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Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Jadugoda; a case study

Jadugoda; A case study


Achyutuni Sri Harsha1,2, Ankur Choudhury1, Mohammed Rizwanullah1
1
B.Tech, Mechanical engineering, School of Engineering, Bangalore, Amrita Vishwa
Vidyaapeetham
2
Mail to: achyuthuni.sri.harsha@gmail.com

Abstract
To understand the topic as complex as Jadugoda, a basic understanding of what is radiation,
how it effects humans and surroundings, how much is harmful, etc are dealt with. Limits of
radiation, basic mechanism in which radiation affects the body, and background radiation are
touched upon.

Using this background, a literature survey on radiation levels and general health at Jadugoda
is carried out, and popular myths are dispelled.

Figure 1: Jadugoda map showing Rakha railway station and tailing ponds.

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Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Jadugoda; a case study

Acknowledgements

Dr K S Parthasarathy; Ex-secretary of AERB


A Maruthi Ram; Sr manager, NFC, Hyderabad
Dr. Jalandhar Pradhan; Lecturer, NIT, Rorukela
H. R. Bhat; Chief Engineer ( Health Physics), BARC
Dr. K.C. Pillai; Environmental Consultant.
A.H.Khan, Environmental Assessment Division, BARC.

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Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Jadugoda; a case study

Contents
Abstract ...................................................................................................................................... 1
List of Figures ............................................................................................................................ 4
Need for Nuclear power ............................................................................................................. 5
Nuclear fission power Plants ..................................................................................................... 6
Advantages ............................................................................................................................. 6
Disadvantages ........................................................................................................................ 6
Nuclear power in India........................................................................................................... 6
Uranium ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Uranium Refining and Conversion: ....................................................................................... 8
Need for Uranium mining in India............................................................................................. 9
Uranium deposits of India .................................................................................................... 12
Mining in Jadugoda.................................................................................................................. 13
Types of radiation .................................................................................................................... 15
1. Non-Ionising ................................................................................................................. 15
2. Ionising ......................................................................................................................... 15
Radiation due to mining ....................................................................................................... 16
Units of Measurement .............................................................................................................. 17
Effect of radiation on humans .................................................................................................. 19
Radiation exposure............................................................................................................... 19
Causes of radiation damage ................................................................................................. 19
1. Cellular damage ..................................................................................................... 19
2. Radiation effects .................................................................................................... 21
Radiation exposure limits ........................................................................................................ 23
Background Radiation ............................................................................................................. 25
Cosmic radiation .............................................................................................................. 25
Radon ............................................................................................................................... 25
Food water human body................................................................................................... 26
Artificial radiation ................................................................................................................ 26
Medical ............................................................................................................................ 26
Atmospheric nuclear testing ............................................................................................ 26
Nuclear accidents ............................................................................................................. 26
Nuclear industry ............................................................................................................... 26

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Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham Jadugoda; a case study

Terrestrial sources ............................................................................................................ 27


Location ................................................................................................................................... 28
Population, literacy and general information ....................................................................... 28
Health status ............................................................................................................................. 30
Quality of Water .................................................................................................................. 32
Studies by the Government ...................................................................................................... 35
Radiological Conditions in Uranium Mill ........................................................................... 38
Conclusion ............................................................................................................................... 43
Appendix .................................................................................................................................. 44
References ................................................................................................................................ 49

List of Figures

Figure 1: Jadugoda map showing Rakha railway station and tailing ponds. ............................. 1
Figure 2: Annual average concentration of radium-226 in effluent released to the environment
in McArthur river mines, 2012 .................................................................................................. 7
Figure 3: World availability of Uranium ................................................................................. 10
Figure 4: The relationship between types of radiation and the electromagnetic spectrum ...... 15
Figure 5: Background radiation in India .................................................................................. 27
Figure 6: Survey area in Kerala, India ..................................................................................... 27
Figure 7: Terrestrial background radiation (Non-cosmic) ....................................................... 27
Figure 8: Jadugoda and neighbouring villages ........................................................................ 28
Figure 9: Percentages of diseases as seen in a survey ............................................................. 30
Figure 10: Histogram of U in ground water............................................................................. 32
Figure 11: Comparison of uranium concentration in drinking water in different countries .... 33
Figure 12: Uranium mill tailings spill over during flash floods at Jadugoda. ......................... 43
Figure 13: Uranium Production and Requirements for Major Producing and Consuming
Countries .................................................................................................................................. 44
Figure 14: Tailing ponds and UCIL ......................................................................................... 48

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Need for Nuclear power Jadugoda; a case study

Need for Nuclear power


India, the second largest populated nation in the world with more than a billion people has an
economy which is growing at nearly 8% over the last decade and about 6% on the average
since her independence in 1947. It is expected that India's economy will go at more or less
the same rate even till 2050, which will naturally demand enormous amounts of energy. This
is also highlighted by the fact that globally, the nations with improved quality of life, as
reflected by the larger value of the human development index, consume more amount of
energy per capita.

Though India is presently the fourth largest electricity producing country in the world, her per
capita energy consumption (500 kWh) is rather small, which is only about 1/2 of China, th
of World average and about 1/13th of developed nations. This is also reflected by the low life
expectancy in India and other similar nations. However, India aspires to reach at least the
global average by 2050, which would require her to produce about 1300 GW of electricity,
ten times more than the present value of about 130 GW. Of the present electricity generation,
about 80% of the resources is fossil fuels, Hydro about 15%, renewables about 2% and
nuclear about 3%.

Relying on fossil fuels alone to increase the energy production is both impractical and
impossible, first because of lack of access to required resources and second, even if resources
ae available, it would produce irreparable damage to the environment through global
warming. The conventional nuclear power production based on fission reactions is slated to
grow to about 20% of the total by 2050. To meet the energy demand in coming decades, it is
essential to find alternate resources. Thus fusion, which can be viewed as an advance nuclear

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Need for Nuclear power Jadugoda; a case study

technology, provides a great opportunity to countries like India and China to meet their
energy needs.

