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Study on Value Chain Analysis of Milk & Milk Products

(A paper for partial fulfillment of internal assessment of Agribusiness Marketing)

Report Submitted to
Mr. Nanu Jha
Adjunct Professor

Report Prepared by
Mr Basudev Sharma
M.Sc.Ag. (Agribusiness Management)
1st Semester, Roll No.:- 11
Cell: +977-9855068311

Himalayan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology

Faculty of Science and Technology
Kathmandu, Nepal
July, 2017
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
AI Artificial Insemination
AICL Agriculture Input Corporation Limited
CLA Community Livestock Assistant
CLDP Community Livestock Development Project
DADO District Agriculture Development Office
DDC Dairy Development Corporation
DDC District Development Committee
DDCU District Dairy Cooperative Union
DLSO District Livestock Services Office
DOLS Department of Livestock Services
LSC Livestock Service Centre
MoAD Ministry of Agriculture Development
MPC Milk Producing Cooperatives
Mt Metric tons
NARC Nepal Agriculture Research Council
NDDB National Dairy Development Board
NPSC National Programme Steering Committee
PDA Private Dairy Association
RVL Regional Veterinary Laboratory
SNF Solid Not Fat
VDC Village Development Committee
VAHW Village Animal Health Worker
MoF Ministry of Finance
SMP Skim Milk Powder
WMP Whole Milk Powder

1. Introduction

Dairy farming has been in practice in Nepal for centuries and it used to be a family business
mostly for household consumption. The rapid urbanization and massive migration of people
from rural areas to urban centers in search of better opportunities has its impact on dairy
farming as well, like other sectors. Recent years have seen increasing demand of milk & milk
products at a very high rate due to the high rate in urbanization. The traditional approach of
dairy farming can no longer meet the growing demand of milk and milk-based products
giving rise to new and innovative approaches for more and better production and marketing
arrangements. Despite of high potentials for the development of dairy sector, Nepal has not
been able to meet its domestic demand of milk & milk products. Billions of rupees are
siphoned out of the country every year in importation of milk or other dairy-based products.
Commercial development of dairy farming is, therefore, a must if Nepal has to fully tap this
potential and become self-reliant on dairy products.

In the last decade farmers intended to raise buffalo because buffalo milk is more liked by the
hotels, tea shops as it contents higher fat and Solid Not Fat (SNF) that provides them
opportunity to earn more by selling ghee and Khowa (skimmed milk). Moreover, farmers get
more dung per unit buffalo to run bio-gas plant. Majority of the herd raiser kept local breeds
like Lime and Parkote but some innovative farmers were keeping cross breed of locals and
Murrah or Murrah breeds.

In addition to milk there are other reasons of keeping cattle. First, cows are considered holy
animal whose milk, urine and dung are required in all religious activities of Hindus and
second, farmers need ox as draft animal. Majority of cattle in those districts are local breed.
Some innovative farmers have started keeping improved breeds such as Jersey and Holstein
in recent past and they are getting popularity for their higher milk yield. Male calf of these
improved breed are not fit for using as draft animal. They are kept for breeding purpose

Ministry of Agriculture Development has been formulating business policy of milk & milk
product in various ways. Agriculture Perspective Plan (1995- 2015) highlighted livestock as
one of the most important subsectors. Developing livestock pockets and bulk production of
animal products was the basic approach of APP. National Agricultural Policy 2004 has
targeted to change the subsistence based agriculture to commercial one to improve the
living condition of the growers in the sustainable manner. Agri-Business Policy 2006 also
emphasized on promoting subsistence based agriculture including livestock keeping system
to commercial one through public-private-cooperative partnership. Milk product is
considering as one of the commodity to be promoted for import substitution. Similarly,

Dugdha Bikas Niti 2064 (Dairy Development Policy 2008) is the most specialized policy
document for the development of milch animals and milk & milk products in Nepal.

Farmers of not only in rural area but also in surrounding of urban area have keeping large
number of milch animal and producing milk accordingly. In rural area farmers have been
keeping buffalo/cow for milk production, majority of them producing milk for family
consumption. One of the obstacles in developing this sub-sector is lack of coordination
among the value chin actors. Local milk collectors compete among themselves to get milk
from farmers using different techniques to influence them. Delay payment was also being
one of the problems. There are no institutions to check whether the feed ingredients and
veterinary medicines sold in local market are of acceptable quality. Many farmers are not
aware of the modern management practices, often resulting to heavy losses.

