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21, rue d’Artois, F -75008 PARIS http : //www.cigre.org B1-105 CIGRE 2012 Guide to Sheath

21, rue d’Artois, F-75008 PARIS http : //www.cigre.org

B1-105

CIGRE 2012

Guide to Sheath Bonding Design, in Distribution and Transmission Lines with HV Underground Cables

F. GARNACHO 1 , A. KHAMLICHI 1 , P. SIMON 1 , A. GONZÁLEZ 2 1 LCOE, 2 Gas Natural Fenosa Spain

SUMMARY

Power electrical networks using HV underground cables are continuously increasing in the big cities. In order to avoid or reduce transmission losses in cable sheaths provoked by solid-bonding connections special sheath bonding techniques, such as cross-bonding (CB) or single-bonding (SB) connections, are commonly used for the HV cable systems. Nevertheless experience has proven that clear design rules are required to achieve safe and reliable sheath bonding and earth connection systems.

Maintenance and operation experiences in the 220 kV network have showed that failures in the cable system are not negligible when a short-circuit occurs in the power network. Continuous growing of the short-circuit power in the high voltage network and progressive increasing of elementary cable section length between two consecutive accessories require to apply more efficient bonding design criteria. Sheath overvoltages depend on different factors: place where an eventual short-circuit appears (inside cable grid, in a substation or in an overhead line), earth resistance value at each earthing point and architecture used to link elementary cable sections (SB, continuous CB and sectionalised CB). The design of the bonding system must take into account not only to select sheath voltage limiters but also to determine the insulation level of the oversheath, joints, terminations and link boxes.

This paper presents the application guide to be applied to sheath bonding design of high voltage power cable systems in the range between 45 kV and 220 kV. This guide shows temporary over-voltages in sheaths when different kinds of short-circuits occurs for different sheath bonding configurations. The results obtained by the guide allow a reliable selection of sheath voltage limiters and insulation level in order to assure a suitable protection level against eventual short-circuit overvoltages. Different specific methods have been used to determine overvoltages and they have been compared for a wide range of cases in order to have an easy and generic numerical tool GSBD adapted to cable systems. The software package developed allows to define any arbitrary architecture to link elementary cable sections (SB, continuous CB and sectionalised CB) in order to determine continuous over-voltages in accessory sheaths and in overvoltages limiters. The programme is used when the architecture applied is not close to the cases studied in the Guide.

KEYWORDS

Cables, sheath, overvoltages, link boxes, cross bonding, single bonding, ATP.

fernandog@lcoe.etsii.upm.es

1

INTRODUCTION

When a single phase short-circuit occurs in a high voltage network significant overvoltages appear on power cable sheaths, especially in the cable terminations that are not connected to the earth of SB configurations and in the sheaths of cross zones of cross-bonding configurations. In the first instants a transient damped overvoltage of several teens of kilohertz’s of up to several teens of kilovolts is superimposed to a temporary overvoltage of power frequency that disappears when the short-circuit is removed by switchgear (see figure 1). Both overvoltages, transient and temporary, provoke significant stress to be considered in insulation coordination of cables, link boxes and overvoltage limiters.

30 [kV] 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
30
[kV]
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
[ms]
80

Figure 1. Voltage evolution on a cable sheaths due to single short circuit.

The rated voltage of overvoltage limiters must be chosen taking into account temporary overvoltage and its residual voltage is selected in order to get an appropriate protection level, according to transient withstand voltage of insulation media involved. Consequently, temporary overvoltages must be determined for a correct selection of overvoltage limiters. In particular, it is very important to determine the absolute overvoltages that appear in cable outer sheat and the local temporary overvoltages that appear on overvoltage limiters.

Although ATP software can be used to determine temporary overvoltages, it does not have a user interface simple enough for project engineers dedicated to high voltage cable projects. In practice, data tables or alternative flexible numeric tools are required to analyze different influence parameters, (e.g. earth connection values, length of cable sections, cable arrangements, etc.) on temporary overvoltages for specific sheath architectures.

