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Cavity Resonators

Microwave Engineering
EE 172
Dr. Ray Kwok

Reference: Feynman, Lectures on Physics, Vol 2


Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

LC Resonator (Lenzs Law)


Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Helical Resonator
1
o =
L C LC
Higher frequency smaller L or C

L C smaller C smaller area

Just the coil itself resonate L


(Helical Resonator) C
Internal capacitance between turns R

Cant use coil in very high frequency


real coil equivalent
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Cavity Resonator
1
o =
L C LC

smaller L less turns

even higher f parallel L

both E & B resonate inside?


Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

High frequency capacitor

dc no B
B ac E & B coexist
E

cavity except tangential E = 0 on the walls,


more field strength at center .etc
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Coupling in and out of cavity

Wire / connector
Couple E-field
Capacitive coupling
Line up with concentrated E-field to induced V

Wire / loop
Couple H-field
Inductive coupling
Loop thru H-field to induced current
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Resonate Frequencies

output

Q f / fo
Quality Factor

f
fo
many resonants
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Different modes

some require different coupling mechanisms


Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Rectangular Cavity Resonators


2 2
m n
k 2 2 k c2 = +
b a b
2
2
k 2 = = k c2 + 2

a p g
d=
d 2
2 p
= =
g d
2 2 2
m n p
k 2mnp = + +
a b d
2f mnp= ck mnp
2 2 2
c m n p
For TEmnp and TMmnp modes f mnp= + + air
2 a b d
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

TEmnp modes
Ez = 0
b n p From
E x ~ sin y sin z boundary conditions
b d
a
m p
E y ~ sin x sin z
d a d
m, n = 0,1,2.... m & n cannot be both 0
as in the waveguide,
p = 1,2,3...
p cannot be 0 !!

First cavity mode is TE101

But a, b, d are interchangeable !!!!


So be careful when labeling the modes!!
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

TMmnp modes
m n
E z ~ sin x sin y
b a b From
n p boundary conditions
E x ~ sin y sin z
a b d
d m p
E y ~ sin x sin z
a d
m, n = 1,2,3....
p = 0,1,2,3... p can be 0.

First cavity TM mode is TM110

Again a, b, d are interchangeable !!!!


Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Example
a 6.75 inches a 9 inches

b 5.6 inches b 6.75 inches

d 9 inches d 5.6 inches


m n p f (GHz) mode
m n p f (GHz) mode
1 0 1 1.093611 TE101
1 1 0 1.093611 TM110
0 1 1 1.24203 TE011 1 0 1 1.24203 TE101
1 1 0 1.370224 TM110
0 1 1 1.370224 TE011
1 1 1 1.519233 TE/TM111 1 1 1 1.519233 TE/TM111
1 0 2 1.577228 TE102
2 1 0 1.577228 TM210
0 1 2 1.683539 TE012 2 0 1 1.683539 TE201
2 0 1 1.868763 TE201
1 2 0 1.868763 TM120
1 1 2 1.897296 TE/TM112
0 2 1 2.042989 TE021
2 1 0 2.042989 TM210
1 0 2 2.20882 TE102
0 2 1 2.20882 TE021
0 1 2 2.283367 TE012
1 2 0 2.283367 TM120 1 1 2 2.375777 TE/TM112

Same cavity, same set of resonant frequencies. Just different notation.


Not all modes can be excited.
The probe connection dictates which orientation is correct !!
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Cylindrical Cavity Resonators


2
2
k 2 = = k c2 + 2

2 p
a = =
g d
2
d p
k 2
nmp = k +
2
c
d
2
c p
f nmp= k c2 + air
2 d

e.g. Coke can, a ~ 1.25, d ~ 5

TE111: kc = 1.8412 / 1.25 = 1.473


2
11.811 1
f 111= (1.473) 2 + = 3.01GHz
2 5
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

TEnmp modes
Ez = 0
p
E ~ (A cos n B sin n)J n (k c) sin z
d
a p
E ~ (A cos n + B sin n)J 'n (k c) sin z
d
d J 'n (k nm a ) = 0 From boundary conditions.
p = 1,2,3... p starts from 1

First TE cavity mode is TE111.


Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

TMnmp modes
p
E z ~ (A cos n + B sin n)J 'n (k c) cos z
d
p
E ~ (A cos n + B sin n)J 'n (k c) sin z
d
a
p
E ~ (A cos n B sin n)J n (k c) sin z
d
d
J n (k nma ) = 0 From boundary conditions.
p = 0,1,2,3... p begins at 0.

p = 0 means Er and E = 0 !!!


And cannot be excited with connector on the sides!

First TM cavity mode usually is TM011.


Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Example
a = 1.9
d = 6.82

TE TM

n m p f (GHz) n m p f (GHz)
1 1 1 2.016756 0 1 0 2.379399
1 1 2 2.513305 0 1 1 2.532062
2 1 1 3.14312 0 1 2 2.942912
1 1 3 3.172648 0 1 3 3.522744
2 1 2 3.482614 1 1 1 3.888838

Again, not all modes can be excited.


Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Resonant

e.g. Coke can, a ~ 1.25, d ~ 5

TE111: kc = 1.8412 / 1.25 = 1.473

2
11.811 1
f 111= (1.473) 2 + = 3.01GHz
2 5
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Dual Mode Cavity


e.g. TE10

square waveguide

orthogonal
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Perturbation
e.g. TE10

coupled modes

Use for:
Circular polarization
Dual cavity
Cross-coupled
Cavity Resonators - Dr. Ray Kwok

Dual Mode

TE111 mode

Up to 5-modes cavity
has been demonstrated
in a spherical cavity.