Milk & milk products have high potential in Nepalese markets. Some of the products are
being unofficially exported to India. There is a high scope of further increasing milk
production provided that improved breeds, quality feed and improved management
practices are put in place. This study has identified major opportunities and bottlenecks in
the development of milk & milk products and has suggested ways and means for the
sustainable development of this sub-sector.

2. Objective

The overall objective of this study was value chain analysis of milk & milk products at
farmer's to processor or even consumer level and suggest ways and means to improve chain
efficiency. Specific objectives of this study were;

to analyze policy environment for the milk & milk products sub-sector development.
to identify milk & milk products value chain stakeholders including service providers,
producers, processors/traders, enablers and their capabilities;
to map value chains of the milk & milk products sub-sector; and
to estimate value addition in each level of value chain

3. Methodology

Different study reports published by different institutions have been taken as reference
documents for this study. The secondary information was the main basis for the study. Other
methods of collecting information were web browsing. The desk study also collected facts
and figures from the published documents of the concern organizations.

Collected secondary information was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. After

tabulation of data and facts from various sources, simple mathematical and statistical tools

were used in data analysis. Production and productivity, inputs used in production, cost of
production and processing, volume, buying and selling price, market situation, trade and
value addition in each level were calculated.

4. Components of Value Chain Analysis

Constraints &

Value Chain Actor's

Mapping Relationship
Value Chain
Structure Economic


5. Value Chain Stakeholders

5.1 Public sector

Department of Livestock Services (DOLS) is public extension organization with strong
network throughout the country. Under the DOLS, there are several organizations and
programs responsible in the development and quality control of the livestock sector. Among
them District Livestock Services Offices (DLSOs) are the most important organization. Public
extension services including dissemination of technology, information and training for
increasing livestock products production, income generation and sustainability, are
conducted by 75 DLSOs and their sub-centres. Extension activities get technical supports
from related sister organizations in the different districts and also from regional and national
level programs. DLSOs have collaboration with public, private and nongovernment

The district level extension programs are supervised, monitored and evaluated at regional
level by the Regional Livestock Services Directorate (RLSD) and at national level by the
Department of Livestock Services. Dairy Development Board is responsible to design, review
and amend policy on dairy sector while DDC is semi-government commercial organization on
dairy business.
5.2 Private sector
5.2.1 Processor/traders: Private dairies were the pioneering organization in milk business
having started their business from low investment because they pay farmers in fifteen
day's interval but receive cash immediately from the consumers.
5.2.2 Agro-vet shops: They supply tools, instruments, livestock feeds, medicine, vitamins,
minerals and fodder seeds to the farmers. These shops import tools, medicines and vital
feed ingredients form India, often informally.
5.2.3 Informal traders: Informal traders supply improved or cross breed of cow and buffalo
either from domestic source or import breeds from Indian Border side. In recent times,
farmers are using informal trade while introducing cross or improved cattle breed from
India because India has banned to export live animals as well as milk products.
5.2.4 Feed companies: These companies are especially supplying locally prepared feeds or
concentrates for cattle and buffalo. Farmers buy vitamins/minerals from agro-vets, bran
(Choker) from the local millers and prepare feed by mixing homemade cereal/legume by-
5.2.5 NGOs: There are no NGO who directly support dairy sector but Community Livestock
Development Programme (CLDP Asian Development Bank) supports capacity building of
government staffs, private dairies, dairy cooperatives and dairy infrastructures
development such as chilling vats, de/freezes and milk cans.
5.2.6 Other input providers: Tool suppliers and repair shops supply various designs of pump
sets, deep/shallow tube-well, grass chopping machine, electric motor, tractor, thresher,
power tiller, dairy equipment and accessories and also provide much needed
repair/maintenance services.
5.2.7 Central Dairy Cooperative Union: Promote dairy cooperatives, provide training, help
establish processing factories and promote operation under cooperative.
5.2.8 Nepal Dairy Association: Problem identification, extend dairy business and promote dairy
product diversification, code of practice monitoring.
5.2.9 National Cooperatives Development Board: Highlights policy problem and recommend to
amend, promotion of dairy cooperatives, establishment of dairy processing factories and
their operation under cooperatives system.
6. Value Chain Functions

