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CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE & METHODOLOGY
3. INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPANY
4. SWOT ANALYSIS
5. INDUSTRY PROFILE
6. THEORITICAL BACKGROUND
7. ANA LAYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
8. FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION
9. QUESTIONNAIRE
10. BIBLIOGRAPHY
.

Introduction

Earlier in 1950s, the India people was engaged in agriculture and for irrigation
mainly depend upon rains except a few isolated pockets being irrigated through canals
and tube wells. Very few people used chemicals and pesticides and even the major
agricultural operations life ploughing, planking, etc. were carried down by bullocks. As a
result, India could not produce enough to feed its people so heavy expenditure was
incurred on import of food grains. It results in scarce foreign exchange reserves of our
country. All this initiated Indian government to give highest priority to development of
agriculture in its five year plan programmed.

Cultivation, being the key operation in agriculture. A stress was laid on the
improvement in agricultural output through use of advanced technology. Extensive use of
effective and improved equipments was made by importing tractors. Our Government
encouraged manufacturing of tractors in India to save its foreign currency reserves. As a
result, a few plants were set up but Indian technology at that time was not in a position to
design and manufacture indigenous tractors. So the plants were mainly set up for
manufacturing tractors with the help of some foreign collaboration.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1) To study the various components of marketing management of SWARAJ


DIVISION.
2) The project aims at studying the customer retention in after sales service.
3) To provide good service and retain the customer.

4) To analyze the market performance of the SWARAJ DIVISION.

5) To suggest remedial measures for the improvement of the companys performance

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The basic task of research is to generate accurate information for use in decision making.
Research can be defined as the systematic and objective process of gathering, recording
and analyzing data for aid in making business decisions.
As the project involves analyzing of customer satisfaction, the research is exploratory in
nature, covering all parameters and come of the important ratios to carry out research.
There are basically two techniques adopted for obtaining information:
Primary Data.
Secondary Data.

Primary Data is gathered specifically for the project at hand through personal
interviews with the farmers having tractors of swaraj.
Secondary data is previously collected and assembled for some project other than
the one at hand. It is gathered and recorded by someone else prior to current needs of the
researcher. It is less expensive than the primary data.
Secondary data can be obtained from both external and internal sources.
External data may be collected from books and periodicals, government sources, media
and other commercial sources.
Internal data is that secondary data, which is created, recorded or generated by the
organization.
Secondary data is collected from the reports of the company, books, journals and internet.
Secondary data is gathered from annual reports, official records and standing orders of
the units.

RESEARCH PROCES

Step1:
Program
Planning

Step 6: Step 2:
Consultation & Start Survey
review

Research
Methodology
Step 3:
Step 5: Survey
Reporting Development

Step 4:

Data Analysis
LIMITATIONS:

The study has been made for a particular period.


The study is conducted at taluk place, so it is not able get whole
information.
Getting accurate information from the customer is very difficult to their
inherent problems and busy schedule.
As the reports requires extensive depth knowledge with marketing
strategy, a brief part of study is made due to lack of complete
knowledge.
Company profile

MAHINDRA &MAHINDRA LIMITED


SWARAJ DIVISION

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
P.D. NARANG (Chairman)
S.K. TUTEJA
DONALD PECK
STEVEN ENDERBY
N. MOHANRAJ
M. RAGHAVENDRA
HARDEEP SINGH
DALJIT MIRCHANDANI
P. SIVARAM (Chief Operating Officer)
A.M. SAWHNEY (Director Marketing)

MEMBERS OF THE EXECUTIVE BOARD


P.L. SHARMA
R.K. MANRAO
P.K. NANDA
BACKGROUND

M&M LTD -Swaraj Division plant is situated at S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali) where production
commenced in the year 1974. Initially, PSIDC contributed 42% equity capital against the
total paid up capital of Rs.140.00 lacs. The facility was initially created to manufacture
5000 nos., tractors and the capital cost at that time was Rs.321 lacs.

The production capacity of tractors has increased to 60000 nos., from the level of 5000
nos. The company, over the years, has also promoted two companies, namely, Swaraj
Mazda Limited (manufacture of Light Commercial Vehicles) & Swaraj Engines Ltd.
(manufacture of Diesel Engines in collaboration with Kirloskar Ltd and it has also
promoted Swaraj Automotives. The present stake of SWARAJ DIVISION in these is
14% in Swaraj Mazda, 33% in Swaraj Engines and 24% in Swaraj Automotives.
MISSION, VISION & OBJECTIVES

OBJECTIVES OF SWARAJ
1) QUALITY
a. Continually improves satisfaction level of our customers.
b. Continually improve performance & reliability of our products
& services
c. Provide to you delivery of products & services to meet
customers requirements.
d. To reduce the break down of equipment.
2) ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH AND SAFETY.

a. Control and reduce emission & discharge in the company


b. Optimum Utilization of natural resources
c. Control & Reduce accidents and provide Safety to the
employees working in the organization.
3) PEOPLES EXCELLENCE.

a. Continually improve Education and Training to employees


and their overall development.
SWARAJ DIVISION: BRAND NAME SWARAJ

The word SWARAJ in Indian language means freedom from bondage. Since SWARAJ
DIVISION was the first large scale project in India based totally on Indian know how and
technology, Swaraj was appropriately chosen as its brand name. With more than 5 Lac
tractors and harvest combines operating in Indian farms, now Swaraj is also an
internationally recognized name in the developing world Viz. East Africa, West Africa,
Middle East and South East Asia, etc.