There is no power as costly as no power - Dr. Homi J. Bhabha

Nuclear fission power Plants


It is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. The heat is used to
generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to an electric generator which
produces electricity. As of 23 April 2014, the IAEA report there are 435 nuclear power
reactors in operation operating in 31 countries.

Advantages
Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source which reduces carbon emissions and can
increase energy security if its use supplants a dependence on imported fuels.
Nuclear power produces virtually no air pollution, in contrast to the chief viable
alternative of fossil fuel.
The risks of storing waste are small and can be further reduced by using the latest
technology in newer reactors, and the operational safety record is excellent when
compared to the other major kinds of power plants.
It can provide large amounts of power at any time of the day.

Disadvantages
Nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment, if handled
inappropriately.
Threats include health risks and environmental damage from uranium mining, processing
and transport, the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation or sabotage, and the problem of
radioactive nuclear waste.

Nuclear power in India


Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric
and renewable sources of electricity. As of 2016, India has 21 nuclear reactors in operation in
7 nuclear power plants, having an installed capacity of 6780 MW and producing a total of
30,292.91 GWh of electricity while 6 more reactors are under construction and are expected
to generate an additional 4,300 MW.

India's three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated by Homi Bhabha in the 1950s
to secure the countrys long term energy independence, through the use
of uranium and thorium reserves found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South
India. The ultimate focus of the programme is on enabling the thorium reserves of India to be
utilised in meeting the country's energy requirements.

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Need for Nuclear power Jadugoda; a case study

India (and the world) is presently in the second stage. If we discover U-233 fuelled breeder
reactors or Thorium reactors, then we might have power plants with 500GWe for 500 years,
with Thorium, the raw material found abundantly inside India.

Indian uranium deposits are of low grade. Amongst all the uranium occurrences presently
being mined in the country, Jaduguda hosts the best mineralisation. Still, uranium content in
ore of Jaduguda deposit is too low compared to many other uranium deposits of the world. In
such low-grade deposits, a little drop in run-off-mine grade largely affects the cost of the final
product. Hence, it becomes necessary to follow strict grade control techniques and measures
to make the deposit economically sustainable.

There are mines in Canada where the end material has more Uranium in their tailing ponds
than the ores in India.

The Uranium concentrate at McArthur


river mines in Canada is 16.9% (average
grade)
In 2014, the amount of uranium
concentrate in the effluent is 0.06g/l to
0.1g/l.
The ore Grade in Jadugoda is around Figure 2: Annual average concentration of radium-226 in
effluent released to the environment in McArthur river
0.06%, a grade so low it would not be mines, 2012
considered worth recovering in other
countries.

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Uranium Jadugoda; a case study

Uranium
Uranium as an element is the heaviest naturally occurring element (3 main isotopes: U-234,
U-235 (0.71%), and U-238 (99.28%)

Uranium as a compound is stable in U+4 (reduced-insoluble) & U+6 (oxidized-soluble).

Uranium minerals
Oxides: uraninite
(crystalline UO2-2.6),
pitchblende(amorphous
UO2-2.6)
Silicates: coffinite
(U(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x)
Phosphates: autunite,
torbernite
Vanadates: Carnotite
Organic complexes &
other forms

Other sources of nuclear energy are:

Source Material

depleted Uranium

thorium

Special Fissionable Material

plutonium,

uranium-233

Uranium Refining and Conversion:

For BWRs, the enriched uranium hexafluoride is subjected to pyro-hydrolysis and converted
to ammonium di-uranate, which is treated in the same way as natural ADU to obtain high-
density uranium dioxide pellets

The raw material for the production of PHWR fuel is Magnesium Di-uranate
(MDU) popularly known as 'Yellow Cake'.

The MDU concentrate is obtained from the uranium mine and milled at
Jaduguda, Jharkhand, operated by Uranium Corporation of India Limited
(UICL). The impure MDU is subjected to nitric acid dissolution followed by
solvent extraction and precipitation with ammonia to get Ammonium Di-
uranate (ADU).

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Need for Uranium mining in India Jadugoda; a case study

By further steps of controlled calcinations and reductions, sinterable uranium


dioxide powder is formed which is then compacted in the form of cylindrical
pellets and sintered at high temperature to get high density uranium dioxide
pellets.

For BWRs, the enriched uranium hexafluoride is subjected to pyro hydrolysis and converted
to ammonium di-uranate, which is treated in the same way as natural ADU to obtain high-
density uranium dioxide pellets. [1]

Need for Uranium mining in India


India was subject to international sanctions after its May 1998 nuclear tests. Later, at the end
of 2001, the Bush Administration decided to drop all sanctions on India. Uranium and many
other imports to India were banned during the time sanctions were imposed on India.

India has not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). India argues that instead of
addressing the central objective of universal and comprehensive non-proliferation, the treaty
creates a club of "nuclear haves" and a larger group of "nuclear have-nots" by restricting the
legal possession of nuclear weapons to those states that tested them before 1967, who alone
are free to possess and multiply their nuclear stockpiles.

Led by the U.S., other states have set up an informal group, the Nuclear Suppliers
Group (NSG), to control exports of nuclear materials, equipment and technology.
Consequently, India was left outside the international nuclear order, which forced India to
develop its own resources for each stage of the nuclear fuel cycle and power generation,
including next generation reactors such as fast breeder reactors and a thorium breeder
reactor.[2]

But India has only 1% of total world uranium resources. All of Indian resources are low
grade. In 2016, 3,000 metric tonnes (MT) of nuclear fuel is likely to be shipped into India
from three countries alone the Russian Federation, Canada and the Republic of
Kazakhstan. We also import from Australia, Canada USA and France.