6.1 Production, Collection and Transport

Villagers usually milk their cattle/buffalo twice daily (morning and evening). The milk is
immediately sent to the nearby collection centres, which collect milk on behalf of the co-
operative or private dairy. They collected between 6-8 am of every morning and 6-7 pm in
the evening. The collection centre carries out quality/purity (fat and SNF content) and
quantity check and sends the collected milk to nearby chilling centres where both cow and
buffalo milk is mixed up. Collection centres use ice cubes in the milk to maintain the
temperature of the milk in transit to chilling centre. The milk is also sold to agents, who work
on behalf of the private dairies or cooperatives. In most of the cases these agents called
Dudhia (vender) collect milk at farm gate, transport via bicycle/motorcycle and sell to the
consumers, private dairies or DDC's chilling centre.

Means of milk transportation are head load, bicycle, motor cycle, tempos and tanker.
Dudhias or vendors use motor cycle, private dairies use vans and DDC uses milk carrying
taker. In majority of places, metal cans are used in carrying milk. The other utensils used in
transportation include jars and plastic gallons.

6.2 Chilling

The chilling centres use bulk coolers/chillers to bring down the milk temperature to 4-5C
that prolongs keeping quality of milk for upto 72 hours so that the chilling centre send the
milk to processing plants safely or in insulated tankers/lorries, which maintain the
temperature of milk at around 4C.

6.3 Processing

The survey result shows that around 40 percent milk is sold directly to the consumer and rest
60 percent is processed. There are organized and unorganized sectors involved in milk
processing. Unorganized sector consists of the local sweet makers, hotels and restaurants,
and tea shops that make varieties of traditional milk products. These sectors usually have
small shops and prepare products as per local demand where they use traditional methods
and often have very small shelf life.

The organized sector consists of private dairies, DDC and cooperatives. They processed
locally popular products (butter, creams, ice-cream, Chhurpi, chocolates, cheeses, Skim Milk
Powder, Whole Milk Powder, baby foods etc). Their products generally consist of more milk-
products than liquid milk as there is higher margin in those products.

6.4 Trading
Milk products are categories into three forms. Refrigeration is not required for ultra-heat
treated (UTH) milk, skim milk powder (SMP), butter and ghee. The chilled products are
butter, cheese, pasteurized milk which requires refrigeration but not at freezing
temperature. The frozen products like ice-cream, paneer, mozzarella cheese which requires
freezing temperature.
There are various actors for milk and milk products marketing. They are private dairies,
directly milk selling farmers, Dudhia (vendors), tea shops, sweet houses, hotels and
restaurants. Some of the farmers sell milk and homemade Dahi (curd) at nearby hotels, tea
shops as well as sweet houses in a retail prices. Such unorganized milk selling system is
common in the two districts.
Even large processors perform both wholesale and retail functions. Daily sale volume
depends upon price and quality of the products. Generally each organization needs to follow
code of practices of keeping a milk product list with retail price which is compiled in table 6.
Prices are determined by the private dairy association; however, some of the traders do not
follow it. Dudhia are unorganized but highly reliable retailers of fluid milk to the consumers.
Such vendors sell milk in retail form to the consumer, tea shop, hotels and restaurants, office
quarter etc. Milk supplied by some of the vendors is low quality as they add water in the milk
that they buy from the farmers to make extra income. Some of them maintain quality and
maintain good relation with consumers to make their business sustainable.
7. Costs, Returns & Value Addition

7.1 Costs and Returns

Cost of production of raw milk depends upon several factors including type of milch animal,
type of feed given to the animal, and management practices. Cattle are more efficient milk
producer than buffalo by about 30%, primarily due to the fact that cattle have shorter
calving interval (465 days) and a longer lactation length (299-325 days) whereas the buffalo
has a longer calving interval (357-624 days) and a shorter lactation length (215-356 days).
The major cost items in raising milch animal are fodder/grass, concentrate, medicines, labor
and fixed costs comprising purchase price of animal, shed, utensils and equipment.