2 DIFFERENT KINDS OF SHORT CIRCUITS

In high voltage grids different kinds of short circuits can appear. A special attention must be paid to single phase short circuits in comparison to three phase short circuits, because the induced overvoltage on sheaths is not balanced by currents of others phases. However, the relative position between short circuit point and the voltage supply allows to establish different short circuit scenarios: a) substation-substation short circuit (figure 2) where the main short circuit current returns through a conductor (sheaths or earth continuity conductor “ecc”), b) Siphon short circuit (figure 3) where the main short circuit current returns through earth, c) far away short circuit (figure 4) where the short circuit current returns through both earth and conductors (sheaths or ecc).

I F A R 2 R 1
I F
A
R 2
R 1
B Conductor equipotencial I F A C -   I F R 1 R
B
Conductor equipotencial
I
F
A
C
-
  I F
R 1
R 2
I F
 I F
 I F
B Conductor equipotencial I F A C -   I F R 1 R 2

Figure 2. Substation-substation short circuit: a) Solid-bonding or Cross-bonding configuration, b) Single-bonding configuration.

I F

I F R 2
I F
R 2
I F I F R 2
I F I F R 2
I F B I ecc Conductor equipotencial A C I F - R 1 R
I F
B
I ecc
Conductor equipotencial
A
C
I F
-
R 1
R 2
I F

Figure 3. Siphon short circuit: a) Solid-bonding or Cross-bonding configuration, b) Single-bonding configuration.

I F R 2 R 1
I F
R 2
R 1
B Conductor equipotencial C I - F R R 2 1 I F ´I F
B
Conductor equipotencial
C
I
-
F
R
R
2
1
I F
´I F
´) I F

Figure 4. Far away short circuit: a) Solid-bonding or Cross-bonding configuration, b) Single-bonding configuration.

In this paper the same electrical scheme is used for solid-bonding and for cross-bonding configuration, because in a CB there is a sheath circuit for short circuit current circulation with both ends of the circuit earthed, in a similar way as in solid bonging configurations.

3 CALCULATION METHOD TO LINK DIFFERENT SHEATHS CONFIGURATIONS

It is impossible to establish simple formulas to determine local and absolute sheath overvoltages in an arbitrary interconnection architecture of sheaths configurations when a single phase short circuit occurs. In these cases, it is necessary to use numeric calculation tools. In the following paragraphs a general method of circuit analysis (GMCA) and a circuit analysis by symmetrical components (CASC) are presented. Differences of both methods in comparison with results obtained by means of ATP software are negligible.

3.1 Circuit analysis by symmetrical components

For each section of bonding connection (solid-bonding, single-bonding, cross bonding sectionalized, etc.) the zero sequence circuit of each section is derived in order to interconnect them in the correct way as the real arrangement used in the system cable. In the following paragraphs the zero sequence formulas of a single-bonding configuration with earth continuity conductor are developed.

Overvoltage on the earth cable U mn is given by the superposition of the induced voltages provoked by the currents of the three phase conductors [J c(abc) ] and the current through the earth continuity conductor J t :

U mn

Z

tc( abc)



J

c( abc)

Z

tt

J

t

(1)

where:

-

-

Z

tc( abc)

coupling impedances between the earth continuity conductor (ecc) t and each phase

conductor calculated by the Carson’s formulas.

Z tt

self impedance of the ecc calculated by the Carson’s formulas.

Taking into account the electric scheme shown in figure 5 and assuming Jtn = 0 the following expression can be written:

where

 

'

U

mn

R

tm

( J

t

J

t

)

R

tn

J

t

(2)

- R tm earth resistance of the ecc on the left side.

- R tn earth resistance of the ecc on the right side.

- J t = Jtm current through ecc of the previous section on the left side.

J J a a J b J b J c J c J t J
J
J
a
a
J
b
J
b
J
c
J
c
J t
J t
J’ m
J’ m
J’ n
J’ n
m m
n n
U
U
mn
mn
R R
tn
tn
R R
tm
tm

Figure 5. Electric scheme associated to single-bonding configuration with an earth conductor.

