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The National Council for Higher Education

The State of higher education and training in


Uganda 2005:
A report of data collected from institutions of higher learning

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

Acronyms and definitions

1.0 Background to higher education delivery and administration


2.0 Methodology
3.0 Current higher education institutions
4.0 Enrollments in higher education institutions
5.0 Academic and practical programmes
6.0 The Academic staff in institutions of higher learning
7.0 Academic infrastructure
8.0 Academic facilities
9.0 Financing of higher education
10.0 Governance of higher education institutions
11.0 Emerging roles and relations of the National Council for Higher Education
12.0 Recommendations for policy action

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Acronyms and definitions

ACCA Associate of Certified Chartered Accountant


AKF Aga Khan Foundation
CME Continuing Medical Education
DEP Diploma in Education Primary
DFID Department of International Development
ENT Ear, Nose and Throat
GIS Geographical Information System
IAB International Association of Bookkeepers
ICM Institute of Commercial Management
ICT Information Communication Technology
IFA Institute of Financial Accountants
IUIU Islamic University in Uganda
MISR Makerere Institute of Social Research
MUBS Makerere University Business School
MUST Mbarara University of Science and Technology
NARO National Agricultural Organisation
NCHE National Council for Higher Education
NGOs Non Governmental Organisations
NORAD Norwegian Agency for Development
NTCs National Teachers Colleges
NUFFIC Netherlands organization for international co-operation in higher
education
NUFU Norwegian Council of Universities Committee for Research and
Education
PhD Doctor of Philosophy
PMA Plan for Modernization of Agriculture
SAREC Department for Research Cooperation
SIDA Swedish International Development Agency
UEDCL Uganda Electricity Distribution Company Limited

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UK United Kingdom
UMI Uganda Management Institute
UNEB Uganda National Examination Board
UNISA University of South Africa
USAID United Nations Agency for International Development

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Definitions

Gross enrollment ratio


The number of students enrolled in a level of education, regardless of age, as percentage
of the population of official school age for that level.
Net enrollment ratio
The number of students enrolled in a level of education who are of official school for that
level, as a percentage of the population of official school age for that level.
Gross tertiary enrollment ratio
The number of students enrolled in tertiary education in science, regardless of age, as a
percentage of the population of the relevant age range. In our context, science refers to
physical, natural, mathematical, engineering, computer, agricultural, architectural,
forestry and fisheries sciences. It does not include social or metaphysical sciences.

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1.0 Background to higher education delivery and administration

1.1 Higher Education is key to development

Most Ugandans view higher education as only a vehicle to good jobs for those
who complete tertiary institutions. This is true but higher education does not only
enhance individual good but also the welfare of the whole society. Tertiary
education is more than the capstone of traditional education; it is a critical pillar
of human development world wide. In todays life long-learning framework,
tertiary education provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every
labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil
servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientist, social scientists and
myriad personnel (World Bank: 2002, ix). It is these trained individuals who
provide the intellectual working power to drive national economies. This is more
so in this digital age and era of knowledge economies.

The functions of higher education are therefore to:


Supply the market with the skilled labour force it needs to function;
Contribute to poverty alleviation by increasing the stock of knowledge to
trainees, empowering societies with the skills to produce goods and
services and to make better social and political decisions;
Enhance better social governance;
Contribute to the growth of knowledge through training, providing
researchers with the facilities for the creation, storage and dissemination
of knowledge; and
Enhance individual upward social mobility while at the same time
contributing to the public good.
Knowledge is now critical for modernization and economic development and
poverty alleviation. The ability of a society to produce, select, adapt, internalize,
commercialize and use knowledge for sustainable development makes the
difference between poverty and wealth of a nation. In a number of countries,

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knowledge is progressively supplanting physical capital as a source of wealth.
Most successful economies are now knowledge based and dependant on educated
labour. A more educated labour force gave East Asia an edge in development
over Africa and Latin America in the last two decades.

Although the human resource needed to drive knowledge economies are mainly
created in higher education institutions known as universities (which have been
called knowledge factories-Economist, 4/10/97:S3), the Other Tertiary
Institutions produce the men and women who build and repair nations. These
institutions produce skilled labourers who use both their heads and hands and
they are often not afraid of soiling their hands in the process of work. It is for this
reason that the National Council for Higher Education is working hard to develop
a tertiary credit system that will make mobility of students from the Other
Tertiary Institutions to universities or vice versa possible without loss of earned
study. It is hoped that such a development will make these institutions more
attractive to students than is currently the case.

After reading this report, it is hoped that the public and private sectors will invest
more in higher education than is currently the case. It is also hoped that students
will not progressively view their ascent to higher education as a mere progression
of study that ends up at university and the acquisition of a paper certificate but as
a process of learning skills for individual and social upward mobility. We ask
you to read this report and pass it to another person.

1.2 The growth of Ugandan higher education

Higher education has grown very fast in terms of enrollment and institutions since
the 1960s. Enrollment has jumped from 56 students per one hundred thousand of
population in the seventies to 124,313 in 2005. In actual numbers, students have
increased from about five thousand in the seventies to over one hundred and
twenty thousand in 2005 (Table 1.1 and appendix 2).

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Table 1.1 Enrollment in higher education institution since the 1970s

Year Students % growth


1970s 5000 -
1980s 10,000 100
1995 27,000 170
2000 60,000 122
2001 65,000 8.3
2002 80,000 23.1
2003 85,836 7.3
2004 108,295 26.1
2005 124,313 14.8

NB: The uneven growth rates from 2000-2005 may be due to problems of
collecting data

Virtually every category of institutions has increased in numbers. In 1987, there


was still one university institution. In 2005, there were twenty-seven institutions
called universities. Four were public (government owned) and the rest privately
owned. There were one hundred thirty other Tertiary Institutions offering
various types of programmes. However, there was, and still there is, not
horizontal or vertical linkage between the universities and Other Tertiary
Institutions. There is no credit system to ease vertical or horizontal mobility
amongst institutions and disciplines. The tertiary sector is therefore not
integrated. Using a grant for the Netherland Organisation for International
Cooperation in higher education (NUFFIC), Council is developing a credit system
which, it is hoped, will link and integrate the higher education sub-sector.

It is our hope that the pages of this report will give you a glance of how this sub-
sector was like in a 2005. Council hopes to produce a State of higher education
and training report every year,

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2.0 Methodology (to be written soon)

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3.0 Current institutions of higher learning
3.1 Introduction

In Uganda, higher education consists of two sub-sectors: the university and Other
Tertiary institutions (or the non-university) sub sectors. The word higher
education and tertiary are used interchangeably to mean the same thing. In 2005,
there were 157 licensed and unlicensed institutions with 124,313 students in their
classes. Legally, the National Council for Higher Education does not deal with
unlicensed (and therefore) illegal institutions. However, in presenting the state of
higher education, the Secretariat of the Council decided to record them because:
They are on the ground and have students in their classes;
A number of these institutions graduate to legal status;
And, the Universities and Other Tertiary Institutions Act, 2001 does not
give Council the sharp teeth needed to thoroughly bite these illegal
institutions.
However, with the goodwill to Council that was exhibited in Parliament and the
media when sections of the Act were amended to strengthen Council, we are
hopeful that with time, the higher education sub-sector will be streamlined to
serve the interests of Ugandans.

3.2 The university sub-sector,

Universities institutions constituted 17.2% of the tertiary sub-sector sector (Table


3.1). The university sub-sector continues to be the most popular with students and
parents. Admittance to university is viewed as the major goal of every student, no
matter whether the subjects to be studied are relevant to the job market or not. As
a result, most students in the tertiary sub-sector are in universities (Section 4.0 of
this report).

In 2005 there were twenty-seven universities of which four were public,


(Makerere, Mbarara, Kyambogo and Gulu) and one affiliated public institution

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(Makerere University Business School), see Table 3.1 and appendix 1. There
were fifteen private universities of which:
One is a private statutory international institution (Islamic University in
Uganda);
Two are chartered universities (Uganda Christian University and Uganda
Martyrs University)
Twelve institutions had provisional licenses (KIU, Aga Khan, Nkumba,
Ndejje, Busoga, Bugema, Kabale, Kampala, Kumi, Mountains of the
Moon and two licensed by Court order, Fairland and Pentecostal.

