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Symptom of Symptom of

Vitamin Function Food sources


deficiency excess

Vitamin Helps produce Dairy products, Anaemia Uncommon


B12 red blood cells fish, eggs, liver, Slowness
Maintains in thinking,
healthy nervous meat
emotional
system chaos, poor
Promotes memory
appetite Weakened
Helps in sensation
protein metabolism

Vitamin C Helps Citrus fruits Scurvy Abdomi minerals. The body needs to obtain appropriate vitamins from food to maintain the normal
synthesize collagen; (mandarin, Gum nal pain functions of cells and organs, and to promote growth and development. Any lack or excess
promotes the growth orange, inflammation Diarrhe amounts of vitamins in the body may have side effects.
and repair of cells, grapefruit, and bleeding, a
gum, teeth, blood lemon), fall of teeth Kidney
vessels and bones strawberry, Susceptibi Functions and Categories
stone
Helps healing black current, lity to skin
after operation and kiwi fruit, bleeding, burst Vitamins have various functions that help to regulate metabolism, to prevent
injury tomato, green of capillary chronic diseases (such as heart disease and cancer), and to maintain normal
Helps calcium leafy vessels
and iron absorption vegetables, Weakness,
Should we take vitamin supplements? appetite, mental health, and immunity.
Enhances green pepper fatigue Vitamins can basically be classified into the following two categories:
immunity Bone There are various kinds of vitamin supplements (1) Fat-soluble vitamins
pain, swollen
and aching Excessive fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and will not be
We should maintain a balanced diet and should not joints
be food picky. Healthy eating eliminated from the body
food pyramid provides general guideline for healthy eating and you will absorb (2) Water-soluble vitamins
sufficient and appropriate vitamins from your daily intake. There is no need to Include Vitamins B and C, and dissolve in water
take extra nutritional supplements to stay healthy. Excessive amount of water-soluble vitamins are excreted through
urine and sweat
If you need to have diet control because of any disease, you should consult a doctor or The amount of vitamins in food is affected by the ways in which food is
dietitian. Never take any vitamin pill or supplement on your own. stored
available on the market. Should we take these tonics Include Vitamins A, D, E and K; dissolve in fats; and are to maintain good health?
absorbed with the help of fats that are in the diet
or cooked. Vitamins A and C and some Vitamins B can be destroyed under strong light, so food rich in those vitamins should be stored in dim places or in the fridge.
Vitamin C and some Vitamins B are soluble in water and can be destroyed
Student Health Service under heat, and thus we should avoid Department of Health (1) washing them too much
www.studenthealth.gov.hk2014 (2) cooked them too long time
Symptom of Symptom of Symptom of Symptom of
Vitamin Function Food sources Vitamin Function Food sources deficiency
deficiency excess excess
Vitamin A Maintains Dairy products, Night Dry, Folic acid Helps Dairy products, Anaemia Uncommon
eye health cod liver oil, blindness, dry scaly, peeling, produce cells liver, Decreased
Promotes liver, dark green eyes and itchy skin, and red blood whole-wheat immunity
growth and and yellow Dry skin rash cells cereals, beans, Fatigue
development, vegetables and Stomach Hair loss Promote banana Stomach
maintains healthy fruits discomfort Poor s growth and discomfort
bones and teeth Poor appetite, fatigue
Enhances reproductive
growth Vomiting,
the protection and stomach functions
Weak
regeneration of discomfort Vitamin B1 Helps whole-wheat Beriberi Uncommon
cells and mucous bones and teeth carbohydrate and cereals, fish, Listlessnes
Liver
membrane injury protein meat, various s, insomnia,
Maintains Headache metabolism, thus vomiting
enabling the body vegetables, Nervous
healthy , bone pain
respiratory and to get energy from beans, yeast system
Nervousn
intestinal tracts food problems,
ess, irritability Helps depression
Maintain
maintain normal Growth
healthy hair, nails
function of the retardation in
and skin heart, muscles and
children
digestive system
Promotes
growth and
development
Vitamin B2 Helps in Dairy products, Inflammat Uncommon
Vitamin D Helps Egg yolk, liver, Children: Calcifie carbohydrate, eggs, meat, green ion of the oral
body absorb cod liver oil, fish. rickets d cartilage protein and fat cavity, mouth
metabolism, leafy vegetables, corner and
and utilize Our skins also Adults: High liver, whole-
calcium and produces Vitamin calcium level enables the body to tongue
osteoporosis
phosphorus, so D when exposed to in the blood get energy from wheat cereals, Itchy, dry
as to maintain sunlight causes food nuts, yeast and bloodshot
bones, teeth abnormal heart Maintains eyes
and brain beat and healthy mouth, lips, Dry skin
healthy damage to tongue, and eyes Weakness
Maintains organs such as Maintains
normal calcium kidneys healthy skin, hair
Vomitin and nails
level in blood g, diarrhea Vitamin B3 Helps in Dairy products, Dyspepsia Stomach
Sore eyes carbohydrate and Rough and discomfort,
fish, meat,
Itchy fat metabolism, inflamed skin vomiting
enabling the body poultry,
skin
vegetables,
Vitamin E Maintains Green leafy New born Low to get energy from whole-wheat Listlessnes Listlessn
normal conditions vegetables, whole- infants: thyroxine level food cereals s ess, headache,
of cells, and haemolytic Headache Regulates
healthy skin and wheat cereals, anaemia , dizziness, cholesterol level fatigue
tissues nuts, egg yolk Adults: fatigue Maintains
Protects red weakness Stomach healthy skin,
blood cells discomfort, mucous
Antioxidati
poor appetite membranes, tongue
on
Enhance and the digestive
immunity system
Vitamin B6 Helps in Dairy products, Anaemia Limb
protein metabolism meat, whole- Nervousne numbness,
Helps ss, insomnia, partial loss of
Vitamin K Helps Green leafy Uncontrol Can lead to produce red blood wheat cereals,
blood clotting, depression sensation
vegetables, soya bleeding from liver damage cells, hormones, green leafy Muscle
prevent over
beans. The human wounds due to enzymes and vegetables, fish cramps
bleeding
body can also clotting antibodies
Maintains
health of the produce Vitamin K difficulty Helps in
liver through germs in transmission of
the colon nervous impulse