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10 (de) vizualizări8 paginiPole Number Selection Strategy of Low-speed Multiple-pole Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

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Pole Number Selection Strategy of Low-speed Multiple-pole Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

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Pole Number Selection Strategy of Low-speed Multiple-pole Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

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Machines

Xiaolong Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, Ronghai Qu, Senior Member, IEEE

synchronous machines have been widely used in direct-drive (DD)

applications. Influences of pole number variation on various

aspects of machine performance, including power density, power L ow-speed multiple-pole Permanent-magnet

synchronous machines have been widely used in

direct-drive applications. Multiple-pole direct-drive PM

(PM)

pole number selection strategy is proposed based on overall machines are preferred in a growing number of driving systems

considerations of machine cost and performance. A series of FE due to their advantages of reducing the weight, volume, cost,

models are built to illustrate the analysis and strategy. noise, or reliability risks associated with intermediate

Index Termspermanent-magnet machines, pole number,

components such as gears, belts, etc. Multiple-pole direct-drive

power density, power factor, magnet demagnetization

PM machines have been achieving growing success in areas

NOMENCLATURE including white goods, automotive applications, ship

propulsion, wind turbines, elevators, etc. [1,2]

Mechanical rotating speed Pole number selection strategies have been discussed in both

0 Magnetic permeability in the air induction machines and PM machines [3-5]. In conventional

A Electric loading machines, pole number should not exceed 8 due to the

Bg1Amplitude of fundamental airgap flux density produced limitation of the convertor frequency. In PM machines for

by the magnet direct-drive applications, rotating speeds are much lower and

Ba1 Amplitude of fundamental flux density of armature converter frequency may not be a critical limitation so higher

reaction field in the airgap pole numbers would be options.

Dg Airgap diameter Active and inactive material cost is a major part of the overall

E1 Rms value of phase fundamental open-circuit back cost. They are greatly dependent on machine volume and

EMF weight. When considering volume and weight in unit power,

F1 Amplitude of fundamental MMF produced by stator designs with high pole numbers are generally in favor due to

windings thinner yoke thickness. However this advantage diminishes as

g Airgap length pole number increases to some extent because the reduction of

g Equivalent airgap length yoke thickness will be very limited. Besides, the yoke thickness

I1 Rms value of phase current cannot be too thin due to mechanical considerations. When pole

IN Rms value of phase rated current number gets high, geometry sizes should not be the only

kw1 Winding factor for the main harmonic concern; other issues such as power factor,

kw Winding factor for the th harmonic magnet-demagnetization and their influences on the overall

la Axial effective length cost should also be considered in regard to selecting the pole

m Phase number number.

Ns Number of series turns per phase The aim of this paper is to make a general analysis of

p Numbers of pole pairs

influences of pole number variation on various aspects of

Pem Electromagnetic power

machine performance and then provide a pole number selection

Q Slot number

Tem Electromagnetic torque strategy to help designers in multiple-pole PM machine design.

UN Rms value of phase rated voltage Several multiple-pole PM machines for a 2-MW direct-drive

wind turbine are designed. They have different pole numbers

and their performances are calculated by finite-element

analysis (FEA). The results are summarized to illustrate pole

numbers influence on power density, power factor and

Xiaolong Zhang is with Huazhong University of Science and Technology, magnet-demagnetization of the machine. In the last sectiona

Wuhan, Hubei, China. (e-mail: zxll88@ 126.com). pole number selection strategy will be provided.

Ronghai Qu is with Huazhong University of Science and Technology,

Wuhan, Hubei, China. (phone: +86-027-8754-4355; fax: +86-27-8754-0937;

e-mail: ronghaiqu@mail.hust.edu.cn).

II. MACHINE MODELS WITH DIFFERENT POLE NUMBERS FOR

COMPARISON

As examples, a series of low-speed multiple-pole PM

machines are designed for a 2 MW wind turbine. They are

designed based on the same design specifications (Table I) but

Fig.1 Geometry of 60-Pole Design

with different pole numbers. Their geometry, electrical

performance, weight, cost are summarized in TABLE II-V. A

cross-sectional view of 5-pole 6-slot unit of the 60-pole design B. Design Constraints and Common Parameters

is shown in Fig.1. In the six design examples, the same topology is used.