7.2 Value Addition

Value addition starts from the farm-gate and continues until the product reaches to
consumer. Usually Rs 1 to Rs 5 is added by transporting milk to collection center depending
upon the distance. Collection center performs sample testing to determine the quality of
milk including fat and SNF percent upon which the price of milk is determined. Those centers

receive milk from farmers and store it until transported to chilling center or processors'
factory or shop. Value addition is estimated at Rs 6.00 per liter by collection center. Chilling
plants receive milk from various sources including collection center, farmer and Dudhiya.
Major cost items of chilling center are transportation, management, quality control and
chilling at right temperature until supplied to milk supply schemes, processors or shop
keepers. Processing in the first stage involves from simply boiling to pasteurization, packing
and labeling. Processors spend about Rs 4 per liter of milk and make a net profit of Rs 2.0 per
liter in an average. Finally, retailers or sales booth add value of Rs 5 per liter including their
profit of Rs 3.

Table: 1 Value addition (NRs) and share per litre of whole milk
Value Addition Dairy Depot
SN Producer Collector Processer Total
Parameter or Vendors
1 Production cost 23.75 23.75
2 Buying price 28.00 34.00 40.00
3 1.00 2.50 1.00 1.00 5.50
+transport cost
Chilling, processing
4 3.00 1.00 4.00
grading, labeling
5 Total cost 24.75 30.50 38.00 42.00
6 Added cost (NRs) 24.75 2.50 4.00 2 33.25
7 Added cost (percent) 74.50 7.50 12.00 6.00 100.00
8 Sale price (NRs) 28.00 34.00 40.00 45.00
9 3.25 3.50 2.00 3.00 11.75
(sales price -cost)
Profit in terms of sales
10 11.60 10.30 5.00 6.70
price (%)
Profit in terms of cost
11 13.10 11.50 5.30 7.10
12 Added profit (%) 27.70 29.90 17.00 25.50 100.00

There is high competition among the milk selling shop/booth, which makes milk price
competitive. The same, however, is not true with the processed product as they are
processed into different product and quality. This is the reason that there are mushrooming
traders that process milk into yoghurt, Khowa (skimmed milk), ice cream and Paneer (soft
cheese) at local level. Details of costs and benefit in preparing those products are presented
in Annex Table 3. The profit margin of the processors, however, is dependent on seasons. For
example sales of ice cream, yoghurt etc. is high during summer season and sales of sweets

and Paneer is higher during festival season and months when there are religious functions
such as marriage. Another reason for higher price of those products is risks associated with
the products. Cost of production and prices also differ by location and type/source (cow and
buffalo). Cow milk is normally cheaper by 3-5 rupees per liter. Similarly, it is cheaper in
remote villages compared to suburbs as cost of production is lower there owing to cheaper
labor and grass or fodder.

7.3 Value Chain Maps

The stakeholders involved in dairy business from the producers to retailers, linkages among
them, their major functions and value addition in each level are depicted in Figure 1 to 3.
Figure 1 shows product flow together with its different forms, figure 2 shows major market
outlets and volume of products flow and finally figure 3 depicts value addition and prices of
the products at different levels.

Figure 1: General Value Chain Map of Dairy Sub-sector

Figure 2: Value Chain Map of Dairy Sub-Sector: market outlet and volume

Figure 3: Product prices at various levels

Figure 4 Chain governance and market information flow

Flow of different breeds of cattle, milk & milk products information

Flow of orders, preferences and money



Milk Collectors

Cattle Growers


Pet Vet, Agro Cattle Govt Fund, Training

Vet Shops Raisers & Technical Services

Figure 5: Milk Value Chain Actors

Public & Private
sector goods &
Service providers
Individual Traders Coop/ Shops & regulatory
Buyers, Small Large, Groups Retailers
Neighbor Mobile etc
Training, Vet &
AI, Production &
Processing Inputs,
Consultants etc


8. Pricing and Payment System

Figure 4 depicts flow of information on specific inputs such as availability and prices of feeds
and concentrates, tools, equipment, and technical knowhow on commercial cattle farming.
Such information are available from DLSO's veterinary division, extension program as well as
RLSD's close monitoring. Likewise, milk producing cooperatives provide information on
inputs and services required to raise cattle and collect milk. These kinds of information flow
takes place mostly informally, verbal and occasionally written. The broken arrow shows poor
relation among actors while solid one shows strong relationship.