Replacing expression (1) in expression (2) the following equation can be written:

Z

tc( abc)



J

c( abc)

 

'

( R

tm

R

tn

Z

tt

) J

t

R

tm

J

t

Applying symmetric components analysis:

where:

3Z

tc0

J

c0

(3R

tm

3R

tn

3Z

tt

) J

t0

3R

tm

J

'

t0

(3)

(4)

-

-

-

Z tc0

sequence zero coupling impedance between the three phase conductors and the ecc.

J

t

3 J

t0

,

J

'

t

3 J

'

t0

,

J

F

3 J

c0

J F single phase short circuit current.

The equivalent electric circuit associated to equation (4) is shown in figure 6:

-3·Z -3·Z tc0 ·J ·J c0 tc0 c0 3·Z tt 3·Z tt + + J
-3·Z
-3·Z tc0
·J
·J c0
tc0
c0
3·Z tt
3·Z
tt
+
+
J
J
J’ t0
J’ t0
t0
t0
m
m
J
J
J’ t0
J’ t0
3·R tm
3·R
t0
t0
3·R
3·R tn
tm
tn

Figure 6. Sequence zero circuit of the earth continuity conductor.

If the short circuit current J F , the resistance earth, R tm y R tn , and current through phase conductors [J c(abc) ]

are known, the current of the ecc

can be determined by means of the equation (4), later U mn and

sheath voltages U pa , U pb y U pc , can be determined applying (1) and the following equations:

J t0

where:

-

Z

pc( abc)

-

Z

p( abc)t

U

p( abc)



Z

pc( abc)



J

c( abc)

Z

p( abc) t

J

t

(5)

coupling impedances between the phase conductors and each phase sheath.

coupling impedances between the phase sheaths and the ecc.

3.2 General circuit analysis method

A software application that uses the general theory of analysis of circuits has been developed. The software application allows linking many sections with different bonding connections (SB, CB) with overhead lines (with or without skywires). For each single-bonding configuration equation (1) can be written, which unknown parameters are the current through the ecc J t and the voltage through the ecc, U mn . For each cross-bonding configuration a system of three equations can be written, which unknown

variables are sheaths currents

, and voltage, U mn across a major CB section. In addition, for

each bonding configuration the following equation must be satisfied:

J

,

J

y

J

U

mn

R

tm

·J'

m

R

tn

·J'

n

( R

tm

R

tn

)·( J

J

J

)

(6)

The resolution of the linear equation system allows determine the unknown variables.

The electrical bonding circuit composed by two CB sections in series with two SB sections shown in figure 7 with cable arrangement of figure 8 is analyzed by means of the GCA.

7 with cable arrangement of figure 8 is analyzed by means of the GCA. Figure 7.

Figure 7. Electric circuit of bonding connection.

a) Single-bonding formation section. b) Power cable transversal section. Figure 8. Cable arrangement. c) Ecc

a) Single-bonding formation section.

a) Single-bonding formation section. b) Power cable transversal section. Figure 8. Cable arrangement. c) Ecc section.

b) Power cable transversal section.

Figure 8. Cable arrangement.

cable transversal section. Figure 8. Cable arrangement. c) Ecc section. Figures 9 and 10 show sheaths

c) Ecc section.

Figures 9 and 10 show sheaths overvoltages corresponding to a single phase short circuit in substation- substation and far away short circuit scenarios respectively.

and far away short circuit scenarios respectively. Figure 9. Sheath overvoltages due to a single phase

Figure 9. Sheath overvoltages due to a single phase short circuit of 1 kA in a substation-substation short circuit scenario.

of 1 kA in a substation-substation short circuit scenario. Figure 10. Sheath overvoltages due to a

Figure 10. Sheath overvoltages due to a single phase short circuit of 1 kA in a far short circuit scenario.

Table I shows a comparison between the GCA method and ATP method for far short circuit scenario. No relevant differences were obtained using both methods.

Table I. Comparison between GCA and ATP method for figure 7 short circuit.

