na površinu i tamo zasebno dokumentirani i nacrtani. Manji su predmeti stavljeni u mrežice i pažljivo izneseni na površinu, dok su topovi vađeni jedan po jedan pomoću padobrana za dizanje tereta (sl. 11). Prvo je istraživanje trajalo četiri dana, a izvedena su 33 urona i 37 predmeta je dokumentirano i izvađeno na po- vršinu. Ovakva vrsta istraživanja zahtjeva iskusne ronioce s odgovarajućim certifikatima za duboka ronjenja. Ronioci su koristili mješavinu plinova Enriched Air Nitrox s 26 % kisika što im je omogućilo da duže ostanu na dnu a samo ronjenje je bilo sigurnije. Za dekompresijske zastanke upotrebljavana je također mješavina Enriched Air Nitrox s 80 % kisika, a u nekim slučajevima čisti kisik (O2 100 %). Dodatni je faktor sigurnosti bila postavljena dodatna boca sa zrakom na mor- skom dnu. Na svakodnevnim brifinzima prije svake roni- lačke akcije dodjeljivala su se generalna zaduženja ronioca i iznosio se plan ronjenja, a na kraćim su se brifinzima prije

se plan ronjenja, a na kraćim su se brifinzima prije Sl. 11. Podizanje topa pomoću zračnog
se plan ronjenja, a na kraćim su se brifinzima prije Sl. 11. Podizanje topa pomoću zračnog

Sl. 11. Podizanje topa pomoću zračnog padobrana Fig. 11. Raising of one of the artillery pieces using an air lift

Sl. 12. Iskop i dokumentacijsko mrežište Fig. 12. Excavations and the documentation grid

Sl. 13. Dokumentiranje topovskih kugli in situ Fig. 13 Documentation of the shots in situ

Sl. 14. Dokumentiranje topa podvodnom kamerom Fig. 14. Documentation of an artillery piece with an underwater video camera

of an artillery piece with an underwater video camera svakog urona sa svakom grupom ronioca zasebno
of an artillery piece with an underwater video camera svakog urona sa svakom grupom ronioca zasebno

svakog urona sa svakom grupom ronioca zasebno utvrđivala zaduženja. Za razliku od prethodne godine, kada se za mjerenje koristila metoda triangulacije, 2008 godine postavljena je dokumentacijska mreža (sl. 12), koristeći prethodno učvršće- ne točke. Ovo je dopuštalo preciznu izmjeru nalaza i samog nalazišta. U ovoj je fazi istraživanja iz mora dokumentiran i izvađen 51 predmet. Pronađeno je devet kugli od vapnenca

(sl. 13), i jedna mala olovna kugla, pronađena u sloju pijeska na dnu sonde, što ukazuje da je brod bio naoružan ne samo topovima, već i arkebuzama. Na morskom su dnu pronađeni

i metalni predmeti poput bakrene posude za održavanje to-

pline hrane s horizontalno iskucanom reljefnom trakom is- pod oboda. Ostali predmeti uključuju brončanu konveksnu

pliticu za vagu (libbra) promjera 6,2 cm, s tri rupe za vješanje; bravu dimenzija 14 x 6 cm, staklenu perlu promjera 10 mm

i veliki broj životinjskih kostiju. Željezno sidro nađeno je na

dubini od 37 m, 25 m sjeverno od Sektora 1. Odnosno od po- dručja s najvećom koncentracijom nalaza (Plan 2.), te je i ono dokumentirano i nazvano Sektor 3. (Plan 1.). Dugo je 2,20 m, dok je ukupna širina krakova 140 cm. Donji dio sidra bio je zakopan u pijesku i jedan se krak jedva mogao vidjeti kako viri iz pijeska. Imajući na umu da je nalazište nađeno neta- knuto, bilo je nužno sačuvati uvjete koji bi očuvali stanje

Therefore, additional attention was given to the hull, with an emphasis on documenting the wooden remains in order to get a better image of the ship itself, its function and details about the unfortunate capsizing of the vessel. The 2008 campaign lasted for 6 days during which 54 dives were made. It is important to mention seven large Iznik plates put one on top of each other, and several bowls packed for transportation, confirming the hypothesis that the ship contained oriental commercial cargo intended for the western market. The 2009 excavations continued towards the north- ern area of the excavation field. The excavations enclosed an area of 44 m2. 75 items were documented and retrieved from the seabed during this research phase, including three additional stone shots of the same diameter - 9.5 cm, and fragments of at least five green glass bottles. According to the shape of the rim and neck, we can conclude there were at least three types of glass bottles of various sizes and shapes onboard. One bilateral wooden comb was also found. Pottery makes up most of the finds, and it can be divided into two categories. The first category consists of the ship’s simply-shaped kitchenware of western and ori- ental origin, and the ship’s cargo, the luxurious, elaborately decorated Iznik pottery, falls into the second category. Parts

Iznik pottery, falls into the second category. Parts Sl. 15. Osmanske akče i taliri europskog porijekla

Sl. 15. Osmanske akče i taliri europskog porijekla pronađeni zajedno Fig. 15. Ottoman akche and European talers found together

trupa broda tijekom svih podvodnih istraživanja (kopanje,

dokumentacija i dr.). Stoga je posebna pozornost posvećena trupu, s posebnom brigom za dokumentaciju ostataka drva kako bi se dobila bolja slika samoga broda, njegove funkcije

i njegovog nesretnog potonuća. Istraživanja 2008. trajala

su 6 dana i tada su obavljena 54 urona. Važno je spomenuti

sedam velikih izničkih tanjura,naslaganih jedan na drugoga

i nekoliko zdjela složenih za transport, što potvrđuje pret-

postavku da je brod prevozio orijentalni trgovački teret namijenjen zapadnom tržištu . Istraživanja 2009. godine nastavila su se na sjever- nom dijelu iskopa. Istraživanje je obuhvatilo područje od 44 m2. U ovoj je fazi istraživanja dokumentirano i izvađeno na površinu 75 predmeta. Nađene su još tri kamene kugle istog promjera (9,5 cm), te ulomci barem pet staklenih boca. Prema obliku oboda i vrata može se zaključiti da je na brodu bilo barem tri tipa boca različitih veličina i oblika. Nađen je i jedan dvostrani drveni češalj. Najveći dio nalaza čini kerami- ka koja se može podijeliti u dvije kategorije. U prvu katego- riju spada kuhinjska keramika jednostavnog oblika zapad- nog ili orijentalnog podrijetla. Drugu kategoriju sačinjava brodski teret luksuzne i bogato ukrašene izničke keramike. Nekoliko se nalaza, drveni koloturnik i mjedeni provodnik za kolotur, pripisuje brodskoj opremi. Nadalje, u pijesku na

of the ship’s equipment were also recovered, a brass square

coak and a wooden ‘heart’ (deadeye). Furthermore, eighth

bronze artillery pieces with an iron breech holder, an iron yoke and a peg were found at the bottom in the sand below the stone cascade (fig. 14.). This campaign lasted for 6 days and included 54 dives. Material recovered in the 2010 campaign is related

to the material found in previous campaigns. One of the

more interesting objects is a small bronze ship’s bell with the year MDLXVII (1567) shown in relief. Two silver talers together with 40 akches were also found (fig. 15.). The Ottoman akches are extremely important for the dating of this shipwreck. In fact, the recovered akches belong to four

different sultans: Sultan Selim I (1512-1520), Sultan Suleiman I (1520-1566), Sultan Selim II (1566-1574) and Sultan Murad

III (1574-1595). Since sultan Murat III began minting the

coins in 1574, we can be sure that the ship could not have sunk before that year. (see cat. no. 125-128 and T. VII, VIII) 1 In this research stage ten archaeological trenches were dug (fig. 16.), covering an area of 40 m2, and 88 objects

1Uvršteno s dopuštenjem autora (Garo Kürkman). / Used with permission from the author (Garo Kürkman).

Sl. 16. Iskop mamut- sisaljkama Fig. 16. Excavations with underwater dredgers dnu ispod kamenih kaskada

Sl. 16. Iskop mamut- sisaljkama Fig. 16. Excavations with underwater dredgers

dnu ispod kamenih kaskada pronađen je osmi top sa želje- znom komorom za barut te željeznom vilicom-nosačem (sl. 14). Istraživanje je trajalo 6 dana i obavljena su 54 urona. Materijal, pronađen za istraživanja 2010., povezan je s materijalom iz prethodnih kampanja. Jedan od zanimlji- vijih predmeta je malo brončano brodsko zvono s natpisom godine MDLXVII (1567.) u reljefu. Nađena su i dva srebrna talira s 40 akči (sl. 15). Osmanske su akče iznimno važne za datiranje ovog brodoloma. Naime, pronađene akče pripa- dale su četvorici sultana: Selimu I. (1512. - 1520.), Sulejmanu I. (1520. -1566.), Selimu II. (1566. -1574.) i Muradu III. (1574.- 1595.). Budući da sultan Murad III. nije počeo kovati novac prije 1574., znamo da brod nije mogao potonuti prije te godine. (vidi k. br. 125-128 i T. VII, VIII) 1 Te je godine iskopano deset arheoloških sondi što odgovara području od oko 40 m2 (sl. 16). U ovoj fazi istraži- vanja pronađeno je i dokumentiran 88 predmeta. Predmeti su većinom nalazi keramike, iznički tanjuri i posude različi- tog oblika, vrčevi i manja luksuzna keramika. Stakleni i me- talni predmeti, kao i životinjske kosti, manje su zastupljeni.

1 Uvršteno s dopuštenjem autora (Garo Kürkman). / Used with permission from the author (Garo Kürkman).

were retrieved from the seabed and subsequently docu- mented. Most of the recovered material consists of pot- tery finds, Iznik plates and vessels of various size, jugs and smaller luxurious pottery. Only a small amount of animal bones was recovered, as well as a small number of objects made of glass and metal. That year marked the beginning of international cooperation, which included a team of underwater archaeologists from Italy under the direction of Carlo Beltrame from the Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, UniversitàCa’ Foscari of Venice. The Italian team joined the campaign with the goal of completely documenting the ship’s wooden hull. Our colleagues from the Università Ca’ Foscari made a photo mosaic and a ground plan of a part of the ship’s hull. They documented 16 planks and 6 frames (approximately 24 m2). The 2010 campaign lasted for 13 days and included 147 dives. The research in Sector 1 was continued in 2011. Sector 1 was expanded to the east, west and south. A total of 46 finds were documented on the site. It was discovered that fragments of larger plates actually belonged to luxu- rious Iznik plates found in previous research campaigns. Sector 2, i.e. the remains of the ship’s hull, is located east of Sector 1. Documentation of the ship’s wooden construction, which began in 2010, was also continued in cooperation with our Italian colleagues . Fifteen planks and six frames were documented using photogrammetry. During the cleaning of the ship’s remains, a seventh frame was found as well as the mast step and new parts of the planking (fig. 17.). The hull was thoroughly photographed, as well as every important detail of it. One frame with a futtock and one plank were airlifted to the surface. The plank was returned to its original position immediately after taking a sample for a dendrochronological analysis. The frame with the futtock was carried to the base where it was drawn in 1:1 scale, and special attention was given to documenting the connection between the frame and futtock. The frame with the futtock was also returned to its original position after the process of documentation was finished. The remains of the ship’s hull, covering an area of 6x4 meters, was researched and documented, and the results showed that the total length of the ship could be estimated to around 24 meters. The keel- son was also documented along with the mast step, which proves that the central axis of the ship was preserved. It is interesting to mention that the ship was built using the double-hull technique, which ensures better hull integrity, while the way in which the planks were connected points to a Venetian origin of the ship. The campaign lasted for ten

a Venetian origin of the ship. The campaign lasted for ten Sl. 17. Pogled na nalazište:

Sl. 17. Pogled na nalazište: Sektor 2 s ostacima brodskog trupa i Sektor 1 sa brodskim teretom Fig. 17. View of the site: Sector 2 and the remains of the ship’s hull and sector 1 with the ship’s cargo

Te je godine započela i suradnja s timom podvodnih arhe- ologa iz Italije, pod vodstvom Carla Beltramea s odsjeka

days and included 94 dives. Due to extremely bad weather conditions and

Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, sveučilišta Ca’ Foscari

strong southern wind, the 2012 campaign only lasted for

u

Veneciji. Talijanski se tim pridružio istraživanju kako bi

four days during which the team was able to make 29 dives.

kompletno dokumentirao drvenu oplatu broda. Kolege sa

The deeper part of the site, at the depth of around 46 m,

sveučilišta Ca’ Foscari načinili su fotomozaik. Dokumentira-

was surveyed with a small Remotely Operated Vehicle

li

su 15 dasaka oplate i 6 rebara (otprilike 24 m2). Istraživanja

(ROV). The Video Ray was taken to the site by the Italian

2010.

trajala su 13 dana, za kojih je obavljeno 147 urona. Istraživanja u Sektoru 1. nastavljena su 2011. Sektor

team and subsequently caught sight of two iron anchors 3,45 x 2,10 and 3,80 x 2,23 m in dimensions. The position

1. proširen je prema istoku, zapadu i jugu. Dokumentirano

of the anchors has been known since 2006 when the site

je

sveukupno 46 nalaza na brodolomu. Pronađeni ulom-

was discovered, but they were not documented until the

ci

tanjura pripadali su tanjurima nađenim u prethodnim

2012 campaign. The first anchor was placed perpendicularly

kampanjama. Nalazi pripadaju luksuznoj izničkoj keramici. Sektor 2. s ostacima brodske oplate nalazi se istočno od Sektora 11. Dokumentiranje drvene konstrukcije započeto

across the second one and was partially buried in the sand. This part of the site received the designation “Sector 4”. A stone cylinder with measuring 160 cm in length and 50 cm

 

2010.

nastavilo se u suradnji s kolegama iz Italije. Petnaest

in diameter was found in the same sector, just a few meters

dasaka oplate i šest rebara dokumentirano je fotogrametri- jom. Tijekom čišćenja ostataka broda pronađeno je sedmo

above the anchors, at a depth of 44 m. It had a rectangular slot on its sides (the two holes of the slot follow the axle of

rebro, postolje jarbola i novi dijelovi oplate (sl. 17). Oplata

the cylinder). A similar but smaller object was found during

je

temeljito fotografirana kao i svaki njezin važan detalj.

the 2010 campaign, also at the depth of 44 m, but closer to

Jedno je rebro i rebreni nastavak podignut na površinu, a s njima još jedna daska oplate. Daska oplate vraćena je natrag na svoje mjesto nakon što je iz nje uzet uzorak za dendro- kronološku analizu. Rebro i rebreni nastavak odneseni su

Sector 2. The function of these items is still unknown. Underwater archaeological excavations are ex- tremely complex and demanding in terms of organisation. The great depth of the shipwreck additionally complicates

u bazu i nacrtani u omjeru 1:1, pri čemu je velika pozornost

bila posvećena spoju rebra i rebrenog nastavka. I oni su nakon dokumentiranja vraćeni na svoju originalnu poziciju. Istraženo je i dokumentirano ukupno područje 6 x 3,7 m ostataka trupa broda, te se temeljem dobivenih rezultata može pretpostaviti ukupna dužina broda od 24 m. Također je dokumentirana kontrakobilica i postolje jarbola, što nam dokazuje da imamo sačuvanu centralnu os broda. Zanimlji- vo je da je za gradnju trupa izabrano tehničko rješenje od dvostruke oplate radi jače konstrukcije, dok način spajanja pojedinih elemenata upućuje na venecijansku gradnju. Istra- živanje je trajalo deset dana i obavljeno je 94 urona. Zbog iznimno loših vremenskih uvjeta i jakog juga, istraživanje 2012. trajalo je tek četiri dana, te je obavlje- no samo 29 urona. Dublji dio nalazišta, dubine oko 46 m, pregledan je ROV-om (Remotely Operated Vehicle). ROV

proizvođača Video Ray, koji je donio tim iz Italije snimio je dva željezna sidra dimenzija 3,45 x 2,10 m i 3,80 x 2,23 m. Pozicija sidara poznata je od 2006., od otkrića nalazišta, ali nisu dokumentirana do istraživanja 2012. Prvo je sidro po- stavljeno okomito preko drugog sidra i djelomično zakopa- no u pijesak. Ovaj je dio nalazišta nazvan Sektor 4. U istom je sektoru nađen kameni cilindar dužine 160 cm i promjera 50 cm, samo nekoliko metara iznad sidra na dubini od 44m. Imao je četvrtasti utor na obje strane cilindra (dva utora slijede os cilindra). Sličan, ali manji predmet, nađen je za istraživanja 2010. I on je nađen na dubini od 44 m, ali bliže Sektoru 2. Funkcija ovih predmeta još uvijek nije poznata. Arheološka su istraživanja iznimno složena i za- htjevna po pitanju organizacije. Velika dubina brodoloma dodatno komplicira istraživanje. Imajući na umu svih šest kampanja, ukupno je bilo 43 radna dana. Nalazište je ra- sprostranjeno na oko 200 m2, a sva četiri iskopana i doku- mentirana sektora pokrivaju oko 100 m2. U istraživanjima je sudjelovao trideset i jedan ronilac,obavljeno je 411 urona

s prosječnih 25 minuta provedenih na dnu. Iz perspektive

sigurnosti, iako su istraživanja na velikim dubinama izni- mno opasna, tijekom istraživanja nije došlo niti do jednog ronilačkog udesa. Budući da je za svih arheoloških istraži- vanja izvađeno oko 300 predmeta, vjerujemo da će buduća istraživanja na nalazištu otkriti još veću količinu vrijednih nalaza i predmeta. Istraživanja od 2007. do 2012. samo su po- četni dio sustavnog istraživanja kako bi se dobila šira slika o okolnostima ovog brodoloma, uvid u proizvodnju, ekonom- ske prilike, trgovačke plovne putove i opasnosti u plovidbi u turbulentnom razdoblju od 15. do 18. stoljeća.

the research. Considering all six campaigns, the total num- ber of working days was only forty-three. The site spreads across approximately 200 m2, and all four excavated and in- vestigated sectors cover an area of about 100 m2. Thirty-one divers participated in all research campaigns, and 411 dives were made, with an average bottom time of 25 minutes. Al- though, from the perspective of safety, these deep research projects are extremely dangerous, not one diving incident happened throughout the entire course of research. Since around 300 objects were retrieved during all archaeological campaigns, we believe that future research and excavations on the site will give a greater amount of valuable finds and information. The research carried out on the Sveti Pavao wreck from 2007 to 2012 is just the initial part of systemat- ic excavations, and will be used in an attempt to obtain an overall view of the circumstances of this shipwreck, as well as to provide knowledge about the production, the econom- ic conditions, the commercial navigation routes and the dangers of sailing during the turbulent period between the 15th and the 18th century.