Permanent magnets are mounted on the surface of the rotor

TABLE I

Design Specifications

laminations. In the stator, fractional-slot concentrated-windings

Output Power MW 2 are applied. The pole/slot ratio is 5/6. Pole numbers are 20, 40,

Mechanical Speed rpm 18 60, 80, 100 and 120, respectively. Slot numbers are 24, 48, 72,

Rated Current Arms 1800 96, 120 and 144, correspondingly.

Efficiency % 94

To do a fair comparison, some basic dimensions and

TABLE II electromagnetic loading are kept constant, i.e. their airgap

Material Data diameter, airgap length, magnet thickness, series turns per

Material Type Price($/kg) phase are the same.

Magnet NdFeB 45H 82.5

Copper 11.4

According to derivations in [6], a sizing equation for

Iron 50W470 1.6 sinusoidally-fed PM machine is

Note: The prices are latest data from Chinese market. 2

Tem = k w1 Bg1 ADg2 la (1)

TABLE II 4

Geometry Data The electric loading A for a double-layer winding configuration

20 40 60 80 100 120

Parameter Unit

poles poles poles poles poles poles

is defined by

Slot Number 24 48 72 96 120 144 2mN s I1

Airgap Diameter mm 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

A= (2)

Dg

Stack Length mm 1140 1050 1025 1030 1065 1110

Stator Outer Diameter mm 3600 3360 3302 3274 3260 3254 The parameter selection has ensured that main winding factor

kw1, airgap diameter Dg and A will be the same, and fundamental

TABLE III airgap flux density Bg1 will be similar in each designs. Axial

FEA Electrical Performance Data

20 40 60 80 100 120

length la is left as an adjustable freedom to meet the output

Parameter Unit power requirement. It can also be derived from (3) that the open

poles poles poles poles poles poles

Line to Line Voltage Vrms 1039 816 794 792 816 854 circuit back EMF will be very similar.

Phase Back EMF Vrms 416 404 402 402 410 419

Line Current Arms 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 2

E1 = k w1 N s Bg1 Dg la (3)

Current Angle 180 180 180 180 180 180 2

Power Factor 0.61 0.79 0.80 0.80 0.79 0.76 Analysis in the following parts of the paper will be based on

D-axis Reactance 0.25 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.15 0.16

these design constraints and common parameters.

TABLE IV

Active Material Weight Data III. POWER DENSITY

20 40 60 80 100 120

Type Unit Power densities over volume, weight and cost of the active

poles poles poles poles poles poles

Magnet T 1.77 1.63 1.59 1.60 1.65 1.72 material part of the machine will be discussed in this section.

Copper T 4.9 3.3 2.9 2.8 2.9 3.1 The volume and weight of the active part not only influence the

Iron T 34 15 11 8.7 7.8 7.2

active material cost directly, but also greatly affect inactive

Total T 40 20 15.2 13.1 12.3 12.0

material cost, assembling difficulties and transporting expenses.

TABLE V By exploring relationships between the pole number and power

Active Material Cost Data densities over volume, weight and cost, this section is aimed at

20 40 60 80 100 120

Type Unit

poles poles poles poles poles poles

evaluating the overall manufacturing cost of the machine.

Magnet k$ 146 134 131 132 136 142 Machine volume depends on diameter and axial length. As

Copper k$ 56 38 33 32 33 35 pole number increases, flux per each pole reduces. Yoke

Iron k$ 54 24 17 14 12 12 thicknesses in stator and rotor reduce if yoke flux density is

Total k$ 255 196 182 178 182 189

kept in the same level, so as stator outer diameter. The axial

length depends on many factors including effective flux by

magnet, iron saturation, etc.

Active material mainly comprises of iron, copper and magnet.

1268

Iron weight is generally the biggest portion of total active s

material weight, as can be seen from TABLE IV. Machine kc = (5)

2bo bo g bo

2

weight tends to decrease as pole number increases due to the s arctan ln 1 +

yoke thickness reduction. This trend slows down when pole 2 g bo 2 g

number gets relatively high. where s is the slot pitch, bo is the slot opening.

As demonstrated in TABLE V, costs of magnet and copper This effect is significant in machines with open slots. Since

make up the majority of the active material cost. The usage more poles means more slots, narrower slot opening and

amount of magnet and copper are mainly dependent on consequently lower carter factor. The Carter factor calculated

machine axial length. for the design examples is shown in Fig.3. It is proved that the

Based on the basic analysis made above, it is very necessary equivalent airgap length decreases as pole number increases.

to find the relationship between the pole number and the

machine axial length since the axial length is in direct

proportion to machines volume, weight and cos. In the

subsections, some prominent factors on machines output

capability per unit length, including magnet leakage flux,

equivalent airgap length and iron saturation, are analyzed.

