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Advances In Management Vol.

7(2) February (2014)

Review Paper:
Leadership styles
Nanjundeswaras wamy T. S. * and Swamy D. R.
Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, JSS Academy of T echnical Education, Bangalore, INDIA
*
nswamy.ts@gmail.com

Abstract team innovation with the mediating effects of knowledge


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In this global competitive environment, effective sharing and team communication .
leadership style is necessary to reduce the attrition
rate. From the effective leadership styles only it is Exploring the Relationship between Organizational Culture
and Style of Leadership we used the factors like
possible to achieve organizational goal productively.
Organizational Culture, Charismatic Leadership,
Leadership styles affect on the employee performance
Transformational Leadership and Transactional Leadership.
and productivity. This paper summarizes and analyzes 37
Voon et al found out the influence of leadership styles on
the available literature of leadership styles and effect employees job satisfaction in public sector organizations
on different components of Quality of work life. in Malays ia. They used the factors like salaries, job
autonomy, job security, workplace flexibility. Out of these
Keywords: Leadership styles, productivity, performance, factors, they found that transformational leadership style
work life. has a stronger relationship with job satisfaction.
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Introduction Chung Hs iung Fang et al identified that leadership style
An effective leader influences followers in a desired can affect organizational commitment and work satisfaction
manner to achieve desired goals. Different leadership styles positively and work satisfaction intern can affect
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may affect organizational effectiveness or performance . organizational commitment and work performance
Transformational leadership is a stronger predictor of both positively. Leadership is largely culturally orientated,
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job satisfaction and overall satisfaction . In the study it was embracing traditional beliefs, norms and values and a
concluded that organizational performance is influenced by preoccupation29 . According to Goh Yuan et al17 study,
a competitive and innovative culture. Organizational leadership style is significantly influenced by the leaders
Culture is influenced by leadership style and consequently, immediate and extended family, clan and tribe. This study
leadership style affects organizational performance. finds the linkages between organizational leadership and
business ethics, thereby making a contribution toward
Review of Literature increasing the quality of organizational life which may
Leadership Styles: Leadership is a social influence have a positive influence on both members of the
process in which the leader seeks the voluntary organization and the wider community. Lu Ye et al27 study
participation of subordinates in an effort to reach explained employees perceptions about transactional or
organization goals 10 . A leader can be defined as a person transformational leadership style of executive, both have
who delegates or influencing others to act so as to carry out highly positive correlation with perceptions about
specified objectives 28 . Todays organizations need effective executives encouragement factors of its innovation
leaders who understand the complexities of the rapidly climate.
changing global environment. If the task is highly
structured and the leader has good relationship with the Podsakoff et al32 said that leadership behavior can affect
employees, effectiveness will be high on the part of the trust and satisfaction of employees to organization and
employees. The study further revealed that democratic organizational citizenship behavior further enhances the
leaders take great care to involve all members of the team relationship between leadership style and organizational
in discussion and can work with a small but highly commitment directly. Transactional leadership is
motivated team. considered as the subordinates rewards through their
efforts and performance. Guang-yi et al18 compared the
1
Barchiesi et al measured the leadership effectiveness and Transactional leadership. Transformational leadership
leadership role and its influence on performance, leadership theory is deemed to improve the subordinates performance
behaviors, attitudes. They found that high leadership by changing the motives and values of employees.
indexes are not related to past performance records but
associated both to higher potentiality of enhanced Bass 5 divided leadership style into transformational
performance and to higher reputation of organizations, leadership and transactional leadership. Transformational
pointing in the direction of a meaningful influence of leadership has the characteristics of individual influence,
behavioral complexity and dynamics on the leadership spiritual encouragement and intellectual stimulation. They
perceived level. A mechanism of leadership styles affecting often take individual into consideration, establish vision
team innovation in the private research centers investigated and aim ins ide, create open culture, trust the staff to reach
the relationship between different leadership styles and their goals and give full play for staff's potential.