Teret keramike osmanskog grada Iznika

vesna zmaić kralj

Pottery cargo from the Ottoman town of Iznik

vesna zmaić kralj

Uvod

Trgovački brod koji je svoje putovanje završio na pličini Sveti Pavao nosio je bogat orijentalni teret namijenjen europskom tržištu. U teretu broda, najbrojnije i najbolje sa- čuvano bilo je keramičko posuđe proizvedeno u osmanskom gradu Izniku. Riječ je o radionicama koje su zahvaljujući pokroviteljstvu osmanskoga dvora u razdoblju od 1480. do 1670. godine bile centar proizvodnje glaziranih keramičkih predmeta poput zidnih obloga, obrednih predmeta i luksu- znoga stolnog posuđa. Za sultana Sulejmana Veličanstvenog (1520. – 1566.) keramička je proizvodnja u Izniku doživjela vrhunac u kvaliteti izrade i dekoraciji, a isto se nastavilo i za vladavine njegovih nasljednika Selima II. (1566. - 1574.) i Murada III. (1574. - 1595.) U drugoj polovici 16. stoljeća ova je keramika postala popularna i u Europi, stoga se kao skupo- cjena roba dopremala brodovima u velike trgovačke centre poput Dubrovnika, Venecije i Genove. Brodolom kod pličine Sveti Pavao i zbirka izničkog keramičkog posuđa predstavljeni na izložbi „Iznik – osman- ska keramika iz dubine Jadrana” jedinstven su primjer pomorske trgovine ovim posuđem od Bospora prema eu- ropskom tržištu i vrlo iscrpan pokazatelj kakvim se oblicima posuda trgovalo te koji su ukrasi i motivi bili traženi na Za- padu krajem 16. stoljeća. Zbirka ujedno predstavlja rezultate podvodnih istraživanja provedenih tijekom šest arheoloških kampanja u periodu od 2007. do 2012. godine, prilikom kojih je s dna izvađeno preko 300 pokretnih arheoloških nalaza, od kojih 60 predstavlja trgovački teret izničkoga stolnog posuđa. Riječ je o posuđu za serviranje hrane, poput zdjela i vrčeva, te o posuđu iz kojeg se jelo, tanjurima i zdjelicama. Najzastupljenije su, sa šesnaest primjeraka, velike zdjele za serviranje hrane (kat. br. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 23, 24, 33, 34, 35, 46, 47 ). Istu namjenu imalo je šest zdjela na nozi (kat. br. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 37) i kupolasti poklopac, koji je pripa- dao dubokoj zdjeli na nozi (kat. br. 36). Devet vrčeva sa šest pripadajućih poklopaca predstavljaju posude za natakanje tekućine (kat. br. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22), dok je trinaest plitkih tanjura s tankim obodom (kat. br. 10, 11, 30, 31, 32, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45) i šest polukružnih zdjeli- ca predstavljalo posuđe iz kojeg se jelo (kat. br. 48. 49, 50, 51, 52, 53).

Osim izničkog posuđa brod je prevozio i tekući teret u staklenim bocama poznatim kao demižane od kojih su ostala sačuvana samo grla te ulomci trbuha i dna. Tijekom istraživanja pronađeni su ulomci od više desetaka boca od zelenoga stakla (kat. br. 54 – 62). Na osnovu grla od debljeg

Introduction

The merchantman that ended its journey in the shallows of Sveti Pavao was carrying a rich oriental cargo intended for the European markets. The most numerous and best preserved part of the ship’s cargo was pottery made in the Ottoman town of Iznik. Their workshops, due to the pa- tronage of the Ottoman court in the period between 1480 and 1670, were the centre of production of glazed ceramic objects such as wall tiles, ritual artefacts and luxury table ware. During the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) the pottery made in Iznik reached its peak in production quality and decoration, which continued during the rule of his heirs, Selim II (1566-1574) and Murad III (1574- 1595). In the second part of the 16th century this pottery became popular in the Europe, and was shipped in major market centres such as Dubrovnik, Venice and Genoa. The shipwreck at the Sveti Pavao shallows and the collection of ceramic pottery shown in the “Iznik - Otto- man pottery from the depths of the Adriatic” exhibition are a unique example of maritime trade of this pottery from the Bosporus towards the European markets and a compre- hensive indicator of vessel forms on the market and deco- rations and motifs in demand in the West at the end of the 16th century. The collection also represents the results of underwater research conducted in six archaeological cam- paigns from 2007 to 2012, during which over 300 artefacts were recovered, 60 of which represent Iznik table ware car- go. The cargo consisted of vessels meant for serving food such as dishes and jugs, and vessels meant for dinning such as plates and small bowls. The most numerous form were, counting sixteen items, large dishes meant for serving food (cat. no. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 23, 24, 33, 34, 35, 46, 47 ). Six dishes on a foot, served the same purpose (cat. no. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 37) as did the dome-like lid which was part of a deep dish on a foot (cat. no. 36). Nine jugs with six matching lids represent vessels meant for pouring liquids (cat. no. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22), while thirteen shallow plates with a thin rim (cat. no. 10, 11, 30, 31, 32, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45) and six hemispherical small bowls represent vessels meant for dining (cat. no. 48. 49, 50, 51, 52, 53). Apart from Iznik pottery, the ship was transporting liq- uid cargo in glass bottles known as demijohns, as shown by retrieved necks and fragments of bellies and bottoms. During the excavations, fragments of several dozen bottles made of green glass were recovered (cat. no. 54 – 62). Based on fragments of thick necks with beaded rims, and thin

Sl. 18. Pličina Sveti Pavao: dio tereta izničkog posuđa in situ Fig. 18. Sveti Pavao

Sl. 18. Pličina Sveti Pavao: dio tereta izničkog posuđa in situ Fig. 18. Sveti Pavao shallows: a part of the cargo of Iznik pottery in situ

stakla s prstenastim obodom, tankih ulomaka koji su pripa- dali širokom tijelu i dna konkavnog oblika može se pretpo- staviti da su boce bile obložene prućem poput tradicional- nih demižana, pletenih boca za prijenos i čuvanje tekućine. Pruće se zbog organskog sastava razgradilo na morskome dnu, a staklena su se tijela prilikom potonuća razbila. Najveći dio pokretnih nalaza i svi primjerci izničkog posuđa bili su pronađeni u Sektoru 1., u centralnom dijelu lokaliteta na dubini od 40 do 45 metara. Svi nalazi u sek- toru ukazuju da je riječ o dijelu trupa broda s natkrivenim prostorom namijenjenom posadi i putnicima, brodskoj kuhinji i skladištu za trgovački teret, municiju i ostale brodske potrepštine. Dok su ostali pokretni nalazi ležali na dnu bez određenog reda, izničke su posude pronađene jednim dijelom složene jedna u drugoj, na način kako su bile transportirane (Sl. 18.) ili su pak bile ispremiješane s ostalim materijalom (Zmaić Kralj 2004: 65). Ambalaža se zbog svog organskog sastava nije sačuvala, no tragovi drveta u sloju ukazuju na drvene sanduke. Arheološki sloj u sektoru bio je pijesak tamne, masne konstitucije ispremiješan s ostacima raspadnutoga drveta i korodiranog željeza, tako da su i kera- mički predmeti unutar njega bili prekriveni tankim filmom masne crne čađi zbog raspadanja željeznih predmeta u neposrednoj blizini. Na pojedinim predmetima nečistoća je

neposrednoj blizini. Na pojedinim predmetima nečistoća je Sl. 19. Pličina Sveti Pavao: dokumentacija izničke posude

Sl. 19. Pličina Sveti Pavao:

dokumentacija izničke posude in situ Fig. 19. Sveti Pavao shallows:

documentation of an Iznik dish in situ

fragments of wide bodies and concave bottoms, we can assume that the bottles were sheathed with brushwood like traditional demijohns - braided bottles used for transport- ing and storing liquids. The brushwood disintegrated due to its organic composition and the large glass bodies with thin walls broke when the ship sunk. Most movable finds and all finds of Iznik pottery were located in Sector 1, the central part of the site, at the depth of between 40 to 45 meters. All finds in this sector indicate that it was part of the ship’s hull with a covered space intended for the crew and passengers, the galley and the storage space for the commercial cargo, ammunition and other ship supplies. While the rest of the movable finds was lying at the bottom in no specific order, some vessels from Iznik were found stacked on top of each other, in the manner in which they were transported (fig. 18) (Zmaić Kralj 2004: 65). The packaging, due to its organic composition, was not preserved, but traces of wood in the layer indicate wooden crates. The archaeological layer in the sector was dark greasy sand mixed with remains of decomposing wood and corroded iron, so the ceramic objects in them were covered with a thin layer of greasy black soot, the result of the decomposition of iron objects in their vicinity. In sever- al objects the impurities reached the layer under the glaze

prodrla u sloj ispod glazure i nepovratno uništila površinu engobe s ukrasom (Pešić 2009:338). S druge strane, predme- ti pronađeni u prirodnim udubljenjima ispunjenima čistim, rahlim pijeskom bili su djelomično prekriveni kalcitnim naslagama, uobičajenim na predmetima s morskog dna ili su pak nađeni potpuno čisti i bez ikakvih oštećenja ili naslaga (Zmaić Kralj 2004: 65). Uz pomoć dokumentacijskog mreži- šta pričvršćenog na dno, unutar kojeg se vršio iskop, izvo- dila se tlocrtna situacija lokaliteta i nacrtna dokumentacija pokretnih predmeta, fotografiranih potom in situ (sl. 19) te izvađenih s morskoga dna. Ovaj postupak omogućio je pozi- cioniranje svih pokretnih nalaza unutar pojedinih kampanja istraživanja te na generalnom nacrtnom planu lokaliteta (Plan 1, 2). Slijedila je obrada nalaza na kopnu, od postupka odsoljavanja, evidentiranja, identificiranja, dokumentiranja, konzervacije i restauracije. S obzirom da je brodolom pro- nađen u potpuno netaknutom stanju, može se pretpostaviti da gotovo svi ulomci razbijenih keramičkih predmeta leže na morskome dnu. To je i potvrđeno u brojnim slučajevima kada su ulomci iste posude bili pronađeni u različitim eta- pama istraživanja te su naknadno objedinjeni i restaurirani. Stoga će pojedini primjerci keramičkih predmeta biti konač- no sastavljeni i restaurirati tek nakon završetka cjelokupnih istraživanja.

Proizvodnja grada Iznika

Grad Iznik, antička i bizantska Niceja (Nicaea, Νικαια), smješten je na istoimenom jezeru u sjeverozapadnoj Anato- liji, stotinjak kilometara udaljen od Istanbula (sl. 20.) Prema Strabonu grad je utemeljen 316. pr. Kr. na obali jezera Aska- nia i nazvan Antigoneia prema utemeljitelju Antigonu (Anti- gonos), jednom od nasljednika Aleksandra Velikog. Nešto ka- snije zauzima ga Lizimah (Lysimakhos) i naziva Nikaia u čast svoje žene Nike (Kirmizi 2004: 2). U rimsko i bizantsko doba bio je jedan od vodećih gradova provincije Bitinije, poznat kao mjesto održavanja crkvenih koncila 325. i 787. godine. Prijestolnicom Rum Selcuk dinastije postaje 1075. što i ostaje sve do 1331. godine kada ga osvaja Orhan, sin Osmana te postaje osmanski grad Iznik (Sl. 21.). Na svom vrhuncu grad je imao i do 30 tisuća stanovnika, dok je krajem 15. stoljeća samo tranzitno mjesto na putu u istočnu Anatoliju i sirijske provincije (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 19-20). Zahvaljujući bogatstvu prirodnih sirovina potrebnih za proizvodnju keramike, Iznik je imao i raniju tradiciju proizvodnje keramike koja se može pratiti kroz bizantsko i seldžučko razdoblje. Starija tradicija odražava se u keramici crvenkaste boje pečenja, a može se

and irreversibly destroyed the surface of the underglaze with the decoration (Pešić 2009:338). On the other hand, the objects recovered from natural dents filled with pure, fine-grained sand were partially covered with calcification sedimentary deposits, common on objects found at the seabed, or were recovered perfectly clean with no damage or sedimentary deposits (Zmaić Kralj 2004: 65). The excava- tion was done within a documentation grid attached to the seabed, which was used to create the ground plan and the layout of the movable finds that were photographed in situ (fig. 19) and then recovered from the sea bottom. This proce- dure enabled the positioning of all movable finds through- out different research campaigns, as well as on the ground- plan of the site (Plan 1, 2). The next stage was the processing of finds on land, including desalinization, identification, documentation, conservation and restoration. Considering the fact that the ship was found completely intact, it is safe to assume that almost all fragments of the ceramic objects lie within the layers at the sea bottom. This was confirmed on numerous occasions when the fragments of the same vessel were found in different campaigns and were sub- sequently consolidated and conserved. Thus, individual examples of ceramic objects will be finally put together and conserved only after the completion of all research.

Production in the town of Iznik

The town of Iznik, Roman and Byzantine Nicaea ( Νικαια) is situated on a lake of the same name in north-western Anatolia, about a hundred kilometres from Istanbul (fig.

20). Strabo states that the town was founded in 316 BCE on the shores of Lake Askania, also called Antigonea after its founder Antigonus (Antigonos), one of the heirs of Alexan- der the Great. Somewhat later it was taken by Lysimachus (Lysimakhos) and called Nikaia after Lysimachus’ wife Nike (Kirmizi 2004: 2). During the Roman and Byzantine Empire

it was one of the leading cities in the province of Bithynia,

known for the two Ecumenical councils in 325 and 787 CE.

It became the capital of the Rum Seljuk Dynasty in 1075 and

kept that title until 1331 when it was conquered by Orhan,

the son of Osman, when it became the Ottoman town of Iznik (fig. 21). At its peak it had up to 30 thousand town dwellers, while at the end of the 15th century it became

a mere transit place on the route to eastern Anatolia and

the Syrian provinces (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 19-20). Due to the wealth of natural resources necessary for the production of pottery, Iznik had a long tradition of pottery production,

Sl. 20. Karta istočnog Mediterana s trgovačkim lukama i osmanskim keramičkim centrima (preuzeto iz:

Piri Reis, The Book of Bahriye, 41. The map of Mediterranean Sea) Fig. 20. Map of the Eastern Mediterranean with trade ports and Ottoman ceramic centres (taken from: Piri Reis, The Book of Bahriye, 41.The map of Mediterranean Sea)

Sl. 21. Grad Iznik oko 1537, minijatura Matrakçi Nasuha, Istanbul University Library, inv. no. T.5964, fol. 14b. (preuzeto iz:

Atasoy, Raby 1989: fig. 6) Fig. 21. The town of Iznik, around 1537, miniature by Matrakçi Nasuh, Istanbul University Library, inv. no. T.5964, fol. 14b. (taken from: Atasoy, Raby 1989:

fig. 6)

T.5964, fol. 14b. (taken from: Atasoy, Raby 1989: fig. 6) podijeliti u tri glavne skupine: sgraffito
T.5964, fol. 14b. (taken from: Atasoy, Raby 1989: fig. 6) podijeliti u tri glavne skupine: sgraffito

podijeliti u tri glavne skupine: sgraffito keramiku bizantskih

i seldžučkih keramičara, slip keramiku koja odražava vezu iz-

među seldžučke i osmanske keramike i tzv. „Miletus ware“ 15.

stoljeća (Bilgi 2009: 23), koja je prethodila izničkoj, kvarcnoj keramikci bijelog tijela. „Miletsku“ grupu keramike karakte- rizira kobaltnoplava ili rjeđe ljubičasta dekoracija izvedena na bijeloj engobi kojom se premazivala samo unutrašnjost posude crvenog tijela (sl. 22). Najčešći su oblici bili zdjele i tanjuri, a motivi su rađeni prostoručno, najčešće u cvjetnim, zrakastim i geometrijskim motivima koji su naizmjenično kombinirani nalik onima na metalnom posuđu (Parker 1965:

160; Bilgi 2009: 23). Ova keramika bila je široko rasprostra- njena po maloj Aziji i Egeji, a brojni primjerci pronađeni su na području Mileta, Kütahye, Konye, Silifke, Burse, Ankare

i Istanbula. Naziv joj je nadjenuo F. Sarre prema brojnim

ulomcima pronađenima za istraživanja antičkog grada Mile- ta, radi čega je zaključio da se tu i proizvodila (Sarre 1930-31:

20-23), sve dok se kasnijim istraživanjima keramičkih peći u Izniku nije utvrdilo da je ipak riječ o izničkoj proizvodnji (Bilgi 2009: 23). Sljedeća faza proizvodnje keramike u radionicama grada Iznika javlja se u drugoj polovici 15. stoljeća usvaja- njem nove tehnologije u proizvodnji kvarcne, silikatne ili

which can be traced to the Byzantine and Seljuk times. The ancient tradition is reflected in pottery that was reddish af- ter firing, and can be divided into three main groups: sgrafit- to pottery of the Byzantine and Seljuk potters, slip-pottery that reflects the connection of the Seljuk and Ottoman pottery, and the so called “Miletus ware” of the 15th century that precedes the white-bodied Iznik fritware (Bilgi 2009:

23). The “Miletus” group is characterised by a cobalt blue or, less commonly, purple decoration on a white underglaze that was used to cover only the interior of the red body of the vessel (fig. 22). The most common forms were bowls and plates, the motifs were done freehandedly, and mostly con- sist of floral, radial and geometrical motifs combined alter- nately, like motifs on metal vessels (Parker 1965: 160; Bilgi 2009: 23). This pottery was widely distributed in Asia Minor and the Aegean, and numerous examples were found in the area of Miletus, Küthaya, Konya, Silfika, Bursa, Ankara and Istanbul. The pottery was named by F. Sarrem who conclud- ed, judging by the numerous fragments found during the research of ancient Miletus, that the pottery was produced there (Sarre 1930-31: 20-23), while later research on ceramic kilns in Iznik showed that they were in fact made in Iznik (Bilgi 2009: 23).

Sl. 22. „Miletska“ grupa keramike, Iznik, 15. stoljeće (preuzeto iz:

Bilgi 2009:

cat. no. 3), Fig. 22 “Miletus ware”, Iznik, 15th century (taken from: Bilgi 2009:

cat. no. 3)

Iznik, 15th century (taken from: Bilgi 2009: cat. no. 3) tzv. fritta keramike bijelog i čvrstog

tzv. fritta keramike bijelog i čvrstog tijela, poznatije pod na- zivom fritware ili stonepaste (Denny 2004: 49). Iako osman- ski keramičari tada već proizvode zidne obloge od keramike bijelog tijela u cuerda seca tehnici 1 i oblažu njima građevine u Edirni i Bursi, pravi razlog inovacije u izradi stolnog posuđa leži u opčinjenosti bijelo-plavim kineskim porculanom. Ki- neski porculan, tvrđi i otporniji od stakla, bijelog staklastog sjaja te ljušturasta loma, stoljećima je bio sinonim za luksuz i eleganciju. U pokušajima otkrivanja formule za njegovu izradu perzijski keramičari pronalaze čvrstu, bijelu smje- su, kakvoćom i izgledom nalik porculanu, koja se počinje primjenjivati već od 12. stoljeća. Princip izrade ove kerami- ke bijelog tijela opisuje Abū’l Qāsim, član slavne perzijske obitelji lončara Abu Tahir iz Kashana, u perzijskom rukopisu iz 1301. godine, i navodi sastav smjese od mljevenog kvarca, staklene frite i bijele gline u omjeru 10:1:1 (Allan 1973: 111- 120; Atasoy, Raby 1989: 50). Proizvodi se izničkih radionica po sastavu nisu puno razlikovali od islamske keramičke proizvodnje iz Abū’l

1 Cuerda Seca je anatolijska tehnika proizvodnje keramičkih pločica, ukrašena upotrebom tankih traka voska kako bi se razgraničile glazure različitih boja prilikom pečenja. Osmanlije su cuerda seca tehniku usvojili već u 14. stoljeću.

The next phase of pottery production in Iznik workshops began during the second half of the 15th century with the adoption of new technology in the production of quartz – silicate, or the so called fritta pottery, with a white firm body known as fritware or stonepaste (Denny 2004:

49). Although Ottoman pottery makers have already been making wall tiles made from ceramics with a white body in cuerda seca technique 1 and were using them to tile buildings in Edirna and Bursa, the true reason for the innovation in the production of that kind of tableware lies in the fasci- nation with white and blue Chinese porcelain. Harder and more resistant than glass, with a white vitreous shine and a chonchoidal fracture, Chinese porcelain was a symbol of luxury and elegance for centuries. While trying to uncover the formula for its production, the Persian potters discov- ered a firm white mixture similar to porcelain in quality and appearance, which came into use in the 12th century. The principle of making this white-bodied pottery is described by Abū’ l Qāsim, a member of a famous Persian family of potters Abu Tahir from Kashan, in a Persian manuscript from 1301, where he describes the compound made from grinded quartz, glass frit and white clay in a 10:1:1 ratio (Al- lan 1973: 111-120; Atasoy, Raby 1989: 50). The products of Iznik workshops did not differ greatly from the Islamic pottery production described in the manuscript of Abū’ l Qāsim, but did, in certain seg- ments, substantially technologically surpass it. With the ba- sic ingredients, a mixture of grinned quartz sand - silica (sili- cum dioxide), crumbled glass paste - frit (sodium carbonate), a fine, well purified white clay with a small amount of iron was added, that made the body’s texture smooth and white. The innovation was lead that was added to the mixture and, in combination with the rest of the ingredients, lowered the melting point (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 52; Kovačić 2010: 35). Considering that the quartz mixture lacked elasticity, the larger vessels were hard to shape on a potter’s wheel in one piece, so they were made in separate segments that were joined after drying with a mixture of the same compound. The segments were most probably made with a mould attached to the potter’s wheel, while the parts, such as the foliated rim, were molded by hand after they were partially dried. In order to get a brilliant white surface for painting

1 Cuerda seca was Anatolian technique of ceramic tiles production, decorated with thin bands of waxy resist maintain color separation between glazes during firing. It seems that the Ottomans adopted this technique as early as the 14th century.