Voltage (V/kA)

GCA (V/kA)

ATP (V/kA)

Difference (V/kA)

CB1_1

119.8

119.5

0.3

CB1_2

157.2

157.0

0.2

CB2_1

252.9

252.2

0.7

CB2_2

302.9

302.2

0.7

SP1

328.8

328.5

0.3

SP2

347.5

347.1

0.4

4 APPLICATION GUIDE

4.1 Overvoltage tables in different sheaths configurations in different laying types

In order to have a fast magnitude order of sheath overvoltages the guide includes many different result tables with sheath overvoltage values for different sheath configurations (SB, sectionalised CB, continous CB), for three different short-circuit scenarios: substation-substation, siphon and far away short-circuit, for the cables arrangements (flat formation -A-, trefoil formation -B- with an ecc laid in the geometric center of the equilateral triangle, trefoil formation -C- with ecc transposed in the middle, or trefoil formation -D- with 2 ecc transposed in the middle) used by Gas Natural Fenosa (GNF), and using different section cable lengths (500 m y 1000 m) and for different earth resistance values on cable ends.

An example is shown in table II, corresponding to local and absolute overvoltages for a single-bonding configuration in a short circuit scenario substation-substation. Induced overvoltages per unit increase when the sum R 1 + R 2 of increases and when the ratio S/d increases also. However, overvoltages decrease for trefoil formation if the earth conductor is on the geometrical center in comparison with the results obtained for other ecc positions. In addition, in general, local voltages are bigger than absolute overvoltages for a substation- substation short-circuit scenario.

0,75S S S
0,75S
S
S

-A-

s -B-
s
-B-

d

S
S

-C-

s
s

-D-

Figure 11. Different cables arrangements used by GNF: A: flat formation, B) trefoil formation with an ecc laid in the geometric center of the equilateral triangle, C) trefoil formation with ecc transposed in the middle, D) trefoil formation with 2 ecc transposed in the middle).

Table II. Temporary overvoltages (V/kA·km) for a single-bonding section of 500 m, during a single phase short-circuit in a cable of 220kV-2000mm 2 Cu. Considering a substation-substation short-circuit scenario.

U

   

R1/R2

 

local /

Phase conductor and ecc arrangement

0

 

0,25

 

0,5

0,25

0,5

10

10

10

10

20

20

0,25

0,5

absolute

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

y

 

0

y 0,25

0,5

y 0,25

0,5

10

10

0,25

0,5

10

20

10

20

 

T-A

S/d=1,12

159

175

182

182

186

196

196

196

196

197

197

197

197

T-A

S/d=2,29

290

335

350

350

358

379

379

379

379

380

380

380

380

local

T-C

S/d=1,12

225

253

263

263

269

285

285

285

285

285

285

285

286

T-C

S/d=2,29

290

335

350

350

358

379

379

379

379

380

380

380

380

T-D

S/d=2,93

214

226

229

229

231

236

236

236

236

237

237

237

237

 

T-A

S/d=1,12

159

125

99

138

113

28

28

192

188

107

76

137

107

absolute

T-A

S/d=2,29

220

187

158

204

176

70

75

272

267

169

133

206

169

T-C

S/d=1,12

225

192

162

210

181

74

79

279

274

174

138

211

174

T-C

S/d=2,29

290

261

226

285

252

125

130

373

366

247

203

291

247

T-D

S/d=2,93

214

189

169

198

181

119

121

233

231

175

155

195

175

4.2

Overvoltages examples for different sheath connection architectures.

Elemental different bonding sections (SB, CB) are linked in order to create different interconnection architectures. Temporary overvoltages on cable sheaths depend on the architecture created. Although, the correct way to know temporary overvoltages is using the software tools described in section 3, it is very important to study some examples in order to have general design criteria.

Table III shows local overvoltages per unit (V/ kA) in the different sheaths crosses of three cross-bonding linked for a substation-substation short circuit scenario when a far away short occurs, considering length cable section of 500 m and 1,000 m for each CB section. The resistance earth value has been changed between 0,5 to 20 . Greater overvoltages are obtained for far away short-circuits than for substation- substation short circuits. In addition, overvoltages are proportional to section lengths when the short circuit appears between substations, however, the length does not affect significantly on sheaths overvoltages (less than 10%) for far away short circuit scenarios. Must be headline that overvoltages increases signigicantly when the earth value on the cable end increase to 5 or 10 ).

Table III. Local overvoltages per unit (V/ kA) on crosses of 3 CB linked.