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Need for Uranium mining in India Jadugoda; a case study

Figure 3: World availability of Uranium

[3]

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Need for Uranium mining in India Jadugoda; a case study

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Need for Uranium mining in India Jadugoda; a case study

Uranium deposits of India

State, district Mine Mill Operating tU per


from year
Jharkhand Jaduguda Jaduguda 1967 (mine) 200 total
1968 (mill) from mill
Bhatin Jaduguda 1967
Narwapahar Jaduguda 1995
Bagjata Jaduguda 2008
Jharkhand, East Turamdih Turamdih 2003 (u/g 190 total
Singhbum dist. mine) from mill
2008 (mill)
Banduhurang Turamdih 2007 (open
pit)
Mohuldih Turamdih 2012

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Mining in Jadugoda Jadugoda; a case study

Andhra Pradesh, Tummalapalle Tummalapalle 2012 220


Kadapa
Andhra Pradesh, Kanampalle Kanampalle 2017
Kadapa
Telengana, Lambapur-Peddagattu Seripally 2016 130
Nalgonda dist. /Mallapuram
Karnataka, Gogi Diggi/ Saidpur 2014 130
Gulbarga dist.
Meghalaya Kylleng-Pyndeng- Mawthabah 2017 (open 340
Sohiong- pit)
Mawthabah (KPM),
(Domiasiat), Wakhyn

Mining in Jadugoda
Jadugoda is an underground mine and the main entry to the mine is through a vertical circular
lined shaft which has been sunk up to a depth of 640m. Levels are developed at every 65m
vertical interval. In each level, x-cut is driven from the main shaft to the ore body. A common
ore pass system is located near the shaft.

Horizontal cut-and-fill method of stoping is largely practiced in Jaduguda Mine. After the
development of levels, width, grade and inclination of the orebody are established and
mineable blocks are defined accordingly. Ore transfer raises, entry raises, footwall drifts etc.
are developed for each block prior to stoping. During the stoping, horizontal slices are taken
and the broken ore are mechanically transferred to the foot-wall ore transfer raises using Load
Haul Dump (LHD) equipment. At the bottom of these ore transfer raises, ore are loaded into
3.5 tonne capacity gran-by cars. These cars are hauled by diesel locomotives for automatic
dumping into the ore pass. De-slimed mill tailings are used as back fill material in the stope.

Production by above means from all the levels are transported by gran-by cars and dumped
into the respective grizzly connected to the ore pass. The ore in the ore pass gravitate down to
580ml (crushing station) where it is crushed to 4 size by an underground jaw crusher. The
crushed ore is then hoisted from 605ml (loading station) by a skip running in the main shaft.

Uranium mineralisation at Jaduguda is in the pre-cambrian metasedimentary rocks of


Singhbhum shear zone and is structurally controlled by strike-slip shears of Singhbhum
orogeny. The host rocks are autoclastic conglomerate (formed by crushing, fracturing and
brecciation) and quartz-chlorite-apatite-tourmaline-magnetite schist in which uranium
bearing fine grained uraninite minerals occur as disseminated grains and micro-veinlets. The
associated accessory minerals found along with uranium are the sulphide minerals of copper,
nickel & molybdenum and magnetite. The ore is amenable to direct leaching by acid with
high percentage of recovery.

Mineable mineralisation at Jaduguda is confined to two principal lodes extending as veins


following the general trend of the schistosity. Persistence of lodes is fairly uniform both
along strike and dip with an average inclination of about 40 0. The lodes are separated from

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Mining in Jadugoda Jadugoda; a case study

each other by a distance of about 80m. Footwall and hangwall side rocks of both the uranium
lodes are quite competent from geo-technical point of view.[4]

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Types of radiation Jadugoda; a case study

Radiation effects and measurement

Types of radiation
Radiation is of two types.

1. Non-Ionising
Any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy to ionize an atom is
called non-ionizing radiation. An atom becomes ionized when it loses or gains an electron.

Figure 4: The relationship between types of radiation and the electromagnetic spectrum

2. Ionising
Ionizing radiation causes a chemical change and thus causes more damage than non-ionizing
radiation. It is of three types:

1. Alpha: Alpha decay occurs when the nucleus of a radioactive element, such as uranium,
uses the strong nuclear force to release an alpha particle. Alpha particles are exactly the
same as helium nuclei, containing two protons and two neutrons each.
2. Beta: When an unstable atom spontaneously decays or transforms, its nucleus releases a
beta particle and a neutrino. The beta particle can be either a positively charged particle
(positron) or a negatively charged beta particle similar to an electron. The neutrino
released is electrically neutral. This process of beta decay occurs when the nucleus of an
atom has either too many protons or too many neutrons.
3. Gamma: Gamma radiation is a form of ionizing radiation, and thus produces a chemical
change in the substance through which it passes. Elements with high atomic numbers

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Types of radiation Jadugoda; a case study

such as lead have the density to be able to absorb gamma rays and prevent them from
penetrating.

Radiation due to mining


The main component of natural uranium is
U-238, and its half-life is 4.5 billion years
that are almost equal to the age of the
earth. U-238 itself is a radioactive nuclide
and the generated nuclides are also
radioactive and repeat to decay one after
another. It finally becomes a lead (Pb-206)
after changing 14 kinds of radioactive
nuclides. Those radionuclides were called
as daughters or progenies. As the
decay scheme is shown in Figure, among
the daughters some nuclides have unique
danger such as radium and radon. The
uranium is a natural radionuclide and is
not produced by human beings.
So human beings have been exposed from
uranium itself and its daughters

In addition, the exposure is added if the uranium is dug out from deep underground to the
surface by the artificial action of the mining.

Such exposure is called as TENR (Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation and


artificially raised natural radiation) and recently United Nations Scientific Committee on the
Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and International Commission on Radiation
Protection (ICRP) would be taking up such exposure.

There are following three types exposure paths in the surroundings of the uranium mine.

1. The gamma-ray exposure by approaching tailing ponds or mine-tailings.

2. The internal exposure by taking water or food contaminated by uranium and the daughters.

3. The internal exposure by inhaling radon in the air.

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Units of Measurement Jadugoda; a case study

Units of Measurement
There are three main measurement methods used: exposure, absorbed dose, and biologically
equivalent dose.