Qāsimovog rukopisa, no u određenim su je segmentima tehnološki bitno nadmašili. Uz osnovne sastojke, mješavinu zdrobljenog kvarcnog pijeska, silica (silicijev dioksid), i smrv- ljene staklene smjese, frit (natrijev karbonat), dodavala se fina, dobro pročišćena bijela glina s manjim udjelom željeza, zbog čega je tijelo bilo fine teksture i bijele boje. Inovaciju je predstavljalo dodavanje olova u smjesu što je u kombinaciji s ostalim sastojcima snižavalo točku taljenja (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 52; Kovačić 2010: 35). Budući da je kvarcnoj smjesi ne- dostajalo elasticiteta, veće je posude bilo teško oblikovati na keramičkom kolu u jednom komadu, stoga su se izrađivale u odvojenim segmentima i nakon sušenja lijepili smjesom slič- nog sastava. Segmenti su se gotovo sigurno izvodili pomoću kalupa pričvršćenih za kolo, dok su dijelovi poput valovitog oboda, nakon djelomičnog sušenja, bili ručno oblikovani. Kako bi se dobila briljantno bijela podloga za slikanje nalik kineskom porculanu na keramičko bi se tijelo dodatno na- nosio tanki premaz (engoba) sastava sličnog početnoj smjesi, no bez imalo udjela željeza i nečistoća. Keramika se potom sušila na suncu te oslikavala u zavidnoj crtačkoj i slikarskoj vještini. Motivi na keramičkim zidnim oblogama iscrtava- ni su pomoću matrica kreiranih u dvorskim dizajnerskim radionicama „nakkașhane“, dok bi se detalji izvodili rukom (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 58). Čini se da je u ranijem razdoblju na isti način tretirano i posuđe, sve do druge četvrtine 16. sto- ljeća, kada se počinje osjećati sve slobodnija i individualnija kreacija izničkih keramičara. Pri oslikavanju su se upotrebljavale mješavine ra- znih pigmenata i staklene frite. Osnovna boja - plava, koja se do 1530. godine koristila samostalno, te se zadržala do kraja izničke proizvodnje, dobivala se iz kobaltnog oksida. Tir- kizna, prva boja koja se pojavila uz kobaltnoplavu, dobivala se iz bakrenog oksida. Iz iste se osnove izvodila i maslinasto- zelena boja, koja se uz ljubičastu dobivenu iz oksida manga- na, počinje upotrebljavati od 1540-ih. U drugoj polovici 16. stoljeća uvodi se nova, koraljno crvena boja izuzetnog sjaja. Riječ je o gustom premazu od gline izrazito crvene boje zbog velikog postotka željeznog oksida. Za razliku od drugih boja nije se nanosila potezom kista, već poput voska cjevči- com u debelom, reljefnom sloju (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 58). Ra- nija uporaba ove boje zabilježena je u bizantskoj keramičkoj tradiciji od 10. do kasnog 13. stoljeća, a prvi datirani primjer na izničkoj keramici javlja se na keramičkim oblogama zi- dova Sulejmanove džamije i grobnice njegove žene Hasseki Hürrem izgrađene oko 1556. godine. U srednjovjekovnoj i renesansnoj Europi ova je boja bila poznata pod nazivom armenska crvena (bolus Armenus, Armenian bole), a osim u de-

that resembles Chinese porcelain, the ceramic body was coated with a thin slip, with a compound similar to the original mixture, but with no traces of iron or other impu- rities. The pottery was then dried in the sun and painted with outstanding drawing and painting mastery. The motifs on ceramic wall tiles were drawn with stencils created in the designer workshops of the Court, „nakkașhane“, while the details were painted by hand (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 58). It seems that in the early period the same was done on vessels, up to the second quarter of the 16th century when free and more individualized creations can be seen on the works of Iznik potters. Mixtures of various pigments and glass frit were used for painting. The basic blue colour, used exclusively until 1530 which remained in use until the end of Iznik production, was obtained from a cobalt oxide. Turquoise, the first colour introduced, along with cobalt blue, was obtained from a copper oxide. Olive green obtained from the same basis was used from the 1540s, along with purple obtained from a manganese oxide. In the second half of the 16th century, a new colour was introduced – coral red, with an exceptional glow. It was a thick slip made of clay of exceptionally red colour due to the high percentage of iron oxide. Unlike other colours, it was not applied by a brush, but like wax, with a small tube in a thick, relief layer (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 58). The earlier use of this colour was recorded in the Byzantine pottery tradition from the 10th to the 13th century, and the first datable example in Iznik pottery is found on ceramic wall tiles from the walls of Suleiman’s mosque and the tomb of his wife Hasseki Hürrem, built around 1556. In Medieval and Renaissance Europe this co- lour was known by the name Armenian red (bolus Armenus, Armenian bole), and, apart from its decorative purpose, it was also used in medicine (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 59; Kovačić 2012: 59). Somewhat later, as a contrast to bright red, emer- ald green was introduced, that was obtained from a copper oxide with a larger percentage of iron oxide. In the begin- ning of Iznik production, the outlines of the drawing were done exclusively in cobalt blue, and in the second quarter of the 16th century a greenish gray colour was introduced, while in the second half of the 16th century black was used for the same purpose, obtained from a chromium base, and applied in thin precise lines similar to the outlines on the illustrations on illuminated manuscripts (Denny 2004: 49; Kovačić 2012: 58). The painting was followed by coating with a trans- parent glaze made from a lead oxide, silicon dioxide, soda

korativne svrhe upotrebljavala se i kao medikament (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 59; Kovačić 2012: 59). Kao kontrast žarko crvenoj, nešto kasnije se uvodi i smaragdno zelena boja, dobivena iz

bakrenog oksida s većim udjelom željeznog oksida. U počet- ku izničke proizvodnje vanjske konture crteža izvodile su se isključivo u kobaltno plavoj boji, u drugoj četvrtini 16. stolje- ća uvodi se sivozelenkasta boja, da bi se u drugoj polovici 16. stoljeća u iste svrhe počela koristiti crna boja, dobivena na bazi kroma, a nanosila se u vrlo tankim, preciznim linijama nalik konturama na ilustracijama u iluminiranim rukopisi- ma (Denny 2004: 49; Kovačić 2012: 58). Nakon oslikavanja slijedilo je prekrivanje prozir- nom glazurom od olovnog oksida, silicijevog dioksida, sode i kositrenog oksida, a keramici je davala sjajni izgled porculana. Pečenje se odvijalo u kupolastim pećima s dvije komore i odvojenim ognjištem, na temperaturi od 850 ili 900 do 1200°C (Maury 2008: 69). Slična izrada keramike u Osmanskom Carstvu prisutna je već od početka 15. stoljeća

i u drugim keramičarskim centrima poput Edirne i Kütahye

(sl. 20.), no usavršavanjem ove složene tehnologije uz brojne druge faktore, radionice Iznika nadmašile su proizvodnju

drugih centara i preuzele vodeću ulogu.

Oblici izničke keramike

Radionice Iznika su po nalogu dvora proizvodile keramičke glazirane zidne obloge za oblaganje sakralnih građevina, monumentalnih palača, biblioteka i grobnica te obredne predmete koji su dizajnom bili usklađeni sa zidnim oblo- gama, upotpunjavajući tako interijere ovih zdanja. Izrada stolnog posuđa pod nazivom „çînî“ ili „Iznik çinisi“ (Atasoy,

Raby 1989: 23), bila je tek sekundarna djelatnost koja se po- stupno razvijala iz najranijih formi, usko vezanih uz sakral- nu arhitekturu. U 16. stoljeću izničko stolno posuđe postaje sve omiljenije, ne samo u okviru dvora i osmanske elite, već

i u širem puku te se stoga i repertoar oblika postepeno širi.

Tome je pridonijela i popularnost ovog posuđa u Europi, zbog čega iznički keramičari u skladu sa zahtjevima novog tržišta uvode i neke europske oblike. Zdjele za serviranje hrane (tabak) bile su najza- stupljenije u izničkoj proizvodnji stolnog posuđa. Najčešće su imale duboki recipijent zaobljene forme s ravnim dnom, malu prstenastu nogu i široki obod valovito oblikovanog ruba nalik hrastovom listu (foliated) po uzoru na kineski por- culan dinastije Ming (kat. br. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 24) ili pak ravni rub (kat. br. 8, 9, 23, 35, 46, 47). Rjeđi su bili primjerci potpuno zaobljene forme nalik plitici, blago uvučenog ravnog oboda

and tin oxide, which gave the pottery the shiny appearance of porcelain. The firing was done in dome-like kilns with two chambers and a separate fireplace, at the tempera- ture from 850 or 900 to 1200°C (Maury 2008: 69). Similar production of pottery was present in the Ottoman Empire from the beginning of the 15th century and in other pottery centres such as Edirna and Küthaya (fig. 20), but by perfect- ing this technique along with other factors, the workshops in Iznik surpassed the production of other centres and took the lead role in production.

Forms of Iznik Pottery

The workshops in Iznik were, by the order of the Court, making glazed wall tiles used for tiling sacral buildings, monumental palaces, libraries and tombs, as well as ritual objects designed to match the wall tiles, completing the interiors of this buildings. The production of tableware by the name çini or Iznik çini (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 23), was mere- ly a secondary craft which developed gradually from earlier forms, tightly linked to sacral architecture. During the 16th century, Iznik tableware became more and more popular, not only with the Court and Ottoman elite, but with the common people, so the repertoire of shapes gradually wid- ened. The popularity of these vessels in Europe contributed to that as well, so the Iznik potters, meeting the demands of the new market, introduced some European forms. Dishes used for serving food (tabak) were the most common item in Iznik tableware production. Most often they had a deep curved receptacle with a flat bottom, a small ring-like foot and a wide foliated rim shaped like an oak leaf (foliated), made after Chinese porcelain from the Ming dynasty (cat. no. 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 24) or a flat rim (cat. no. 8, 9, 23, 35, 46, 47). Rare examples had a completely rounded form similar to a plate, with a slightly overt flat rim (cat. no. 4, 5). The dimensions of the dishes varied from 35 to 28 cm in diameter, and, from the year 1570, dishes of similar forms but smaller in dimensions started to appear. Two such examples found in the ship’s cargo (cat. no. 33, 34) had the diameter of merely 17.7 cm and a small receptacle, protrud- ing rim and a small foot. A dish on a high foot - tazza (ayakli tabak/tâs) of a rounder form with a flat bottom, a higher ring-like or a con- ic foot and a flat or a foliated rim is the only form in Iznik production that has no prototype in Chinese or Islamic forms. It is an original Ottoman vessel form that was used in everyday life for serving food. The earlier examples were

(kat. br. 4, 5). Dimenzije zdjela su varirale od 35 do 28 cm u promjeru, a od 1570. godine pojavljuju se zdjele slične forme ali manjih dimenzija. Dva takva primjerka pronađena u te- retu broda (kat. br. 33, 34) imala su promjer tek 17,7 cm, mali zaobljeni recipijent, istaknuti ravni obod i malu nožicu.

Zdjela na visokoj nozi - tazza (ayakli tabak/tâs) zaobljene for- me s ravnim dnom, višom prstenastom ili koničnom nogom te ravnog ili valovitog oboda jedini je oblik u izničkoj proi- zvodnji bez prototipa u kineskim i islamskim oblicima. Riječ

of larger dimensions 2 , while the second half of the 16th cen- tury is dominated by vessels of smaller diameters (fig. 29). All known examples of tazza, were decorated exclusively in

tehnici, najčešće s rubnim prepletom ili frizom uzastopnih ruyi motiva 4 na tankom, ravnom obodu (kat. br. 10, 11, 30, 31, 32, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45). Zdjelice (üsküre, badya) iz kojih se jela tekuća i djelomično tekuća hrana bile su polukružnog oblika na prstenastoj nožici s ravnim, blago rastvorenim ili uvučenim obodom. Oblik i ukras u plavo-bijeloj izvedbi ukazuju da su proizašle iz kineskih porculanskih prototipa. Iako su se izvodile u više dimenzija, zdjelice iz tereta broda bile su promjera od 12 do 13 cm i visine oko 6 cm (kat. br. 48. 49, 50, 51, 52, 53). Osim navedenih oblika zastupljenih u teretu broda, proizvodili su se i drugi oblici poput predmeta religioznog karaktera: svjetiljke (kandil), viseći ornamenti kružne i oval- ne forme i velike zdjele na nozi koje su se upotrebljavale kao bazeni za obredno pranje (ayakli leğen/ayakl tasi). Od tipično orijentalnih oblika javljaju se lonci ili ćupovi (kavanos) za čuvanje hrane, vrčevi s dugim kljunom za izljev (ibrik), boce za vodu (sürahi) lukovičastog oblika i dugog vrata te zdjelice za ispijanje kave (fincan). Neki su oblici preuzeti od europskih prototipa, poput tondina, talijanske zdjele malog, zaobljenog recipi- jenta i širokog, gotovo vodoravnog oboda, te cilindričnog krčaga, maşrapa, s uglatom ručkom, čiji se oblik temelji na drvenim ili kožnim originalima karakterističnim za srednju Europu. Od netipičnih oblika, izničke radionice proizvodile su svijećnjake (șamdan), tintarnice i kutije za čuvanje pera (kalemdan, divit/devat) (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 48).

the

Deep bowls with a lid (kapakli kâse/üsküre) of a hemi- spherical or oval form with a higher or lower ring-like foot were used for serving partially liquid dishes such as sorbet, compote or turşu, so it can be assumed that they were a

blue and white technique (cat. no. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 37).

je

o originalnom osmanskom obliku posude za svakodnev-

part of a set of bowls used for dining (Atasoy, Raby: 45). To this day, the shipwreck yielded one hemispherical lid 28.6

nu uporabu iznošenja hrane na stol. Raniji su primjerci bili

cm

in diameter with a ring-like bulge used for attaching to

većih dimenzija 2 , dok u drugoj polovici 16. stoljeća domini- raju primjerci manjeg promjera (sl. 29). Svi poznati primjerci tazza bili su ukrašeni isključivo u plavo–bijeloj tehnici (kat. br. 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 37). Duboke zdjele s poklopcem (kapakli kâse/üsküre), po- lukružne ili ovalne forme, s višom ili nižom prstenastom no- gom služile su za serviranje djelomično tekućih jela poput šerbeta, kompota ili turšije, stoga se može pretpostaviti da su bile sastavni dio servisa sa zdjelicama iz kojih se jelo (Ata- soy, Raby: 45). Na brodolomu je do sada pronađen jedan po- klopac polukružne forme promjera 28,6 cm s prstenastom istakom na dnu radi uglavljivanja u donji recipijent (kat. br. 36). Poklopac nije cjelovit, već mu nedostaje profilirani vrh nalik manjoj kupoli s ručicom. Do sada nije pronađen donji dio posude, no prema analognim primjercima 3 , poklopac je pripadao dubokoj zdjeli na nozi. Posude za natakanje (bardak) odnosno vrčevi ili bokali lukovičastog oblika, dugog vrata s jednom ručkom i prstenastom nožicom pojavili su se oko 1510. godine i zadr- žali u gotovo nepromijenjenom obliku do kraja proizvodnje

u

17. stoljeću (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 47; Kovačić 2012: 56), ali u

the

lower part of a bowl (cat. no. 36). The lid is not whole; it

is missing a profiled dome-like tip with a small handle. To

the

present day the bottom part of the vessel has not been

found, but according to analogous vessels 3 , the lid belonged to a deep bowl on a foot. Vessels meant for pouring fluids (bardak), jugs and bulb-shaped pitchers with a long neck, a single handle and a ring-like foot appeared around the year 1510, and their shape remained unchanged until the end of the production in the 17th century (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 47; Kovačić 2012: 56),

but

in different dimensions and decorative styles (fig. 27;

cat. no. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16). The mouth of the jug was covered by a small lid of conic or rounded shape with a protruding oval or circular handle (cat. no. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22). Shallow plates (sahan) with a flat bottom, a thin rim and a ring-like foot appear continuously in documents from

the

16th to the 18th century, but it seems that their wide

use

in iznik production began in the last third of the 16th

Stilovi i utjecaji

century (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 44). The ship’s cargo had many variations of these vessels, decorated in polychromous or blue and white technique, often with cabling or ruyi 4 bor-

Nakon osvajanja Konstantinopola u vrijeme Mehmeda II. Osvajača (1451. - 1481.) počinje uspon, širenje i moć Osman- skoga carstva. Utemeljenje nove prijestolnice zahtijevalo je i novi osmanski stilski izričaj, koji bi se odražavao u arhitektonskim zdanjima i u drugim umjetničkim granama poput keramičkog i metalnog posuđa, iluminiranih rukopi- sa, reprezentativnog tekstila i drugih luksuznih predmeta. Svrha ovog raskošnog dvorskog stila bila je isticanje vladar- ske moći, bogatstva i utjecaja, stoga se on morao razvijati pod okriljem i povlasticama dvora. Glavna institucija koja je diktirala nove trendove i kreirala dekorativne uzorke za sve grane umjetnosti bila je dvorska dizajnerska radionica „nakkașhane“, u kojoj su radili „Ehli Hiref“ (talentirani ljudi)

različitim dimenzijama i ukrasnim stilovima (kat. br. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16). Otvor vrča pokrivao se malim poklopcem konič- ne ili zaobljene forme s istaknutom ovalnom ili kružnom ručicom (kat. br. 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22). Plitki se tanjuri (sahan) ravnog dna s tankim obodom i prstenastom nožicom bez prekida pojavljuju u dokumen- tima od 16. do početka 18. stoljeća, no čini se da njihova šira

proizvodnja u Izniku započinje u zadnjoj trećini 16. stolje-

ders on a thin, flat rim (cat. no. 10, 11, 30, 31, 32, 38, 39, 40, 41,

42,

43, 44, 45).

Small bowls (üsküre, badya) used for serving liquid or semi-liquid food, were of hemispherical shape, standing on a small ring-like foot with a mildly opened, inverted or flat rim. The shape and decoration in blue and white technique point to a Chinese porcelain prototype. Although they were made in different dimensions, the bowls from the ship’s

ća (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 44). U teretu broda pojavljuju se u brojnim varijacijama, ukrašeni u višebojnoj ili plavo-bijeloj

cargo were 12 to 13 cm in diameter and about 6 cm in height

2

An earlier completely preserved example from the Metropolitan Museum

2 Raniji cjeloviti primjerak pohranjen u muzeju Metropolitan, datiran u

1525./35. g., promjera je 36 cm (Atasoy – Raby 1989: 126).

3 Bilgi 2009, Omer M. Koç collection, Istanbul. br. 176.; Sadberk Hanim Museum, Istanbul SHM 17770. br. 247.

dated between 1525 and 1535 is 36 cm in diameter (Atasoy – Raby 1989, 126)

3 Bilgi 2009, Ömer M. Koç collection, Istanbul. Br.176.; Sadberk Hanim Museum, Istanbul SHM 17770. br.247.

4 It was also decribed by some authors as a frieze with semi rosettes

(Atasoy – Raby 1989)

4 U literaturi se dekoracija u ovoj formi opisivala i kao friz s polurozetama (Atasoy – Raby 1989)

(cat. no. 48. 49, 50, 51, 52, 53). Apart from the listed forms representing the ship’s cargo, other forms of vessels were also made, like objects of sacral character: lamps (kandil), hanging ornaments of circular and oval form and large dishes on a foot, used as basins for ritual washing (ayakli leğen/ayakl tasi). From the typical oriental shapes pots and jars (kavanos) for preserving food appear, as well as jugs with a long spout (ibrik), bulb-shaped water bottles (sürahi) with a long neck and small bowls for drink- ing coffee (fican). Some shapes were taken from European prototypes, such as tondino - an Italian dish with a small and rounded re- ceptacle, and a wide almost horizontal rim and a cylindrical ewer- maşrapa, with an angular handle, the shape of which is based on wooden and leather originals characteristic of Central Europe. From the atypical forms, Iznik workshops made candlesticks (șamdan), inkpots and pen holder boxes (kalemdan, divit/devat) (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 48).