A. Magnet Leakage Flux

Magnet leakage flux is the flux that does not link armature

coils or only partially link the coils. The leakage flux reduces

the back EMF and the torque production capability. Fig.3 Carter Factors in Analytical Results

The analytical models of the leakage flux in surface-mounted

PM machines and interior PM machines are derived in [7] and

[8], respectively. It is found that the leakage flux component is C. Iron Saturation

greatly influenced by circumferential distance between poles Armature reaction will increase flux densities in iron portion

and airgap radial length. Longer pole distance and smaller of the machine, especially in iron teeth. Changing of the pole

airgap result in larger magnet leakage flux. number will affect the iron magnetic saturation level and

In the design examples, formulas derived in [7] are adopted. machine performance.

A magnet flux leakage factor kL is defined as the ratio of the The tooth flux density is proportional to the airgap flux

magnet flux interacting with stator current to the total magnet density. The expression of amplitude of stator winding

flux and can be calculated by fundamental MMF is given by (6). The airgap armature

k L = k Lg + k Lt 1 (4) reaction field can be found by multiplying winding MMF with

where kLg is the magnet airgap leakage flux factor and kLt is the airgap permeance, which obtains (7). It is shown that armature

magnet zigzag leakage flux factor caused by the flux reaction field is proportional to p-1. Therefore a small pole

short-circuited by one tooth. They have been well defined and number will be along with relatively high saturation level.

calculated in [7]. The magnet flux leakage factor is shown in 2mk w1 N s I1

Fig.2. As pole number increases, leakage flux paths are F1 = (6)

p

shortened and leakage flux component increases.

2mkw1 N s I1 0

Ba1 = (7)

p g'

The equivalent airgap length is larger than the physical Fig.4 Flux Density Distributions in Iron Teeth for Saturation Comparison

airgap length for slotted surface. This enlargement factor is

defined as Carter factor [4], which can be calculated by the Fig.4 shows tooth field distribution at the moment with

formula maximum flux density for the six design examples. The flux

densities are measured by the same scaling. It is observed that

the tooth is most saturated in the 20-pole design, designs with

higher pole numbers, i.e. 80, 100, 120, are less saturated than

1269

other designs. When pole number is high, the saturation level

may not decrease further because decrease rate of p-1 slows

down and slot leakage flux increases. Thats the reason 80, 100

and 120-pole designs have similar flux density values in iron

teeth.

D. FEA Results on Power Density

Back EMF and output power per unit axial stack length from

FEA results of the six design examples are shown in Fig.5.

When the pole number is very small, the power capability is

low due to large equivalent airgap length and high iron Fig.6 Power Density Curve over Weight and Yoke Thicknesses of Different

Pole Numbers

saturation caused by armature reaction. When pole number is

very high, the power capability is low as well due to significant

magnet leakage flux.

The power density curve over weight from FEA results is

shown in Fig.6. One can find that the higher the pole number,

the lighter the structure is. As has been pointed out, this is due

to thinner yoke for high pole numbers. To illustrate this trend,

the stator yoke thicknesses for different pole numbers are also

provided in Fig.6. However, when pole number increases to

some extent, the weight will not reduce significantly or even

increase a little because the yoke thickness reduction becomes

small and the axial length has to be extended to ensure power Fig.7 Power Density Curves over Volume and Cost

output. Besides, the yoke thickness could not be too thin to

ensure mechanical robustness. Therefore the pole number is not

the more the better for weight minimization. IV. POWER FACTOR

The power density curves over volume and cost from FEA

Power factor is the ratio of the active electrical power to the

results are plotted in Fig.7. These curves are similar in shape to

product of rated voltage and rated current. The power factor of

the curves of power capability per unit length because volume

the PM machine determines minimal VA rating of the

and cost are proportional to the axial length. The 60-pole and

convertor. Low power factor will cause convertor cost increase.