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Advances In Management Vol. 7(1) January (2014)

Transactional leadership is focused on staffs basic and


external demand, the relationship between leaders and According to Bass and Avolio2 , transformational leaders
subordinates is based on the contract. They tend to attain encourage followers to view problems from new
organizational goal by pacific job roles and mission des ign, perspectives, provide support and encouragement
their basic purpose is to maintain a stable organization. communicates a vision, stimulates emotion and
identification. Bruce et al9 said that transformational
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Podsakoff et al said that leadership behavior can affect leaders are able to define and articulate a vision for their
trust and satisfaction of employees to organization and organizations and their leadership style can influence or
organizational citizenship behavior further enhances the transform individual-level variables such as increasing
relationship between leadership style and organizational motivation and organization-level variables, such as
commitment directly. mediating conflict among groups or teams. Podsakoff et
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al disclosed transformational leadership had active
Leadership style is the relatively consistent pattern of influence on individual and organizational outcomes such
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behavior that characterizes a leader . Todays as employee satisfaction and performance. Higher levels of
organizations need effective leaders who understand the transformational leadership were associated with higher
complexities of the rapidly changing global environment. levels of group potency.
Different leadership styles may affect organizational
electiveness or performance30 . According to the Oladipo et Transactional Leadership styles: Transactional leadership
al31 , the success or failure of proper organizations, nations relies more about "trades" between the leader and follower
and other social units has been largely credited to the nature by which followers are compensated for meeting specific
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of their leadership style, goals or performance criteria . The transactional leader
will first validate the relationship between performance and
Jeremy et al22 explained in manufacturing company, reward and then exchange it for an appropriate response
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leadership is really a process for impacting on others that encourages subordinates to improve performance .
commitment towards recognizing their full potential in
achieving goals, vision with passion and integrity. The Transactional leadership in organizations plays an
study also revealed that the associations between leader and exchange role between managers and subordinates 24 .
worker give additional factor employees satisfaction which Transactional leadership style is understood to be the
are considerably affected through the leadership style exchange of rewards and targets between employees and
adopted by the leader. However from the available management20 . Bass and Avolio2 explained Transactional
literature we can summarize the different dimensions of leaders motivate subordinates through the use of contingent
leadership styles and their effect on employee satisfaction, rewards, corrective actions and rule enforcement.
team work, organizational change and employee
performance. Table 1 lists some of the dimens ions of Bass Bernard et al6 explained that transactional leadership
leadership styles and components as viewed by the scholars depends on contingent reinforcement, either positive
along with the type of the sectors and outcomes. contingent reward or the more negative active or passive
forms of management-by-exception. Transactional leaders
Transformational Leadership styles: Transformational motivate followers through exchange; for example,
leadership style concentrates on the development of accomplishing work in exchange for rewards or
followers as well as their needs. Managers with preferences38. Kahai et al33 found group efficacy was higher
transformational leadership style concentrate on the growth under the transactional leadership condition. According to
and development of value system of employees, their Burns 11 , transactional leader tends to focus on task
inspirational level and moralities with the preamble of their completion and employee compliance and these leaders
21 5
abilities . According to Bass , the aim of transformational rely quite heavily on organizational rewards and
leadership would be to transform people and punishments to influence employee performance.
organizations inside a literal sense - to alter them in the
mind and heart enlarge vis ion, ins ight and understanding Conclusion
clarify reasons make behavior congruent with values, It is observed that from the available literature, all the
concepts and brings about changes which are permanent, studies conducted are related to the large sector which
self-perpetuating and momentum building. interns reveal that leadership style, organizational
commitment and work satisfaction are interrelated. Thus,
According to Bass and Avolio4 , transformational leadership leadership styles can affect the quality of work life. Since
happens when leader become wider and uphold the much work has not been carried out with respect to SMEs,
interests of the employees, once they generate awareness there is a need for the study of the effect of
and acceptance for the purpose and assignment of the Transformational and Transactional leadership styles on the
group, so when they blend employees to appear beyond Quality of work life of employees working in the SMEs.
their own self-interest for the good of the group.

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Advances In Management Vol. 7(2) February (2014)