Imagine you are standing outside in the rain. If we were to use SI units for radiation and
radioactivity and connect them to something about the rain:

The number of dust particles that become raindrops would be comparable to exposure,
measured in coulombs per kg
The amount of rain hitting you would be like the absorbed dose, measured in grays
How wet you get would be like the biologically equivalent dose, measured in Sieverts

Absorbed dose is a unit for living tissue, absorbed dose is the energy absorbed from
radiation per unit of mass of absorbing material.

Relative biological effectiveness of a specific form of radiation compares the dose of


200keV x-rays needed to produce a certain amount of damage to the dose of the specific form
of radiation needed to produce the same amount of damage

Biologically equivalent dose = Absorbed dose (in rad) x RBE

Tissue organ sensitivity: - Radio sensitivity is the relative susceptibility of cells,


tissues, organs, organisms, or other substances to the injurious action of radiation. In short,
this means that actively dividing cells or those not fully mature are most at risk from
radiation.

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Units of Measurement Jadugoda; a case study

Quantity Name Symbol Unit System

esu / 0.001293 g of
Exposure (X) rntgen R non-SI
air

ergg1 non-SI

Absorbed dose (D) rad rad 100 ergg1 non-SI

gray Gy Jkg1 SI

curie Ci 3.7 1010 s1 non-SI


Activity (A)
becquerel Bq s1 SI

rntgen equivalent
rem 100 ergg1 non-SI
man
Dose equivalent
(H)
sievert Sv Jkg1 SI

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Effect of radiation on humans Jadugoda; a case study

Effect of radiation on humans

Radiation exposure
The main component of natural uranium is U-238, and its half-life is 4.5 billion years that are
almost equal to the age of the earth. U-238 itself is a radioactive nuclide and the generated
nuclides are also radioactive and repeat to decay one after another. It finally becomes a lead
(Pb-206) after changing 14 kinds of radioactive nuclides. Those radionuclides were called as
daughters or progenies. Among the daughters some nuclides have unique danger such as
radium and radon. The uranium is a natural radionuclide and is not produced by human
beings.

So human beings have been exposed from uranium itself and its daughters. In addition, the
exposure is added if the uranium is dug out from deep underground to the surface by the
artificial action of the mining.

Such exposure is called as TENR (Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation and


artificially raised natural radiation) and recently United Nations Scientific Committee on the
Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and International Commission on Radiation
Protection (ICRP) would be taking up such exposure.

Causes of radiation damage

1. Cellular damage
Ionizing radiation, by definition, interacts only with atoms by a process
called ionization.
Thus, all biological damage effects begin with the consequence of
radiation interactions with the atoms forming the cells.
There are two mechanisms by which radiation ultimately affects cells.
These two mechanisms are commonly called direct and indirect effects

Direct Effect Indirect effect


If radiation interacts with the atoms of the When radiation interacts with water, it may
DNA molecule, or some other cellular break the bonds that hold the water molecule
component critical to the survival of the cell, together, producing fragments such as
it is referred to as a direct effect. Such an hydrogen (H) and hydroxyls (OH). These
interaction may affect the ability of the cell to fragments may recombine or may interact
reproduce and, thus, survive. If enough atoms with other fragments or ions to form
are affected such that the chromosomes do compounds, such as water, which would not
not replicate properly, or if there is significant harm the cell. However, they could combine
alteration in the information carried by the to form toxic substances, such as hydrogen
DNA molecule, then the cell may be peroxide (H2O2), which can contribute to the
destroyed by direct interference with its destruction of the cell
life-sustaining system. Each cell is mostly water. Therefore, there is
If a cell is exposed to radiation, the a much higher probability of radiation
probability of the radiation interacting with interacting with the water that makes up most
the DNA molecule is very small since these of the cells volume
critical components make up such a small
part of the cell.

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Effect of radiation on humans Jadugoda; a case study

Not all living cells are equally sensitive to radiation. Those cells which are actively
reproducing are more sensitive than those which are not. This is because dividing cells
require correct DNA information in order for the cells offspring to survive. A direct
interaction of radiation with an active cell could result in the death or mutation of the cell,
whereas a direct interaction with the DNA of a dormant cell would have less of an effect.

As a result, living cells can be classified according to their rate of reproduction, which also
indicates their relative sensitivity to radiation. This means that different cell systems have
different sensitivities.

Lymphocytes (white blood cells) and cells which produce blood are constantly regenerating,
and are, therefore, the most sensitive. Reproductive and gastrointestinal cells are not
regenerating as quickly and are less sensitive. The nerve and muscle cells are the slowest to
regenerate and are the least sensitive cells.

Whole Body Sensitivity Factors

Total Dose
Type of Cell
Type of Radiation
Age of Individual
Stage of Cell Division
Part of Body Exposed
General State of Health
Tissue Volume Exposed
Time Interval

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Effect of radiation on humans Jadugoda; a case study

Cells have a tremendous ability to repair damage. As a result, not all radiation effects are
irreversible. In many instances, the cells are able to completely repair any damage and
function normally.

If the damage is severe enough, the affected cell dies. In some instances, the cell is damaged
but is still able to reproduce. The daughter cells, however, may be lacking in some critical
life-sustaining component, and they die.

The other possible result of radiation exposure is that the cell is affected in such a way that it
does not die but is simply mutated. The mutated cell reproduces and thus perpetuates the
mutation. This could be the beginning of a malignant tumour.

2. Radiation effects
Radiation damage to living organisms is classified in two ways, method and dose.

Method
Radiation damage can occur in two primary ways: somatic and genetic.

Somatic damage by radiation is damage to any part of the body except the reproductive
organs. Somatic damage directly affects the individual exposed to the radiation, and does not
deal with after-effects in future generations.

Skin that is damaged by excessive radiation exposure may develop cancer later on.
Irradiated bone marrow can cause anaemia (low red blood cell count) and therefore
fatigue and muscle weakness.