Milk processers, wholesaler and retailer are price taker in raw milk, while they fix the price of
milk-products. Private Dairy Association (PDA) is active in determining price of fluid milk.
Each of the dairy outlets is required to display product prices in front of their shop/booth.
Ultimately prices are based on the prices set by central office of the DDC. DDC determines
prices based on the recommendation of price determination and review committee who

annually reviews price of each dairy product in each market channel. Its regional office
follows the decision for the region which is normally followed by other dairies with minor

The study found uniform payment system adopted by all agencies. Milk Producing
Cooperatives or Dairies provided "Pass Book" for the sellers. Agent of respective organization
fills the amount as soon as quality test and volume are finalized. Based on the milk quality,
same agent or staffs provides cash payments fortnightly. Stakeholders reported that there
was no payment problem, except in limited cases. Large scale private dairies follow same
payments wherever the client demands cash. Usually farmers demands money at the end of
the month. Sometimes they provide small advance to enable farmers to buy inputs.

The major problem in this sub-sector is financing to buy animals. As part o relief the DDC has
introduced "Gai Mai Programme" with the financial support of private commercial banks.
However, this program has not been popular for three reasons. First, a farmer willing to
borrow to buy a cow has to provide enough collateral for security. Second, he has to pay
insurance premium which adds to his cost. Third, there is no extra incentive in borrowing
under this program.

9. Possible Areas of Intervention

Basically dairy farming in Nepal comprises with small holder farmers. Recently there is a
transformation from subsistence to commercial dairy farming in various places, especially
along the major highways. Development in transportation sector and use of modern dairy
equipment/facility such as chilling vats and increased awareness among consumers has
opened up new markets for dairy products. Those factors changed Nepal's status from milk
holiday to milk deficit. While demand is ever increasing supply side could not respond
equally. The problems impending the development of dairy sub-sector are multifaceted.
There are no resource centres to supply quality animal. NARC and government farms sell
improved breed calves but that is too small number compared to the demand. People rely
on either cross-bread available from other farmers or imported from India. As Government
of India does not allow export of dairy animal, especially improved breeds, farmers have to
resort to middleman/agent to import the animals that adds in prices of animals.

Another problem in this sector is lack of financing. Most of the farmers are marginal small
farmers that do not have capacity to buy good quality breed. Finance institutions are often
reluctant to invest in animal purchase either for the lack of collateral or farmers' reluctance
to pay for the insurance. As part of relief the DDC has introduced "Gai Mai Programme" with
the financial support of private commercial banks. However, this program has not been
popular as the banks do not relax most of their requirement for financing under this program

also. Because of these and several other problems the dairy sub-sector requires some
interventions as mentioned in the following sections.

9.1 Short-term interventions

Train growers on herd management, commercial raising and quality management;

Support exiting MPCs and its union on milk based business plan.
Strengthen private dairy association and dairy cooperative union as leading institutions
that would assist institutionalizing public/community/private enterprises on
coordinated supply chain in dairy sector.
DDC/private dairies should arrange collection of milk in the evening also by arranging
additional milk tanker.
Technical study on performance of cross breed and improved breed over local ones and
that of cow versus buffalo is required to determine efficiency in production.
Joint /multi-lateral workshop with the dairy actors.
Discourage vendors and farmers for unhygienic as well as poor quality milk selling.

9.2 Medium-term interventions

Revolving fund support for some of the cooperatives and growers to buy milch animal,
shed improvements and payment to farmers at regular basis.
Development and management of feed and forage resource base.
DLSO need to strengthen existing resource centre in a rapid way so that these pocket/
resource centers would fulfill regional demand of cross/improved breeds.
Launching consumer/grower awareness/education program.
Plan program that can raise awareness of the private dairies on sanitary maintenance,
packaging and labeling activities;
Intensive support on extension of artificial insemination and encouraging private
institution for AI support for sustainability of the program;
Utilization of village animal health workers and those trained in performing AI through
initiating some incentive system;
Capital investment for modern dairy equipment, milk storage and converting milk in to
longer shelf life products;
Improve milk availability (milk in all places, always in good condition), in all time; and
Compilation and dissemination of sub-sector related data.