80-pole designs have relatively short stack length, indicating

Neglecting losses and high-order harmonics in currents and

potentials for low volume and cost. High pole number designs

voltages, a machines power factor is defined as

have some geometrical merits due to their thin yokes and short

end windings. Therefore the maximum power density over Pem

PF = (8)

volume and cost appear at 80-pole design and the declining rate mU N I N

in the high-pole-number region is relatively slow. Another The power factor of an electrical machine is dependent on

message from these design examples is that the magnet cost back EMF, reactance, current magnitude and current angle, etc.

makes up the majority of the active material cost due to high Adding negative d-axis current could improve the power factor

magnet prices nowadays, as shown in TABLE II and V. whereas output power might reduce. A simple and common

The curves from FEA results demonstrate pretty good control strategy is adopted for comparing the power factor, i.e.

agreements with theoretical analysis. It is proved that each full current is applied to q-axis and no magnetizing component

curve has an optimum point corresponding to maximum power exists. Neglecting the winding resistance, the power factor

density over volume, weight or cost. Luckily these optimum would be

points are very close to each other and it is not a difficult job to 3E1 I N

locate an optimum pole number region in which volume, PF =

3I N E12 + ( I N X q )2

weight and cost can be optimized as a whole. In the serial

1 (9)

design examples, the optimum region should be between 80 =

and 100. IN Xq 2

1+ ( )

E1

Therefore in the view of machine design, power factor is

mainly dependent on the back EMF and the reactance.

Generally, high EMF and low reactance help improve power

factor since in normal condition q-axis current is significantly

larger than d-axis current. The variation of EMF with pole

number has been discussed in section III. The inductance and

reactance trends will be analyzed in this section.

A. Inductance and Reactance Trends

Fig.5 Back EMF and Output Power per Unit Axial Stack Length

[9] gives the expressions of different inductance components.

The airgap inductance, slot leakage inductance, tooth-tip

1270

leakage inductance and end-winding leakage inductance are total slot permeance is four times original value and slot

respectively determined by inductance does not change since coil turns are halved.

2

0 mDg la N s 2 =+ kw

Lg = ( ) (10)

g' p =+

Ns2

Lsl = 4m0 la Psl (11)

Q

Ns2

Ltl = 4m0 la Ptl (12)

Q

Fig.8 Flux Paths and Permeances in the Airgap and Slot in Two-Pole and

Ns2 Four-Pole Topology

Lel = 4mq 0 (2lew Plew + Wew Pwew ) (13)

Q The synchronous reactance Xs consists of the reactances

where Psl is the slot specific permeance factor, Ptl is the tooth corresponding to the various inductance components discussed

-tip specific permeance factor, lew is the axial length of the above, i.e.

end winding measured from the end of the stack and Plew is the X s = X g + X sl + X tl + X el (20)

corresponding specific permeance factor, Wew is the width of the The reactance is the multiplication of the inductance and the

coil span and Pwew is the corresponding end winding specific electrical angular frequency p. The electrical frequency

permeance factor, q is the number of slots per pole and phase. increases proportionally with the pole number. It has been

It is obvious that the airgap inductance is proportional to p-2, proved that these inductance components are related to the pole

Lg p 2 (14) number with orders of -2 or 0 respectively. Therefore the

The slot specific permeance is roughly inversely-proportional reactance components are related to the pole number with

to the slot width and the slot width is inversely-proportional to orders of -1 or 1, i.e.

the slot number. Therefore k1

Psl Q (15) X s = + k2 p (21)

p

According to (11), the slot leakage inductance will generally where the coefficients k1 and k2 can be seen as approximate

not change very much as pole number varies, i.e. constants unvaried by p, assuming equal slot depth and same

Lsl const (16) pole/slot ratio. The coefficients can be determined by

Assuming that the slot opening is proportional to slot width, 2

0 mDg la N s2 =+ kw

then tooth-tip specific permeance has the same feature as the k1 =

g'

=+

slot specific permeance. The tooth-tip inductance is almost (22)

constant as well, i.e. p 2 (2lew Plew + Wew Pwew )

Ltl const (17) + 4mq 0 N s 2

Q

The end winding lengths, lew and Wew, are roughly proportional

to the pole pitch. The end winding permeance factors, Plew and Psl + Ptl

k2 = 4m0 la N s 2 (23)

Pwew, are empirical values depending on the structure of the Q

winding. Therefore According to (21), the function of synchronous reactance to

2lew Plew + Wew Pwew p 1 (18) pole number is a concave curve. Obviously, it is desirable to put

It has been assumed that the slot number Q is proportional to the pole number into the valley region of the reactance curve so

the pole pair number p, therefore the end turn leakage that the power factor could be relatively high.