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Effect of radiation on humans Jadugoda; a case study

Poor digestion and absorption of nutrients can stem from an irradiated gastrointestinal
tract. Large doses of radiation cause hair loss and dryness of skin.
Over time, large doses of radiation can cause cancer and the formation of cataracts on the
lenses of the eyes.

Genetic damage by radiation causes genetic damage directly damages the reproductive
organs, and therefore affects any offspring that individual may have after the damage has
occurred. Radiation damage is done to genes and chromosomes, which can be passed on to
future generations.

The survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings and of the Chernobyl survivors
in Ukraine have increased rates of stillbirths, miscarriages, and infant deaths.

If the children survive past the first few years of life, they tend to develop leukaemia or
microcephaly, have birth defects, or mental impairments. [5]

Dosage
Dosage is also typically divided into two categories. The first category consists of exposure
to high doses of radiation over short periods of time producing acute or short term effects.
The second category represents exposure to low doses of radiation over an extended period of
time producing chronic or long term effects. High doses tend to kill cells, while low doses
tend to damage or change them.

High dose
Dose (Rad) Effect Observed
15 - 25 Blood count changes in a group of people
50 - 150 Nausea, fatigue, vomiting
320 - 360 LD 50/60 with minimal care
480 - 540 LD 50/60 with supportive medical care
1,100 LD 50/60 with intensive medical care (bone marrow transplant)
2000 Instant death
The threshold values are the doses at which the effect is first observed in the most sensitive of
the individuals exposed. LD 50/60 is the lethal dose at which 50% of those exposed to that
dose will die within 60 days.[6]

Low dose
The Genetic Effect involves the mutation of very specific cells, namely the sperm or egg
cells. Mutations of these reproductive cells are passed to the offspring of the individual
exposed.

Radiation is an example of a physical mutagenic agent. There are also many chemical agents
as well as biological agents (such as viruses) that cause mutations.

One very important fact to remember is that radiation increases the spontaneous mutation
rate, but does not produce any new mutations. Mutations in the reproductive cells may
produce such significant changes in the fertilized egg that the result is a nonviable organism
which is spontaneously resorbed or aborted during the earliest stages of fertilization.

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Radiation exposure limits Jadugoda; a case study

Somatic effects are, from an occupational risk perspective, the most significant since the
individual exposed (usually the radiation worker) suffers the consequences (typically cancer).

Radiation is an example of a physical carcinogenic, while cigarettes are an example of a


chemical cancer causing agent. Viruses are examples of biological carcinogenic agents.

Lung cancer - uranium miners


Bone cancer - radium dial painters
Thyroid cancer - therapy patients
Breast cancer - therapy patients
Skin cancer - radiologists
Leukaemia - bomb survivors, in-utero exposures, radiologists, therapy patients
The in-utero effect involves the production of malformations in developing embryos.
Radiation is a physical teratogenic agent. There are many chemical agents (such as
thalidomide) and many biological agents (such as the viruses which cause German measles)
that can also produce malformations while the baby is still in the embryonic or fetal stage of
development. [7]

Weeks Post Conception Effect


0 - 1 (preimplantation) Intrauterine death
2 - 7 (organogenesis) Developmental abnormalities/growth retardation/cancer
8 - 40 (foetal stage) Same as above with possible functional abnormalities

Radiation exposure limits


The International Commission on Radiological Protection is an independent, international,
non-governmental organization, with the mission to provide recommendations and guidance
on radiation protection.

In India, the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is to ensure that the use of ionising
radiation and nuclear energy in India does not cause undue risk to health and
the environment.
According to AERB, the national limits for radiation exposure are:

The estimated average doses to the relevant members of the public shall not exceed the
following limits:

1. an effective dose of 1 mSv in a year;


2. an equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of 15 mSv in a year; and
3. An equivalent dose to the skin of 50 mSv in a year.

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Radiation exposure limits Jadugoda; a case study

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Background Radiation Jadugoda; a case study

Background Radiation
Background radiation is the ionizing radiation present in the environment. Background
radiation originates from a variety of sources, both natural and artificial. Natural sources
consist of terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. The largest dose of radiation to which
populations is exposed continuously comes from contaminated air in their own homes.

Cosmic radiation
Cosmic rays or radiation coming from outer
space contribute significant radiation dose to
population. The magnitude of this
contribution varies with altitude and latitude
of the location.
The radiation dose due to cosmic rays at
Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai is about 0.28
mGy per year. All these cities are at sea level.
But cosmic ray dose at Delhi is 0.31 mGy
and Bangalore is 0.44 mGy. The difference is
because Delhi is at an altitude of 216 m
above sea level and Bangalore is at height of
921 m above sea level [8]

Table 1: Cosmic ray dose at various altitudes[9]

Radon
The biggest source of natural background radiation is airborne radon, a radioactive gas
that emanates from the ground. A poorly sealed basement can result in the
accumulation of radon within the dwelling, exposing its residents to high concentrations.
The widespread construction of well insulated and sealed dwellings constructed in and
around rocky areas in Hyderabad[10], and in some places in Bangalore, has led to radon
becoming the primary source of background radiation in those homes.

In some areas of United Kingdom persons in 5% of the homes are exposed to doses
above 23.7 mSv/year. One percent of the humans receives doses above 55.8 mSv/year
and 9 million homes in USA have radon levels above 15 mSv. The highest recorded
about 100,000 Bq/m3 of radon was found in 1984.

This may be compared with the annual dose limit of 20 mSv prescribed by AERB for
radiation workers.

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Background Radiation Jadugoda; a case study

Food water human body


All food materials contain radioactivity. The amounts of K-40 in various food materials are
given below

Rice 40-90
Leafy vegetables 80-220
Brinjal 90-140
Tapioca 85-120
Beetroot 90-120
Carrot 60-120
Tea 450-1020
Milk 40
In a human body about 15 million atoms of potassium-40 disintegrate every hour. Nearly,
one-lakh cosmic ray neutrons and 4 lakhs secondary cosmic ray particles traverse a body
every hour.