SWARAJ - STAGES OF GROWTH

PERIOD (1970-74)
This project for manufacture of 5000 tractors per year was set up at an outlay of
Rs. 3.70 crores during November 1972- March 1974. The engineers for Swaraj tractors
were procured from M/s Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd., a pioneer in Indian Engineering
Industry. SWARAJ DIVISION went into commercial production with the introduction of
its first Model Swaraj 724 in April 1974.

PERIOD (1974-78)
In 1974 competitive market conditions prevailing where well known international
brands such as Ford, Massey, Ferguson, etc were available, it was difficult to establish a
new tractor. Thus to establish Swaraj against this severe competition, the following
strategy was adopted.
Intensive and close marketing.
District - wise distribution.
Limited introduction and slow extension of distribution network.
SWARAJ DIVISIONs own serving group.
Strict uniformity of product performance and quality.
SWARAJ DIVISIONs first launch SWARAJ 724 received quite favorable response and
encouraged by this response and also by taking into account the preference of large
segments of farmers for higher HP tractor, development work on a 35 HP tractor was
started in January 1975. SWARAJ DIVISION introduced its second model SWARAJ 735
in November 1975 which is now the most popular tractor. Then a low cost tractor
SWARAJ 720 was introduced in 1978 for small farmers.

1. THE EXPANSIONS (1978-82)


SWARAJ DIVISION started growing and increased its production capacity to 12,000
tractors at a capital outlay of Rs. 9.2 crores. During this time SWARAJ DIVISION
became multi-divisional by installing Swaraj Foundry Division for manufacturing
castings. This division started supplying casting to SWARAJ DIVISION in 1980. In
1983, SWARAJ DIVISION introduced SWARAJ 855 and became the first
manufacturing organization to have the widest product range.

2. BREAK PERIOD (1982-86)

With encouraging past records PTL decided to increase its production to 24000 per
annum. But the RBIs credit squeeze policy affected the tractor industry, as more than
95% of the tractor sales are through banks. SWARAJ DIVISIONs sale dipped from
10000 tractors to around 5500 tractors in 1982-83. During 1982-86, SWARAJ
DIVISIONs efforts were directed towards training its work force, reducing wastage,
cutting down scrap, inventory control, up gradation of quality, expanding dealer network
in new areas and widening product variants. Thus SWARAJ DIVISION worked on man
rather than machines
STAGE OF GROWTH SINCE 1987

There is goodwill create in the mind of the people regarding brand SWARAJ, market
since 1987 has been showing growth trend. The demand for Swaraj has increased
tremendously. Now consumers are ready to wait and pay the entire amount in advance to
buy a Swaraj tractor rather than buying any other tractor. Production capacity had
increased presently to 33000 tractors per year and will further increase to 36000 tractors
per year by 2000.

THE DECADE OF NINETIES

The decade of 90s has been a rewarding one for all the constituents of Swaraj enterprise
- through generation of wealth for its customers, its business associates, its employees, its
shareholders and the society.

Nomination by the Economic Times - best company of the year 1998.


Listed by FII in the jewels of Asia category 1999.
Nomination of UTI institute of Capital Markets for excellence in
corporate governance.
Listed by Hong Kong based Asia Money among top 5 best managed
companies in India 1999.
Listed by Business Today among top 3 Economics value generators in
India.
Evolving Journey of SWARAJ DIVISION

1965 Govt. of India's research institute (CMERI) at Durgapur initiates design and
development of SWARAJ tractor based on indigenous know-how.
1970 Punjab Govt. through PSIDC acquires SWARAJ tractor's design from CMERI
and establishes Punjab Tractors Ltd. (SWARAJ DIVISION) for its
commercialization.
1971- SWARAJ DIVISION sets up SWARAJ Project for 5,000 tractors per annum at
73 a capital outlay of Rs. 37.0 million with an equity base of Rs 11.0 million.
1974 Swaraj 724 (26.5 HP) tractor commercially introduced.
1975 2nd tractor model SWARAJ 735(39 HP) developed by own R&D,
commercially introduced.
1978 3rd Tractor model SWARAJ 720 (19.5 HP) developed by own R&D,
commercially introduced.

Maiden equity divided declared.


1980 Guided by social concerns and responsibility, SWARAJ DIVISION takes over
PSIDC's sick scooters unit - Punjab Scooters Ltd. (subsequently renamed as
SWARAJ Automotives Ltd.)

India's first Self propelled Harvester Combine - SWARAJ 8100 developed by


own R&D, commercially introduced.

SWARAJ Foundry Division set up in Backward area.


1981 Issue of maiden Bonus Shares (2:5), paid-up equity moves to Rs 15.4 million.
1983 4th Tractor Model - SWARAJ 855 (55 HP) developed by own R&D,
commercially introduced.