There were five unlicensed institutions calling themselves universities. These


were Nile, Bishop Barham, Bishop Stuart, Central Buganda and Luwero. In the
same year, Council revoked the license of Namasagali University at Kamuli in
Busoga.

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Table 3.1 : Higher Educations institutions by catagories
Institution Private % tage Public % tage Total % tage out
Category out of out of of Total
Category Category Institutions
Universities &
Affiliated
College 22 81 5 19 27 17.2%
NTCs
1 8 10 92 11 7.6%
Technical
0 0 6 100 6 3.8%
Colleges of
Commerce 39 87 6 13 46 28.7%
Co-Operatives
0 0 2 100 2 1.3%
Management
18 95 1 5 19 12.1%
Health
9 64 5 36 14 8.9%
Agriculture
0 0 5 100 5 3.2%
Theology
12 100 0 0 12 7.6%
Media
4 80 1 20 5 3.2%
Hotels &
Tourism 0 0 2 100 2 1.3%
Law
0 0 1 100 1 0.6%
Aviation
1 50 1 50 2 1.3%
Meteorology
0 0 1 100 1 0.6%
Study Centres
3 75 1 25 4 2.5%

Total 109 69 48 31 157 100.0

A worrying development last year was the decision of the court to award licenses to two
institutions instead of asking Council to review or revisit its decision. Council felt that it
is only experts of a given profession, say in surgery, engineering, fisheries or any other
profession who, after careful studies of facilities, governance and academic staff, can
determine whether an institution in their discipline can offer quality higher education.

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However, Council also recognizes the power of the courts. It went ahead and granted
licenses to the subject institutions as the court had ordered.

3.3 The Other Tertiary Institutions sub-sector

Over eighty percent of the tertiary sector consist of institutions which the Act refers to as
The Other Tertiary Institutions. These include National Teachers Colleges (11),
Uganda Technical Colleges (6) Colleges of Commerce (46), Co-operative colleges (2),
Management institutions (19), Health/Medical institutions (14), Agriculture/Forestry
institutions (3), Theological institutions (12), Media and communications (5),
Hotel/Tourism institutes (2), Law institutes (1), Meteorological institutes (1) Aviation (2)
and various study centres attached to universities and institutes (4), (table 3.1 and
appendix 1).

3.4 Institutional distribution by regions

Most of the institutions are located in the central region (Table 3.2). The central region
has seventy-five institution (47.8%), the Western thirty-five (22.3%), the Eastern thirty
(19.1%) and the north trails with seventeen (10.8%). In case of universities, the central
region has fourteen (52%), the western five (or 19%), the eastern six (or 22%) and the
north two (or 7%). Clearly the north is far behind in the number of institutions located in
the area. This could mean that access to higher education by people from that region
might be hindered by the absence of sufficient number of institutions located in that
region.

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Table 3.2: Distribution of higher education institutions by region: 2005
Institutional Central Eastern Northern Western Total
Category
Number %tage Number %tage Number %tage Number %tage
Universities & 14 52 6 22 2 7 5 19 27
Affiliated Colleges
NTCs 3 25 2 17 4 33 3 25 11

Technical 1 17 1 17 1 17 3 50 6

Colleges of 21 47 5 11 4 9 15 33 46
Commerce
Co-Operatives 0 0 1 50 1 50 0 0 2

Management 12 63 2 11 2 11 3 16 19

Health 5 36 6 43 1 7 2 14 14

Agriculture 2 40 2 40 1 20 0 0 5

Theology 8 67 2 17 0 0 2 17 12

Media 5 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 5

Hotels & 0 0 1 50 0 0 1 50 2
Tourism
Law 1 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Aviation 1 50 1 50 0 0 0 0 2

Meteorology 1 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Study Centres 1 25 1 25 1 25 1 25 4

Total 2005 75 30 17 35 157

3.5 Ownership of institutions

Global changes in higher education delivery since the early 1990s including the
massification of enrolment, entrance of market forces in higher education delivery, the
ever increasing use of ICT in higher education delivery and the viewing of education a
marketable commodity have not spared Uganda. In Uganda, private participation in the
ownership of institutions and therefore delivery of higher education has been the most
significant global development.

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Table 3.3: Ownership of institutions of higher learning

Institution Number of % tage-2005 Number of % tage-2004


Ownership Institutions Institutions-2004
Public 52 33% 53 34.2%
Private 105 67% 102 66.8%
Total 157 100% 155 100%

The entrance of private providers of higher education is welcome because the state can no
longer manage to finance all those who need access to higher education. However, to
ensure quality, regulation by a competent regulatory agency is needed. That is one of the
major reasons why an Act of Parliament put the National Council for Higher Education in
place. In 2005, the private sector owned more institutions than the government. The
private sector had 105 institutions (or 67%) compared to the governments 52 (or 33%) of
institutions (table 3.3 above). But public institutions still register more students than
private ones (see section 4.3).

However, with the exception of one or two institutions, the private sector cherry picked
cheap to offer disciplines and popular ones like Arts/Humanities and Social Science. The
government still owns and funds institutions that offer expensive but critically needed
areas like medicine, engineering, architecture, agriculture, forestry, fisheries and heavy
ICT teaching faculties. Council encourages private institutions to invest in these
necessary but expensive disciplines.

3.6 Changes over the previous year


Since 2004, only a few institutions have been added to our legal list. Two university
institutions, Mountains of the Moon in Fort Portal and Kabale in the town of that name
were licensed by Council. Two institutions, Uganda Pentecostal and Fairland were
licensed by court order. The licenses of two institutions, Namasagali at Kamuli in
Busoga and Kigezi International School of Medicine at Kabale lost their provisional
licenses as per section 98 (b) of the Act. Four public National Teachers Colleges
(Kakoba, Masindi, Ngetta and Nkozi) lost government financial support and will either
close or operate as private institutions.

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4.0 Enrollment in higher education institutions
4.1 Total Enrollment

It has been difficult to determine the exact enrollment figures for 2005 because a number
of institutions have not developed mechanisms for collecting, organizing and
disseminating of information. Such institutions, unfortunately, include Ugandas
perceived premier institutions. While some institutions did not submit data at all, some
of those who did were unable to disaggregate the data into relevant categories, making
the production of this report on schedule very difficult. The total enrolment for
institutions that submitted data for 2005 was 112,760 students. Council factored the 15%
growth of 2005 over 2004 observed in all those institutions that submitted data to those
that did not by using the 2004 figures as a base. The tentative figure for 2005 was then
calculated to be 124313 (a growth of 14.8%) over 2004, i.e. from 108, 079 to 124, 313),
sees table 4.1 and Appendix 1.

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Table 4.1: Enrollment by category and gender here
Institutional Arts/Humanities Science/Technology Total
Category
Number % tage Number % tage Number % tage % tage
2005 2004
Universities &
Affiliated College 62580 80.4 15527 20.2 78107 62.9 58.9
NTCs
8642 71.4 3454 28.6 12096 9.7 17.5
Technical
177 8.5 1907 91.5 2084 1.7 1.6
Colleges of
Commerce 8997 62.1 5482 37.9 14479 11.6 11.6
Co-Operatives
281 100.0 0 0.0 281 0.2 0.2
Management
8697 92.4 714 7.6 9411 7.5 4.4
Health
2507 96.8 83 3.2 2590 2.1 2.3
Agriculture
0 0.0 1301 100.0 1301 1.0 0.9
Theology
1943 100.0 0 0.0 1943 1.6 0.9
Media
783 76.2 244 23.8 1027 0.8 0.6
Hotels &
Tourism 65 31.7 140 68.3 205 0.2 0.2
Law
433 100.0 0 0.0 433 0.3 0.7
Aviation
0.0 0.015
Meteorology
0 0.0 35 100.0 35 0.0 0.3
Study Centres
356 100.0 0 0.0 356 0.3 -

Total-2005 95,461 76.7 28,852 23.3 124,313 100.0 100

Total-2004 88,932 82.1 19,042 17.9 108,295 100

4.2 Coverage

Coverage refers to the percentage of students who access higher education. If the 2005
figure of 124,313 was used and compared to Ugandas population, the gross enrollment
ratio for Uganda would be 4.8%, a slightly higher figure compared to the previous years
4.1%. The gross enrollment ratio is the number of students enrolled in a level of

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education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of the official
school/university age for that level.