In lung 30,000 atoms of radon, polonium, bismuth and lead disintegrate every hour.

Artificial radiation

Medical
The global average human exposure to artificial radiation is 0.6 mSv/a, primarily from
medical imaging. A typical chest x-ray delivers 0.02 mSv (2 mrem) of effective dose. A
dental x-ray delivers a dose of 5 to 10 Sv

Atmospheric nuclear testing


Above-ground nuclear explosions between the 1940s and 1960s scattered a substantial
amount of radioactive contamination. By the year 2000 the worldwide dose from these tests
has decreased to only 0.005 mSv per year.

Nuclear accidents
Most accidents typically do not release any additional radioactive substances into the
environment. Large releases of radioactivity from nuclear reactors are extremely rare. To the
present day, there were two major civilian accidents - the Chernobyl accident and
the Fukushima caused substantial contamination. The Chernobyl accident was the only one to
cause immediate deaths.

Nuclear industry
Anyone who shifts his residence to the fence post of a nuclear power reactor is likely to
receive every year 10 to 30 microgray more than what he received elsewhere.

As a comparison, by shifting from Mumbai to Delhi he is going away from a radiation field
of 480 microgray per year to a field of 700 microgray per year. The additional dose he
receives is more than 10 times the extra dose he may receive near a nuclear power station.

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Background Radiation Jadugoda; a case study

Terrestrial sources
The high background radiation in
parts of Kerala is caused by the
presence of significant quantities of
thorium in soil. Thorium occurs in
patches. The important areas are
NeendakaraChavara in the State of
Kerala and ManavalakurichiMidalam
in Tamil Nadu. The average value of
population dose is 3.8 milligray.[11]

In certain locations of 66,000 houses


in Karuna-gappally taluk which is
about 25 km long and an average
width of 5 km, the background
radiation level is up to 70 mGy
annually. Of the total population of
400,000 in that taluk 100,000 live in
areas of high background radiation.

Figure 5: Background radiation in India

Background radiation and cancer


incidence in Kerala, India-
Karanagappally cohort study (2009)[12]
According to the study, although the
natural radiation at Karanagappally is very
high, the rate of cancer incidence is same
as the national average for locals.
It is slightly higher for non-locals. It is
estimated that long term exposure of
background radiation will create
immunity. The same was observed in
Yangjiang, China, Guarapari, Brazil; and
Ramsar, Iran (260000 microSv/y).
Figure 6: Survey area in Kerala, India

Figure 7: Terrestrial background radiation (Non-cosmic)

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Location Jadugoda; a case study

Jaduguda, a study

Location
The Jaduguda Mine (also spelt as Jadugoda or Jadugora) is a uranium mine in Jaduguda
village in the Purbi Singhbhum district of the Indian state of Jharkhand. It is 35 km by road
and 20 km by train from the city of Jamshedpur.

Figure 8: Jadugoda and neighbouring villages

Population, literacy and general information


As of 2001 India census, Jadugora had a population of 19,003. Males constitute 53% of the
population and females 47%. Jadugora has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the
national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80%, and female literacy is 63%. In Jadugora,
12% of the population is under 6 years of age.

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Location Jadugoda; a case study

Nutritional status

Based on what people ate on the previous day of one study, the calorie content is distributed
as following:[13]

Jadugoda is blessed with diverse flora and fauna and rich tribal culture. The place is also
home to some indigenous major tribes like the santhals, Gonds, mundas and hill kharia .The
place is surrounded by hills and rivers. Many species of birds, reptiles and animals are found
here. The culture of Jadugoda is very influenced by the culture of West Bengal, Odisha and
Bihar, which are the neighbouring states of Jharkhand. The major festivals celebrated here
are Durga Puja, Diwali, chhath and Tusu Parva, which as a local tribal festival.

The occupation of the head of household in these villages (excluding UCIL) was:

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Health status Jadugoda; a case study

Health status

Figure 9: Percentages of diseases as seen in a survey

Study on health status on Indigenous people around Jadugoda uranium mines in India.
(2014)

Abstract: A descriptive cross-sectional study on indigenous people living in villages around


Jadugoda was conducted by Indian Doctors for Peace and Development (IDPD) with the
objective to find out their health status in respect to selected health variables.

Results:

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Health status Jadugoda; a case study

The finding of the study says that the health of indigenous people around uranium mining is
more vulnerable to certain health problems. The major finding of the study shows that

Primary sterility is more common in the people residing near uranium mining operations
area.
More children with congenital deformities are being born to mothers and congenital
defect as a cause of death of a child is also high among mothers living near uranium
mining operations area.
Cancer as a cause of death is more common in villages surrounding uranium operations.
The life expectancy of people living near uranium mining operations area is less; as a
result more people are dying in their early ages in villages around uranium mining
operation area.

Comments:

According to Dr K S Parthasarathy, secretary of AERB,[14]

The Ploughshares Fund, an anti-nuclear charity from USA gave 1.2 million to Indian
Doctors for Peace and Development, for doing the study.
It bypassed the peer review process which is essential for such studies and published its
'findings' in newspapers.
Responses to some of the variables in few of the interview schedules were not found to
be satisfactory and such responses were not considered for data analysis admitted the
authors of the paper.
On April 15, the Supreme Court dismissed a petition (188/1999) demanding judicial
intervention to have the necessary steps taken to safeguard the health of the population.