Styles and Influences

After the conquest of Constantinople in the times of Mehmed the Conqueror (1451-1481) began the rise, the expansion, and the power of the Ottoman Empire. The founding of a new capital asked for a new Ottoman style, which would be reflected in architecture and other artistic branches such as pottery or metal ware, illuminated manu- scripts, representative fabrics or other luxury objects. The purpose of this sumptuous style was the emphasizing of im- perial power, wealth and influence, in order for it to devel- op under the auspice and privilege of the Court. The main institution that dictated new trends and created decorative patterns for all branches of art was the imperial designer workshop, (nakkașhane), employing talented men (Ehli Hiref) led by the main artist of the Court (Baba Nakkaș - the father of design) (Kovačić 2012: 52). That also instigated the development of ceramic workshops and the production of high-quality local ce- ramic products: ceramic wall tiles for new buildings, sacral objects and luxury tableware, whose role was to match the very popular and expensive blue painted Chinese porce- lain, which was an irreplaceable part of the Ottoman court protocol and was popular with the Ottoman elite. For the production, the town of choice was Iznik, which had a long tradition of pottery production, an abundance of natural resources necessary for the production of ceramic bodies, minerals for glaze and colours, wood for fuel and water

pod vodstvom glavnog dvorskog umjetnika „Baba Nakkaș“ (otac dizajna) (Kovačić 2012: 52) Iz istog je razloga bio potaknut razvoj keramičkih radionica i proizvodnja visoko kvalitetne domaće keramike:

keramičkih obloga za nova arhitektonska zdanja, liturgij- skih predmeta i luksuznog stolnog posuđa koje je trebalo konkurirati vrlo popularnom i skupom plavo oslikanom kineskom porculanu, do tada nezamjenjivom u protokolu osmanskoga dvora i uz to omiljenom u krugu osmanske elite. Kao centar proizvodnje izabran je upravo grad Iznik zbog duge tradicije keramičke proizvodnje, obilja prirodnih sirovina potrebnih za izradu keramičkoga tijela, minerala za

glazure i boje, drva za gorivo kao i vodenih resursa, a ujedno je grad bio i dovoljno blizu novoj prijestolnici (Denny 2004:

59). Proizvodnja Iznika se nesmetano razvijala pod okriljem

i povlasticama sultana, stoga su količina i kvaliteta proi-

zvodnje kao i umjetnički stilovi slijedili zahtjeve i trendove dvora. Nastojalo se proizvoditi prestižno posuđe velikih dimenzija, složenog dizajna i kvalitetne izvedbe kako bi što više nalikovalo kineskom porculanu. Ipak oblici i dekoracija keramičkih predmeta odražavali su i druge utjecaje u kojima se prepoznaje timuridska i turkmenska tradicija koju u Car- stvo donose iranski umjetnici, dvorski majstori iz Herata i Tabriza (Denny 2004: 36). Nju predstavlja bogato ukrašeno

islamsko metalno posuđe i iluminirani rukopisi (Carswell 2006: 21-29) koji su utjecali na razvoj oblika i motiva iznič- koga posuđa, dok je u tehnološkom i konceptualnom smislu najviše utjecala tradicija izrade keramičkih obloga prekrive- nih engobom, oslikanih u plavo-bijeloj dekoraciji i supstrat ranije proizvodnje keramičkoga posuđa. Jedan je dio proi- zvodnje težio izravnom preuzimanju kineskih porculanskih predložaka iz razdoblja Yuan i rane Ming dinastije 14. i 15. stoljeća, u karakterističnim oblicima i plavo-bijeloj dekora- ciji, dok je drugi prilagodio pojedine kineske motive tada prevladavajućem osmanskom dvorskom stilu (Denny 2004:

61). Dekorativne kompozicije su u većini predstavljale za- jedništvo dvaju glavnih elemenata, rumy i hatayi. Etimološki rumi ili Rum značilo bi Novi Rim, Istočno Rimsko Carstvo ili Bizant (Akar 1988: 9), odnosno kraljevstvo Rum u Anatoliji,

a koje su dokinuli Seldžuci (Selçuk). Motiv je islamskog po-

drijetla, a čini ga gusti splet izduljenih listova šiljatih vrhova u formi arabeske (Kovačić 2012: 60). Drugu grupu usvojenih motiva hatayi, Cathayan, u prijevodu „iz Kine“ čine stilizira- ni cvjetni kineski dekorativni motivi u vidu lotosovog cvije- ta, krizantema i božura na vitičastim granama koji se često slikaju u kombinaciji s drugim kineskim motivima poput

radijalnih ruyi 5 frizova, uzlova ili stiliziranog motiva zmaja,

resources, as was in close proximity to the capital (Denny 2004: 59). The production in Iznik developed with ease under the auspice and privileges of the Sultan, so that the amount and the quality of the production, as well as artistic styles, followed the demands and trends of the court. They strived towards producing prestigious tableware of large dimensions, complex design and quality in order for it to bare greater resemblance to Chinese porcelain. Neverthe- less, the forms and decorations on these objects reflected other influences, like the Timurid and Türkmen tradi- tion brought to the Court by the Iranian artists - masters from Herat and Tabriz (Denny 2004: 36). It is represented by richly decorated Islamic metal ware and illuminated manuscripts (Carswell 2006: 21-29) which influenced the development of forms and motifs of Iznik pottery, while in the technological and conceptual sense, the production was greatly influenced by the production of glazed ceramic wall tiles decorated in blue and white, as well as a substrate of earlier pottery production. One part of the production aspired towards direct acquisition of Chinese porcelain patterns from the period of the Yuan and Ming dynasties of the 14th and 15th centuries, in characteristic forms and blue and white decoration while the other adapted the Chinese motifs to the prevailing Ottoman court style (Denny 2004:

61). The decorative compositions mostly represent the unity of two main elements, rumy and hatayi. Etymologically rumi or Rum meant the New Rome, the Eastern Roman Empire or the Byzantine Empire (Akar 1988: 9), that is the Rum kingdom in Anatolia, which was repealed by the Seljuk. The motif is of Islamic origin, comprised of thick scrolls of elon- gated leaves with pointy tips in the form of an arabesque (Kovačić 2012: 60). The other group of motifs, hatayi, Cha- tayan, meaning “from China”, is comprised of stylized floral Chinese decorative motifs such as the lotus flower, chrysan- themum and peony on convolute branches often painted in combination with other Chinese motifs such as radial ruyi 5 friezes, knots and stylized dragon motifs, known as the cloud band (tchi, çi cloud) 6 (Demirel 2003: 65). Although these patterns were sometimes almost literally copied, the artists in Iznik adopted them in a number of variants and

5 The motif with a triple end in a radial scheme - ruyi, represented the

sceptre in Chinese tradition. It is connected to wisdom and symbolized long life and happiness. The stylized head of a sceptre became a popular

motif on Chinese porcelain (Passos Leite - Queiroz Ribeiro 2009: 81)

6 In earlier literature (Atasoy, Raby 1989) similar motifs were interpreted

as: chinese cloud, cloud band, tchi cloud or tchi band.

nazvanog još i kineski oblaci ili thci trake 6 (Demirel 2003:

65) Iako su ovi predlošci ponekad gotovo doslovno kopirani, majstori Iznika ih usvajaju u brojnim varijantama i razvijaju u novom, osebujnom izričaju koji prerasta u jedinstven i prepoznatljiv klasični iznički stil 16. i 17. stoljeća.

Razvojne faze keramičke proizvodnje Iznika

Tijekom 16. stoljeća stil keramičkih proizvoda Iznika po- stepeno se mijenja što se odražava u pet dekorativnih faza od kojih samo najranija nije zastupljena na posuđu pro- nađenom na brodolomu. Pojedine faze ponekad je teško jasno raščlaniti, budući da se neki stilovi paralelno razvijaju, uglavnom zbog dvorskih umjetnika, koji dolaze iz različitih kulturnih sredina i uvriježene umjetničke stilove obogaćuju novim idejama. Razvojne faze i stilovi izničkog posuđa data- cijski se najčešće oslanjaju na dekoraciju keramičkih obloga na zidovima arhitektonskih zdanja jer su najčešće apsolutno datirana i popraćena bogatom arhivskom građom. Krono- logija bazirana na arhitekturi uvjetovana je i nedostatnom količinom izničkoga materijala pronađenog u intaktnim arheološkim cjelinama ili unutar apsolutno datiranih stra- tigrafskih slojeva. Razlog tome su brojni razarajući požari i potresi što su pustošili Istanbul, a pri čemu je uništen velik dio keramičke građe. Drugi čimbenik koji je doveo do izni- mno male količine izničkog posuđa na području Istanbula i uopće današnje Turske 7 je opsesija Europljana orijentalnom robom u 18. i 19. stoljeću. Europski su trgovci, putnici i diplomati uz drugu orijentalnu robu iz Osmanskoga carstva odnosili i izničko posuđe stvarajući tako bogate privatne zbirke koje s vremenom postaju osnova zbirki izničke kera- mike najvećih suvremenih svjetskih muzeja (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 18) 8 U 20. stoljeću u Turskoj sve više raste svijest o povijesnoj i kulturnoj baštini, a tako i spoznaja o vrijednosti izničke keramike kao predstavnika nacionalnog turskog umjetničkog i stilskog izričaja, nastalog na vrhuncu moći

5 Motiv s trostrukim završetkom u radijalnoj shemi – ruyi, u kineskoj

tradiciji predstavlja žezlo. Vezan je uz mudrost, a simbolizira dug život i sreću. Stilizirana glava žezla postaje omiljeni dekorativni motiv na

kineskom porculanu (Passos Leite - Queiroz Ribeiro 2009: 81).

6 U starijoj literaturi (Atasoy – Raby 1989) ovaj se motiv interpretirao kao:

kineski oblaci (chinese cloud), trakasti oblaci (cloud band) i çi oblaci (tchi cloud) ili çi traka (tchi band)

7 Najljepši su primjerci izničkog posuđa pronađeni izvan granica današnje Turske, na području Damaska, Jeruzalema i Aleksandrije (Atasoy – Raby 1989: 15).

developed them in a new, specific expression, which grew into a unique classical Iznik style of the 16th and the 17th century.

Development phases of the ceramic production in Iznik

During the 16th century, the style of Iznik’s ceramic products gradually changed, which is reflected in the five decorative phases from which only the earliest one is not represented on the pottery found on the shipwreck. Cer- tain phases cannot be clearly distinguished, and there is often an overlap in dates, considering the fact that different styles sometimes developed simultaneously, often be- cause of innovative Court artists who came from different cultural backgrounds and enriched the inveterate artistic styles with new influences. The datation of developmental phases and styles of Iznik pottery often relies on decora- tion on ceramic wall tiles on buildings that often have an absolute date and rich archival documentation. However, the chronology based on architecture is conditioned by a lack of Iznik finds discovered at intact archaeological sites or within a stratigraphic layer with an absolute date. That is due to the numerous disastrous fires and earthquakes which, during the course of history, devastated Istanbul, de- stroying a lot of ceramic material. Another factor that led to the exceptionally small number of Iznik pottery in Istanbul and the present day Republic of Turkey 7 is the obsession with oriental merchandise in Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries. The European merchants, travellers and diplomats brought, among other goods from the Ottoman Empire, Iznik pottery, thus creating rich private collections which became the basis for the collections of Iznik pottery in the largest museums today (Atasoy, Raby 1989, 18) 8 . During the 20th century, the awareness about historical and cultural heritage was at a rise in Turkey, as well as the recognition of the value of Iznik pottery as a representation of Turkey’s national artistic style that shone the brightest

7 The finest examples of Iznik tableware were found outside the borders of today’s Turkey, on the territory of Damascus, Jerusalem and Alexandria (Atasoy, Raby 1989, 15) 8 To the present day over 3000 whole examples of Iznik pottery have been recorded, and they belong to the collections of the largest museums in the world, such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Louvre in Paris, the British Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum in London, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in Lisbon, Benaki Museum of Islamic Art in Athens, Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo, Museum für islamiche Kunst in Berlin and others, as well as in numerous private collections

Osmanskoga carstva. Na osnovu brojnih sustavnih i zaštit- nih istraživanja, posebno na području stare jezgre Istanbula (Atasoy, Raby 1989:18) 9 i grada Iznika (Kirmizi 2014:4-5) 10 te prikupljanjem predmeta iz cijeloga svijeta, nastaju velike zbirke izničke keramike i na području Turske 11 . Na keramič- koj građi objedinjenoj iz ovih zbirki zasnivalo se proučavanje razvoja i kronologija proizvodnje te terminologija stilova i oblika izničke keramike, do sada najiscrpnije obrađenih u djelu Nurhan Atasoy i Juliana Rabyja, pod nazivom “Iznik:

The Pottery of Ottoman Turkey” izdanoj u Londonu 1989. godine.

Kako bi se lakše pratio razvoj izničke keramike, kro- nološki ju je moguće podijeliti u pet osnovnih dekorativnih faza koje se nadalje mogu raščlaniti na istovremene umjet- ničke stilove:

1. rana plavo – bijela keramika - period Baba Nakkaș stila (1480. – 1530.);

2. eksperimentalni, prelazni period (1520. – 1530./40.);

3. „saz“ stil ili iluzija prirode - period umjetnika Shah

Kulua (1535. – 1557.);

4. cvjetni naturalizam i polikromija - period umjetnika

Kara Memija (1557. - 1610.) i kasna plavo- bijela keramika

5. dekadencija stila i opadanje kvalitete izničkog posu-

đa (1590-1680)

Rana plavo – bijela keramika (1480.–1530.) Period Baba Nakkaș stila

Početak razvoja izničke proizvodnje i prva razvojna faza stila do sada nisu zabilježeni u teretu broda. Najraniji su primjer- ci nastali pod očitim pokroviteljstvom i povlasticama sulta-

8 Do danas je evidentirano preko 3000 cjelovitih primjeraka izničkog

posuđa, a pripadaju zbirkama najvećih svjetskih muzeja poput Metropolitan Museum of Art u New Yorku, Louvre (Musée du Louvre) u Parizu, British Museum, Victoria&Albert Museum u Londonu, Calouste

Gulbenkian Foundation u Lisabonu, Benaki Museum of Islamic Art u Ateni, Museum of Islamic Art u Kairu, Museum für islamiche Kunst u Berlinu i u drugima, kao i u brojnim privatnim zbirkama.

9 Arheološka istraživanja na području Hipodroma, Sultanahmeta, Topkapi

palače, Saraçhane, Yedikule, Aksaray, Çemberlitaş, Gülhane i drugih lokaliteta. 10 Istraživanja keramičkih peći u gradu Izniku na lokalitetima: Rimski

teatar, Džamija Orhana Imareta, Belediye Hamami, Kılıçaslan, Nilüfer Hatun Imareti

11 Zbirka Topkapi Palace Museum u Istanbulu, Çinili Köşk zbirka

Arheološkog muzeja u Istanbulu, Muzej u Izniku i Bursi te privatne zbirke Sadberk Hanım Museum i Ömer Koç Collection u Istanbulu i dr.

at the peak of power of the Ottoman Empire. Based on numerous systematic and rescue research carried out in the old core of Istanbul 9 (Atasoy, Raby 1989, 18) and Iznik (Kirmizi 2014:4-5), and by collecting objects from all over the world, big collections of Iznik 10 pottery were created in Turkey 11 . The pottery from these collections was the basis for the studies on the development and chronology of the production, as well as the terminology of styles and forms of Iznik pottery that are for now most comprehensively described in the works of Nurhan Atasoy nad Julian Raby called Iznik: The Pottery of Ottoman Turkey, published in London in 1989. For easier tracking of the development of Iznik ceramic production, it can be divided into five basic decora- tive phases, which can then be split into contemporaneous artistic styles:

1. EARLY BLUE AND WHITE CERAMIC - period of Baba Nakkaş style (1480-1530);

2. EXPERIMENTAL OR TRANSITIONAL PERIOD (1520-1530/40)

3. “SAZ” STYLE OR THE ILLUSION OF NATURE - period of the

artist Shah Kulu (1535-1557)

4. FLORAL STYLE AND POLYCHROMY - period of the artist Kara

Memi (1557-1610) AND THE LATE BLUE AND WHITE POTTERY

5. DECLINE OF THE STYLE AND THE DECREASE IN QUALITY OF

IZNIK POTTERY (1590-1680)

Early blue and white ceramic (1480-1530) Period of Baba Nakkaş style

The beginning of Iznik production and the first phase in the development of the style have not been recorded within the ship’s cargo. The earliest examples were made under the obvious patronage and privileges of the Sultan, starting form Mehmed the Conqueror (1451-1481), Bayezid II (1481- 1512) and Selim I (1512-1520), to the beginning of the rule of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566). The prevailing forms are of sacral character: lamps, hanging ornaments, foot dishes and jugs for ritual washing and tableware of

9 Archaeological research on the Hippodrome, Sultanhamet, the Tokapi Palace, Saraçhane, Yedikule, Aksaray, Çemberlitaş, Gülhane and other sites 10 Research on pottery kilns in Iznik on the Roman theatre, Orhan Imaret Mosque, Belediye Hamami, Kılıçaslan, Nilüfer Hatun Imareti 11 The collection of the Tokapi Palace Musrum in Istanbul, the Çinil Köşk collection of the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul, Museums in Iznik and Bursa, and in private collections Sadberk Hanım Museum, Ömer Koç Collection in Istanbul etc.