inductance is proportional to p-2, i.e. B. FEA Results on Power Factor

Lel p 2 (19) The synchronous reactances of the design examples from

(14)(16)(17)(19) depict the influence of pole number analytical and FEA results are compared in Fig.9. They agree

selection on inductances. It is seen that the variation trends of with each other very well and it is shown that the reactance is

inductance components with the pole number are different. The small when pole number is between 60 and 80. The power

airgap inductance and end turn inductance are related to pole factor from FEA results is plotted in Fig.10. As expected, high

number with a factor of p-2, whereas the slot inductance and power factors appear in the same region.

tooth-tip inductance are not greatly influenced by pole number Obviously, Xs will be relatively low in a certain range of pole

variation. To explain this difference, one can assume that pole numbers. Both very high and very low values of p will lead to

number is doubled and coil turns number is halved as shown in large Xs, poor power factor and unwanted high convertor cost

Fig.8 and see how inductances change. The flux in the airgap is and losses. From another perspective, if converter capacity is to

in radial direction. When pole number increases, the total be kept unchanged, then a rise of negative d-axis current is

airgap permeance does not change. Since coil turns number is needed and machine volume has to be increased to ensure equal

halved, the airgap inductance is one quarter of the original output power. Therefore, to minimize overall weight and cost,

value. On the contrary, the flux lines in the slot are it would be preferred that pole number selection falls into this

perpendicular to airgap depth. When pole number increases optimum range.

from two to four, slot width is halved, the length of the flux path

is halved and slot permeance per pole is doubled. Therefore the

1271

The phase current in steady-state 3-phase short circuit fault

condition is in the demagnetization direction and the magnitude

is

E1 2kw1 N s Bg1 Dg la

I SC = = (24)

Xd 2X d

Assuming sinusoidal field distribution, the demagnetization

field can be found by replacing I1 in (7) with I3phSC, i.e.

2mkw1 N s I SC 0

Ba1 =

p g'

Fig.9 Synchronous Reactance from Analytical and FEA results

0 m ( kw1 N s ) Dg la p

2

= Bg1 (25)

p2 g ' Xd

Lm

= Bg1

Ld

where Lm is the magnetizing inductance or the main harmonic

component of the airgap inductance. To include harmonic

fields, Lm is replaced with the total airgap reactance Lg. By split

the synchronous reactance Ld into the airgap component and

other leakage components, RMS intensity of the

demagnetization field is given by

Fig.10 Power Factor from FEA Results

Lg

Ba , rms = Bg1 (26)

V. MAGNET-DEMAGNETIZATION Lg + Lsl + Ltl + Lel

During short circuit (SC) faults, armature windings of PM It is evident that the demagnetization field is dependent on

machines will endure high currents [10]. The reverse field the proportion of the airgap component in the total inductance.

produced by the increased current may damage flux induction It has been shown in section IV that as pole number increases,

capability of some part of the magnets. This is called the airgap inductance and end leakage inductance will drop; the

demagnetization [11,12]. If the magnet demagnetization slot leakage reactance and tooth-tip leakage reactance will

volume is considerable, magnet flux will reduce significantly change little. The end leakage inductance is relatively small due

and torque production capability will be affected. It is to large reluctance in its magnetic circuits. Therefore, the

necessary to check whether the magnet can survive from demagnetization field will decrease as pole number increases.

various short circuit faults and evaluate possible magnet Or in other words, high pole numbers help reduce

demagnetization volume in the design stage. It has been demagnetization risks and possible magnet demagnetization

explained in [13] that large leakage inductance components volumes.

help improve demagnetization conditions. B. FEA Results on Magnet Demagnetization

A. Demagnetization Risks Evaluation Three-phase symmetrical short-circuit faults are simulated in

There are many types of short circuit faults. According to all six FE models. The time instants when demagnetization

fault phase numbers, there are 3-phase SC faults, 2-phase SC fields are most strong are found and the distribution maps of the

faults, 1-phase SC faults, etc. According to whereabouts the field along magnetization-direction in the magnets are plotted,

fault happens, there are phase-phase SC faults, phase-ground in Fig.14. Red areas are heavily-demagnetized areas. It is clear

SC faults, inter-turn SC faults, etc. According to the operating that as pole number increases, red areas are smaller and smaller,

conditions before the faults, there are SC faults from no load, blue areas are bigger and bigger, which means that

SC faults from rated load, etc. demagnetization risks become lower. For NdFeB 45H magnet