Expansion of annual capacity to 12,000 tractors per annum at Plant 1.


1984 SWARAJ MAZDA Ltd. promoted in technical and financial collaboration with
Mazda Motor Corpn. & Sumitomo Corpn. Japan for manufacture of Light
Commercial Vehicles. SWARAJ DIVISION's equity participation is Rs. 30.4
million (29%) and that of Mazda and Sumitomo's Rs. 27.0 million (26%).
1985 SWARAJ Industrial Forklift Trucks developed by own R&D, commercially
introduced.
1986 SWARAJ ENGINES Ltd. promoted in technical and financial collaboration
with Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd.(KOEL) for manufacture of diesel engines.
SWARAJ DIVISION's equity participation is Rs. 6.9 million (33%) and that of
KOEL's Rs 3.6 million (17%).
1989 1st Right Issue (1:1) at a premium of Rs 50/- per share (plus reservation of 200
Shares per employee) paid up equity moves to Rs 31.6 million.
1990 2nd Right Issues (1:2) at a premium of Rs 60/- per share (plus reservation of
200 Shares per employee) paid-up equity moves to Rs 50.6 million.
1992 2nd issue of Bonus Shares (1:1) paid up capital moves to Rs. 101.2 million.
1993 Annual tractor capacity expanded to 24,000 per annum at Plant 1.
1995 Setup of tractor Plant II at Village Chappercheri with annual capacity of 12,000
per annum.
1996 3rd issue of Bonus Shares (1:1), paid up equity moves to Rs. 202.5 million.
1998 Commencement of expansion to 60,000 tractors (30,000 at each plant). Capital
outlay of Rs 1000 million, funded mainly through internal accruals.
1999 5th and 6th tractor models - SWARAJ 733 (34 HP) & SWARAJ 744 (48 HP)
developed by own R&D, commercially introduced.

FY 1999's divided @ 250% was corporate India's highest.


2000 Expansion of annual tractor capacity to 60,000 completed.

4th issue of Bonus Shares (2:1) paid up equity moves to Rs 607.6 million.
2001 SWARAJ DIVISION won National Championship trophy in competition
organized by All India Management Association (AIMA) for young managers.

Economic times and Boston Consulting Group selects SWARAJ DIVISION as


one of the India's finest 10 companies out of Economic times top 500
Companies.
2002 Cumulative tractor sales crosses 5, 00,000.
2003 PSIDC's disinvestment of its entire Equity holding (23.49%) in SWARAJ
DIVISION in favor of CDC Financial Services (Mauritius) Ltd. With this, total
holding of CDC & its associates in SWARAJ DIVISION stands at 28.48%.
2004 7th & 8th tractor models - Swaraj 939 (41 HP) & Swarj 834 (34 HP) developed
by own R&D, commercially introduced.
2005 SWARAJ DIVISION disinvested 15,73,000 equity shares of Rs. 10/- each of
Swaraj Mazda Ltd. (constituting approx. 15% of SML's paid up capital) in favor
of Sumitomo Corporation, Japan, a joint venture partner in Swaraj Mazda Ltd.
at a total consideration of Rs. 629.2 million
2007 CDC/Actis Group and Burman Family's disinvestment of their Equity holding
in SWARAJ DIVISION (43.3%) in favor of Mahindra Group (M&M).
M&M made open offer to shareholders for another 20% equity of the Company.
Mahindra Group's equity holding in the Company stands at 64.6%
Cumulative Tractor Sales cross 600,000.
Swaraj Track Type Combine designed and developed by in-house R&D,
commercially launched
ASSOCIATE UNITS OF SWARAJ DIVISION

1. SWARAJ FOUNDARY DIVISION:


It was established in 1980 at a capital outlay of Rs. 1.80 crores to provide grey iron
castings to SWARAJ DIVISION. Initial production was 5000 MT/year. It is situated in
village Majari in Ropar district. In FY 2007-08, production of castings was 9,600 Metric
Tonnes, representing a value of nearly Rs. 50.5 crores.

2. SWARAJ COMBINE DIVISION:


Punjab government requested SWARAJ DIVISION for the development and
manufacture of self propelled Harvester combines to curtail the harvesting season and
save the crops from natural calamities. As a result Swaraj Combine Division was set up
in 1980 at Chappercheri to produce 250 combines per annum at an initial investment of
Rs. 2.65 crores. In 1981, first SWARAJ 8100 rolled out. In 1985, production of diesel
fork lift also started in collaboration with KOMATSU Fork- Lift Company of Japan.
Over last 28 years, the company has sold nearly 3,150 combines including 65 in 2007-08.

SWARAJ
DIVISION

PLANT- 1 PLANT 2 PLANT -3


SWOT ANALYSIS

STRENGTHS:
The company has an excellent distribution network. Due to strong consumer preference
and the potential for expansion, the industry in bound to record growth. The company
mainly has medium horse power tractor in its product portfolio, which holds a good
growth potential thereby leading to an increase in the market share. Strong Research and
development set up. Being a cash rich company, SWARAJ DIVISION should have no
obstacle for further expansions.