Hanım Museum, Ömer Koç Collection in Istanbul etc. Sl. 23. Najranija faza proizvodnje grada Iznika: Baba

Sl. 23. Najranija faza proizvodnje grada Iznika: Baba Nakkaș stil, Iznik oko 1480, (iz Atasoy, Raby 1989: fig. 279) Fig. 23. The earliest phase of Iznik production: Baba Nakkaș style, Iznik circa 1480, ( from Atasoy, Raby 1989: 279)

na, počevši od Mehmeda II. Osvajača (1451. - 1481.), Bayezida II. (1481. - 1512.), Selima I. (1512. - 1520.) do početka vladavine Sulejmana Veličanstvenog (1520. - 1566.). Od oblika prevla- davaju predmeti sakralnog karaktera: svjetiljke, viseći or- namenti, zdjele i vrčevi za obredno pranje te stolno posuđe većih dimenzija poput zdjela i tanjura za posluživanje. Oblike i dekoraciju crpili su iz uzora poput kineskog pla- vo-bijelog porculana, islamskih metalnih formi omiljenih na osmanskom dvoru i tradicije izrade keramičkih obloga prekrivenih engobom i oslikanih u plavo-bijeloj dekoraciji, koju su u Carstvo donijeli iranski keramičari – majstori iz Tabriza (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 81). Slikana dekoracija izvodila se u bijelim tonovima na plavoj pozadini ili u različitim ni- jansama kobaltnoplave boje na bijeloj pozadini ispod sjajne glazure dok složene dekorativne kompozicije predstavljaju zajedništvo dvaju glavnih elemenata, rumy i hatayi (sl. 23). Crtež je minuciozan, precizan i vješto osjenjen, gotovo trodimenzionalan, a čine ga cvjetovi i pupoljci na tankim peteljkama između kojih se isprepliće lisna arabeska, uzlovi, stilizirani zmajevi, ruyi frizovi i şemse motivi nalik kartuši. Različite kompozicije katkad su se nizale u zonama, a njih su razdvajale dekorativne trake s osmanskim motivom zencerek, nalik višestrukom prepletu u obliku lanca (Demirel 2003: 66) ili su se pak radijalno širile u motivu „kola sreće“ te bile popraćene kaligrafskim natpisom. Istovremeno s rumy i hatayi stilom razvija se stil ukrašavanja iluminiranih knjiga (tezhip) koji uvodi i razvija glavni dvorski umjetnik pod nazivom „Baba Nakkaș“ (Bilgi 2009: 25). Budući da je njegov stil imao veliki utjecaj na sve ostale grane umjetnosti što su se razvijale pod okriljem dvora, tako se i keramika ovog razdoblja naziva „Baba Nakkaș ware“ (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 96). Prema 1510-im godinama stil više nije tako minu- ciozan, a motivi postaju veći i jednostavniji. Istovremeno se prepoznaju i različiti izričaji koje J. Raby prema osnovnim karakteristikama naziva stil „majstora uzlova“ (Master of the Knots) i stil „majstora lotosa“ (Master of the Lotuses) (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 94-100). Prva faza izničke keramike datirana je na osnovu oslikanih keramičkih obloga na arhitektonskim zdanjima vladarskoga groblja u Bursi, na grobnici Shehza- de Mehmeda (sina Bayezida II.) iz 1506./07., na grobnici Shehzade Ahmeda (brata Selima I.) iz 1513. i na devet lampi iz grobnice Bayezida II. iz iste godine (Carswell 2006: 36-37; Atasoy, Raby 1989: 90).

iste godine (Carswell 2006: 36-37; Atasoy, Raby 1989: 90). Sl. 24. Zdjele ukrašene u “tuğrakeş” spiralnom

Sl. 24. Zdjele ukrašene u “tuğrakeş” spiralnom stilu, s ukrasom preuzetim s kineskog porculana, Iznik, 16. stoljeće Fig. 24. Dishes decorated in “tuğrakeş” spiral style, with decoration adopted from Chinese porcelain, Iznik, 16th century

larger dimensions, like dishes and platters. The forms and decorations were taken from Chinese blue and white porcelain, Islamic metal forms popular with the Ottoman Court and the tradition of making glazed wall tiles painted in blue and white, brought to the Empire by the Iranian pottery-masters from Tabriz (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 81). The painted decoration was carried out in white tones on a blue background or in different shades of cobalt blue on a white background under a shiny transparent glaze, while complex decorative compositions represent the unity of two main elements - rumy and hatayi (fig. 23). The drawing is detailed, precise and skilfully shaded, almost three-dimensional, and is comprised of flowers and buds on thin stems with an intertwining leaf arabesques, knots, ruyi friezes, stylized dragon motifs and the şemse, a cartouche-like motif. Differ- ent compositions would sometimes thread in zones, sepa- rated with decorative bands with the zencerek motif, resem- bling a multiple-braided chain (Demirel 2003: 66), or would radially spread in the wheel of fortune motif, sometimes followed by a short calligraphic inscription. Parallel with the rumy and hatayi style, a style of decorating illuminated books (tehzip) was being developed, introduced and educed by the main court artist called “Baba Nakkaş” (Bilgi 2009: 25). Considering the fact that his style had a huge influence on

Eksperimentalni ili prijelazni period (1520. – 1530./40.) (Sl. 24)

Od početka vladavine sultana Sulejmana Veličanstvenog 1520., keramičari Iznika uvode promjene u tehničkom

i estetskom smislu. Osim motiva kreiranih u dvorskim

radionicama „nakkașhane“, motivi se preuzimaju iz drugih grana umjetnosti da bi ih majstori – umjetnici kombinirali u vlastitim dekorativnim shemama. Ovo razdoblje, koje traje do 1530./40. godine, naziva se i eksperimentalni ili prelazni period jer se istovremeno razvija više stilističkih smjerova:

nastavak „Baba Nakkaș stila“, potom tzv. “tuğrakeș“ spiralni

stil (1525./50. – 1600.), jaki utjecaj kineskog porculana (1530. - 1620.), stil „keramičara“ (the Potters’ style) i nagoviještaj „saz“ stila, koji je obilježio sljedeću razvojnu fazu izničke proi- zvodnje (Atasoy, Raby 1989:, 101-102). Uz druge inovacije, uz kobaltnoplavu pojavljuje se i tirkizna boja i time započinje višebojnost u ukrašavanju. Krajem 1520-ih godina pojavio se vrlo apstraktni stil

s minuciozno izvedenim ukrasom sastavljenim od fino izve- denih spiralnih vitica obogaćenih sljedovima sitnih rozeta te listića u obliku zareza, polu kružnica i S vitica, slikanih u kobaltnoplavoj boji na bijeloj pozadini. Početkom 20. sto- ljeća ta je grupa keramike nazvana „Golden Horn ware“ zbog brojnih ulomaka pronađenih prilikom iskopavanja lokaliteta Sirkeci i Aksaray na području povijesne jezgre Istanbula poznatoj kao Golden Horn. To su potkrijepili i povijesni izvori u kojima se spominju keramičke peći na Golden Hor- nu 1604. i 1640. godine, a neki je povezuju i s keramičkim radionicama koje spominje Evliya Çelebi u svojem “Putopi- su“ Seyahatnama iz 17. stoljeća (Bigli 2009: 27). Pokazalo se da radionice na Golden Hornu nisu proizvodile glaziranu

i kvarcnu keramiku, a tezu o proizvodnji u Istanbulu opo-

vrgnula su i kasnija istraživanja keramičkih peći u Izniku, gdje je pronađen veliki broj slično ukrašenih ulomaka. Iako su istraživanja potvrdila da se ova keramika proizvodila u Izniku, jedna boca, sürahi, ukrašena u istom stilu, iz zbirke Godman Collection British Museuma, nosi natpis na armen- skom u kojemu stoji da Biskup Ter Martiros 1529. godine šalje sürahi izrađen u Kütahyi kao votivni dar samostanu sv. Bogorodice u Ankari (Bigli 2009: 28; Carswell 2006: 47). To dokazuje da izrada keramike ovog stila nije bila ograničena samo na proizvodnju Iznika te da se početkom 16. stoljeća proizvodnja odvijala i u drugim keramičarskim centrima po- put Kütahye, sve dok radionice Iznika nisu preuzele vodeće mjesto, zbog bolje povezanosti i blizine prijestolnici odakle su se proizvodi distribuirali na šire tržište (Carswell 2006: 48).

other branches of art developing under the Court’s auspice, the pottery was called the “Baba Nakkaș ware” (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 96). Towards the 1510s, the style is no longer so detailed, and the motifs become bigger and simpler. At the same time differ- ent artistic expressions can be recognized, which J. Raby, based on their characteristics, calls the style of the “Master of the Knots” and the style of the “Master of the Lotuses” (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 94-100). The first phase of Iznik pottery is dated based on painted wall tiles on the buildings in the royal cemetery in Bursa, the tomb of Shehzade Mehmed (The son of Bayezid II) from 1506/7, the tomb of Shehzade Ahmed (brother of Selim I) from 1513 and nine lamps from the tomb of Bayezid II dated to the same year (Carswell 2006: 36-37; Atasoy, Raby 1989: 90).

Experimental or transitional period (1520-1530/40) (fig. 24)

From the beginning of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent’s rule in 1520, the pottery makers in Iznik started introduc- ing changes in both a technical and aesthetical sense. Apart from the motifs created by Court workshops, nakkașhane, motifs were taken from other branches of art, and the arti- sans combined them in their own creative ways. This peri- od, which lasted until the 1530s - 1540s, is also called the ex- perimental or the transitional period, because a number of stylistic trends were being developed: the continuation of the “Baba Nakkaş period”, the so called “tuğrakeș” spiral style (1525/50-1600), the strong influence of Chinese porcelain (1530-1620), the Potters’ style and the first traces of the “Saz” style which will mark the next phase in the development of Iznik pottery (Atasoy, Raby 1989:, 101-102) Among other innovations, the colour turquoise appears alongside cobalt blue, marking the beginning of polychrome decoration. An almost abstract style appeared at the end of the 1520s, which included detailed decorations composed of meticulous spiral scrolls enriched with series of tiny ro- settes and comma-shaped leafs, semicircles and S-scrolls, painted in cobalt blue on a white surface. At the beginning of the 20th century this group was called “Golden Horn ware” due to a large number of fragments found during excavations of the Sirkeci and Aksaray sites in the historic core of Istanbul-the Golden Horn. It was substantiated by historical sources that mention pottery kilns in Golden Horn in 1604 and 1640, and the pottery was also connected to the kilns mentioned by Evliya Çelebi in his “Book of Trav-

Budući da se slični spiralni motivi javljaju na iluminiranoj pozadini tuğre - vladarskog monograma sultana Sulejmana Veličanstvenog a čija je izrada bila povjerena vrhunskim iluminatorima zvanima tuğrakeș, J. Raby je preimenovala stil

u “tuğrakeș spiralni stil“ (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 108-113).

Keramika ukrašena u ovom stilu doživjela je vrhu- nac između 1525. i 1550. godine, najčešće u obliku zdjela, vrčeva, boca i bazena za obredno pranje, istčući se velikim dimenzijama, kvalitetnom i savršenom preciznošću kod izvedbe dekoracije i detalja. U skladu s općim razvitkom izničke proizvodnje tijekom 30-ih te 40-ih godina 16. stolje- ća uz osnovnu kobaltnoplavu dekoraciju počinju se pojav- ljivati detalji u tirkiznoj i konture u maslinastozelenoj boji (Carswell 2006: 50). Zbog svoje gotovo grafičke jednostav-

nosti i profinjenosti stil se nastavlja primjenjivati i kasnije te

u mnogobrojnim inačicama opstaje sve do kraja 16. stoljeća.

Keramika ukrašena u ovome stilu bila je prisutna na širo- kom području Osmanskog carstva, duž Anatolije, Egipta i Rumelije (zapadni, balkanski dio Osmanskog carstva) i izvan njega, što je potvrđeno s više ulomaka pronađenih na po- dručju Dubrovnika, (Kovačić 2012: 63,72,73; kat. br. 2, 3.), a predstavlja i prvu osmansku keramiku za koju je poznato da

se izvozila u Italiju. Tijekom 2. polovice 16. stoljeća keramika

u ovom stilu postaje sve popularnija na Zapadu, stoga je ve-

necijanski i đenoveški trgovci uvoze prvenstveno za italsko tržište, a potom distribuiraju u ostale dijelove Europe ili pak imitiraju na vlastitoj keramici u ligurijskim radionicama majolike (Carswell 2006: 103) i na plavoj berettina majolici (Kovačić 2012: 63). S druge strane, podilazeći novom trži- štu, iznički majstori preuzimaju pojedine keramičke oblike talijanskog podrijetla, primjerice tondino tanjur, zaobljenog manjeg recipijenta i širokog, gotovo vodoravnog oboda, koje su često ukrašavali upravo u tuğrakeș stilu. U teretu broda pronađene su dvije zdjele s dekora- cijom izvedenom u spiralnom tuğrakeș stilu (sl. 24; kat. br. 1, 2). Zdjele su gotovo identične u proporcijama, dekoraciji i u detaljima, stoga se može pretpostaviti da su se predmeti u ovom stilu izrađivali serijski, uz pomoć matrica i predloža- ka iz dvorskih umjetničkih radionica. Velikih su dimenzija, složenog dizajna i kvalitetne izvedbe, što govori da su bile namijenjene elitnoj klijenteli. Obje imaju duboko zaobljeno tijelo položeno na nisku prstenastu nogu i široki obod s valovito oblikovanim rubom. Oslikane su u kobaltnopla- voj boji na bijeloj pozadini u izvrsnoj tehničkoj i estetskoj maniri ispod sjajne, prozirne glazure. S unutarnje strane dekoracija je koncipirana u zonama s centralnim kružnim poljem, ispunjenim grupom od sedam istovjetnih spirala

els” (Seyahatnama) dated to the 17th century (Bigli 2009: 27). Research has shown that workshops in Golden Horn never produced glazed and fritta pottery, and the assumption that it was produced in Istanbul was disproved by later research on pottery kilns from Iznik, where a large number of sim- ilarly decorated fragments were found. Although research has shown that the pottery decorated in this style was made in Iznik, one bottle, sürahi, from the Godman collection of the British Museum, was decorated in the same style and bears an inscription in Armenian stating that Bishop Ter Martiros sent the sürahi made in Küthaya as a votive gift to the monastery of the Holy Mother of God in Ankara (Bigli 2009, 28; Carswell 2006, 47). This vessel proves that this style was not limited only to Iznik production, but that kind of pottery was being made in other ceramic centres such as Küthaya, until the workshops in Iznik took the leading position, due to their closer connections and proximity to the capital, from where their products were distributed to the wider market (Carswell 2006, 48). Given that similar spiral motifs appear on the illu- minated background of the tuğra - the imperial monogram of the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent which was entrust- ed to the chief illuminators called tuğrakeş, J. Raby named the style the “tuğrakeş spiral style” (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 108-

113).

Pottery decorated in this style reached its peak between 1525 and 1550, generally in the forms of dishes, jugs, bottles and basins for ritual washing which stood out because of their large dimensions, quality and perfectly precise decorations and detail. In line with the general development of the Iznik production in the 30s and 40s, de- tails in turquoise and outlines in olive green begin to appear alongside the basic cobalt blue (Carswell 2006: 50). Due to its almost graphic simplicity and sophistication, the style was applied in later periods and survived in the form of nu- merous variations until the end of the 16th century. Pottery decorated in this style was distributed over a wide area of the Ottoman Empire, along Anatolia, Egypt and Rumelia (the western part of the Ottoman Empire, encompassing most of the Balkans) and beyond, as attested to by multi- ple fragments found in the Dubrovnik area (Kovačić 2012:

63,72,73; cat. no 2, 3.), It was also the first Ottoman pottery known to be exported to Italy. During the second half of the 16th century, pottery made in this style became more and more popular in the West, so the merchants from Ven- ice and Genoa imported it primarily for the Italian market, and, from there, distributed it to other parts of Europe or

ukrašenih sitnim rozetama, listovima i S viticama. Po sre- dištu oblog bijelog cavetta nalazi se tanki stilizirani vjenčić rozeta, dok duž oboda s valovitim rubom teče valoviti friz s nizom zakrivljenih, listova i cvjetnih vjenčića (Zmaić Kralj 2014: 67-68). S vanjske strane cavetto je u potpunosti pre- kriven dekoracijom cvjetnog prepleta izvedenog u duhu prethodnog „Baba Nakkaș“ stila, što potvrđuje nastavak i odanost tradiciji dvorskog stila, kao i pripadnost proizvodnji keramičkih radionica Iznika (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 113). Iako je brodolom datiran u zadnju četvrtinu 16. stoljeća čini se da dvije tuğrakeș zdjele iz tereta broda, prema besprijekornoj kvaliteti izrade, konceptu dekoracije te vanjskoj strani posu- de ukrašenoj u duhu „Baba Nakkaș“ stila, pripadaju ranijem razdoblju, u prvu polovicu 16. stoljeća. Istovjetna zdjela valo- vitog ruba, identičnih dimenzija i gotovo jednake dekoracije, datirana u 1530./40. godinu nalazi se u kolekciji CL David u Copenhagenu, inv.no. 43/1973. (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 111, sl.

139).

Kako bi zadovoljili dvorsku naklonost prema plavo oslikanom kineskom porculanu, keramičari Iznika počinju proizvoditi keramiku s doslovno kopiranim oblicima i deko- racijama s kineskog porculana. Omiljene predloške pred- stavljao je porculan iz vremena Yuan i rane Ming dinastije 14. i 15. stoljeća, budući je u 15. stoljeću na dvorovima islamskih vladara Bliskog istoka bio visoko cijenjen. Ondje je porcu- lan u vidu trgovačke robe ili diplomatskih poklona stizao u velikom broju (Allan 1991: 52), sve do opsade Tabriza (1514.), Damaska i Kaira 12 (1517.) u vrijeme sultana Selima I. (1512. - 1520.), kada uz ostali ratni plijen dospijeva na osmanski dvor i postaje nenadmašno cijenjeno posuđe u krugovima osmanske elite. Osnovni motivi i kompozicije na kineskom porculanu koji su inspirirali dvorske umjetnike i keramičare grada Iznika bili su: friz s uzburkanim valovima i cvjetnim prepletom na obodu te prikaz cvjetnog prepleta, trsa vinove loze s grozdovima i buketa lotosa u središnjem ukrasnom polju. Oni se u početku shematski kombiniraju i primjenjuju na određenim oblicima posuda, dok ih u zadnjoj četvrtini 16. stoljeća majstori – umjetnici Iznika počinju prilagođavati vlastitim kreacijama na osmanskim formama posuđa te uz nove motive i boje (kat. br. 23, 27). Najzastupljeniji motiv preuzet s porculana Yuan di- nastije iz sredine 14. stoljeća je dekorativni friz na širokom

12 Suvremeni izvori prenose da je nakon opsade Kaira preko tisuću deva prenosilo ratni plijen u Istanbul, među kojim je bilo na stotine komada kineskog porculana od kojega su bili vredniji tek zlato, srebro i oružje (Allan 1991: 52).

imitated it on their own pottery in Ligurian majolica work- shops (Carswell 2006: 103) and the blue berettina majolica (Kovačić 2012: 63). On the other hand, indulging the new market demands, the Iznik potters embraced certain forms of Italian descend, such as the tondino plate with a smaller receptacle and a wide, almost horizontal rim, that was often decorated in the tuğrakeş style. Two dishes decorated in the tuğrakeş spiral style were recovered from the ship’s cargo (fig. 24; cat. no. 1, 2). The dishes are almost identical in proportions, decoration and detail, so it can be assumed that the objects made in this style were produced in series, with the help of stencils and templates that came from the workshops of the Otto- man Court. They are large, with a complex design and of high-quality, which tells us that they were made for elite clients. Both dishes have a deep rounded body set on a low ring-like foot and a wide foliated rim, similar to Ming dynasty porcelain. They have cobalt blue paint on a white surface done in an excellent technical and aesthetic man- ner under a shiny transparent glaze. The decoration on the interior is conceptualized in zones with a central circular field filled with a group of seven identical spirals decorated with tiny rosettes, leaves and S-scrolls. In the centre of the round white cavetto there is a small stylized wreath of tiny rosettes, while an undulating frieze decorated with curved, pointy leaves and flower garlands runs along the foliated rim (Zmaić Kralj 2014: 67-68). On the exterior, the cavetto is completely covered with a decoration of flower scroll painted in the preceding “Baba Nakkaş” style, which con- firms the continuation and devotion to the tradition of the Court style, as well as affiliation to Iznik pottery workshops (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 113). Although the shipwreck was dated to the last quarter of the 16th century, it seems that the two tuğrakeș dishes from the ship’s cargo, with their impeccable quality, concept of decoration and the exterior decorated in the “Baba Nakkaş” style, belong to an earlier period, the first half of the 16th century. That is confirmed by a similar dish with a foliated rim which has the same dimensions and an almost identical decoration, dated to the 1530 or 1540 from the CL David Collection in Copenhagen (inv. no. 43/1973) (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 111, sl. 139). To please the Court’s fondness for the Chinese blue painted porcelain, the potters in Iznik started producing a group of pottery that almost completely adopted the forms and decorations of Chinese porcelain. The favoured tem- plate was the Yuan and the early Ming dynasty porcelain of the 14th and the 15th centuries, which was held in high

obodu posuda u obliku uzburkanih valova koji se razbijaju

o stijene (kat. br. 3, 7, 8, 9, 23, 24, 25, 26, 35, 37, 46, 47). Ovaj stilizirani, gotovo grafički motiv predstavlja idealan okvir za središnji statični crtež (Kovačić 2012: 62). Čine ga naiz- mjenično postavljena bijela polja u obliku vala, grupe sitnih spirala u predstavi morske pjene te trostruke kreste što po- put triglifa raščlanjuju friz. Ovaj je motiv na ranim izničkim primjercima slikan kobaltnoplavom, gotovo naturalistički, nalik onima s kineskih predložaka. Tijekom vremena sve je više stiliziran i ukrašen novim bojama, dok je na ponekim kasnijim primjercima izveden nemarno, u gotovo neprepo- znatljivoj formi (kat. br. 39). Jedan od omiljenih predložaka preuzet s porculana Ming dinastije ranog 15. stoljeća je cvjetni preplet koji se naj- češće pojavljuje na zdjelama širokog oboda u formi hrasto- vog lista. Dekoracija u središnjem ukrasnom polju pred- stavlja preplet uvijenih grana s cvjetovima lotosa, božura, ruža, krizantema ili nara u profilu ili u vodoravnom pogledu. Uokolo oblog cavetta redaju se istaknuta polja s malim cvjet- nim aranžmanima, a duž oboda friz s cvjetnim vijencem ili motivom uzburkanih valova. Dekoracija s cvjetnim preletom nalazi se na plavobi- jeloj zdjeli s malom nožicom i širokim obodom u formi hra- stova lista (kat. br. 3) koja je na brodolomu pronađena gotovo