Table 1
Leadership styles and components on which leadership styles effect
Author Dimensions of Components Type of the Outcomes
leadership styles Industries
Berson 1 Transformational Employee Telecommunication Impact of transformational
Jonathan Leadership, Satisfaction firms leadership styles is more
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Linton 2 Transactional And significant to establish quality
Non- Transactional, environment in the R and D part
3 Laissez-Faire of Telecommunication firms
Leadership
Goh Yuan 1 Transformational 1 Job Performance, All types of SMEs The result indicates that the
Sheng et al17 Leadership, 2 Deontology in Singapore ethical behavior of leader have an
2 Transactional Ethical Approach,, important mediating effect
leadership, 3 Teleology Ethical between their leadership styles
Approach. and job performance of
employees
Liliana 1 Participative style Effectiveness SMEs In Chile Supportive and participative
pedraja- 2 Supportive style leadership styles have a pos itive
rejas,Emilion 3 Instrumental style influence on effectiveness in
Rodriguez- SMEs. Instrumental leadership
Ponce,Y Juan has a negative influence on
Rodriguez- effectiveness in small
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Ponce organizations.
1 Autocratic 1 Job-Related Manufacturing Results shows that workers
Bunmi Leadership Style Tension And organizations Lagos under democratic leadership style
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Omolayo 2 Democratic 2 Psychological State, Nigeria do not experience higher job-
Leadership Style Sense Of related tension than workers
Community In Work under autocratic leadership style.
Organizations Also, workers under autocratic
style of leadership do not
experience higher sense of
community than workers under
democratic style of leadership
Jui-Kuei Chen 1 Active Participant Big- Five Personal Professors and The results of the study show that
and I-Shuo Style Traits lecturers from leadership style has a significant
Chen23 universities in relationship to innovative
Taiwan operation.
Lirong Long 1 Transformational Organizational Employees from The findings indicate that both
and Leadership change different types of transformational leadership and
Minxin Mao26 2 Transactional private and public transactional leadership have
Leadership organizations in positive impact on organizational
China change.
Hsien-Che Lee 1 Transactional 1 Organizational Electronics The leadership style has a
Yi-Wen Liu 40 Leadership Innovation Information Industry positive relationship on
2 Transformation Performance, in Taiwan organizational innovation
Leadership 2 Organizational performance, and the leadership
Innovation style moderates the relationship
Capability between organizational
innovation capability and
organizational innovation
performance.
Chung-Hsiung 1 Staff Work Hospital Employees Leadership has a significant,
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Fang et al 1 Leadership Style Satisfaction, positive and direct effect on work
2 Organizational satisfaction and can affect
Commitment 3 organizational commitment and
Work Performance work performance indirectly
through work satisfaction.

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Advances In Management Vol. 7(1) January (2014)

Yafang Tsai, 1 Charismatic 1 Organizational Hospitals employees The results show us that
Shih-Wang leadership Culture in Taiwan organizational cultures influence
Wu, and Hsien- 2 Transformational 2 Ideological the style of leadership. There is
Jui Chung 41 leadership Culture positive correlation between
3 Transactional 3 Hierarchical ideological culture and
leadership Culture transformational leadership.
4 Team leadership 4 Coordinate There is positive correlation
Culture between hierarchical culture and
charismatic leadership. There is
positive correlation between
coordinate culture and team
leadership. There is positive
correlation between rational
culture and transactional
leadership.
Cong Yang 1 Leaders Charm, 1 Staffs tourist hotels Leaders charm has positive
Yu Wei 42 Psychological employees China effects on employees
Empowerment. Satisfaction and service
2 Staffs Satisfaction. innovation.
Duanxu Wang 1 Authoritarian 1 Team Innovations Employees and Study suggested that knowledge
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et al Leadership 2 Team supervisors in the sharing & team communication
2 Transformational Communications. PRC , China completely mediated the
Leadership 3 Knowledge negative relationship between
3 Transactional Sharing authoritarian leadership and team
Leadership innovation, and partially
4 Benevolent mediated the contributions of
Leadership transformational leadership and
benevolent leadership to team
innovation.
Li-Ren Yang 1 Transactional 1 Teamwork Employees of The analyses suggest that project
and Yen-Ting Leadership a. Taiwanese industry, managers leadership style,
Chen 43 2 Transformation Communication, Taipei, Taiwan teamwork, and project
Leadership b. Collaboration performance are highly
c. Cohesiveness correlated. The findings also
2 Performance indicate that teamwork
dimensions may partially or fully
mediate the relationships between
leadership style and project
performance.
Voon et al37 1 Transactional Job Satisfaction. Malaysian The results showed that
Leadership executives working transformational leadership style
2 Transformation in public sectors, has a stronger relationship with
Leadership Malaysia job satisfaction. This implies that
transformational leadership is
deemed suitable for managing
government organizations
Lu Ye et al27 1 Transactional 1 Innovation Employees of high- The empirical study show that
Leadership Climate, tech corporations in employees perceptions about
2 Transformation 2 Job Independency, Hebei transactional or transformational
Leadership 3 Job Challenging leadership style of executive both
have highly pos itive correlation
with perceptions about
executives encouragement
factors of its innovation climate.
Between them, transformational
leadership style has had a higher
influence on cognition of leaders
motivation,
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Advances In Management Vol. 7(2) February (2014)

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