This figure compares favourably with the sub-Saharan average of 3.9 but very badly with
the world average of 17.6( table 4.2). It is lower than the developing countries average of
10.3 and the higher income average of over 45.0. The total registrations per one hundred
of population has gone up from 440 in 2004 to.in 2005.

Table 4.2:
Enrollment and gross enrollment ratios in tertiary education, world wide, in 1997
1997 Enrollment (in millions) 1997 Gross enrollment ratios
M/F Female %F M/F Male Female
World Total 88.2 41.3 47.0 17.4 18.1 16.7
More developed regions 34.2 17.9 52.0 61.1 56.8 65.6
North America 16.0 8.9 55.0 80.7 70.8 91.0
Asia/Oceania 5.5 2.5 46.0 42.1 43.3 40.9
Europe 12.7 6.5 52.0 50.7 47.9 53.6
Countries in transition 11.0 6.0 54.0 34.0 30.6 31.6
Less developed regions 43.0 17.4 40.0 10.3 12.0 8.5
Sub-Saharan Africa 2.2 0.8 35.0 3.9 5.1 2.8
Arab States 3.9 1.6 41.0 14.9 17.3 12.4
Latin America/Caribbean 9.4 4.5 48.0 19.4 20.1 18.7
Eastern Asia/Oceanic 16.8 6.8 41.0 10.8 12.5 9.0
China 6.1 2.0 33.0 6.1 7.8 4.2
Southern Asia 9.3 3.2 34.0 7.2 9.1 5.1
India 6.4 2.3 36.0 7.2 8.8 5.5
Least developed countries 1.9 0.5 27.0 3.2 4.6 1.7
Uganda (2005) 0.124

Source: http:// books.google.co.ug and UNESCO World Education Report 2000

4.3 Student enrollment by institutional categories

Most students, 78107 (or 62.8%) are registered in universities. Of these 34192 ( 27.5
%) were at Makerere University main institution and 10731 ( 8.6%) at its affiliate,
MUBS. The total number of university students registered at Makerere is therefore
44,923 (57.5%) of the university sub-sector. Kyambogo University with 7618 students

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(9.8% of the university sub-sector) had the second largest number of students. Overall,
public institutions, which are fewer in number than private ones, had 55763 students
(71.4%) of students in the university sub-sector. Colleges of Commerce with 14479
(11.6%) students were next to universities in having the biggest number of students,
followed by National Teachers College 12096 (9.7%), Management institutions 9411
(7.5%), Health/Medical 2590 (2.1), Technical Colleges 2084 (1.7%), Theological
institutions 1943 (1.6%) and agriculture 1301 (1.0%). Other institutions including co-
operatives, media, Hotel/tourism, law and meteorology, had less than one per cent of
tertiary registrations.

4.4 Enrollment by gender

According to table 4.2, the overall number of women in the tertiary sector dropped from
41.1% to 40.7% in 2005 (table 4.1 and appendix 2). However, a number of institutions
did not specify the sex of their students: they just submitted total figures. However,
going by the data for universities, the number of females is 42.3% (or 33127) of that sub-
sector. A number of studies have pointed out that women are not well represented in
technical, professional and marketable disciplines (Nakanyike and Nansozi ,2000; Liang,
2004). But women are well represented in Other Tertiary Institutions (table 4.3 and
appendix 3). They constitute 50.9% (7364) in Colleges of Commerce, 49.8% (102) in
Hotel/Tourism; 42.3% (in law institutions); 36.7% (103) in co-operatives and 36.2%
(4375) in National Teachers Colleges. With emphasis on the girl child in the lower levels
of the education system, it is hoped that women will reach the same percentage in higher
education institutions as their ratio in the general population.

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Table 4.3: Student enrollment by gender, 2005
Institutional Female Male Total
Category
Number % tage Number % tage Number % tage
Universities &
Affiliated College 33127* 42.3 44807* 57.4 78107** 62.8
NTCs
4375 36.2 7718 63.8 12096 9.7
Technical
125 6.0 1959 94.0 2084 1.7
Colleges of
Commerce 7364 50.9 6952 48.0 14479 11.6
Co-Operatives
103 36.7 178 63.3 281 0.2
Management
2980* 30.2 3355* 34.0 9411** 7.5
Health
817 31.5 1773 68.5 2590 2.1
Agriculture
229 17.6 1072 82.4 1301 1.0
Theology
615 31.7 1328 68.3 1943 1.6
Media
398 38.8 629 61.2 1027 0.8
Hotels &
Tourism 102 49.8 103 50.2 205 0.2
Law
183 42.3 250 57.7 433 0.3
Aviation
- - - - - -
Meteorology
6 17.1 29 82.9 35 0.0
Study Centres
163 45.8 193 54.2 356 0.3

Total-2005 50,587* 40.7 69,558* 56.0 124313** 100.0

Total-2004 44,400 41.1% 63,574 58.9% 108,295 100%

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Table 4.4: Student enrolment by discipline category, 2005

Institutional Arts/Humanities Science/Technology Total


Category
Number % tage Number % tage Number % tage % tage
2005 2004
Universities &
Affiliated College 62580 80.4 15527 20.2 78107 62.9 58.9
NTCs
8642 71.4 3454 28.6 12096 9.7 17.5
Technical
177 8.5 1907 91.5 2084 1.7 1.6
Colleges of
Commerce 8997 62.1 5482 37.9 14479 11.6 11.6
Co-Operatives
281 100.0 0 0.0 281 0.2 0.2
Management
8697 92.4 714 7.6 9411 7.5 4.4
Health
2507 96.8 83 3.2 2590 2.1 2.3
Agriculture
0 0.0 1301 100.0 1301 1.0 0.9
Theology
1943 100.0 0 0.0 1943 1.6 0.9
Media
783 76.2 244 23.8 1027 0.8 0.6
Hotels &
Tourism 65 31.7 140 68.3 205 0.2 0.2
Law
433 100.0 0 0.0 433 0.3 0.7
Aviation
0.0 0.015
Meteorology
0 0.0 35 100.0 35 0.0 0.3
Study Centres
356 100.0 0 0.0 356 0.3 -

Total-2005 95,461 76.7 28,852 23.3 124,313 100.0 100

Total-2004 88,932 82.1 19,042 17.9 108,295 100

4.5 Enrollment growth rates

As pointed out, there was an overall growth of numbers from 108,295 in 2004 to 124,313
in 2005. Universities registered a growth of 14.7%, from 68,079 to 78,107 students.
Technical colleges registered a growth of 23% (from 1695 to 2084.), which is welcome
because good technical trainees are needed in the job market. Colleges of commerce

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registered a growth of 15% (from 12569 to 14479), Management institutions 26% (real
growth from 2028 to 2556) that is growth institutions that submitted data in both years
only; agriculture 38% (from 942.to 1301); health/Medical 2.7% (from 2522 to 2590)
Cooperatives, media and Hotel/Tourism registered negligible growth rates of less than on
percent. There was a massive decline of registration in National Teachers College of
26.2% (from 18959 to 12096). This may have been due to the fact that four institutions
lost government funding as mentioned earlier.

4.6 Student Enrollment by discipline

The overall number of students enrolled for science and technology in 2005 increased
from 19,042 (17.9%) to 28,852 (23.3%) in 2005. Even in the university sub-sector where
the obtaining of a degree (in whatever discipline) is often the priority, the number of
students taking science and technology rose from 9771 (15.3%) in 2004 to 15527
(20.2%) in 2005 ( table 4.3 and appendices 2 and 3). This improvement bodes well to the
nation as knowledge of science and technology is considered key to modern (knowledge
based) economic development (World Bank: 2002). This improvement may be due to the
Ministry of Educations science and technology affirmative funding of students which
was first implemented last year and the realization by students that they had more options
for career choices if they registered for science and technology disciplines.

However, the science overall registration is still far below the 40% mark of registered
students considered to be necessary percentage for reasonable national economic
development. But arts and humanities still dominate the tertiary sub-sector. Overall,
some 95,461 (or 76.7%) of students in 2005 were registered for Arts and humanities. The
number of students taking Arts and humanities was higher for universities than was the
case for Other Tertiary Institutions. Of the 78,107 students in universities, 80.4% or
62,580 were doing arts and humanities, many of whom taking subjects unrelated to the
local and global job markets.