u cijelosti. U središtu ukrasnog polja nalazi se cvijet lotosa

okružen sa sedam cvjetova u bogatom prepletu. Na obodu je friz s motivom uzburkanih valova, a s vanjske strane posude jednostavan ukras sveden na niz naizmjenično postavljenih pojedinačnih „çintamani“ motiva i pupoljka. Cvjetni preplet zadržao se u plavobijeloj izvedbi do kraja izničke proizvod- nje, a primjenjivao se i na izvorno osmanskim oblicima, koji

nisu potjecali iz kineskog repertoara oblika (kat. br. 26, 27). Sljedeći model iz vremena Ming dinastije 15. stolje- ća koji je opčinio majstore Iznika bila je zdjela s prikazom vinovog trsa. Zdjela se izvodila u dvije varijante: oble forme

s

širokim obodom u formi hrastovog lista ili s ravnim rubom

u

obliku plitice (Atasoy – Raby 1989: 121). U oba slučaja u

središnjem ukrasnom polju dominirao je motiv s tri trsa i grozda okruženi lišćem i viticama vinove loze. Oko središ- njeg prikaza, na cavettu se nalaze dekorativna polja s malim cvjetnim aranžmanima i obod u formi hrastovog lista s mo- tivom uzburkanih valova, a u drugoj varijanti cvjetni preplet. Ova kompozicija zadržava se i u kasnijoj proizvodnji Iznika gotovo nepromijenjena, ali uz upliv novih boja. To je vidljivo na ulomku zdjele iz tereta broda sa središnjim prikazom vi- novog trsa i grozdova (kat. br. 23), cvjetnim aranžmanima na cavettu te motivom uzburkanih valova na obodu i detaljima

regard by the 15th-century Islamic rulers in the Near East. The porcelain was brought in large numbers as a trading good or a diplomatic gift (Allan 1991: 52), to the siege of Tabriz (1514), Damascus and Cairo (1517) 12 during the rule of Sultan Selim I (1512-1520) at the same time it arrived to the Ottoman Court along with other spoils of war and became equally valued among the Ottoman elite. The basic motifs and compositions found on porcelain which inspired Court workshops and potters from Iznik were: a border with a “rock and wave’”motif and a “flower scroll” on the rim, and presentation of the “flower scroll”, “bunch of grapes” and

a “bouquet of lotus flowers” on the central drawing. In the beginning they were combined schematically and applied

on certain vessel types, while in the last quarter of the 16th century, the artisans in Iznik started adapting them to their own creations on Ottoman vessel forms with new motifs and colours (cat. no. 23, 27). The most common motif taken from the 14th cen- tury Yuan dynasty porcelain is a decorative border on a wide rim in the shape of waves crashing against rocks (cat. no. 3,

7, 8, 9, 23, 24, 25, 26. 35, 37, 46, 47). This stylized and almost

graphic motif represents the ideal frame for the static central drawing (Kovačić 2012: 62). It is made of alternating white fields in the shape of wave, a group of tiny spirals in the representation of the sea foam and a triple crest that divides the frieze as a triglyph. On early Iznik vessels, this motif was painted in cobalt blue, almost naturalistically, like the one on the Chinese templates. In time it became more stylized and was enriched with new colours, while the later examples shows a sloppy, almost unrecognizable form (kat. br. 39).

One of the popular templates taken from the Ming dynasty porcelain of the early 15th century is the “flower scroll” which appears mostly on dishes with a wide foliat-

ed rim. The motif in the central decoration field includes

a scroll of branches with flowers of lotus, peonies, roses,

chrysanthemum or pomegranate in vertical and horizontal view. Accentuated fields with small flower bouquets run around the round cavetto and a flower garland or the rock and wave border flow along the rim. Decoration with a flower scroll appears on a blue and white dish on a small foot with a wide foliated rim

12 Contemporary sources state that almost nine thousand camels transported the spoils of war after the siege of Cairo, including hundreds of pieces of Chinese porcelain, the price of which was surpassed only by that of gold, silver and weapons; Allan 1991, 52

izvedenim u smaragdnozelenoj boji koja u upotrebu dolazi tek u drugoj polovici 16. stoljeća (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 69, 89). Zdjele sa središnjim prikazom „buketa lotosa“ ta-

kođer su se izvodila u dvije varijante, sa širokim obodom u formi hrastovog lista ili s ravnim rubom poput plitice. Sre- dišnje ukrasno polje ispunjava cvijet lotosa na stabljici, oko kojega se šire pupoljci, cvjetovi i listovi. U jednoj varijanti na cavettu zdjele oko centralnog prikaza se radijalno širi ruyi friz, a na obodu se ponovno javlja motiv uzburkanih valova, dok se u drugoj varijanti, na posudama u obliku plitice, oko središnjeg prikaza ponovno javlja cvjetni preplet. Poput mnogih i ovaj motiv se u plavobijeloj izvedbi i u brojnim interpretacijama zadržao sve do kraja izničke proizvodnje u 17. stoljeću (kat. br. 24, 25). U 1520-im i 30-im godinama pojavit će se još dva dekorativna pravca bitna za daljnji razvoj izničke proizvod- nje. U vrijeme kada tradicionalni kulturni i umjetnički centri bliskog istoka Herat, Tabriz, Damask i Kairo dolaze pod osmansku vlast, brojni dvorski umjetnici i obrtnici s toga područja slijevaju se u Istanbul i sa sobom donose nove stilove i utjecaje. Jedan od njih, Shah Kulu započinje svoju karijeru dvorskog umjetnika početkom vladavine Sulejmana Veličanstvenog (1520. - 1566.) i uvodi smjernice novog stila koji je obilježilo sljedeću razvojnu fazu izničke keramike. Druga bitna pojava je keramika oslikana u potpuno novom duhu s jednostavno izvedenim motivima na posuđu manjih dimenzija. Središnje kompozicije se izvode u vertikalnoj osi

s novim repertoarom cvijeća: malim tulipanima, karanfilima

i zumbulima najčešće postavljenima simetrično u vazama

ili vrčevima na malim stolovima. J. Raby ovaj stil naziva „ke-

ramičarski stil“ ili „Potters style“ (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 115-120), kako bi neovisan duh keramičara u odnosu na konvencio- nalnu dvorsku umjetnost. Iako je stil trajao relativno kratko

i nije bio zastupljen na keramičkim oblogama monumental-

found at the shipwreck almost intact (cat. no. 3). The centre of the decorative field has a lotus flower surrounded by

seven flowers in a rich scroll. The rim of the vessel is deco- rated with the rock and wave border. On the exterior of the dish the decoration is reduced to the series of alternating individual “çintamani” motifs and buds. The flower scroll was applied in blue and white techniques to the end of Iznik production, and it was applied on the original Ottoman forms, that were not derived from the Chinese repertoire of shapes (cat. no. 26, 27). The next model from the Ming dynasty of the 15th century that fascinated the artisans in Iznik was a dish with

a depiction of the “bunches of grapes” . The dish was made

in two variants: in the round form with a wide foliated rim, or with a flat rim in a form of platter (Atasoy – Raby 1989: 121). The central decoration field in both versions was dominated by a motif of three vines and a bunch of grapes

surrounded by leaves and scrolls of vine. The cavetto had decoration fields with small flower bouquets and a foliated rim with the wave border, and in the second variant a flow- er scroll around the central drawing. This composition was kept in the later Iznik production with almost no changes but with the appearance of new colours. This is shown on a

dish fragment from the ship’s cargo (cat. no. 23), which has

a central depiction of a bunch of grapes, flower bouquets on

the cavetto and the wave border on the rim as well as details applied in emerald green, a colour that was not introduced until the second half of the 16th century (Atasoy, Raby 1989:

69, 89).

The dish with a central motif of a “bouquet of lotus flowers” was also made in two variants: with a wide foliated rim or flat rim in the form of platter. The central decora- tion field was filled with a lotus flower on a stem with buds, flowers and small leaves expanding from it. One variant has

a

ruyi frieze radially expanding around the central drawing,

nih arhitektonskih zdanja, značajan je jer otkriva odstupa- nje od dizajna po diktatu dvora. Razvoju stila pridonijela je dvorska sklonost luksuznom i skupom kineskom porculanu, što je prisililo keramičare da spuštanjem kvalitete i repre- zentativnosti posuđa smanje cijene i tako otvore tržište novim kupcima (Bigli 2009, 28; Atasoy, Raby 1989: 118).

„Saz“ stil ili iluzija prirode (1535. – 1557.) Period umjetnika Shah Kulua (sl. 25)

and the wave border on the rim, while the second variant, present on dishes in the form of a platter, has a flower scroll around the central drawing. Like many others, this mo- tif was also applied in blue and white and lasted, in many interpretations, to the end of Iznik production in the 17th century (cat. no. 24, 25). Two more decorative trends relevant for the further development of Iznik production appeared during the

U

drugoj četvrtini 16. stoljeća javlja se dekorativni stil „saz“

1520s and the 1530s. At a time when traditional cultural and art centers of the Near East - Herat, Tabriz, Damascus and

ili

hatayi, koji je obilježio dvorsku umjetnost u vrijeme

Cairo, came under Ottoman rule, numerous court artists

vladavine sultana Sulejmana Veličanstvenog. „Saz“ stil je u

and craftsmen from that area came to Istanbul bringing

Sl. 25. Zdjele ukrašene u Saz stilu, period umjetnika Shah Kulua, Iznik, 1530 - 1560 Fig. 25. Dishes decorated in the Saz style – period of the artist Shah Kulu, Iznik, 1530 – 1560

– period of the artist Shah Kulu, Iznik, 1530 – 1560 osmansku umjetnost uveo Shah Kulu,

osmansku umjetnost uveo Shah Kulu, umjetnik porijeklom

iz Bagdada nakon što je naobrazbu stekao na perzijskom

dvoru u Tabrizu kod slavnoga majstora Aqa Miraka. Nakon što je prognan s perzijskog dvora, privremeno je boravio u

Amasyi u Anatoliji do 1520./21. godine. Potom dolazi na dvor

u Istanbul gdje vrlo brzo postaje ser-bölük, voditelj skupine

slikara anatolijskog podrijetla. 13 Vrhunac slave doživio je 1545. godine kada postaje nakașbași, glavni dizajner dvorskih dizajnerskih radionica nakkașhane, u kojima je djelovao sve do svoje smrti oko 1555. godine (Denny 2004: 33). Stil je nazvan prema zakrivljenom i nazubljenom listu saz koji u osmanskoj umjetnosti simbolički predstav- lja mitsku čarobnu šumu, imaginarni svijet bogat florom i faunom u kojemu se odražavaju odjeci šamanskih vje- rovanja Srednje Azije (Atil 1987: 24-33). Na turskom riječ saz označava i močvarnu trsku, koja je izvorno služila kao kalem, orijentalno kaligrafsko pisalo (Denny 2004: 33-36). U repertoar prikaza izvorno su bile uključene egzotične ptice, divlja stvorenja poput lavova, kineskih zmajeva i drugih mit-

13 Do sredine 16. stoljeća nakkașhane se dijeli na dva različita odjela, Rumiyân skupinu umjetnika anatolijskog podrijetla i Ajemân skupinu umjetnika koji nisu orijentalnog podrijetla kao što su majstori s franačkog i mađarskog područja.

new styles and influences. One of them, Shah Kulu, start- ed his career as a court artist at the beginning of the rule of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566) and introduced guidelines for the new style that marked the next phase of Iznik pottery development. A second important phenom- enon is a group of pottery decorated in a completely new style including simpler motifs which appeared on smaller vessels. The central compositions are made along a vertical axis with a new repertoire of flowers: small tulips, carna- tions and hyacinths placed symmetrically in vases or jugs on small tables. J. Raby calls this the “Potters’ style” (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 115-120), to accentuate the independent spirit of the potters applying this type of decoration. Although the style lasted for a relatively short time and was not repre- sented on ceramic tiles on monumental architecture, it is significant because it uncovers a deflection from the design dictated by the Court. The development of this style was contributed to by the Court’s affinity towards luxurious and expensive Chinese porcelain, which forced the potters to lower the prices by reducing the quality and prestige of the vessels and thus creating a market for new, buyers (Bigli 2009, 28; Atasoy, Raby 1989: 118).

skih bića ili pak krilati anđeli peri, u kombinaciji s velikim zakrivljenim i nazubljenim ili paperjastim lišćem i velikim cvjetovima složenih oblika. Prizori gotovo imaginarnog bilja u „saz“ stilu postali su najpopularnija dekorativna značajka nakon 1540-ih i primjenjuju se u svim granama dvorske umjetnosti, na iluminiranim rukopisima, ukrasnim predme- tima od zlata, srebra, kristala i žada, na vladarskom oružju

i oklopima, svilenim kaftanima vladarske obitelji, dekoru

i sagovima te na keramičkim oblogama i stolnom posuđu

(Atil 1987: 24-33). Na izničkoj keramici ovaj inovativni stilski izričaj pojavljuje se i ranije, no nakon 1540-ih postaje okosnica

osmanske likovne umjetnosti i osnova na kojoj će se for- mirati klasični iznički stil. Karakteriziraju ga iluzionistička, gotovo trodimenzionalna umjetnička ostvarenja i upotreba šire palete boja. Uz kobaltnoplavu i tirkiznu uvodi se man- ganskoljubičasta, maslinastozelena, blijedo siva te zelenka- stocrna kojom se izvode konture crteža (Carswell 2006: 63). Kompozicije na posuđu mogu biti centralne, sa središnjim ukrasom koji predstavlja iluziju prirode s raznim biljem, ponekad ukomponiranu s hatayi motivima. Istovremeno, sve se više primjenjuje vertikalni koncept središnjeg deko- rativnog polja s naturalistički izvedenim buketima tulipana, zumbula, šipka, artičoke i ruža koji proizlaze iz grma na dnu ukrasnog polja. Složena dekoracija s vanjske strane posude iz ranijih faza (kat. br. 1, 2) svela se na slijed stiliziranih, naiz- mjenično postavljenih rozeta, kitica cvijeća i drugih jedno- stavnih motiva (kat. br. 6, 7). Keramika ukrašena u ovom stilu nazivala se i „damaškom keramikom“ (Damascus ware) zbog dekorativnih motiva i kompozicija sličnih onima na keramičkim zidnim oblogama arhitektonskih zdanja u Da- masku (Bigli 2009: 28; Maury 2008: 120). Kasnija istraživanja keramičkih peći u Izniku pokazala su da se radi o proizvo- dima izničkih radionica. Kao u prethodnoj fazi, pojavljuje se nekoliko suvremenih stilova. od kojih se tri različita stila mogu prepoznati na zdjelama iz terta broda (sl. 25). Početna plavotirkizna faza „saz“ stila javlja se na dvije gotovo identične zdjele oble forme, na maloj nožici i bez istaknutog oboda, poput plitice (sl. 25; kat. br. 4, 5). Za razliku od prethodnih stilova gdje je očito prisutan horror vacui, novi trend upućuje na ekonomično korištenje ukrasa. Također se površina cijele posude počinje tretirati kao jedin- stvena, neprekinuta ukrasna ploha, bez odvojenih ukrasnih zona (Zmaić Kralj 2014: 70). Cenatralni motiv je veliki list platane (chinar) s okruglim plodovima uokolo kojega je ras- poređeno osam istovjetnih, manjih listova koji se izmjenjuju

s jednostrukim i dvostrakim viticama (kat. br. 4).

“Saz” style or the illusion of nature (1535-1557) Period of the artist Shah Kulu (fig. 25)

In the second quarter of the 16th century a new decorative style appeared which would mark Court art during the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent - the “Saz” or hatayi style. The “Saz” style was brought into Ottoman art by Shah Kulu, an artist from Bagdad who was educated at the Persian court in Tabriz by the famous master Aqa Mirak. After he was exiled from the Persian court he temporarily stayed in Amasya in Anatolia until 1520 or 1521, after which he came to the court in Istanbul where he soon became ser-bölük, a leader of a group of artists of from Anatolia. 13 The peak of his fame was in 1545 when he became the nakaşbaşi, the head designer in the imperial designer workshops, nak- kaşane, where he remained to his death around 1555 (Denny 2004: 33). The style was named after the curved and serrated leaf “saz” that, in Ottoman art, represented a mythical en- chanted forest and imaginary world rich in flora and fauna, reflecting the echoes of the shamanic beliefs of Central Asia (Atil 1987: 24-33). In Turkish, the word saz means swamp reed, which was used as a kalem - an oriental calligraphic pen (Denny 2004: 33-36). The repertoire originally included exotic birds, wild creatures such as lions, Chinese drag- ons and other mythical creatures, or winged angels - peri, combined with large curved and serrated or feathered leaves and large composite flowers. Depictions of almost imaginary plants in the Saz style became the most popular decorative feature after the 1540s and were applied in all branches of Court art, on illuminated manuscripts, decora- tive objects made of gold, silver, crystal and jade, on impe- rial weapons and armours, silk kaftans of the royal family, decor and carpets, as well as on ceramic tiles and tableware (Atil 1987: 24-33). This innovative style appeared on Iznik pottery earlier, but after the 1540s it became the framework for the Ottoman visual arts and the ground on which the classical Iznik style would begin to form. It is characterized by an illusionistic, almost three-dimensional works of art and a use of a wider palette of colours. Alongside cobalt blue and turquoise, manganese purple, olive green, pale gray were

13 Up to the middle of the 16th century, the nakkașhane were divided into two different departments: the Rumiyân group of artists of Anatolian descent and the Ajemân group who were not of oriental descent, including the artists from the area of France and Hungary.