WEAKNESSES
Being agro-based product, companys fortune depends on the vagaries of the monsoon.
The company is addressing this problem by going in for capacity expansion and
increasing dealer network. The company has not leveraged its brand and product varies in
the exports market. Major market share in Punjab & Haryana could stagnate as the
market mature.

OPPORTUNITIES:
The Company will have the advantage to synergize with M & M, Farm Equipment Sector
in the areas of sourcing, manufacturing, product development and distribution. Increased
agri-focus of the Indian Government. Good brand name, product quality and cost
advantage to increase exports in low value markets of Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and African
countries.

THREATS:
The entry of international and new domestic players would intensify competition
significantly. This could put pressure on the sale growth and the merging of the company.
Number of technically superior new models likely to be launched in the market in the
next two years. The evitable increase in petroleum prices including diesel & other inputs,
will naturally bring down the spirit of a prospective tractor purchasers.
INDUSTRY PROFILE

HISTORY: INDIAN TRACTOR INDUSTRY

THE BEGINNING: Indian Tractor Industry took birth in 1959-60 when the first
tractor manufacturing unit was established. However, this industry found a firm footing
only after the turbulent period of 1968-74, during which the acceleration which should
have emerged from the upsurge in demand generated by the Green Revolution was
navigated by large-scale imports of fully built tractors. By 1973-74 when imports were
banned, 22 manufacturers remained. It is in an environment of intense competition
between 22 manufacturers that our tractor industry has grown during the last 30 years.
During this period, it has become not only a major segment of our engineering industry
but with a population of 1, 30,000 tractors in 1990, our country became the second largest
tractor producer in the world.

The development of tractors industry from the very beginning i.e. 1959-60 Till date
can be divided into the following four phases:-

1. First phase of development (1959-68):

In late sixties demand for tractors was low. After 1967, demand of tractors started
multiplying at an annual rate of nearly 50% because government policies in respect of the
development of tractor industry to promote mechanization of agriculture encouraging
local manufacturer of tractors along with the import of tractors from Eastern Europe. At
the same time, government protected the interests of the farmers by making tractors
available to them at reasonable prices. Tractors manufacturing units came up in this
decade:
Escher Tractors Ltd. (1959)
Tractors and Farm Equipment Ltd. (1963)
Tractors and Builders Ltd. (1964)
International Tractors Ltd. (1965)
2. Second phase of development:

The governments decision to freely invite new entrepreneurs to tractor manufacture in


1968 backed by Green Revolution, led to the establishment of six more units in this
industry. They were:
Escorts Tractors Ltd. (1971)
Hindustan Machine Tools Ltd. (1971)
Kirloskar Tractors Ltd. (1974)
Punjab Tractors Ltd. (1974)
Pittie tractors Ltd. (1974)
Harsha Tractors. Ltd. (1975)
The combined output of 11 units has risen to 32,000 by 1975.
Government de-licensed the tractor industry in 1968 and then banned import of fully built
tractors in 1974. There was expansion in rural branches of banks and rural lending
increased. The pace of irrigation facilities also increased and government extended full
support to old and new manufacturers to speedily establish them.

3. Third phase of development:

Banning of imports and increased competition due to increase in number of tractor


manufacturers led to the growth in local production. The boom in the tractor industry in
the late seventies led to the setting up of two more units for the manufacture of tractors.
These were:
Auto Tractors Ltd. (a U.P. Government enterprise) (1981)
Partap Steel Rolling Mills Ltd. (Tractor Division) (1983)
The tractor industry saw a rapid growth of 6% from 1982-87.
4. Fourth Phase of development:

After 1987 the tractor industry further picked up Government gave priority to agriculture
and exempt the excise duty on tractors below 1800cc in 1986 and repayment period was
increased from 7 to 9 years. After this, average growth of 15% was experienced for 1988-
92 which was due to green revolution. After six years (1987-92) of rapid growth, demand
for tractors showed a decline of 4% in 1992-93 and 3.8% in 1994-95. Sales dropped from
1.51 lacs in 1991-92 to 1.38 lacs in 1993-94. The decline was due to the following
factors:-
Land development bank, an important source of finance, collapsed. Depression in market
due to credit squeeze. Decrease in production of cash crops. Political uncertainty.
But after that tractor industry again started growing and tractor sales went to 1.64
lacs in 1995 and further in 1996-97.

THE PRESENT

Sales peaked to 2.73 lacs in 1999-2000. In the year 2000-01 and 2001-02 the sales
decline to 2.53 and 2.18 lacs because of fall in the rural income virtually all over country
and due to rising competition. It reached 1.69 lacs in 2002-03. The industry saw an
upward trend volume touching 4 lacs in 2009-10 and to 4.46 lacs in 2010-11. During the
current FY 2009-10, around 4,50,000 tractors were sold in India and 100000 tractors
were exported.
The industry has now discovered channel-exports to ensure that the sales of tractors do
not drop. In fact, exports have now become a thrust area.
Five major manufacturers are in the race for tractor market today, account for 78% of the
total market share. They are offering products of different HPs. They include below
20HP, 21-30HP, and 41-50HP and above.
CRITICAL PARAMENTERS FOR GROWTH OF TRACTOR INDUSTRY

* AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY
Nearly 90-95% tractors are purchased with the help of bank credit. It plays an important
role in determining the demand for tractors.