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4.7 Student enrollment by nationalities
Increases in the number of foreign students mean that the number of Uganda students has
contracted. The number of foreign students in Ugandas institutions of higher learning
jumped from 2.7% in 2004 to 6.2% of total in 2005. There were 2,947 foreign students
in 2004 as compared to 7,735 in 2005 (Table 4.5). Most of the 6673 foreign students are
registered in universities especially Kampala International University, Bugema and IUIU
Mbale. The majority of non-Ugandan students are from Kenya and Tanzania. But IUIU
Mbale recruits from all over Africa.

Table 4.5: Nationalities of students in Ugandas tertiary sector, 2005


Institutional Ugandan Students Foreign Students Not Total
Category Specified Enrolment
Number % tage Number % tage Number Number
Universities &
Affiliated College 71279 91.1% 6673 8.7% 155 78107
NTCs
12093 100.0% 0 0.0% 3 12096
Technical
2084 100.0% 0 0.0% 0 2084
Colleges of
Commerce 12565 86.8% 163 1.1% 1751 14479
Co-Operatives
217 77.2% 3 1.1% 61 281
Management
7445 79.1% 632 6.7% 1334 9411
Health
2508 96.8% 82 3.2% 0 2590
Agriculture
1294 99.5% 7 0.5% 0 1301
Theology
1802 92.7% 141 7.3% 0 1943
Media
1007 98.1% 20 1.9% 0 1027

Hotels & Tourism 205 100.0% 0 0.0% 0 205


Law
433 100.0% 0 0.0% 0 433
Aviation
0
Meteorology
35 100.0% 0 0.0% 0 35
Study Centres
342 96.1% 14 3.9% 0 356

Total-2005 113,309 91.2% 7,735 6.2% 3,727 124313

Total-2004 105,348 97.3% 2,947 2.7% - 108295

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The Ugandan component of the student body has fallen from 97.3% to 91.2% of total.
We were told that the major attraction of Ugandan higher education institutions is not
necessarily their quality but their low fees. Fees in Uganda are kept below market value
by a number of social and political forces. As we shall find out later, students pay only
29% of the annual cost of what it costs higher education institutions to educate a student
each year (unit cost).

5.0 Academic programmes

5.1 Introduction

The Uganda tertiary sub sector offers a variety of academic and practical programmes. In
2005, the number of recorded programmes grew by four from 1894 in 2004 to 1899 in
2005 (table 5.3). Universities offer a wide range of, mainly, academic programmes both
graduate and undergraduate levels. Public universities have more programmes than
private ones. Further, the same universities offer science and technology programmes
that need heavy investment in equipment and trained human resources. Private
universities tend to cherry pick cheap to offer programmes in arts and humanities. The
excessive levels of duplication that was noted in 2004 is still a problem. Institutions do
not seem to have the ability to offer new and challenging programmes. Instead, they
mainly duplicate what old or established institutions are offering.

Institutions are not integrated and do not work in harmony to serve the higher education
sub-sector in such a way that students are given more varied choices.

Table 5.1

5.2 Content and diversity

There are still very few choices of programmes for students who want a variety of them
to make a good decision for study. As noted in table 4.1, about 76.7% of students were
registered for arts/humanities and 23.3% for science and technology. Although this is an

24
improvement over 2004 (82.1% and 17.9% respectively), there is a long way to the 60:40
ratio needed to enhance development. The science enrollment ratio was 0.96% while
that of arts/humanities was 3.2%. For example, agriculture has only 2.6% at certificate
level, 1.7% at diploma level, 4.4% at bachelors level, nothing at the postgraduate diploma
level, 6.9% at the masters level and 5% at the PhD level (Table 5.2). Humanities,
business and management have the largest share of students. The welcome news was the
growth of technical student enrollment by 23% (Table 4.4).

Table 5.2

5.3 Curriculum relevance

Most of the programmes are academic and literally and are not immediately relevant to
the evolving Ugandan job market. Memorization rather than problem solving is the most
widespread method of education delivery. Institutions have not moved away from
producing graduates for the civil service as was the case in the 1960s to align with the
rapidly changing knowledge based global and domestic markets. These markets are
driven by the private and not the public sectors. Few institutions liaise with industry or
employers to find our what the marked needs. Neither has the market developed known
mechanisms to influence what is taught in universities and other tertiary institutions.
Very few institutions have done tracer studies to guide them in designing what is taught
in their classrooms: they merely duplicate what their peers are delivering. The linkage of
co-operation between the lecture room and the job market is not very well developed.

5.4 Innovative programmes

Despite the general trend pointed our in 5.3, a few institutions have designed innovative
and unique programmes. The examples reported in 2004 are still surviving and will be
reported again for emphasis. These include the following: (Page 16)

25
Mbarara University of Science and Technology: Community-oriented health
education. All students are required to take development studies courses for the
first two years.
MulagoParamedical School: Unique diploma in ENT (Ear, Nose and Throat).
Makerere University Business School: Master of Science in marketing,
accounting and finance, business computing, extension programmes, business
development programmes, taught in Luganda.
Ernest Cook Ultrasound Research and Education Institute: Two 6-month diploma
programmes: Ordinary diploma in ultrasound and a higher diploma in ultrasound
and continuing medical education (CME). The two programmes are not offered
anywhere else in the whole Africa.
Uganda Management Institute (UMI) is specialized institutions that recruits
people in the field to give them specialized training especially in the area of
management. It is the only institution that offers Basic Principles of
Documentation. The target is Makerere University academic staff.
The School of Industrial and Fine Art at Makerere: Tailor made courses in the
school include a 4-month programme in graphic design targeting computer
literate students and a 2-week textiles design programme on demand.
Law Development Centre: The centre has tailor made courses in the department
of continuing legal education and legal aid. It offers short courses for public
officers and other persons engaged in the administration of justice and law
enforcement by helping the due process of law in the course of their duties.
Uganda Martyrs University, Nkozi: UMU has introduced two sister courses,
Ethics and Entrepreneurship. In the era of shifting market trends and increasing
levels of corruption, courses in entrepreneurship and ethics are a necessity.

5.5 Academic programmes by schedule

One area that Ugandan institutions have responded to the needs of the market is
becoming flexible in the time they deliver higher education. Institutions no

26
longer open their classes only during the traditional day time shifts. They now
teach in the evening, weekends and holidays to respond to the increasing hunger
for higher education by Ugandans of the various ages and professions. Working
people in need of improving their education status, married spouses who had
dropped our of school for family reasons and those who did not attend tertiary
institutions during the relevant 17-25 years of age are returning to universities and
colleges. Table 5.3 shows that in 2005, 56% of programmes were offered during
the day, 26% in the evening, 11% in the weekend and 7% through long distance
(through online and correspondences). This is a positive development. Ugandans
have realized that education is for life.

Table 5.3

5.6 Academic awards

Universities award certificates, diploma and degree for their own programmes.
The Uganda National Examination Board (UNEB) awards certificates and
diplomas for some commercial and technical higher education institutions.
MUBS awards diplomas to most government colleges of commerce. In addition,
some foreign universities and colleges like University of South Africa, West
London College, Pittman and New Port University award certificates, diplomas
and degrees for some of the academic programmes offered by higher education
institutions in Uganda.

5.7 Research

Most of the academic research in higher education takes place in universities.


Most of the postgraduate academic programmes combine course work and
research. Postgraduate students are required to conduct research as part-
fulfillment for Masters degree awards. PhD programmes, which require students
to produce dissertations, focus on research and the production of a dissertation.

27
There are not many people pursuing disinterested search for the truth in the whole
higher education system. However, for some institutions, including universities,
research either does not exist or is tangential to academic programmes and the
level of research is generally low across the higher education institutional
spectrum, partly because of inadequate funding. Ugandas Strategic Plan for
Higher Education, if adopted and implemented in due course will require all
universities to devote a mandatory percentage of their budgets to research.

Research programmes at student and academic staff level mainly depend on


funding from development agencies such as DFID, NORAD, SIDA, USAID, etc.
The Makerere University Faculty of Technology, for example has been getting
funds for research from SIDA/SAREC, NUFU- Norway, the Italian government,
Carnegie Corporation of New York and Rockefeller Foundation. Similarly,
Rockefeller Foundation has funded research in the ongoing decentralization
process. Some of the universities, especially Makerere University have been
doing research on a wide range of subjects in collaboration with external
universities.