Na vanjskoj površini posude u naizmjeničnom nizu pojav- ljuju se stilizirani motivi „zmaja“. Druga zdjela (kat. br. 5) je gotovo identična po obliku, dimenzijama i konceptu dekoracije, no uz nekoliko razlika: središnji je motiv lista sada okružen sa šest listova koji se izmjenjuju s stiliziranim motivima „zmaja“ i malim jednostrukim viticama, dok se s vanjske strane izmjenjuje lišće platane i vitičasti stilizirani zmajevi. U drugoj četvrtini šesnaestog stoljeća obnavlja se repertoar ukrasa s naglašenim islamskim stilom i ara- beskom, naslijeđen iz početne faze ukrašavanja izničkog

posuđa. Prema potpisu umjetnika na oslikanoj lampi iz 1549. godine, stil je nazvan „umjetnički krug Muslija“ (the Circle of Musli) ( Atasoy, Raby 1989: 1135-138). Lampu je sultan Sulej- man Veličanstveni namijenio svetištu „Kupola na stijeni“ u Jeruzalemu u sklopu obnove svetih mjesta Meke, Medine i Jeruzalema, a danas se nalazi u British Museumu u Londonu (Carswell 2006: 67). Ime istog umjetnika zabilježeno je na ulomku dna zdjele pronađene prilikom istraživanja keramič- ke peći u Izniku, a spominje se i u povijesnim dokumentima

o sukobima izničkih keramičara (Bigli 2009: 28). Lampa je

ukrašena u rumi - hatayi stilu s bogatim arabeskama ispre- pletenima u čvorove u kombinaciji sa stiliziranim motivima „zmaja“, şemse motivom u obliku kartuša i cvjetnim moti-

vima, a istovjetni motivi ponavljaju se i na visećem orna- mentu kružne forme koji se danas nalazi u Benaki muzeju

u Ateni (Carswell 2006: 68). Sve značajke stila ogledaju se

i na velikoj zdjeli iz tereta broda s oblim cavettom i širokim obodom u formi hrastovog lista, izvedenoj uz primjenu novih boja tirkizne, maslinasto zelene, zelenkasto crne i mangansko ljubičaste (kat. br. 6). Središnji motiv arabeske u formi četverokrake zvijezde se gotovo zrcalno odražava na četiri strane zdjele. Između njih nalaze se četiri şemse mo- tiva ispunjena stilliziranim zmajevima te kitice cvijeća. Niz stiliziranih ljiljana i motiva tigrovih pruga - peleng na obodu stapa se s ostalim motivima u jedinstvenu kompoziciju koja zauzima cijelu površinu posude. Vanjska strana cavetta ukrašena je naizmjeničnim nizom rozeta i kiticama tulipana (Zmaić Kralj 2014: 70). Sredinom 16. stoljeća, od 1555. do 1560. godine, po- javljuje se stil prijelaznog karaktera s brojnim elementima sljedeće faze, nazvan “majstor zumbula“ (the Master of the Hyacinths) (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 135-138), po dominantnom cvijetu u cvjetnim aranžmanima. Uz osnovne karakteri- stike i stilske elemente grupe „saz“, poput upotrebe plave, tirkizne, ljubičaste i maslinastozelene s tamnim obrisima, pojavljuju se nove tendencije karakteristične tek za drugu

introduced, with greenish black used for the outlines of the drawing (Carswell 2006: 63). The compositions on the ves- sels are central with a decoration representing the illusion of nature with various plants, sometimes combined with hatayi motifs. At the same time, the vertical concept of the central decorative field with naturalistically done bouquets of tulips, hyacinths, rose hips, artichokes and roses that emerge from a tuft at the bottom of the decoration field was being applied more and more. Complex decorations from the exterior of the vessel found in earlier phases (cat. no. 1, 2) are reduced to a series of stylized, alternating rosettes, bouquets and other, simpler, motifs (cat. no. 6,7). Pottery decorated in this style was also called Damascus ware due to the decorative motifs and compositions similar to the wall tiles on buildings in Damascus (Bigli 2009: 28; Maury 2008: 120). However, the recent research of the ceramic kilns in Iznik showed that this type of pottery was product of the Iznik workshops. Just like in the previous phase, a several of styles co-existed in the same time, three of which we can identify in the shipwreck cargo (fig. 25). The initial blue and turquoise phase of the “Saz” style appears on two almost identical round dishes on a small foot and without an accentuated rim, like a platter (fig. 25; cat. no. 4, 5). Unlike the preceding styles with the obvious horror vacui, the new trend is economical in its use of decoration. Also, the surface of the whole dish is treated like a unique, continuous surface, without separate deco- rative zones (Zmaić Kralj 2014: 70). The cemtral motif is a big oriental plane leaf (chinar) with round fruits and eight identical smaller leaves surrounding it, alternating with single or double scrolls (cat. no. 4). The exterior surface of the dish is decorated with alternating motifs of stylized dragons. The second dish (cat. no. 5) is almost identical in shape, dimensions, and the concept of decoration, but with a few differences; the central leaf motif is now surrounded with six leaves alternating with stylized dragon motifs and single scrolls, while smaller oriental plane leaves and styl- ized dragons alternate on the exterior. In the second quarter of the 16th century, the rep- ertoire of decorations with an accentuated Islamic style and the arabesque inherited from the initial decorative phase of the iznik ceramic was being revived. Based on a signature of an artist on a decorated lamp dated to 1549, the style was called the Circle of Musli (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 1135-138). The lamp was ordered by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent for the sanctuary Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem as a part of the rebuilding process of holy places in Mecca, Medina and

polovicu 16. stoljeća. Središnji prizor s vertikalnom kom- pozicijom cvjetnog aranžmana obuhvaća cijelu unutrašnju površinu posude, po prvi put u kombinaciji s kineskim motivom uzburkanih valova na obodu. Ovaj inovativni stil

ogleda se na zdjeli s oblim cavettom i širokim obodom u for-

mi hrastovog lista (sl. 25; kat. br. 7). Središnji prizor buketa

zumbula izveden u tirkiznoj, svijetloplavoj, ljubičastoj i ma- slinastozelenoj boji prostire se na cijelu unutrašnjost posude i uokviren je obodom s motivom uzburkanih valova. Vanjska strana posude ukrašena je gotovo identično prethodnom

primjerku (kat. br. 6), s naizmjeničnim nizom rozeta i kiti- cama tulipana, što ih dovodi u vrlo blisku vezu i ukazuje na mogućnost primjene potpuno različitih stilova na posuda-

ma izrađenim u istoj radionici ili od ruke istog majstora.

Od 40-ih godina 16. stoljeća proizvodnja izničkih radionica sve se više okreće proizvodnji keramičkih oblo- ga za arhitekturu, zahvaljujući tradiciji cuerda seca tehnike (Carswell 2006: 73), koju u Istanbul donose perzijski majsto-

ri i arhitektu Sinanu, na čijim se ranim građevinama javljaju

obloge s elementima i koloritom „saz“ stila. Iako se čini da se u početku više pažnje pridavalo izradi posuđa nego oblo-

ga, za dekoraciju su se koristile iste matrice, no s primjenom

manjeg raspona boja na oblogama (Atasoy, Raby 198: 218). Datacija stila stoga se može osloniti, osim na već spomenutu lampu umjetnika Muslija iz 1549. godine i na brojna arhitektonska zdanja. U njih se ubraja kompleks s

džamijom Selima I., narudžba Sulejmana Veličanstvenog

te imaret posvećen njegovoj ženi Hasseki Hürem iz 1539.

godine (Atasoy, Raby), a potom i poznata djela arhitekta Si- nana, džamija i grobnica njihovog sina Şehzade Mehmeda iz 1543./44. godine te portik džamije Ibrahim Paše na Silvirka- piju iz 1551. godine (Necipoğlu 1990: 142-143). U istom stilu ukrašene su i keramičke pločice izrađene 1540-ih i 1550-ih, naknadno postavljene u Sünet Odasi, u paviljonu Topkapi palače te u interijeru hammama Yeni Kaplica u Bursi (Car- swell 2006: 73).

Cvjetni naturalizam i polikromija (1557. - 1610.) Period umjetnika Kara Memija (sl. 26)

U drugoj polovici 16. stoljeća Osmansko carstvo pod vlada-

vinom sultana Sulejmana Veličanstvenog dostiže politički, ekonomski i kulturni procvat. Pod okriljem dvora gradi se veliki broj javnih monumentalnih arhitektonskih zdanja, a u skladu s novim trendovima u arhitekturi koje zastupa glavni dvorski arhitekt (mimarbași) Sinan, naručuju se ogromne količine keramičkih obloga iz Iznika, ne više u cuerda seca

Jerusalem, and is kept today in the British Museum in Lon- don (Carswell 2006: 67). The name of the same artist was re- corded on a fragment of a bottom of a dish found during the excavations of a pottery kiln in Iznik, and it is mentioned in historical documents relating to the conflicts between potters in Iznik (Bigli 2009: 28). The lamp is decorated in the rumi - hatayi style with rich arabesques intertwined in knots in combination with scrolling bands of stylized dragons, şemse motifs in the shape of cartouches and flower motifs. The same motifs appear on a circular hanging orna- ment kept in the Benaki Museum in Athens (Carswell 2006:

68). All of the characteristics of the style can be seen on a dish from the ship’s cargo with a round cavetto and a wide foliated rim, with application of new colours: turquoise, olive green, greenish black and manganese purple (cat. no. 6). The central arabesque motif, in the form of a four pointed star, is almost mirrored on the four sides of the dish. Around the central motif alternate the şemse motifs filled with scrolling bands of stylized dragons and bouquets of rosettes. A border of stylized lilies and the peleng motif on the rim create with the central motifs a unique compo- sition occupying the entire surface of the dish. The exterior side of the dish is decorated with an alternating series of rosettes and bouquets of tulips (Zmaić Kralj 2014: 70). In the middle of the 16th century, from 1555 to 1560, a style of a transitional character appeared, displaying ele- ments of the next phase. The style was called after the dom- inant flower in the bouquet the Master of the Hyacinths (Atasoy, Raby 1989, 135-138). The basic stylistic features and the elements of the “Saz” group, the use of blue, turquoise, purple and olive green with dark outlines, appear with the new tendencies characteristic for the decorative style of the second half of the 16th century. The central drawing with a vertical composition of a flower bouquet occupies the entire surface of the vessel, with the Chinese wave motif on the rim, appearing in this combination for the first time. This innovative style appears on dish with a round cavetto and a wide foliated rim (cat. no. 7) with the central scene of bouquet of hyacinths done in turquoise, light blue, purple and olive green. A central scene occupies the entire interior of the vessel, framed with the wave border around the rim. The exterior of the dish is almost identical to (cat. no. 6), with an alternating line of rosettes and bouquets of tulips, which links them closely and possibly connects them to the same workshop or artist. During the 1540s, the production in Iznik work- shops started leaning increasingly towards making ceramic

Sl. 26. Posuđe ukrašeno u višebojnom cvjetnom stilu i apstraktnim kompozicijama, period umjetnika Kara Memija, druga polovica 16. stoljeća Fig. 26. Pottery decorated in the polychrome floral style and abstract compositions, period of the artist Kara Memi, Iznik, second half of the 16th century

the artist Kara Memi, Iznik, second half of the 16th century tehnici već u izničkoj tradiciji

tehnici već u izničkoj tradiciji glazirane kvarcne keramike. Inovativni dekorativni motivi osmišljeni u dvorskim umjet- ničkim radionicama i kvaliteta izvedbe odražavaju se i na

izničkom stolnom posuđu (Bigli 2009: 32). Pokretač novog dekorativnog stila bio je Kara Memi, učenik Shah Kulua i njegov nasljednik od 1557./58. na mjestu glavnog dizajnera „nakkașhane“, koji se ujedno proslavio

i kao slikar iluminiranih rukopisa sultana Sulejmana Veli-

čanstvenog (Denny 2004: 41). Na osnovu prethodnog „Saz“ stila proizašlom iz perzijske tradicije, Kara Memi razvija

klasični osmanski stil obilježen cvjetnim naturalizmom. Stil

je nazvan „četiri cvijeta“ - şükûfe, prema omiljenom cvijeću

uzgajanom u osmanskim vrtovima: tulipanu, karanfilu, ruži

i zumbulu. Uz njih se nastavljaju pojavljivati lotos, krizante-

ma, božur i drvo šljive u cvatu, preuzeti s kineskih uzora, te zakrivljeni list - saz, kozja krv, đurđice, potočnice i drugo poljsko cvijeće, a kao središnji vertikalni motiv često se po- javljuje i čempres. Na široku lepezu cvjetnih uzoraka, osim domaćih kultiviranih vrsta cvijeća i drugog bilja, uvelike su utjecali i crteži iz poznatih europskih herbarija 16. stoljeća. 14

No osim ukrasnog, cvjetni stil imao je i simboličko značenje.

U osmanskom društvu vrtovi su predstavljali duhovni i inte-

lektualni prostor, mjesta za vjerska učenja i kulturna okup- ljanja obrazovane elite te općenito društvena okupljanja,

wall tiles for buildings, thanks to the tradition of the cuerda seca technique (Carswell 2006: 73), brought to Istanbul by the Persian potters from Tabriz and the architect Sinan, whose early buildings were clad with tiles made with ele- ments and colours of the “Saz” style. Although it seems that, in the beginning, more attention was given to the produc- tion of tableware than to that of wall tiles, the same stencils were used for decorations, but with a diminished range of colours used on the tiles (Atasoy, Raby 1989, 218). Along with the aforementioned lamp made by the artist Musli in 1549, the datation of this style can rely on many buildings. This includes the Sultan Selim complex with the Yavuz Selim Mosque, commissioned by Suleiman the Magnificent and the imaret dedicated to his wife Hasseki Hürem dated to 1539 (Carswell 2006, 73), along with the known works of the architect Sinan, the mosque and tomb of their son Şehzade Mehmed dated to 1543 or 1544 and the portico of the of the Hadim Ibrahim Pasha Mosque in Silivrikapi from 1551 (Necipoğlu 1990, 142-143). This style was also used on wall tiles made in the 1540s and the 1550s, additionally put in the Sünet Odasi pavilion of the Tokapi palace and the in- terior of the hammam of the Yeni Kaplica in Bursa (Carswell 2006, 73).

gozbe te razne svečanosti poput svadbi, čina obrezivanja i

drugih obreda (Ágoston, Masters 2009: 272). Cvijeće je evo- ciralo kuranski opis raja i rajskog vrta te simboliziralo dug ži- vot i obilje. Tulipan, lâle, anagram je muslimanskog imena za Alaha, simbol njegove božanske manifestacije i izvora života (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 223). Predstavljao je i vrlinu skromnosti pred Bogom, a u poeziji obraz voljene osobe (Dash 2001: 20). Karanfil, karanfil, je zbog dugog perioda cvatnje simbolizirao snagu i dug život. Na brojnim portretima, osmanski sultani

i admirali u ruci drže karanfil, stoga se može nagađati da je

ovaj cvijet imao i politički smisao. U osmanskoj ljubavnoj poeziji 16. stoljeća zumbul, sümbül, je metafora za kovrče voljene osobe, a u pojedinim vjerskim djelima predstavlja proroka Muhameda. Ruža je jedan od najistaknutijih simbo- la islama te simbolizira božansku ljepotu i proroka Muhame- da, dok je ružina voda imala posebno značenje u vjerskim obredima. Grane šljive u cvatu, karayemiş, na prikazima Kara

Memija najčešće obuhvaćaju ostalo cvijeće, simbolizirajući tako obilje, a česta pojava na keramičkim oblogama grobnica, mogla bi upućivati na njihovu imaginaciju raja. Simbolično značenje imalo je i drvo čempresa, selvi također čest prikaz na keramičkim oblogama grobnica i džamija. Kod osmanskih pjesnika ono je metafora za voljenu osobu,

a ujedno simbolizira poštenje i čestitost (Denny 2004: 190,

223). Kako bi iskazao vlastitu identifikaciju s novim stilom punim simbolike, Sulejman Veličanstveni je od glavnog dvorskog dizajnera, Kara Memija naručio izradu velikog vladarskog potpisa, tughru u novom cvjetnom i višebojnom stilu, koja je nešto poslije 1550. godine bila javno izložena (Denny 2004: 41). Stil je obilježen i uplivom novih boja, prvenstveno koraljno crvene i nešto kasnije smaragdnoze- lene, a za vanjske konture crteža crne boje, poput tinte na iluminiranim rukopisima. Koraljno crvena boja je u početku nanošena u tankom sloju kao i ostale boje, no rezultat je bio nezadovoljavajući, trag boje bio je neujednačen i djelomično transparentan (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 221). Ova je boja po prvi put upotrijebljena na lampi izrađenoj za novu Süleymaniye džamiju, inauguriranu 1557. godine, koja se danas nalazi u zbirci Victoria & Albert muzeja (Carswell 2006:76). Kako bi se postigao pravi efekt počinje se koristiti crvena boja u vidu gustog premaza (bole red, bollo armeno), koja se

14 Otto Brunfel: Herbarum vivae eicones, Strasburg 1530., ilustrirao Hans Weiditz; Leonard Fuch: De historia stirpium, Basel 1542., ilustrirao Meyer i Füllmaurer; Pieri Andrea Mattioli Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo Libri cinque Della historia, et materia medicinale…poznata i kao Discorsi u više izdanja od 1544. do 1552.g.; i drugi.

Floral style and polychromy (1557-1610) Period of the artist Kara Memi (fig. 26)

The second part of the 16th century was a period when the Ottoman Empire, under the reign of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, reached its political, economic and cultural height. Numerous monumental buildings were erected under the patronage of the Court, and a large number of wall tiles were being commissioned, in accordance with the new trends in architecture initiated by the Court’s chief architect (mimarbaşi) Sinan. The tiles were no longer made in the cuerda seca tehnique, but in the Iznik tradition of the glazed fritta ceramic. The innovative decorative motifs were designed in the art workshops of the Court and their high-quality is reflected on Iznik table ware as well (Bigli 2009: 32). The initiator of this new decorative style was Kara Memi, a student of Shah Kulu and his heir from 1557/58 as the chief designer of the nakkaşane who was also known as an illuminator of the manuscript of Suleiman the Mag- nificent (Denny 2004: 41). On the basis of the preceding “Saz” style that originated from the Persian tradition, Kara Memi developed a classical Ottoman style marked with flower naturalism. The style was called the “four flowers” - şükûfe, after the favorite flowers cultivated in Ottoman gardens: tulip, carnation, rose and hyacinth. The lotus, the chrysanthemum, the peony and the blooming plum tree, taken from the Chinese motifs repertoire, appear alongside them, as do the curved leaf - saz, honeysuckle, the lily of the valley, forget-me-nots and other field flowers, as well as the cypress tree, often appear as the central vertical motif. The wide array of flower patterns, were influenced by not only cultivated sorts of flowers and other plants, but also by drawings from famous European herbaria of the 16th century 14 . Apart from the decorative, the flower style had a symbolic meaning. In Ottoman society the gardens repre- sented a spiritual and intellectual space, a place for religious teachings and cultural gatherings of the educated elite, and a place of gathering in general, including feasts and cele- brations such as weddings, circumcisions and other rituals (Ágoston, Masters 2009: 272). Flowers evoked the descrip-

14 Otto Brunfel: Herbarum vivae eicones, Strasburg 1530, illustrated by Hans Weiditz; Leonard Fuch: De historia stirpium, Basel 1542, illustrated by Meyer and Füllmaurer; Pieri Andrea Mattioli Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazarbeo Libri cinque Della historia, et materia medicinale…also known as Discorsi in multiple editions from 1544 to 1552, etc.

u reljefnom sloju nanosila tankom cjevčicom i nalikovala

vosku. Ova boja u drugoj polovici stoljeća počinje domini-

rati na višebojnoj izničkoj keramici i polako istiskuje blije- do ljubičastu boju iz prethodnog razdoblja. Istovremena uporaba ove dvije boje pojavljuje se zadnji put na grobnici Sulejmana Veličanstvenog 1566./67. godine (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 230). S manganskoljubičastom iz upotrebe se povlači i maslinastozelena, a krajem 60-ih godina 16. stoljeća sve više

je prisutna smaragdnozelena boja.

Biljni motivi i žarke boje kombinirali su se u razno- vrsnim shemama, od centralnih kompozicija koje se radijal-

no pružaju iz središnjeg motiva do kompozicija izvedenih

u vertikalnoj osi. Najčešće su to bile razne kombinacije

cvjetnih aranžmana prikazanih u simetričnom odnosu ili slobodnom stilu, koji su proizlazili iz središnjeg grma na dnu prikaza. Cvjetovima se dodaje i čempres kao središnja os

vertikalne kompozicije. Na zdjelama s istaknutim obodom, središnji vertikalni prikazi bili su uokvireni frizom s kine- skim motivom uzburkanih valova na obodu, koji se u ovoj kombinaciji počinje prikazivati u prethodnoj fazi, a u ovoj postaje uobičajen. Posuđe ukrašeno u ovom stilu nazivalo se i „rodska keramika“ zbog velike kolekcije od 600 primjeraka posu- da, kupljene u 19. st. na otoku Rodosu za Musée de Cluny u Parizu. Kasnija arheološka istraživanja keramičkih peći u Izniku pokazala su da ova višebojna keramika ipak pripada proizvodnji grada Iznika (Bigli 2009: 30-31). Sve karakteristike ovog stila mogu se pratiti na primjercima izničkog posuđa pronađenog na brodolomu

(sl. 26). Zdjela sa zakrivljenim cavettom i istaknutim, ravnim obodom i malom, prstenastom nogom oslikana je u svijetlo- plavoj, zelenoj, reljefno crvenoj boji s obrisima izvedenim

u crnoj boji (kat. br. 8). U središnjem ukrasnom polju nalazi

se kompozicija cvjetnog aranžmana, načinjenog od ruža, tulipana, zumbula, potočnica i grana šljive u cvatu, a proizla- zi iz središnjeg grma na dnu prikaza. Uokolo oboda je friz s uzburkanim valovima, dok je vanjska strana zdjele ukrašena nizom naizmjenično postavljenih rozeta i tulipana. Sljedeća zdjela slične forme (kat. br. 9) u središnjem polju ima simetričnu cvjetnu kompoziciju. Unutar okvira s uzbur- kanim valovima na obodu nalazi se biljka nalik plodu nara, okružena je nazubljenim lišćem i granama šljive u cvatu te đurđicama. Prikaz je oslikan u kobaltnoplavoj, smaragdno- zelenoj i reljefnoj crvenoj boji s obrisima izvedenim crnom bojom.