Radiation and Tribal Health in Jadugoda: The Contention between Science and
Suffering (2003) -C.J. Sonowal and Sunil Kumar Jojo

The survey revealed that the women folk in that locality have been suffering from certain
reproductive health problems which may be caused by radiation effect. For instance:

47% women reported disruptions during their menstrual cycle


18% women suffered miscarriages/ still birth in last 5 years
30% reported some sort of problem in conception
Majority of women complained of fatigue, weakness and depression[15]

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Health status Jadugoda; a case study

Table 2: Age wise distribution of diseases/ailments in and around Jadugoda in 2000

Quality of Water
Assessment of Natural Uranium in the Ground Water around Jaduguda Uranium
Mining Complex, India (2011)

Abstract: Ground water ecosystem surrounding the uranium processing facility at Jaduguda,
India has been studied for natural uranium distribution. Annual intake of uranium through
drinking water for members of public residing around the uranium complex is found to be in
the range of 41.8 Bqy1 - 44.4 Bqy1 . The intake and ingestion dose is appreciably low (<2
Svy1) which is far below the WHO recommended level of 100 Svy1 . The excess life
time radiological risk due to uranium natural in drinking water is insignificant and found to
be of the order of 10 6 . Even the highest concentration of uranium was found to be 28 g
gl1 is away (at 1.5 to 5 km distance) from mining industry and well below the acceptable
limit. The ground water in the area around the uranium facility is not affected by the mining
activity. The ground water in three zones is safe and reflects the natural distribution of
uranium. [16]

Figure 10: Histogram of U in ground water

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Health status Jadugoda; a case study

Figure 11: Comparison of uranium concentration in drinking water in different countries

Assessment of 222Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade
underground uranium mine (2014)

Abstract: This paper presents a comparative study of 222Rn emanation from the ore and
backfill tailings in underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of
surface area, porosity, 226Ra and moisture contents on 222Rn emanation rate were examined.
The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of
magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body
and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01103 and 1.03 Bq m2 s1, respectively. For
normalised 226Ra content, the 222Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times
higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation
from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the
oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material
significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the 226Ra
content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine
atmosphere. [17]

Comment: This paper states that the radon content emitted by the tailing ponds is 283 times
greater than that of the underground ore. The maximum limit of radon emitted by tailing
ponds is 1.03 Bq m2 s1, which is slightly more than 0.74 Bq m2 s1, which is the NRC
limit. That limit will be achieved if a person stands on the tailing pond 24*7. This is one of
the main reason why the government has fenced the tailing pond.

Age-dependent dose and health risk due to intake of uranium in drinking water from
Jaduguda, India

In this study, occurrence of uranium in drinking water samples from locations near the
uranium mining site at Jaduguda, India, was studied by Laser-induced fluorimetry. Uranium
concentrations range from 0.030.01 to 11.61.3 g l-l, being well within the US
Environmental Protection Agency drinking water limit of 30 g l-1. [18]

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Health status Jadugoda; a case study

Radioactive contamination around Jadugoda uranium mine in India

In 2001 and 2002, Hiroaki Koide from the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University
performed field trips to monitor environmental impacts of the Jadugoda uranium mine. He
monitored external gamma dose rate, radionuclide concentrations in soil, and radon
concentration in air. His results are compiled in a report available for download. The main
conclusions are: [19]

The contamination from the uranium mine has spread in Jadugoda:

The external gamma dose rate exceeds 1 mSv/y in the villages, and reaches 10 mSv/y
around the tailing ponds.
The soil surrounding the tailings ponds is contaminated by uranium. Particularly high
contamination levels were found in the village of Dungridih that borders tailings pond
No.1. In other villages, no serious contamination was found.
Radon emanated from tailings ponds etc. spreads contamination.
Waste rock from the mine used for construction material spreads contamination.

Other findings include:

The No.1 tailings pond shows contamination by caesium. This fact shows that
radioactivity was brought in from a source other than an uranium mine.
Product uranium concentrate is dealt with carelessly and was found dispersed at Rakha
Mine railway station.

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Studies by the Government Jadugoda; a case study

Studies by the Government


The government of India does the following tests regularly, in and around Jadugoda.

External Radiation Monitoring

Survey meters
Personal TLD
Surface & Personal Contamination (Mill)

Internal Radiation Monitoring

222 Rn and its progeny monitoring


Dosimetry Area and Personal (using SSNTD)
Air Activity Measurement (LL )
222 Rn in exhaled breath monitoring
Bioassay (Mill)

Health Physics Unit

Environmental survey laboratory was set up at Jaduguda in May, 1965

Upgraded subsequently to carry out

In-plant radiation, radioactivity and


Industrial safety aspects monitorings
Environmental monitoring including
Gamma radiation
Ambient air activity (Rn-222)
Radioactivity in
Surface & ground water
Soil and sediment
Vegetation & food stuff etc.

Radiation and environmental safety in mining and milling of uranium and thorium:
A.H.Khan [20]

Parameters Jaduguda Bhatin Narwapahar Derived


Mine Mine Mine Limits
Gamma 3.1 2.24 1.60 8
Radiation,
( ( Gy.h-1 ) )
Eq. Eq. Rn 0.35 0.51 0.46 1
Conc.,
(kBq.m-3) )
LL <0.010 0.014 0.049 0.60
Activity,
(Bq.m - -3 3 ) )

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Radiological Conditions in Uranium Mill


Area Gamma radiation Long-lived activity DAC
(Gy.h-1) (mBq.m-3) (mBq.m-3 )
Ore handling 0.6 19 600
Filtration & 0.8 87 4500
Precipitation
Final Product 0.8 115 4500
Limit 8 -- --

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Conclusion Jadugoda; a case study

Conclusion
Radiation in Jaduguda environment and its effects on population has been the subject matter
of several media reports that appeared during the last few years. Concerns were expressed on
the impact of UCIL. Most of these concerns arise from the lack of even preliminary
knowledge about radiation and are based on misinformation and blown out of proportion to
the potential risk.

Beyond the fenced area around the Tailings pond, there is no additional external exposure to
persons living in the villages. The additional exposure to the population living close by could
only be of the order of 0.05 mSv per year from radon arising from UCIL operations. The
intake of water from the Gara river and food items from the area contributes nearly 0.1mSv
per annum. The annual exposure to the individual members of the population in these villages
is estimated to be 1.732-3.14 mSv with a mean of 2.49 mSv per annum. It may be noted that
65% of the world population receive an annual dose of 3 mSv per annum.