9.3 Long-term Interventions

Need to go in local processing rather than supply chilled milk to other dairies;
Establishing bulk milk processor facility in the remote area;

Prohibit informal traders (of live animal) at the border side and make arrangement to
import live animals legally;
Strengthen private dairies, private farm establishment and develop its support
Insure that the National Dairy Policy is implemented strictly and its timely amendment is
done to support business enabling environment.

10. Summary and Conclusion

Dairy sub-sector is considered as the backbone of rural economy of Nepal as it creates flow
of about Rs 10,200 million from urban to rural areas per annum and is one of the major
sources of rural employment. About 1.72 million mt milk is produced in the country out of
which nearly 15 percent enters in to formal market. While demand of milk and milk products
has been increasing by 8 percent, supply has been increasing by about 5 percent only. There
are 1,855 primary dairy cooperatives and 34 district cooperatives engaged in dairy value

Domestic milk supply is not uniform as dry (September to January) season: flush (February to
August) season milk production ratio is 1:3. This creates surplus of milk during September to
January. The excess milk supply in flush season was being converted to SMP, stored and
converted to fluid milk in lean season. Because of large price fall in international market,
industries used imported milk products resulting in reduced sales of domestic production of
milk products, especially SMP and butter. The devastating earthquake on 25th April 2015
also had negative impact on the dairy market. The combined effect resulted in to market glut
of milk in September 2015.

Keeping a lactating cow is said to be economically more beneficial than keeping a lactating
buffalo in terms of benefit from milk. Hence, there is higher scope to changing herd
composition by replacing buffalo with milking cow. However, buffalo can be equally or more
beneficial if its milk, manure and price of male calf are counted. A study is required to
quantify the cost benefits of cow vs buffalo in existing and improved management

Milk producing cooperatives, DDC, private dairies, and vendors are collecting around 30
percent of total milk production in the morning time through 60 collection centres. However,
there is very little milk collection in the evening, mostly from nearby areas. Existing milk
collection system is competitive in the city area because of rising number of dairies and
newly introduction of DDC in the region. Because several production pockets have poor
linkage, five to eight hours' time lag is estimated in reaching the milk from milking place to
major processing places.

Huge differences were seen in the amount of milk produced between the flush and lean
season, which is caused by the availability of cheaper forage during the flush production
season. Price differentiation (higher price in lean season) may be one of the ways to
encourage farmers to increase production in lean season when there is always deficit of milk.
Dudhia (vendors) are important actors of milk marketing. But they often offer lower prices to
the growers and sell low quality milk at high prices to consumers. Those selling milk to Indian
dairies are also making more profit margins which do not pass to producers.

The dairy entrepreneurs need training on business skill development such as business plan
preparation, maintaining proper backward and forward linkages, understanding market
signals, improved shed management and disease management. It is important that standard
packaging and labeling practices be enforced to maintain quality of the milk and milk
products. A system of quality check of all milk and milk product offered by the market actors
is essential. Activeness of Department of Food and Quality Control (DFTQC) at regional level
are required to discourage malpractices in manufacturing and selling milk products.

Following are the actions suggested to avoid milk holiday and to promote dairy business:

Initiate realistic valuation of butter and other milk products often under valuated by
importer for the purpose of import duty and also increase rate of customs duty on
import of milk products;
Strictly check quality of milk products being imported, and do not allow import of
substandard products;
Check unofficial import of raw milk from southern border points and also make sure
that collection centers do not accept milk being unofficially imported from porous
southern border;
Initiate production of baby food, ready mix coffee, dairy whitener etc. in addition to
present products;
Go for national campaign to use domestic products as long as they are available;
Reward dairy industries that use only domestic SMP to prepare fluid milk and milk
Run school milk program and make it mandatory to use domestic milk in government
offices, workshops and meetings;
Provide refrigerators to all retail milk outlets to make them able to sale milk round the
Adjust milk pricing policy to allow higher price of fresh milk in lean season than in flush
season as cost of production is higher in lean season; and
Provide incentive to organizations producing SMP in the country during flush season.


Value Chain Status of Dairy in Far Western Development Region, August, 2012, Project for
Agriculture Commercialization & Trade (PACT), Kathmandu, Nepal
Value Chain Analysis of Dairy Enterprises, Mr. Sichan Shrestha, Mr. Nirajan Bhattarai, and
Gopi Paudyal, December 2014, WWF Hariyo Ban

Milk Marketing Strategy Study in Nepal, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), 10
January 2017