* PRICING OF TRACTORS.
The financial inability of the Indian farmers makes the pricing a critical parameter.
Companies that managed to keep their costs low are the ones that managed to survive
during the reversionary period.

* MONSOONS AND CROP PRICES.


The farmers have to pay 15% of the total price of the tractor, in cash, at the booking
stage; consequently, if the farmer is faced with bad monsoons and low crop prices, he
will not be able to make the initial down payments.

* GOVERNMET POLICIES
To enable a farmer to purchase a tractor against these odds, the government introduced
subsidies in this sector. In the budget of 2004 all the tractors were exempted from excise
duty.

* IMPORTS
The industry reduce its dependence on imports, they have indigenized their inputs,
which were earlier imported and priority is given to Research and Development. All
tractor manufacturing units, except the Swaraj Division, were initially set up with foreign
collaboration, tractor industry has been on its own for the last decade.

* WIDENING RANGE FOR CUSTOMER CHOICE


Competition in tractor industry led to increase in the variety of models for farmers to
choose from. Industry today offers more than 43 models, and special variants to suit
regional needs and special usage are often available in many models.
TRACTOR MARKET A CYCLICAL TREND

Table below provides the industry picture for 2007-08, geographically & segment wise:
GEOGRAPHICALLY

Territory %age of Domestic Sales

North (Punjab, Haryana & Uttar Pradesh) 29%

Central (Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan) 18%

East (Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa & Assam) 9%

West (Gujarat & Maharashtra) 18%

South (Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & Kerala) 26%

SEGMENT WISE

HP Range %age of Domestic Sales

Up to 30 HP 18%

31 - 40 HP 37%

Above 40 HP 45%
THEORITICAL BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION

In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers,


customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has
become a key element of business strategy

There is a substantial body of empirical literature that establishes the


benefits of customer satisfaction for firms.

"Well, there goes another satisfied customer", I used to hear from the
manager of a radio rentals shop I used to work in during student vacations
some twenty five years ago, and we all would snigger. Clearly there was not
much commitment to customer satisfaction in that organization; but what
exactly is the purpose of satisfying the customer when such a commitment
does exist?

The answer to this question is provided by "The Customer Service Profit


Chain" modeled below. The theory behind this diagram encapsulates all you
will need to know about how customer satisfaction, and then customer
loyalty, are linked to the quality of customer service and ultimately to you
own firm's profitability.

In short - keeping the customers satisfied translates to benefits in your own


bottom line

Customer satisfaction refers to the extent to which customers are happy with
the products and services provided by a business. Customer satisfaction
levels can be measured using survey techniques and questionnaires.
Gaining high levels of customer satisfaction is very important to a business
because satisfied customers are most likely to be loyal and make repeat
orders and to use a wide range of services offered by a business

MEANING
Customer satisfaction, a business term is a measure of how products and
services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. It is
seen as a key performance indicator within business and is part of the four
perspectives of a The Department of The Customer Satisfaction is
Responsible to Deal with The complaints. This department monitors and
classifies the complaints, review, identify the schemes that are expected to
improve customer service and provide satisfactory response to customers.

Customer favor the delivery with right quality, right quantity at the right
time, at the right cost, at the right place in addition to safety transaction of
the organization. So fulfilling expected needs of the customer for their
satisfaction

Customer satisfaction refers to the extent to which customers are happy with
the products and services provided by a business. Customer satisfaction
levels can be measured using survey techniques and questionnaires.
DEFINITION
BUSINESS DEFINITION FOR: CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

The degree to which customer expectations of a product or service are


met or exceeded. Corporate and individual customers may have
widely differing reasons for purchasing a product or service and
therefore any measurement of satisfaction will need to be able to take
into account such differences. The quality of after-sales service can
also be a crucial factor in influencing any purchasing decision. More
and more companies are striving, not just for customer satisfaction,
but for customer delight, that extra bit of added value that may lead to
increased customer loyalty. Any extra added value, however, will
need to be carefully costed.

Other research and consulting firms have customer satisfaction


solutions as well. These include Customer Satisfaction Audit
process[6], which incorporates the Stages of Excellence framework
and which helps define a companys status against eight critically
identified dimensions. A.T. Kearney's

Customer satisfaction is obtained is along three different types of needs,


namely:
Dissatisfies which are the needs that are expected in product or
service.
Satisfiers which are the needs that customers feel they desire.
Exciters/delighters which are the creative features that customers
had not expected at the point of time.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTOR
A persons buying behavior is also influenced by the psychological factors
such as
1. Motivation: Motivation is an inner urge to act, to move, to achieve a
goal or an objective. It is the driving force which makes the person
act. A person buys products on account of certain mental and
economic forces which create desire for buying such products.

2. Perception: Perception shapes a persons behavior. It is the process by


which individual selects, organizes and interprets information inputs
to create a meaningful picture of the world. A motivated person is
ready to act even if the way in which he has to act is influenced by his
perception. However persons at the same motivated stage may act in
their own distinct ways in case they perceive the situation differently.