5.8 Challenges to the delivery of quality higher education

The implementation of academic programmes has been hampered by financial


constraints, out dated curricula, institutional inability to recruit and retain
qualified staff, the lack of adequate and appropriate instruction materials and
inadequate physical facilities. Programmes that require practical training lack
laboratory materials and equipment. Most science and technology students find it
difficult to complete their programmes and receive a lot more theoretical than
practical training. Unless the financing of the sub-sector is addressed, the quality
of higher education will continue to deteriorate.

28
5.9 Labour markets trends and the need for curriculum innovation

If Ugandan economic and education policy makers seize the moment to reform
higher education curriculum now, there are emerging market opportunities to be
reaped by both the educated students and the nation as a result of the following
emerging transformations of the market:
(a) Changing structure of the Uganda economy.

Although the Ugandan economy still remains an agricultural based one,


there are indications that it is evolving to become more industrial and service
oriented. From 1990 to 2005, while agriculture grew at an average of 3
4%, service industries grew by 14.2% followed by manufacturing 12.7%,
construction by-------.

This changing economic structure will need more skilled human resources
and the tertiary sub-sector whose products are directly released into the job
market must get the type of education the changing economy needs hence
the need for higher education reform. Since the private (and informal) sector
in the evolving economy is employing more people than the public sector,
Uganda education planners must change their curriculum from focusing on
employment to self employment and entrepreneurship.

Remittances by Ugandans in the diaspora do not only include cash that is a


major contributor to the national economy but transfer of skills into the
country. Ugandans, unlike many other Africans, are said to love their
homeland and a substantial number return home at, or before their retiring
age. Their remittances and skills are contributing to the changes in the

29
countrys economic structure. However, data on both Ugandans abroad and
their activities need to be systematically studied to get the correct picture.

If political stability is maintained, these sectors are likely to continue growing


at the same rates. This means that the demand for middle level workers,
graduates of the other tertiary institutions and science and technology
faculties of universities, will increasingly be in demand. Therefore, a focus
on these institutions, science, technology and entrepreneurship studies should
contribute to poverty alleviation in the long run.

(b) Returns are high on higher education

A World Bank study of the Uganda tertiary sub-sector pointed our that
tertiary students are not only more likely to be employed by the formal
sector, but once employed, the wage premium for every year of tertiary
education is at 8%. Taking into account the costs of tertiary education, this
can be translated into a social return of 13% and private return of 24%
(World Bank: 2004, 88). Employed educated people pay more direct and
indirect taxes to the government, support hundred of others to kick-start lives,
understand social and political issues more clearly and are more likely to
invest in viable enterprises than lower educational level graduates.

Besides economic returns, higher education confers social prestige on those


who have it. Participation in national politics and other social activities
restricted to those prestigious activities are restricted to those who have
attained a defined level of education.

(c) Higher education a major component of economic development

Since higher education is immediately linked to the labour market because its
products move directly from educations institution to the job market,

30
economic planners must refocus their attention to higher education (World
Bank 2000). Currently, the higher education curriculum is out of date and
unrelated to the labour market, the physical infrastructure of public higher
education institutions is rotting, there are few education facilities being put
into the system and brilliant academic staff are leaving the sub-sector. Yet
budget allocations to this critical sub-sector cannot make its engine roll. This
state of affairs in higher education sub-sector will soon slow down the
positive changes in the economy that have been observed above.

31
6.0 Academic staff in Ugandas institutions of learning

6.1 Introduction
The National Council for Higher Education would like to repeat what was stated in last
years state of higher education report. The quality of an academic higher education
institution is dependent on the quality of its academic staff. Academic staff are the
individuals involved in the creation, storage and delivery of knowledge in institutions of
higher learning. This definition, therefore, includes instructors (professors, lecturers,
teaching assistants and demonstrators), researchers and librarians.

6.2 Number of academic staff in Ugandas higher education institutions


The number of academic staff has remained almost the same as for 2004, growing only
by nine individuals from 5249 to 5258 (Table 6.1 and appendices 4,5,6 & 7). Of that
number 10.6% (558) have PhDs, 41.2% have masters, 2.9%(153) have postgraduate
diplomas; 32.2% (1694) have bachelors degrees, 11.6%(611) have undergraduate
diplomas and 1.4% have professional certificates.

Table 6.1: Number of academic staff in higher education institutions by


qualification
Qualification PhD Masters PGD Bachelors Diploma Prof.Cert Total

Number 2005 558 2167 153 1694 611 75 5258

% of total 10.6 41.2 2.9 32.2 11.6 1.4 100

Number 2004 549 2221 *** 1715 684 80 5249


*** combined with diploma

6.3 Distribution of academic staff by institutional categories


Table 5.2 and Appendix 2 show the distribution of academic staff amongst institutional
categories by qualifications. The universities have the lions share of highly qualified
staff. Some 93.2%(520 staff) are in universities as are 82.8% (1974) of masters holders.
The number of PhD holders in universities dropped from 95.5% in 2004 to 93.2% in

32
2005. Theological institutions with 3.2% (18) of PhD holders are a distant second to
universities followed, in third place, by management institutes with 2% (11) of PhD
holders. Colleges of commerce, agriculture and broad based study centres also have a
few PhD holders on their staff. National Teachers Colleges, colleges of commerce,
management institutes, health, Theology, media, study centres and agriculture have
masters holders ranging from twenty to sixty each.

33
Table 6.2:Distribution of academic staff by qualifications and institution category,
2005
Institution PhD Masters PG. Dip Bachelor Diploma Prof. Cert. Total
Category
No. % No. % No. % No. % No % tage No. % tage
tage tage tage tage
Universities &
Affiliated
College 520 93.2 1794 82.8 27 17.6% 814 48.1% 5 0.8% 0.0% 3160
NTCs
0 0.0% 53 2.4% 2 1.3% 126 7.4% 30 4.9% 0.0% 211
Technical
0 0.0% 1 0.0% 11 7.2% 4 0.2% 46 7.5% 0.0% 62
Colleges of
Commerce 7 1.3% 59 2.7% 57 37.3% 473 27.9% 226 37.0% 32 42.7% 854
Cooperatives
0.0% 1 0.0% 5 3.3% 4 0.2% 3 0.5% 0 0.0% 13
Management
11 2.0% 63 2.9% 17 11.1% 74 4.4% 38 6.2% 6 8.0% 209
Health
0 0.0% 29 1.3% 8 5.2% 13 0.8% 53 8.7% 10 13.3% 113
Agriculture
1 0.2% 22 1.0% 0.0% 17 1.0% 32 5.2% 8 10.7% 80
Theology
18 3.2% 76 3.5% 3 2.0% 89 5.3% 67 11.0% 16 21.3% 269
Media
0 0.0% 33 1.5% 14 9.2% 60 3.5% 15 2.5% 1 1.3% 123
Hotels &
Tourism 0 0.0% 4 0.2% 2 1.3% 5 0.3% 9 1.5% 1 1.3% 21
Law
- - - - - - -
Aviation
- - - - - - -
Meteorology
0 0.0% 2 0.1% 5 3.3% 5 0.3% 2 0.3% 1 1.3% 15
Study
Centres 1 0.2% 30 1.4% 2 1.3% 10 0.6% 85 13.9% 0 0.0% 128

Total 2005 558 10.6 2167 41.2 153 2.9 1694 32.2 611 11.6 75 1.4 5258
*** ***
Total 2004 549 10.5 2221 42.3 1715 32.7 684 13.0 80 1.5 5249
*** combined with diploma

6.4 Adequacy of academic staff

Table 5.3 and Appendix 3 show the academic staff/student ratios of the different
categories of higher education institutions. Using Councils gazetted Statutory Instrument
2005 no 80, schedule 4, table 6.3 and appendix 15 show which general staff/student ratio,
regardless of discipline, are ideal (1:15), good (1:20), acceptable (1:25), can be improved

34
(1:40) or unacceptable (1:50 and above). The overall tertiary staff/student ratio of 1:22
is an improvement on the previous years of 1:23. This is acceptable but it does not reflect
the big differences amongst disciplines. Arts and humanities in universities have very
high staff/student ratios, which is worrying. The National Teachers Colleges and Uganda
Technical Colleges continue to have unacceptably bad staff to student ratios. Amongst
universities, Makerere Universitys 1:33, Makerere University Business Schools 1:47,
Kyambogos 1:33 and Nkumbas 1:32 are not good enough. They are below the national
average of 1:22.These being premier institutions, they must do more to improve and
show a good example.
Table 6.3: Adequacy of academic staff- full time and part time