The production halted in 2008 in Jadugoda because tailings pipeline burst due to flash floods
caused a uranium mill tailings spill that reached nearby homes. [21]

Figure 12: Uranium mill tailings spill over during flash floods at Jadugoda.

Presently Jadugoda mine has suspended its operations as its forest clearance expired. On
April 3rd 2017 Jaduguda uranium mine obtained forest department clearance, but the mine has
not yet resumed operations.

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Appendix Jadugoda; a case study

Appendix

Figure 13: Uranium Production and Requirements for Major Producing and Consuming Countries

Average annual human exposure to ionizing radiation in millisieverts (mSv) per year[22]

Radiation source World Remark


Inhalation of air 1.26 mainly from radon, depends on indoor accumulation
Ingestion of food & 0.29 (K-40, C-14, etc.)
water
Terrestrial radiation from 0.48 depends on soil and building material
ground
Cosmic radiation from 0.39 depends on altitude
space
Subtotal (natural) 2.40 sizeable population groups receive 10-20 mSv
Medical 0.60 Worldwide figure excludes radiotherapy;
US figure is mostly CT scans and nuclear medicine.
Consumer items - cigarettes, air travel, building materials, etc.
Atmospheric nuclear 0.005 peak of 0.11 mSv in 1963 and declining since; higher
testing near sites
Occupational exposure 0.005 worldwide average to workers only is 0.7 mSv, mostly
due to radon in mines
US is mostly due to medical and aviation workers
Chernobyl accident 0.002 peak of 0.04 mSv in 1986 and declining since; higher
near site

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Appendix Jadugoda; a case study

Nuclear fuel cycle 0.0002 up to 0.02 mSv near sites; excludes occupational
exposure
Other - Industrial, security, medical, educational, and research
subtotal (artificial) 0.61
Total 3.01 millisieverts per year

Table: Natural radioactivity in materials, India (Bq/kg)

Potassium Radium [Ra- Thorium [Th-


Material [K-40] 226] 232]
Cement 385 377 78
Brick 1390 48 126
Stone 1479 155 412
Sand 1074 5047 2971
Granite 1380 98 240
Clay 477 1621 311
Fly ash 522 670 159
Lime
stone 518 26 33
Gypsum 807 807 152

[23]

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Appendix Jadugoda; a case study

Table 3: Radiation exposures to Indian population from different natural sources and its comparison with the
reported global averages

Table 4: Natural background radiation levels at some of DAE installations in India (mSv/y)

Table 5: Concentration of primordial radionuclides in various environmental matrices

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[24]

Figure 14: Tailing ponds and UCIL

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References Jadugoda; a case study

References
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[2] Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Wikipedia. 16-Apr-2017.
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[4] A. K. Sarangi, Grade control in Jaduguda uranium mine, Jharkhand, Publ. Trans. Min.
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[8] Nuclear India, Government of India, No. 11-12, Jun. 2002.
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[10] M. S. Reddy, C. G. Reddy, P. Y. Reddy, and K. R. Reddy, Study of natural
background gamma radiation levels in Hyderabad and its surroundings, Andhra Pradesh,
India, 2010.
[11] E. P. Christa, P. J. Jojo, V. K. Vaidyan, S. Anilkumar, and K. P. Eappen, Radiation
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[12] R. R. K. Nair et al., Background radiation and cancer incidence in Kerala, India
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PEOPLE: A STUDY OF JADUGODA REGION, National Institute of Technology
Rourkela, Odisha, India, 2015.
[14] Dr K S Parthasarathy, How foreign NGOs fuel Indias anti-uranium lobby.
[Online]. Available: http://www.rediff.com/news/column/how-foreign-ngos-fuel-indias-
anti-uranium-lobby/20141201.htm. [Accessed: 16-Apr-2017].
[15] C. J. Sonowal and S. K. Jojo, Radiation and tribal health in Jadugoda: the contention
between science and sufferings, Stud. Tribes Tribals, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 111126, 2003.
[16] N. K. Sethy, R. M. Tripathi, V. N. Jha, S. K. Sahoo, A. K. Shukla, and V. D. Puranik,
Assessment of natural uranium in the ground water around Jaduguda uranium mining
complex, India, J. Environ. Prot., vol. 2, no. 07, p. 1002, 2011.
[17] D. P. Mishra, P. Sahu, D. C. Panigrahi, V. Jha, and R. L. Patnaik, Assessment of
222Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium
mine, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 23052312, Feb. 2014.
[18] A. C. Patra et al., Age-dependent dose and health risk due to intake of uranium in
drinking water from Jaduguda, India, Radiat. Prot. Dosimetry, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 210
216, Jul. 2013.
[19] H. Koide, Radioactive contamination around Jadugoda uranium mine in India, Res.
React. Inst. Kyoto Univ. April, vol. 27, p. 2004, 2004.
[20] A. H. Khan, M. Raghvavayya, and V. K. Gupta, Radiation and environmental safety
in uranium mines and mill, in Proceedings of the seventh national symposium on
environment, 1998.
[21] Issues at Jaduguda Uranium Mine, Jharkhand, India. [Online]. Available:
http://www.wise-uranium.org/umopjdg.html#BURSTDEC06. [Accessed: 10-Mar-2017].
[22] Background radiation, Wikipedia. 25-Feb-2017.

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References Jadugoda; a case study

[23] 29-07-2011 (FN): Radiation Data Reported by IERMON from Selected locations in
India, Jul. 2011.
[24] K. S. V. Nambi, V. N. Bapat, M. David, V. K. Sundaram, C. M. Sunta, and S. D.
Soman, Natural background radiation and population dose distribution in India, Health
Phys. Div. Bhabha At. Res. Cent. Bombay, 1986.

Other studies by the author[1]

[1] A. Sri Harsha, J. Akhil, S. Kuldeep, and M. Rizwan, "Parametric study of cantilever
plates exposed to supersonic and hypersonic flow," ICMAEM, NRCM, Hyderabad,
2017, IoP Science.

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