Substation-substation short-circuit Far away short-circuit R1R1R1 R2R2R2 R3R3R3 R4R4R4 R1R1R1 R2R2R2 R3R3R3
Substation-substation short-circuit
Far away short-circuit
R1R1R1
R2R2R2
R3R3R3
R4R4R4
R1R1R1
R2R2R2
R3R3R3
R4R4R4
.
2000
46
R1
R2
R3
R4
Case
()
()
()
()
1800
44
1
0.5
5
5
0.5
Caso 1
2
0.5
10
10
0.5
R1
R2
R3
R4
1600
Caso 2
42
Case
Caso 3
()
(
)
()
()
3
0.5
5
10
0.5
1400
Caso 4
1
0.5
5
5
0.5
4
0.5
10
5
0.5
40
2
0.5
10
10
0.5
5
0.5
10
10
0.5
Caso 1
1200
38
6
0.5
1
1
0.5
Caso 2
3
0.5
5
10
0.5
Caso 3
4
0.5
10
5
0.5
1000
36
Caso 4
Caso 5
800
34
Caso 6
600
32
400
30
200
28
CB1_1
CB1_2
CB2_1
CB2_2
CB3_1
CB3_2
0
CB1_1
CB1_2
CB2_1
CB2_2
CB3_1
CB3_2
80
3000
R1
R2
R3
R4
Case
()
()
()
()
1
0.5
5
5
0.5
Caso 1
75
2500
2
0.5
10
10
0.5
Caso 2
R1
R2
R3
R4
Case
3
0.5
5
10
0.5
Caso 3
()
()
()
()
4
0.5
10
5
0.5
Caso 4
1
0.5
5
5
0.5
70
2000
5
0.5
10
10
0.5
2
0.5
10
10
0.5
6
0.5
1
1
0.5
Caso 1
3
0.5
5
10
0.5
Caso 2
65
4
0.5
10
5
0.5
1500
Caso 3
5
0.5
10
10
0.5
Caso 4
6
0.5
1
1
0.5
Caso 5
60
1000
Caso 6
55
500
50
0
CB1_1
CB1_2
CB2_1
CB2_2
CB3_1
CB3_2
CB1_1
CB1_2
CB2_1
CB2_2
CB3_1
CB3_2
1,000 -1,000 - 1,000 (m)
500 - 500 - 500 (m)
Length
V/kA
V/kA
V/kA
V/kA

5 SELECTION CRITERIA FOR OVERVOLTAGE LIMITERS AND OUTER SHEATH PROTECTION

For a specific laying arrangement (trefoil formation, flat formation, etc.) and for a specific bonding connection (SB, CB), sheath overvoltage limiters (SVL) used for outer sheath protection, should withstand temporary overvoltages, U t that appears between sheaths and earth. This overvoltage depends on induced local voltage u local (V/kA) and on the short circuit current value that is foreseen in the grid for a specific short circuit scenario (substation-substation short circuit, siphon short circuit or far away short circuit).

U (V)

t

u

local

·I

cc

kA

(7)

In order to have a security margin the rated voltage of the overvoltage limiter U r (withstand power frequency voltage for 10 s) is chosen greater or equal to the temporary overvoltage (e.g. overvoltage during short circuit).

U

r

u

local

·I

cc

kA

(8)

Local voltages per unit, u local , must be determined for each project, either by means of table data included in the Guide either by means of a software application developed for this purpose. On the other hand the maximum short circuit currents must be evaluated taking into account the specific performances of the grid.

SVL selected for each voltage level of the system must assure an appropriate protection margin taking into account the insulation level for transient overvoltages, and considering the effect of distance between the SVL´s and the insulation to be protected.

where:

U p-t :

U res :

MP %

U

U

p

t

res

1

100

(9)

withstand voltage sheath-earth, for lightning impulses 1,2/50 µs Residual voltage of the SVL´s.

Table IV shows the characteristic values of the SVL´s used by GNF and the protection margin considering the withstand voltage required for each voltage level in order to compensate the distance effect between limiter and the insulation protected.