Institutional Category Total Total Staff/student Remarks


Academic students ratio
staff
2004 2005
Universities &
Affiliated College 3265 78107 22 24 Acceptable
NTCs 224 12096 51 54 Uncceptable
Technical 79 2084 23 26 Acceptable
Colleges of Commerce 995 14479 16 15 Ideal
Co-Operatives 18 281 13 16 Ideal
Management 257 9411 14 37 Can be Improved
Health 193 2590 10 13 Ideal
Agriculture 111 1301 11 12 Ideal
Theology 394 1943 8 5 Ideal
Media 163 1027 9 6 Ideal
Hotels & Tourism 21 205 8 10 Ideal
Law 433 14 -
Aviation
Meteorology 9 35 - 4 Ideal
Study Centres 42 182 - -
Total 5549 124313 22 Good

6.5 Availability of academic staff (full time or part time)

The number of academic staff who are entirely devoted to their work needs improvement.
Only 59.7% (or 3311) of academic staff were employed on a full time basis (table 6.4 )
However, vice chancellors complain that many of the full-time staff spread their hands
thin by teaching at more than one institution. Yet part-time staff, though useful in
relieving the situation, do not participate in core activities of institutions. Due to this dual
problem of teaching elsewhere and the apparent lack of loyalty by part-time staff,

35
institutions find themselves without dedicated communities needed to vigorously enhance
institutional visions and mission. In the end, the delivery of quality higher education is
affected. However, the number of full-time staff has climbed from 2,966 in 2004 to 3311
in 2005. There is a consensus amongst seasoned academics that:

Increased benefits to attract and retain staff are needed in the sub-sector;
The academic profession should not be treated as civil service employment.
Regulations such as mandatory retirement age 60, single spine salary structures,
promotion based only on experience etc should be left to university councils to
decide, not the public service commissions; and
Seasoned professors should be attracted to the profession

Table 6.4 Availability of academic staff


Full-time Full-time Part-time Part-time Total Total Uncategorized Total
Males Females Males Females Full Part Academic
Time Time Staff
2005
2535 792 1420 382 3311 1802 436 5549

45.7% 14.3% 25.6% 6.9% 59.7% 35.5% 7.9% 100%

2004 2309 657 1618 392 2966 2283 - 5249

44% 12.5% 30.8% 7.5% 56.5% 43.5% - 100%

6.6 Academic staff development

The number of staff on training has gone up from 800 in 2004 to 935 in 2005, a growth of
16.9 percent. Of the 935 under training, 24% (224) were studying for PhDs, 43.9% (410)
for masters, 3.3%(31) for post-graduate diplomas, 17.4% (163) for bachelors degrees,
4.9% (46) for undergraduate diplomas and 6.5% (61) for professional certificates (Table
6.5).

Most of the staff on training (592), were university staff, followed by those of colleges of
commerce (165) and National Teachers Colleges (44). Most institutions felt that they
needed more facilities for staff development.

36
Table 6.5: Academic staff development and training
Institution PhD Masters PG. Dip Bachelor Diploma Prof. Cert. Total
Category Staff
No. % of No. % of No. % of No. % of No. % of No. % of
Total Total Total Total Total Total
Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff Staff
Universities
& Affiliated
College 202 90.2% 286 69.8% 14 45.2% 70 42.9% 13 28.3% 7 11.5% 592
NTCs
3 1.3% 16 3.9% 1 3.2% 2 1.2% 0.0% 22 36.1% 44
Technical
0.0% 1 0.2% 2 6.5% 2 1.2% 8 17.4% 13 21.3% 13
Colleges of
Commerce 3 1.3% 45 11.0% 9 29.0% 51 31.3% 9 19.6% 48 78.7% 165
Cooperatives
0.0% 0.0% 2 6.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2
Management
1 0.4% 23 5.6% 1 3.2% 4 2.5% 1 2.2% 4 6.6% 34
Health
2 0.9% 7 1.7% 0.0% 17 10.4% 7 15.2% 0.0% 33
Agriculture
2 0.9% 16 3.9% 0.0% 3 1.8% 5 10.9% 0.0% 26
Theology
11 4.9% 10 2.4% 2 6.5% 4 2.5% 2 4.3% 1 1.6% 30
Media
3 0.7% 0.0% 7 4.3% 0.0% 1 1.6% 11
Hotels &
Tourism 1 0.2% 0.0% 1 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 2
Law
- - - - - - -
Aviation
- - - - - - -
Meteorology
- - - - - - -
Study
Centres 1 0.2% 0.0% 1 0.6% 0 0.0% 0.0% 2

Total-2005 224 24.0% 410 43.9% 31 3.3% 163 17.4% 46 4.9% 61 6.5% 935

Total-2004 254 31.8% 318 39.8% 11 1.4% 138 17.3% 25 3.0% 54 6.7 800

37
7.0 The physical infrastructure

7.1 Introduction
As we reported in 2004, the physical infrastructure of most institutions is not adequate to
serve the needs of institutions. Lecture rooms, libraries, laboratories, academic staff
working facilities such as offices, recreation facilities for both staff and students,
accommodation for students as well as space for administration are not adequate. It is sad
to report that there has been a drop in available space for each student in classrooms,
libraries and laboratories. This is, in most cases, due to increased enrollment noted earlier
on in this report that was not matched by expansion in space and other facilities. In most
of the institutions, including public ones like Makerere and Kyambogo, there is an urgent
need to renovate dilapidated buildings, laboratories, pathways, sports facilities and other
structures. Institutional heads do not have the money to rehabilitate old buildings or to
put up new ones to match increasing number of students. Yet their ability to get funds
from the government or students is restricted.

38
Table 7.1: Infrastructure in higher education institutions

Institutional Library Space Lab Space Lecture Space Total


Category Enrol
Area Ratio Area Ratio Area Ratio Number
Universities &
Affiliated College 16900 0.22 38188 0.49 44881 0.57 78107
NTCs
4816 0.40 5099 0.42 3709 0.31 12096
Technical
276 0.13 4217 2.02 2223 1.07 2084
Colleges of
Commerce 1850 0.13 1009 0.07 10687 0.74 14479
Co-Operatives
215 0.77 0 0.00 467 1.66 281
Management
155 0.02 283 0.03 1480 0.16 9411
Health
513 0.20 390 0.15 1677 0.65 2590
Agriculture
934 0.72 2441 1.88 2433 1.87 1301
Theology
2442 1.26 496 0.26 4797 2.47 1943
Media
166 0.16 464 0.45 1096 1.07 1027
Hotels &
Tourism 67 0.33 0.00 253 1.23 205
Law
300 0.69 44 0.10 1914 4.42 433
Aviation
- - - - - - -
Meteorology
100 2.86 0 0.00 380 10.86 35
Study Centres
57 0.16 0 0.00 254 0.71 356

Total- 2005 28791 0.23 52631 0.42 76251 0.61 124313

Total- 2004 32336 0.30 57881 0.53 85751 0.79 108295

7.2 Lecture space

The reported total lecture space available for all institutions is 85751 square metres,
which gives a ratio of 0.79 square metres per student. Although this might be an
improvement on last years 0.74 sq.metres, it falls far short of Councils acceptable space
of at least one sq.m (table 7.1 and appendix 10). A large number of education institutions,
especially the private ones, operate in rented premises, which are overcrowded and have

39
very poor facilities. Some of them use temporary shelters as lecture rooms. Government
institutions have facilities dating back to the colonial period when the number of students
was less than ten percent of what it is today. These facilities have neither been renovated
or expanded to match increasing number of students. The result is unbelievable
congestion, which, in some cases, could lead to health problems.

7.3 Library space

For universities, the library is the heartbeat of academic activities of a higher institution
of learning. It is not only where students and staff learn already known knowledge but
also the place where tips for the creation of new ones are found. In modern times, Internet
activity is perfected and available to users in libraries. It is therefore important that
library space, equipment, and collections are up to date. However, as we noted above,
student to book ratios are below the desired 1:40. The computer to student ratio is very
low and, as a result, connectivity to the web and therefore availability of fresh knowledge
to students and staff is not adequate.