3. Learning: Learning is the key aspect in the study of human behavior.


It refers to changes in behavior brought about by practice and
experience. A person learns when he acts. Almost everything he does
or thinks is learned. In short, buying decisions are critically influenced
by the learning experiences of buyers.

4. Attitude: An attitude is a state of mind or feeling. It refers to a


persons emotional feeling, actions, and tendencies towards some idea
or object. It is the result of experience that interacts with perception,
thinking, feeling, and reasoning. For instance, once a person has
developed a brand loyalty, it is hard to change his attitude and beliefs.
FEATURES OF CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR
It involves both the individual (psychological) and to group (social)
process.
It consists of communication purchasing and consumption behavior
It is reflected by post purchase evaluation which indicates either
satisfaction or non satisfaction
It is shaped by social environment.

FACTORS IN CUSTOMER DETERMINING SATISFACTION


1. Quality of supply
2. Product installation
3. Product performance ease of operation and control
4. After sales service
4. Reliability
5. Maintainability
6. Serviceability
VOICE OF THE CUSTOMER:
Several tools are available to listen to the customer are such as:
1. Comment cards
2. Questionnaires
3. Focus groups
4. Toll free telephone lines
5. Visit to customers
6. Reports cards
7. The internet
8. Feedback from employee
9. Mass communication
10. Customer satisfaction index
CHARACTERISTICS AND EXPECTATIONS

Expectations
Characteristics

Delivery Delivered on time in right place in undamaged


Condition.
Commissioning Appropriate instructions on setup or manual
techniques or supplied for complicated products.

Use Well drafting manuals or instructions for Proper use.


Field service Appropriately trained techniques to promptly attend
repairs and replacement.

Customer services customer service personnel to respond to


Question and for clarifications.

Warranty clearly written and ensuring prompt


services on claims

.zxwdsc`e*-*-432
CUSTOMER PROFIT CHAIN

TOTAL CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Whether the buyer is satisfied after purchase depends on the offers


performance in relationship to buyers expectations and whether the buyer
interprets any deviations between the two. In general, satisfaction is persons
feelings of pleasure or disappointment that result from comparing products
perceived performance to their expectations, the customer is satisfied. If the
performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or
delighted. Customer assessments of product performance depends on many
factors, especially the type of loyalty relationship, the customer has with
brand.
ANA LAYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Q1) How do you know about the dealer ?


source Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative
Percent Percent
Friends 30 75.0 75.0 75.0
Others 10 25.0 25.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
75% of respondents have told that they came to know only through friends, and the
remaining 25% have told that the awareness about the dealers was through other
source
Q2) Which type of tractor model you have?

MODE Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative


L Percent Percent
SWAR 4 10.0 10.0 10.0
AJ-
735FE
SWAR 36 90.0 90.0 100.0
AJ-
835FE
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table it is clear that only 10% of the farmers use SWARAJ-735FE
and rest of the 90% use SWARAJ-835FE
Q3) Which types of tractor model you buy?

parameters Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative


Percent Percent
Economy 28 70.0 70.0 70.0

Safety 9 22.5 22.5 92.5

Others 3 7.5 7.5 100.0

Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table it is clearly identified 70% of the respondents have told that
they bought based on their economic conditions, whereas 22.5% have told the
reason as safety and the remaining 7.5% has given some other reason.
Q4) How do you feel about the service in terms of charges?

parameter Frequency Percent Valid Cumulative


s Percent Percent
Very high 1 2.5 2.5 2.5

High 6 15.0 15.0 17.5

Moderate 33 82.5 82.5 100.0


Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table only 2.5% of respondents felt that the charges are very high,
whereas 15% felt that the charges are high and the remaining 82.5% felt that the
charges are moderate and they were happy about the charges levied by the firm.
Q5) what do you think about Quality of work?

parameters Frequenc Percentage Valid Cumulative


y Percentage Percentage
Excellent 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Very Good 17 42.5 42.5 45.0
Good 14 35.0 35.0 80.0
Fair 8 20.0 20.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table it is clearly identified 2.5% of respondents have rated the
quality of work as excellent. Another 42.5% rated it as very good, then 35% of the
customers have told it as good and the remaining 20% rated it as fair.
Q6) what will you say about convenience with the dealer ?

paramete Frequenc Percentage Valid Cumulative


rs y Percentage Percentage
Very 20 50.0 50.0 50.0
Good
Good 12 30.0 30.0 80.0

Fair 8 20.0 20.0 100.0

Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
Almost 50% seems to be very convenient with the dealer, another 30% seems to be
convenient with the dealer and the remaining 20% seems to be some what.
Q7) what is the level of comfortness of service ?

parameters Frequenc Percent Valid Cumulative


y age Percentage Percentage
Excellent 1 2.5 2.5 2.5
Very Good 19 47.5 47.5 50.0
Good 13 32.5 32.5 82.5
Fair 7 17.5 17.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
The comfortness in the level of service is measured and it is found that 47.5% felt
very good in comfort, then 32.5% felt good in comfort and the remaining 17.5% felt
fair in comfort.
Q8) After your service visit, did someone from the dealership contact
you by phone or by mail to see if you were satisfied with your overall
service experience?