An additional energy analysis performed for the GNF grids allowed to recommend overvoltage limiter of class 2, except for overvoltage limiters of rated voltages of 3,3 kV, that is recommended a class 3.

Table IV. Protection margin.

   

Limiter characteristics

   

Uo/U

U p-t 1,2/50 (kV)

Protection level

         

(kV)

U r (kV)

 

U

c

U

res

MP (%) =100∙(U pt /U res -1)

     

(kV)

(kV)

 
   

3,3

2,7

 

10

200

26/45

30

5

4,0

 

14

114

   

3,3

2,7

 

10

200

36/66

30

5

4,0

 

14

114

   

3,3

2,7

 

10

275

76/132

37,5

5

4,0

 

14

168

6

4,8

 

18

108

   

3,3

2,7

 

10

375

5

4,0

 

14

239

127/220

47,5

6

4,8

 

18

164

6

5

 

20,6

131

9

8

 

24,6

93

On the other hand, the outer sheath should withstand temporary overvoltages that appears between sheaths and reference earth. This overvoltage depends on induced absolute voltage u absolute (V/kA) and on the short circuit current value that is foreseen in the grid for a specific short circuit scenario (substation- substation short circuit, siphon short circuit or far away short circuit):

U

outer sheath

50Hz

u

absolute

·I

cc

(kA)

(10)

As a reference, a typical value for the power frequency (50 Hz/1 min) insulation level for the outer sheath is 10 kV.

CONCLUSION

Significant overvoltages can appear in cable sheaths when short circuits occur in high power grids. Taking into account that temporary and transient overvoltages on cable sheaths depend on the sheath connection architectures, specific short circuit studies must be performed for each project of a new cable system. Although ATP package is a good numerical tool to determine transient and temporary overvoltages, it is not usually used by the project designers of underground cable lines.

Specific software packages have been developed to determine sheath overvoltages of cable systems, one of them applying circuit analysis by symmetrical components (CASC) and other by a general method of circuit analysis (GMCA). Both software packages allow to define any arbitrary architecture to link elementary cable sections (single-bonding, continuous cross-bonding and sectionalised cross-bonding) in order to determine continuous over-voltages in accessory sheaths and in overvoltages limiters for the different short-circuit scenarios (substation-substation, Siphon and far away fault).

In addition application guide has been elaborated with overvoltage tables for different sheaths configurations used by GNF utility for different laying types. Application guide and software packages have allowed improve bonding configurations and the SLV selection of existing underground cables of GNF utility and new underground lines.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[1]

“Estudio de sobretensiones en las pantallas de los cables de alta tensión de los circuitos Mazarredo-Mediodía y Cerro de la Plata-Mediodía en caso de cortocircuito monofásico en la subestación de Mediodía”. Report nº 200612300541. LCOE-FFII.

[2]

The design of specially bonded cable systems. Working Group 07, of study Committee nº 21 (HV insulated cables). ELECTRA nº 28. 1973.

[3]

The design of specially bonded cable systems. Part II. Working Group 07, of study Committee nº 21 (HV insulated cables). ELECTRA nº 47. 1976.

[4]

Guide of the protection of specially bonded cable systems against sheath overvoltages. Working Group 07, of study Committee nº 21 (HV insulated cables). ELECTRA nº 128. 1990.

[5]

IEEE Guide for the Application of Sheath-Bonding Methods for Single-Conductor Cables and the Calculation of Induced Voltages and Currents in Cable Sheaths. ANSI/IEEE Std 575-1988.

[6]

Characteristics and reduction of sheath circulating currents in underground power cable systems. C.K. Jung and, J.B. Lee, J.W. Kang, Xinheng Wang, Young-Hua Song, International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems. Volume 1, issue 1, 2004. Article 1005.

[7]

“Special Bonding of High Voltage Power Cables”. CIGRE BROCHURE Nº 283. Working Group B1.18. October 2005.

[8]

“Slim Cables compact cross-bonding and corrected distance protection” B1-112 Session 2004 CIGRE.

[9]

UNE 21-143-85. Ensayo de cubiertas exteriores de cables que tienen una función especial de protección y que se aplican por extrusión. Equivalente a CEI 60229.

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