There was a drop in space allocated to libraries in the higher education sub sector from
32338 sq.m. in 2004 to 28791 sq.m. in 2005 (table 7.1 and appendix 10). The student t
library rations thus dropped from 0.30 sq.m. to 0.23 sq.m. Available space is lower in
universities than other institutions, being 0.22sq.m.This is far below the acceptable one
square metre per student or the ideal 2.0 to 2.5 square metres. Makerere University is
again a good example of congested facilities but the construction of the new block that
abuts the main library could alleviate the congestion. Like last year when our field survey
found that some institutions had no library space at all, a number of institution have not
given us data on library space or books meaning they have neither. This is a tragedy that
must be addressed immediately

40
7.4 Laboratory space

Fewer than fifty percent of education institutions have laboratories or workshops. This is
not surprising because the majority of institutions are privately owned and, as we pointed
out earlier, many private institutions cherry pick easy to offer disciplines of arts and
humanities instead of science and technology, or a combination of them such as public
institutions do.

The total laboratory space in the higher education sub sector is 52631 square metres
giving a ratio of 0.42.sq.m per student, which is again lower than the NCHE minimum
requirement of at least one square metre per student. Moreover, there was a drop from
2004 when the ratio was 0.42 sq.m. and actual area stood at 57881 square metres. Again,
information reaching our office is that increased enrollment was not matched by increases
in laboratory area.

7.5 Office space

Office space is still a major constraint cutting across all higher education institutions
public and private. There is a shortage of office space for staff, administrators and
students. In a number of institutions including universities, four to ten staff may share an
office. Yet in others, academic staff can access only the common room for private work
and counseling students. In such cases, staff have no privacy to concentrate on their
disciplines or to counsel students.

7.6 Halls of residence

Modern approach to higher education is that the welfare components of higher education
such accommodation, feeding and health should be the responsibility of students and,
where they exist, they should be privatized to entrepreneurs who are likely to run the
better than university academics whose training is not necessarily to look after the social
desires of students. Their training focuses on the creation, storage and delivery of

41
knowledge. However, this issue is still contested by students, parents and students and
Council cannot rule on it.

Where residences exist, they should be good enough to allow students to study well. This
years survey did not include data on accommodation. But the survey conducted in 2004
showed that the total accommodation area was 156,864 sq.m. with 5,044 rooms
accommodating 22,714 students. Theses accommodation facilities had 1,956 toilets,
21,102 bathrooms and, on average each room housed five students. The available student
accommodation therefore fell below comfortable levels of living. Each room at university
level should house no more than two students, should have reading space for the two or
one occupant and should be within a manageable distance from the nearest shower and
toilet facilities. Congestion in residences, if these are run by universities, can lead to
serious discipline problems for the institution including strikes, arson and mental
problems on the part of students.

7.7 Utilities (power and water)

7.7 Sports and recreation facilities

42
8.0 Education facilities

8.1 Introduction

While the number of students enrolled in Ugandas education institutions has grown since
2004, education facilities have not expanded to meet increasing enrollment. If this trend
of neglect continues, we are likely to face a crisis down the road especially when
beneficiaries of Universal Primary Education programme (UPE), reach tertiary levels in
2009. Books, computers, laboratory equipment/instruments and other facilities needed to
enhance learning have not increased to match increasing numbers of students (Table 8.1
and appendices 10 and 12)

8.2 Books.
Although table 7.1 shows that the number of books in the tertiary sub-sector increased
from 2,089,943 in 2004 to 2,218,282 in 2005, the increase did not cope with a much
faster expansion of student enrollment discussed earlier. The overall student to book
ratio dropped from 1:20 in 2004 to 1:18 in 2005 meaning that each student accessed less
books in 2005 than was the case in the previous year. In the universities, the drop was
dramatic from 1:26 to 1:23. The ideal ratio for universities is 1:40, that is, forty books
should be accessible to each registered student (in the library) if all students were
studying as happens just before and during examination period. However, institutes or
schools of theology are well stocked with reading materials. The ratio of forty books to
one student (1:40) is impressive and as good as what Council considers to be ideal.

43
Table 8.1: Number of books in higher education institutions, 2005
Institutional Student/ Student/
Category Books % of total Enrolment book ratio book ratio
Books 2005 2004
Universities &
Affiliated College 1790346 80.7% 78107 23 26
NTCs
133980 6.0% 12096 11 5
Technical
40994 1.8% 2084 20 25
Colleges of
Commerce 63713 2.9% 14479 4 1
Co-
Operatives 6035 0.3% 281 21 26
Management
52421 2.4% 9411 6 11
Health
18979 0.9% 2590 7 7
Agriculture
21343 1.0% 1301 16 13
Theology
79335 3.6% 1943 41 40
Media
4806 0.2% 1027 5 4
Hotels &
Tourism - 0.0% 205 - 3
Law
- 0.0% 433 - 6
Aviation
- - - -
Meteorology
200 0.0% 35 6 -
Study Centres
6130 0.3% 356 17 -

Total 2218282 100.0% 124313 18 20

8.3 Information and communications technology accessibility


There was a modest increase in ICT accessibility in the tertiary sub sector. Institutions
with email addresses increased from 79 (51% in 2004 to 97 (68%) in 2005 (table8.2 and
appendices 10 & 12). Similarly, institutions with websites increased from 34 (21.9%) in
2004 to 42 (26.8%) in 2005. However, the percentage of institutions with both emails
and websites dropped from 27.1% (42) in 2004 to 26.1% (41) in 2005.

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Table 8.2: ICT Accessibility in higher education institutions, 2005
Type of accessibility Institutions
With % tage With % tage Without % tage
2005 2004
E-mail addresses 97 61.8% 79 51.0% 60 38.2%
Websites 42 26.8% 34 21.9% 115 73.2%
Both (email & website) 41 26.1% 42 27.1% 60 38.2%

9.4 Computer access

Computers are the major instruments in ICT accessibility. Yet the number of computers
in our higher education institutions did not increase sufficiently to cope with increasing
number of students. The overall computer to student ratio dropped from 1:35 (i.e. one
computer serving 35 students) in 2004 to 1:47 (one computer serving 47 students) in
2005 (table 8.3). Although the actual number of computers increased from 4442 in 2004
to 5511 in 2005, increased enrollment was not matched by increased acquisition of
computer units. On average, one computer is used by 159 students in NTCs, 67 students
in UTCs, 60 in colleges of commerce, 90 in management institutes and185 in health
medical institutions. Some categories of institutions are better than others. These include
media institutions where one computer serves 12 students, meteology 18 students, Hotel
tourism 21 students and theology 23 students. However, few if any, of the institutions
provide world acceptable computer to student levels. From this survey, it seems that
students studying in co-operative colleges, law and agricultural institutions do not use
computers at all.

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Table 8.3: Computer Access in institutions of higher learning, 2005
Computers

used by Computer/ student


Academi shared used by ratio
Institutional used by % tage Total
Category Total c students admin students Enrol
staff & staff) staff
Universities &
Affiliated College 4710 687 412 616 2649 80.4% 78107 49 Unacceptable

NTCs 84 52 55 6 76 2.3% 12096 159 Unacceptable

Technical 16 3 22 4 31 0.9% 2084 67 Unacceptable


Colleges of
Commerce 345 35 197 68 241 7.3% 14479 60 Unacceptable

Cooperatives 11 0 9 2 0 0.0% 281 0 Unacceptable

Management 67 65 12 42 146 4.4% 9411 90 Unacceptable

Health 27 7 14 9 14 0.4% 2590 185 Unacceptable

Agriculture 0.0% 1301 0 Unacceptable

Theology 128 34 27 13 84 2.6% 1943 23 Acceptable

Media 114 17 7 17 84 2.6% 1027 12 Acceptable


Hotels &
Tourism 28 5 2 12 10 0.3% 205 21 Acceptable

Law - - - - - 433 0 Unacceptable

Aviation - - - - - - -

Meteorology 3 2 2 1 2 0.1% 35 18 Acceptable

Study Centres 6 0 6 0 2 0.1% 356 0 Unacceptable

Total 2005 5511 907 767 790 3297 100.0% 124313 47 Unacceptable

Total 2004 4442 1067 3375 - 3571 - 108295 35 Unacceptable

The number of computers available to 5549 academic staff in the system was 687, giving
a ratio of one computer to every eighty staff. This is unacceptable in this digital age. Each
staff of a tertiary institution, especially a university, MUST own a computer, access the
net both for keeping up with increasing knowledge in that discipline, produce teaching
materials and be able to link with students online. A recent development in institutions

46
around Kampala is the increasing access to the net by financially and intellectually able
students. A number of unprogressive lecturers have been heard saying I hate these
students: they ask too many questions. Well, many of those students may have acquired
more knowledge in the subject than their teachers through connection to the web.