param Frequency Percentage Valid Cumulative


eters Percentage Percentage
Yes 35 87.5 87.5 87.5

No 5 12.5 12.5 100.0

Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above furnished table it is clearly indicated that Almost 87.5% told that
they will get a call about the satisfaction in service from the company, and 12.5%
told that they will not receive such type of call after service.
Q9) In evaluating your most recent customer service experience, what
was the quality of service you received?

parameters Frequency Percen Valid Cumulative


tage Percent Percentage
age
Somewhat 5 12.5 12.5 12.5
unsatisfactory
About average 5 12.5 12.5 25.0
Very satisfactory 29 72.5 72.5 97.5
Superior 1 2.5 2.5 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
2.5% told that the company provides a superior customer service and almost 72.5%
were satisfied with the customer service in the company. Another 12.5% were found
to be somewhat unsatisfactory, and then other 12.5% told that they were average in
customer service only.
Q10) what do you think about completion of the service in the time
promised?

parameters Frequency Perce Valid Cumulative


ntage Percentage Percentage
Very Satisfied 32 80.0 80.0 80.0

Somewhat 6 15.0 15.0 95.0


Satisfied
Somewhat 2 5.0 5.0 100.0
Dissatisfied
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
On time delivery of the service was the next factor considered to be very important
and in this regard, 80% of the customers feel very much satisfied with the timing of
the service, then 15% seems to be somewhat satisfied and only 5% seems to be
somewhat dissatisfied.
Q11) Do u think customer service representatives are very polite?
parameter Frequency Percentag Valid Cumulative
s e Percentage Percentage
Strongly 2 5.0 5.0 5.0
disagree
Somewhat 1 2.5 2.5 7.5
disagree
Somewhat 30 75.0 75.0 82.5
agree
Strongly 7 17.5 17.5 100.0
agree
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table it is clear that 5% of respondents are strongly disagree about
politeness of the representatives, 2.5% of respondents are somewhat disagree about
representatives politeness, 75% of respondents are somewhat agree and 17.5% of
respondents are strongly agree.
Q12) Which of the following qualities of the service representative stood
out? (As being superior)

parameters Frequenc Percen Valid Cumulative


y tage Percentage Percentage
Patient 2 5.0 5.0 5.0

Enthusiastic 15 37.5 37.5 42.5

Listened 7 17.5 17.5 60.0


carefully
Friendly 16 40.0 40.0 100.0

Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table it is clear that 5% of the employees seem to be very patient to
the customers, 37.5% seem to be enthusiastic, 17.5% seem to listen to the customers
very carefully and then attend to their problems and another 40% were found to be
friendly to the customers all the time.
Q13) What do you think customer service representative are
knowledgeable ?

parameters Frequency Percenta Valid Cumulative


ge Percentage Percentage
Strongly 4 10.0 10.0 10.0
disagree
Somewhat 4 10.0 10.0 20.0
disagree
Neutral 1 2.5 2.5 22.5
Somewhat agree 19 47.5 47.5 70.0
Strongly agree 12 30.0 30.0 100.0
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table it is clear that 10% of respondents strongly disagree that
representatives are knowledgeable and the same percentage of respondents are
somewhat disagree that representatives are knowledgeable, 2.5% of respondents are
neutral, the respondents of 47.5% are somewhat agree with the knowledge of the
representatives and 30% of respondents are believe that representatives have good
knowledge.
Q14) Are they able to solve the problems ?

paramete Frequen Percentag Valid Cumulative


rs cy e Percentage Percentage
Very 20 50.0 50.0 50.0
Good
Good 15 37.5 37.5 87.5

Fair 5 12.5 12.5 100.0

Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
Almost 50% of the customers were of opinion that there was a very good problem
solving skill amongst the employees of the firm. 37.5% seems to be of the opinion
that the problem solving skill is good. 12.5% seems to be saying that the employees
have a fair problem solving skill.
Q15) what about the understanding ability of employees about customer
needs ?

Frequency Percentag Valid Cumulative


e Percentage Percentage
Very 21 52.5 52.5 52.5
Good
Good 15 37.5 37.5 90.0

Fair 4 10.0 10.0 100.0

Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table 52.5% of the customers were of opinion that the employees
very understanding in nature, 37.5% were of opinion that they were good in
understanding, and 10% of the customers were of opinion that the employees have a
fair level of understanding.
Q16) Would you recommend this dealer to a friend or relative as a place
to have their tractors serviced?

paramete Frequency Percentag Valid Cumulative


rs e Percentage Percentage
Definitely 31 77.5 77.5 77.5
Probably 4 10.0 10.0 87.5
Not sure 4 10.0 10.0 97.5
Definitely 1 2.5 2.5 100.0
not
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
Almost 77.5% of the customers were ready to recommend definitely to friends or
relatives, 10% have told they may recommend, another 10% have told that they
may or may not recommend and only 2.5% of the customers seems not to
recommend the services to anybody.
Q17) If you need service again for your tractor, would you return to this

dealer ?