Dekoracija Kara Memija u cvjetnom, višebojnom stilu nastavlja se primjenjivati i nakon smrti Sulejmana Ve-

tions of paradise in the Qur’an and the Garden of Paradise, and symbolized long life and wealth. The tulip, lale, is an anagram for the Islamic name for Allah, the symbol of His divine manifestation and the source of life (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 223). It represented the virtue of humility before God, and in poetry, the cheek of a loved one (Dash 2001:

20). The carnation, karanfil, symbolized strength and long life, due to its long time of blooming. Ottoman sultans and admirals were portrayed holding a carnation so it can be presumed that this flower had a political meaning as well. In Ottoman love poetry of the 16th century the hyacinth, sümbül, was a metaphor for the locks of a loved one, and in certain religious works they represent the Prophet Muhammad. The rose is one of the most prominent sym- bols in Islam, symbolizing divine beauty and the Prophet Muhammad, and rosewater had a special meaning during religious rituals. The blooming plum tree branch, karayemiş, on Kara Memi’s description mostly includes other flowers, symbolizing abundance, and their common use on ceramic tiles in tombs may point to an imagination of heaven. The next motif, the cypress tree - selvi, appears often in Iznik art, especially on ceramic tiles on tombs and mosques, so it could point to the same symbolic meaning. The Ottoman poets use it as a metaphor for the loved one, as well as a symbol of integrity and honesty (Denny 2004: 190, 223). To show his own identification with the new style which was highly symbolic, Suleiman the Magnificent ordered the design of the imperial monogram - tughra, in the new flower style from the chief court designer, Kara Memi, which was displayed publicly a little after 1550 (Denny 2004: 41). The style is marked by an influence of new colours: primarily coral red and, a little later on, emerald green, and black for the outline of the drawings, like ink on illuminated man- uscripts. The coral red was at first used in a thin layer as other colours, but the result was unsatisfactory, the colour was uneven and partially transparent (Atasoy, Raby 1989:

221). The beginning of the use of this colour was recorded on a lamp made for the Süleymaniye Mosque, inaugurated in 1557, that is presently in the Victoria and Albert Musem collection (Carswell 2006: 76). To reach the right effect the artisans began to use red in a thick coating (bole red, bollo armeno) applying it in a relief layer with a thin tube, giving it the appearance of wax. This colour began to dominate the polychrome Iznik pottery of the second half of the century, pushing out the pale purple from the previous period, and last simultaneous use of these two colours appears on the tomb of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent dated to 1566/67

ličanstvenog, u vrijeme vladavine njegovih nasljednika Seli- ma II. (1566. - 1574.) i Murada III. (1574. - 1595.). Nakon bitke kod Lepanta 1571. godine poslovni i diplomatski kontakti između Osmanskog carstva i Europe su se vidno poboljšali što se odrazilo i na učestaliji izvoz izničke keramike i druge orijentalne robe u Europu (Mack 2002: 109). Širenje trgovi- ne na novo tržište i opća popularnost izničkog višebojnog cvjetnog stila u carstvu doveli su do masovne proizvodnje stolnog posuđa i sve većeg okretanja prema kupcima sred- nje klase, dok je osmanska elita i dalje težila za kineskim porculanom (Denny 2004: 173). Nove okolnosti utjecale su na kvalitetu i oblike posuđa, dok se u dekoraciji sve više odražavaju individualni stilovi keramičara. U odnosu na ranija razdoblja zdjele su manjih dimenzija, ali je repertoar oblika veći. Uz zdjele za posluživanje, učestalije se proizvo- de tanjuri s uskim obodom, posude na nozi - tazza, duboke zdjele s poklopcem, polukružne zdjelice, krčazi, boce, veći

i manji vrčevi, tintarnice i kutije za čuvanje pera. Kao jedan od najčešćih oblika uvedenih u 1570-ima je plitki tanjur na maloj prstenastoj nozi s uskim obodom na kojemu se najče- šće pojavljuje friz s nizom ruyi motiva, prepletom u obliku

lanca – zencerek ili cik-cak ukras, kao potpuna stilizacija çin- tamani motiva (Atasoy, Raby 1989: 254). Tanjur plitke forme

s uskim obodom ukrašen u višebojnom, cvjetnom stilu (kat.

br. 10) daje naslutiti da keramičari bez obzira na jednostavni- je forme i manje dimenzija posuđa i dalje izrađuju kvalitetne

i besprijekorno oslikane primjerke. Na središnjem prikazu

odvojenog od oblog cavetta dvostrukim prstenom, prikaza- na je simetrična kompozicija s crvenim ružama, tulipanima plave boje s crvenim pjegama i drugim cvijećem te manjim cvjetnim buketom u središtu. Na uskom obodu teče friz ruyi motiva na plavoj pozadini, dok je vanjska strana ukrašena naizmjeničnim jednostrukim çintamani i listolikim motivi- ma.

Slična simetrična kompozicija i rub s ruyi frizom primijenjeni su na velikom vrču lukovičastog oblika, s konič- nom nogom, blago ljevkastim vratom i zaobljenom ručkom (sl. 27; kat. br. 12). Dekoracija u kobaltno i svijetloplavoj, zelenoj i reljefnoj crvenoj te obrisima izvedenim u crnoj boji podijeljena je u dvije zone, na trbuh i vrat posude. U donjoj većoj zoni šest dekorativnih polja odvojeno je uvijenim velikim listovima s izraženim crvenim rebrom i pernatim završecima, motivom koji postaje omiljen početkom 1670- ih. Unutar ukrasnog polja izmjenjuju se ruže koji proizlaze iz grma na dnu prikaza i buketi crvenih cvjetova. Slična kon- cepcija u pojednostavljenoj varijanti nalazi se u gornjoj zoni, na vratu vrča, koji se završava obodom s frizom ruyi motiva.

(Atasoy, Raby 1989: 230). Along with manganese purple, olive green was also withdrawn from use, and by the end of the 1560s, emerald green became more and more present. Floral motifs and bright colours were combined in numer- ous schemes: from central compositions which extend radially from the central motif to compositions made along the vertical axis. There were often different combinations of flower bouquets painted symmetrically or in free com- position, coming out of a central tuft at the bottom of the drawing. A cypress tree was added to the flowers, making

the central axis of a vertical composition. On dishes with an accentuated rim, the central vertical drawings were framed by the Chinese wave border on the rim which came to use

in the previous phase and became common in this one.

The vessels decorated in this style were also called Rhodian pottery, due to a large collection of over 600 vessels bought in Rhodes and brought to Musée de Cluny in Paris in the 19th century. Later, archaeological research on pottery kilns from Iznik showed that this polychromous pottery should be ascribed to Iznik production (Bigli 2009: 30-31). All of the characteristics of this style can be seen on the examples of Iznik table ware found at the shipwreck (fig.

26). The dish with a curved cavetto, an accentuated flat rim and a small ring like foot was painted in light blue, green, relief red with outlines applied in black (kat. br. 8). On the central decoration field is composition of a flower bouquet filled with roses, tulips, hyacinths, forget-me-nots and blooming plum tree branches, coming out of a central tuft

at the bottom of the drawing in the combination with the

wave border on the rim. The exterior of the dish is decorat- ed with a series of alternating rosettes and tulips. The next dish of a similar form has a different floral composition. (cat.no. 9). In the frame of the wave border on the rim is a symmetrical composition with a plant resembling a pomegranate, surrounded with serrated leafs, blooming plums and lilies of the valley. The drawing

is painted in cobalt blue, emerald green and relief red with

outlines applied in black. The decorations of Kara Memi in the floral, poly- chromous style continue to be in use after the death of

Suleiman the Magnificent, during the rule of his heirs Selim

II (1566-1574) and Murad III (1574-1595). After the Battle of

Lepanto in 1571, the commercial and diplomatic contacts between the Ottoman Empire and Europe improved, which resulted in more frequent exports of Iznik pottery and oth- er oriental goods to Europe (Mack 2002, 109). The spread of trade on a new market and the general popularity of the

Sl. 27. Vrč ukrašen u višebojnom cvjetnom stilu, period umjetnika Kara Memija, druga polovica 16. stoljeća Fig. 27. Jug decorated in the polychrome floral style, period of the artist Kara Memi, Iznik, second half of the 16th century

the artist Kara Memi, Iznik, second half of the 16th century Apstraktne kompozicije i polikromija Na

Apstraktne kompozicije i polikromija

Na posuđu zadnje četvrtine 16. stoljeća se sve češće pojav- ljuju apstraktne kompozicije s çintamani motivom, jednim od najupečatljivijih ukrasnih motiva osmanske dvorske umjetnosti. Prva pojava ovog motiva na izničkom posuđu se može pratiti već u 1. polovici 16. stoljeća, no puno češća uporaba vidljiva je od 1580-ih (Passos Leite, Queiroz Ribeiro 2009: 80). U budističkoj umjetnosti centralne i istočne Azije ovaj motiv simbolizira prosperitet i sreću. U osmanskoj umjetnosti od 15. stoljeća nadalje predstavlja simbol moći i snage, što se odražava u obliku tri točke - çintamani s leo- pardova krzna i dvije valovite linije – peleng u vidu tigrovih pruga (Bilgi 2009: 31). Ovaj se motiv u osmanskoj umjet- nosti upotrebljava u svim granama dvorske umjetnosti, a posebno se ističe na svilenim kaftanima vladarske obitelji. Prvobitno korišten kao simbol moći, çintamani postepeno postaje samo dekorativni motiv, a pojavljuje se samostalno ili u kombinaciji s drugim motivima na izničkim zdjelama, tanjurima i zatvorenim formama poput vrčeva. Apstrak- tna kompozicija s çintamani motivom javlja se na plitkom tanjuru s uskim obodom (kat. br. 11). Središnje ukrasno polje križno je podijeljeno parom crvenih i zelenih peleng motiva

Iznik polychrome floral style in the Empire led to mass pro- duction of tableware that became more oriented towards middle class buyers, while the Ottoman elite continued to aspire to Chinese porcelain (Denny 2004, 173). The new circumstances are reflected in the quality and shape of the tableware, while the individual styles of the potters are increasingly visible in the decoration. In comparison to ear- lier periods, dishes were smaller but the repertoire of the shapes became larger. Along with big serving dishes, plates with a narrow rim, dishes on a foot - tazza, deep bowls with a lid, hemispherical bowls, ewers, bigger and smaller jugs, ink jars and pen boxes were being produced more and more often. One of the most common forms introduced during the 1570s is the shallow plate on a small ring-like foot with a narrow rim commonly decorated with a frieze with a series of small ruyi motifs, chain-like motif zencerek, or zigzag decoration, as a complete stylization of the çintamani motif (Atasoy, Raby 1989, 254) The shallow plate with a narrow rim decorated in the polychrome floral style (cat. no. 10) im- plies that the potters were still making high-quality vessels with impeccable drawings, regardless of the simplification of the form and the smaller dimensions of the vessels. The central drawing, separated from the round cavetto with a double ring, depicts a symmetrical composition of a bou- quet of red roses and blue tulips with red dots, with a small- er bouquet placed on the inside. A ruyi border is on the rim, and the exterior is decorated with an alternating çintamani and leaf-like motifs. A similar symmetrical floral composition and a ruyi border on the rim were applied on a large bulb-shaped jug with a conical foot, a mildly funnel-shaped neck and a rounded handle (fig. 27; cat. no. 12). The decoration in cobalt and light blue, green and relief red and the outlines in green are split into two zones, the belly and the neck of the vessel. In the lower, bigger zone, the six decorative fields are separated with large folded leafs with a distinctive red rib and feathery ends, a motif that became popular during the 1670s. Bouquets of roses coming from the same tuft at the bottom of the drawing and bouquets of red flowers alternate within the decoration field. A similar concept in a simpler variant appears on the upper zone, on the neck of the jug, which ends with ruyi border on the rim.

Abstract compositions and polychromy

Abstract compositions with a çintamani motif, one of the most prominent decorative motifs in the Ottoman court

na kvadrate unutar kojih se nalaze kobaltnoplave çintamani točke. Slične kompozicije pojavljuju se na kineskim porcu-

lanskim zdjelama Yuan dinastije 14. stoljeća iz zbirke Topka- pi palače u Istanbulu, što pokazuje da dekoracija s kineskog porculana ima jak utjecaj na izničku keramiku kroz cijelo 16. stoljeće (Passos Leite, Queiroz Ribeiro 2009: 80). Na uskom obodu tanjura ponovno se pojavljuje friz ruyi motiva, dok

je vanjska strana ukrašena nizom naizmjeničnih listova i

çintamani motiva. Čini se da su çintamani i peleng najčešće zastuplje- ni motivi na vrčevima lukovičastog oblika na koničnoj ili prstenastoj nozi s cilindričnim vratom i ručkom S forme te koničnim ili zaobljenim poklopcem s ručicom na vrhu. Na to ukazuju i nalazi s brodoloma, gdje je od osam nađenih vrčeva njih pet bilo ukrašeno çintamani i peleng motivima u raznim kombinacijama. Dio vrčeva nađen je samo u ulomci-

ma nedostatnima za restauraciju. Jedan primjerak, ukrašen isključivo peleng motivom u različitim kombinacijama boja, uspješno je sastavljen i restauriran (kat. br 14). Drugi, nađen

u gotovo cjelovitom stanju, ukrašen je dekoracijom u dvije

zone s trostrukim i jednostrukim çintamani te peleng mo- tivima u svijetloplavoj, zelenoj i reljefno crvenoj boji (kat. br. 13). Trbuh vrča je od nožice i od vrata odvojen horizon- talnim trakama ispunjenim stiliziranim preletom, a gotovo

cilindrični vrat završava obodnom trakom s nizom uzasto- pnih vitica. Dva vrča pronađena samo u ulomcima imala su identičnu dekorativnu shemu s manjim odstupanjima u detaljima. Trbuh vrča (kat. br. 15) pronađen bez baze, oboda

i ručke ukrašen je kombinacijom raznobojnih peleng motiva

i rozeta u svijetloplavoj i crvenoj boji. Kombinacija çintamani

i stiliziranih biljnih motiva javlja se i na poklopcima vrčeva konične i oble forme s malom rućicom na vrhu (kat. br. 17 -

22).

Apstraktne kompozicije u višebojnom stilu izvodile su se i u koncentričnoj formi šireći se radijalno iz centralnog motiva. Na šest plitkih tanjura iz tereta broda od kojih se dva nalaze u privatnoj zbirci, ponavlja se gotovo ista dekora- tivna shema u kombinaciji kobaltnoplave i reljefno crvene boje (kat. br. 42 - 45). Oko centralnog medaljona s moti- vom „kola sreće“ i rozetom u središtu, radijalno se širi šest palmeta, uokvirene frizom ruyi motiva, koji se ponavlja i na uskom obodu tanjura. Svi tanjuri su s vanjske strane ukraše- ni naizmjeničnim nizom çintamani i listolikih motiva. Sljedeći apstraktni motiv, „kolo sreće“ u vertikalnoj izvedbi i višebojnom stilu, pojavljuje se na velikom vrču lukovičastog oblika s prstenastom nogom i blago ljevkastim vratom, pronađenom bez ručke (kat. br. 16). Dekoracija je

art, began to appear more and more on the vessels dated to the last quarter of the 16th century. The first appearance of this motif on Iznik tableware can be traced to the first half of the 16th century, but a more common use is visible in the 1580s (Passos Leite, Queiroz Ribeiro 2009: 80). The origin and symbolic meaning of çintamani motif comes from the Buddhist art of Central and East Asia, where it symbolizes prosperity and luck. In the Ottoman art from the 15th cen- tury onwards it appears as a symbol of power and strength, reflected in a form of three dots, çintamani, of a leopard’s fur and two wavy lines, peleng, of a tiger’s stripes (Bilgi 2009: 31). This motif is used in Ottoman art in all branches of court art, and is especially visible on silver kaftans of the royal family. Initially used as symbol of power, the çintam- ani gradually became a mere decorative pattern, appearing alone or in combination with other motifs on Iznik dishes, plates and closed forms like jugs. The abstract composi- tion with a çintamani motif appears on a shallow plate on a ring-like foot and a narrow rim from the ship’s cargo (cat. no. 11). The central decoration field is divided crosswise into squares, with a pair of red and green peleng motifs in the squares, with cobalt blue çintamani dots inside. Similar compositions appear on Chinese porcelain dishes of the Yuan dynasty from the 14th century, from the collection of the Tokapi Palace in Istanbul, which points to the fact that Chinese decorations on porcelain influenced Iznik pot- tery continuously throughout the entire the 16th century (Passos Leite, Queiroz Ribeiro 2009: 80). The narrow rim of the plate is again decorated with a ruyi border, while the exterior is decorated with a series of alternating leaf and çintamani motifs. It seems that the çintamani and peleng motifs are more often found on closed forms of vessels, such as bulb- shaped jugs on a conic or ring-like foot with a cylindrical neck, an S-form handle, and a conic or rounded lid with a small handle on the top. This is also indicated by the finds from the shipwreck, where five out of eight recovered jugs were decorated with the çintamani and peleng motifs in different combinations. Some of the jugs were found so fragmented that they were beyond restoration. One jug, that was successfully put together and restored has the peleng motif decoration in different combinations of co- lours (cat. no. 14). The other jug, found almost in whole was decorated in two zones in light blue, green and relief red in abstract polychrome composition made of triple and single çintamani and peleng motifs (cat. no. 13). The belly of the jug is separated from the foot and the neck with horizontal

human

in figures

appear

as well.

Animals

and

mythical

tures

late

crea-

phase

of Iznik

pottery

are commonly

applied

vessels

on

such

bottles

as

with

tall

neck,

jugs

and ewers,

cylindrical

pitchers with a square handle, dishes and on

the large basins for ritual washing

(Atasoy,

Raby 1989: 258). rabbits, dogs,

Animal figures like lions,

crowned monkeys,

birds, gazelles, does and deer

depicted individually

were

or in combination with fantastic creatures

such as dragons,

griffins,

mermaids, phoenixes, simurghs, two-headed eagles

and

crowned

harpies.

They were depicted statically or

motion, in a

in

continuous procession, in

fight scenes or in a

chase, like

hunting scenes. The outlines

of the animals were

usually done as a black line

with details in blue and relief

red on an emerald green

turquoise background,

or

in a naturalistic fashion, with numerous details in bright

or rarely

colours (Passos

Leite - Queiroz

Ribeiro 2009, 73). On the rim,

along with the familiar rock and

wave motif,

- the zencerek, the

a square scroll

zigzag border,

or a frieze of animals

in a

procession or chasing

each other

start to appear.

The symbolism of these characters comes

from

Classical Antiquity,

Chinese, Indian, Persian and Christian

tradition in many iconographical expressions,

adapted to

particular cultures

and regions, so it was not easy

mine their source (Passos Leite -

to deter-

Queiroz Ribeiro 2009, 73).

Still, it has to be pointed

out that the same

imal creatures,

repertoire of an-

with the ubiquitous symbolic

of the Garden

of Paradise, can be found in the tradition of

silver vessels

in the Balkan

countries (Atasoy,

Raby 1989:

258). Generally,

the tradition of animal iconography

in the Ottoman

duction of metal and ceramic

pro-

objects is dated to the middle

of the 14th and the 15th century, and it

is tied to luxurious

silver and

gilded vessels made in Serbia, Bosnia

and the

Republic of Dubrovnik,

an important naval and trade centre

at the time.

These decorative styles

d