The National Council for Higher Education recommends the mandatory training of all
university staff in computer use for producing lecture materials and to access the net. A
computer loan scheme should be created in every university institution. Current computer
illiteracy in our university institutions is unacceptable in this digital age.

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9.0 Financing of higher education

9.1 Introduction

Higher education in Uganda is financed by the government, the private sector


(parents and entrepreneurs) and donor agencies (mainly overseas agencies like the
Ford, Rockefeller, NUFFIC and others). Public universities receive funds in two
blocks: recurrent and development grants. The Ministry of Education and Sports
gives what it calls a subvention to the institutions. The amount of the subvention
is calculated based on the number of government students and the unit cost which
the Ministry thinks is reasonable for that particular institution. Often the
government unit cost is very high, more than twice the amount of annual fee paid
by a private fee paying student, as it usually includes a substantial proportion or
welfare costs. (World Bank: 2004:6)

Further, government institutions have access to international donor and lender


agencies. Private universities derive most of their income from fees. However
institutions with a religious connection have access to funding from subject
religious organizations. Uganda National Teachers College are funded through
the Teacher Education Department of the Ministry of Education and Sports. Most
of the Other Tertiary Institutions fall under the department of Business,
Technical, Vocational Education and Training (BTVET). Most of these
institutions receive government funding based on inputs (staff, educational
facilities etc) and not what they produce (graduates, finished items etc)

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Table 9.1: Expenditure patterns of universities (16)
Institution Category Annual Percentage
expenditure put on an item
per item
Universities (16)
Books 509692727 0.5%
Equipments 4854251283 4.4%
Furniture 244454320 0.2%
Infrastructure 7882742819 7.2%
Material Supplies 7236214700 6.6%
Other Academic Costs 4842205970 4.4%
Others Student Costs 13925041606 12.7%
Research 7837524431 7.2%
Staff Development 391744902 0.4%
Staff enrolments 50456806575 46.0%
Student Welfare 773085808 0.7%
Students accommodation 208901112 0.2%
Utilities 6738649260 6.1%
Transport 3684664943 3.4%
Total 109585980456

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9.2 The expenditure pattern of universities

Most universities receive far less money than they spend on each student (section
8.3). As a result, their expenditure pattern is influenced by their most urgent needs.
Table 8.1 shows the expenditure pattern of sixteen universities (Makerere University,
Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda Christian University
Mukono, Islamic University in Uganda,Mbale, Gulu University, Kyambogo
University, Nkumba University, Ndejje University, Kampala University, Kabale
University, Bugema University, Aga Khan University, Busoga University, Kumi
University, Bishop Stuart University and Fairland), staff, who must be in place
before an institution can start operating. Staff consumed 46.0% of budgets, followed
by student costs (another demanding and impatient spot) 12.7%, research 7.2%,
infrastructure 7.2%, material supplies 6.6%, utilities 6.1% and equipment 4.4%.
Although expenditure on researchs league position is heartening, the expenditure of
less than one percent (0.5%) on books is depressing, as is .0.4% on staff
development. It is not surprising that libraries in the tertiary sub-sector are so poor
with a few collections published decades ago.

Also depressing is the amount of money spent on each student. Table 8.2 shows total
expenditures and unit expenditures. These unit expenditures of each sub-sector are
low. For example the 1,838,506/= (or about $1000) students spent on a university
student is far lower than preferred unit costs calculated in a MISR study of 2001
(table 8.3 or those of countries that surround Uganda. Indeed the average
expenditure of 2005 of 1,838,508/= and calculated unit cost of 2001 of 1,515,534/=
(Table 8.6) are not very different if the cost of living inflation between 2001 and
2005 was factored in.

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Table 9.2: Expenditure pattern of institutions, 2005

Enrolment Total Annual unit Percentage


Institution Category
expenditure expenditure put on an
2005 cost per item
student
Universities (16) 59606 109,585,980,456 1,838,506 0.5%
NTCs (2) 2066 2,192,801,796 1,061,376 4.4%
Technical (2) 934 503,511,881 539,092 0.2%
Colleges of Commerce (25) 9697 4,228,475,169 436,060 7.2%
Co-Operatives (2) 281 336,715,775 1,198,277 6.6%
Management (7) 7091 4,606,621,850 649,643 4.4%
Health (8) 1343 2,649,410,389 1,972,755 12.7%
Agriculture (4) 1105 432,293,499 391,216 7.2%
Theology (5) 527 373,677,404 709,065 0.4%
Media & Communication (4) 997 701,243,645 703,354 46.0%
Hotels & Tourism (2) 205 1,020,340,435 4,977,270 0.7%
Law - - - 0.2%
Aviation - - - 6.1%
Meteorology - - - 3.4%
Total 83852 126,631,072,299 1,510,174

Figure 8.2: Bar graph showing university expenditure

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9.3 The gap between fees and actual expenditure
Most of the institutions get their sources of income from fees. Private universities
get as much as ninety percent of their income from fees. Public universities are
increasingly getting dependant on fees. Some of them are dependant on fees for as
much as 30% of their income (particularly the Kampala based ones like Makerere
University). However, fees paid for most of the programmes are far lower than
actual costs (Table 8.5). For example a degree in medicine costs about $6000 but
fees paid are $1533; Dentistry about $6000 but fees paid are about $1500 and Basic
Science, $3000 but fees paid are about $800.

A comparison of average fees paid in India show that Uganda fees are far lower.
While fees for a medical degree are about $2000 in Uganda, they are $14000 in
India, Agriculture is $4500 in India but $1200 in Uganda and Dentistry $5000 in
India but $1500 in Uganda. The fifth column of Table 8.3 shows the percentage of
fees paid against the preferred cost of a programme.

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Table 9.3: Unit Costs of 2001/02, fees in Uganda (shillings) and India (US Dollars)

With the exception of Business/commerce, students pay less that 40% of the cost of a
degree as fees to most of the universities.

To deal with this situation, universities just spend less on each item including staff
salaries and benefits (Table 8.1 and 8.2). As a result, the best of our academics leave
the profession for either other jobs in the country or they go overseas to greener
pastures. The major reason why the higher education sub-sectors ability to deliver
quality higher education is deteriorating. Institutions cannot pay staff well or
purchase necessary education inputs.

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The major reason many universities enroll more students than their capacity is to
collect fees from as many students as possible in order to raise money to service the
many demands placed on them. However, such an option always leads to lowering
the delivery of quality higher education and eventual loss of ability to attract good
staff and students. Other Tertiary Institutions especially the BTVETs have not
suffered as much overcrowding as have universities.

To complicate the problem is the poverty of Ugandans. If fees were raised higher
than is currently the case, many children of the poor would not access university
education. But education in Other Tertiary Institutions will still be available if
students can be made to like it. This is where Council hopes to focus attention and
find a solution.

9.4 The National Council for Higher Education came up with some suggestions.

The financing of higher education in Uganda, and indeed elsewhere, is a difficult


problem to resolve. Stakeholders must work jointly to explore options and come up
with solutions. The National Council for Higher Education realized that, it is one of
the major stakeholders in higher education. Others were the government (Ministry
of Education and Sports), the students, parents and economic planners (Ministry of
Finance and Economic Development). The Secretariat of Council wrote a brief to
the Ministry of Education highlighting the problem and giving suggestions for
addressing the problem. Council realized that about 60% of educating a student in
universities pushed to institutions. The institutions do not , in most cases, meet the
expenses. They just cut on educational facilities, staffing and infrastructure. In turn,
this lowers the quality of higher education. In the brief, Council felt that the burden
of financing higher education should be shared by all stakeholders by adopting the
following strategies:

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(i) Gradual raising of fees to cover at least 50% of the cost of educating a
student
The first strategy would be to gradually raise fees to cover the cost of
educating students in a period of three years. In this proposal, the scenario
would be as indicated in table 8.4, if current unit costs were used. This
scenario would just buy good higher education but not the best.

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