paramete Frequency Percentag Valid Cumulative


rs e Percentage Percentage
Definitely 32 80.0 80.0 80.0

Probably 3 7.5 7.5 87.5

Not sure 4 10.0 10.0 97.5

Probably 1 2.5 2.5 100.0


not 0 0 0 100.0
Definite
not
Total 40 100.0 100.0

INFERENCE
From the above table almost 80% of the customers were willing to come back to the
dealer in future. 7.5% of them were not sure whether they would come back, other
10% have said they may or may not come back and 2.5% of the customers have said
that they will not come back at all.
CHAPTER
FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION

FINDINGS:
The observations on the survey support the customer satisfaction of swaraj division
mohali, to a greatest extent of 95%. But still 5% of the customers were dissatisfied on the
following grounds such as
delay in delivering,

lack of knowledge for mechanics,

then the charges seems to be high

then there is a complaint as there were repetition of complaints

then some of them seems to be not satisfied with the employees

Just because the complaints were received from only few customers we cant ignore this,
and hence the following recommendations were made to the company in improving the
level of customer satisfaction.
SUGGESTIONS:

To avoid problems on in-time delivery of vehicles, the company can make a call
after the vehicle is ready, thereby it is possible for the company to avoid
inconvenience posed on the customers. If not the company can increase the
number of mechanics in the service department.

In avoiding cost related dissatisfaction among the customers, the company can
give its customers some special schemes like one free service for every ten
services. When it is announced, probably the customers will try to avail that free
service, in turn there is a possibility to increase the customers also.

To avoid repetition of complaints the company can appoint one chief mechanic to
check the vehicle soon after the service is over and before each delivery it has to
be ensured that the chief mechanic checks it promptly.

To avoid dissatisfaction in customer service the company can assign the


customers to a particular employee permanently. Thereby employees will also try
to treat their customers well and the customers also feel free to the particular
employee.
CONCLUSION:

This project dealt with study on customer satisfaction after sales service in Punjab
tractor ltd. Swaraj division. The project was done to know how retain the customer and
thereby improve loyalty.

This study gives the opinions and their suggestions about the swaraj Limited and this
project also gives the view upon the qualities and attitudes of the customers about the
employees of the organisation.

This study also gives the views and suggestions about retaining the potential customers to
the organization and keeps them loyalty to the organization.
QUESTIONNAIRE

A STUDY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AFTER SALES


SERVICE WITH
REFERENCES OF SWARAJ DIVISION
1. Name of the respondent:

2. Age :

3. Gender : Male/Female

4. How do you know about this dealer ?

a. Friends & relatives

b. Others

5. which tractor model you have ?

a. Swaraj-735FE

b.Swaraj-835FE

6.which quality you have seen before buy the tractor ?

a.economy
b.safety
c.others
7. How do you feel about the service in terms of charges?

a. Very High

b. High

c. moderate

d. Low

8. On your most recent service visit, how would you rate the service
department on the following areas?

Excellent Very Good Fair Poor


Good
Quality of work
performed
Convenience with the
dealer
Level of comfortness of
service

9. After your service visit, did someone from the dealership contact you
by phone or by mail to see if you were satisfied with your overall service
experience?

a. Yes

b. No
10. In evaluating your most recent customer service experience, What
was the quality of service you received ?

a. Somewhat unsatisfactory

b. About average

c. Very satisfactory

d. Superior

11.What do you think about the completion of the service in the time
promised?

a. Very Satisfied

b. Somewhat Satisfied

c. Somewhat Dissatisfied

d. Very Dissatisfied

12. Do you think customer service representatives are very polite ?

a. Strongly disagree

b. Somewhat disagree

c. Somewhat agree

d. Strongly agree
11. Which of the following qualities of the service representative
stood out ?(as being Superior)

a. Patient

b. Enthusiastic

c. Listened carefully

d. Friendly

12. What do you think that customer service representative are


knowledgeable ?

a. strongly disagree

b. some what disagree

c. some what agree

d. some strongly agree

13. Are they able to solve the problems of the customers ?

a. Very good

b. Good

c. Fair
14.what about the understanding ability of the employees about
customer needs ?

a.Very good
b.good

c.fair
15. Would you recommend this dealer to a friend or relative as a
place to have their Tractor serviced?

a. Definitely

b. Probably

c. Not sure

d. Definitely not

16. If you need service again for your tractor, would you return
to this dealer ?

a. Definitely

b. Probably

c. Not sure

d. Probably not

e. Definitely not
17. If you are not totally satisfied with the Customer Service
Representative, please state below the reason(s) for your
dissatisfaction

18. What recommendations would you offer for improving customer


service?

Thank you for your feedback.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

# Books

GUPTA SHASHI K.GUPTA


SHARMA R.K., Marketing Management

# Journals
Annual Reports of PUNJAB TRACTORS LTD.

# INTERNET WEB SITES

www.swarajenterprise.com

#Web Pages

http://www.swarajenterprise.com/
http://www.swarajenterprise.com/Swaraj Division_index.htm
http://www.swarajenterprise.com/Swaraj Divisionannualreport.asp
http://www.swarajenterprise.com/Swaraj Division_enterprise.htm
www.indiaautomotive.net