After an SC fault happens, there will be a transient process at the operating temperature of 90 , demagnetization knee

during which the fault currents change from an unsteady state point is 0.2T. All magnet regions where flux densities are above

into a steady state. The magnitude of peak current and -0.2T in Fig.14 are considered demagnetized. Demagnetized

steady-state current are dependent on the fault type and the fault area rates are listed in TABLE VI. In 20-pole design, about

instance. Therefore the magnet condition will also depend on ninety percent of the magnet area is demagnetized. As pole

these factors. number increases, demagnetized areas decrease. In 80-pole

3-phase symmetrical short circuit fault is a basic fault type. design, the demagnetized area is only ten percent. When pole

Generally, the magnitudes of other types of short circuit current number exceeds 100, no any portion of the magnet is

are proportional to the steady-state current of 3-phase short demagnetized. Simulation results verify the theoretical

circuit. The demagnetization field produced by steady-state conclusion that high pole number mitigates

3-phase short circuit currents will be adopted as an index of magnet-demagnetization.

possible demagnetization risks in PM machines. The most simple way to protect the magnets from

1272

demagnetization is to increase the magnet material grade, e.g. reaction field, synchronous reactance and demagnetization

from H grade to SH grade, or to UH grade. However it may not field, etc.

be a preferred way because the higher-grade magnets have 3. Select a series of candidate pole numbers with reasonable

significantly higher prices and the magnet material cost makes values of these calculated parameters.

up a big portion of the total active material cost, as shown in 4. Build the model of the selected pole numbers in FEA and

TABLE V. Increasing the pole number would be an effective simulate their performance.

and low-cost method. However there is an upper limit to the 5. Compare performances of these FEA models with the

pole number increase. Because a high pole number may lead to threshold values set up in the first step. The pole number that

considerable magnet leakage flux, large reactances and could best fulfill performance requirements and minimize

overall cost is chosen as a baseline design.

consequently low power density and poor power factor.

6. Carefully evaluate performances of the baseline design

and make some adjustments if some performances are not

satisfactory.

If magnet flux leakage needs to be reduced, pole number

should be lowered.

In machines with open slots, back EMF may be low due to

large equivalent airgap. In this case, pole number and slot

number could be increased to reduce airgap permeance.

If iron teeth are highly saturated due to heavy armature

reaction, pole number should be increased.

If power factor is too low due to large reactance, pole number

may need adjustment. Either increase the pole number to

reduce airgap reactance, or lower the pole number to reduce slot

Fig.11 Distribution Maps of the Field along Magnetization-Direction in the

Magnets When Demagnetization Field is Most Strong

and tooth-tip leakage reactance.

If magnet-demagnetization is severe, then pole number

TABLE VI should be increased.

Demagnetization Area 7. If all performance thresholds could not be satisfied, some

Pole Number 20 40 60 80 100 120 premises like basic sizes, electromagnetic loading or materials

Demagnetization Area (%) 89 82 65 10 0 0 should be altered or performance requirements should be

lowered. Then steps listed above must be repeated again until a

satisfactory result is obtained.

VI. POLE NUMBER SELECTION STRATEGY 8. An optimal pole number can be selected by following

In designing low-speed multiple-pole PM machines, it is above steps and other geometry details could be optimized

necessary to select an appropriate pole number when basic sizes subsequently.

and material types have been chosen. Based on the performance The strategy proposed here only considers some prominent

data, an appropriate pole number can be selected for the 2-MW effects on some main machine performances, i.e. power density,

wind generator. The volume and cost of the active material are power factor and magnet-demagnetization. There are other

relatively low in the pole number range between 60 and 100. factors that could cause considerable effects and other

When considering weight, high pole numbers are favorable. performances that may need to be evaluated. One of these

But when pole number is larger than 100, the weight will not important issues is loss. Since frequency is proportional to the

reduce significantly as pole number increases further. A pole number, increasing pole number would mean considerable

relatively high power factor of approximate 0.8 appears for increase in iron losses and copper AC loss. Another

pole numbers between 40 and 100. The performance index for machines is the speed range. Operating

magnet-demagnetization during the 3-phase short circuit fault the machine to wide speed range requires high d-axis

is severe for pole numbers lower than 60. When pole number is inductance. Sometimes selecting a pole number with high

greater than 100, the demagnetization volume is zero. It can be synchronous inductance helps improve high-speed

concluded that for this application a pole number of 100 would field-weakening performance. However, this may be

be an optimal choice of high power density, high power factor contradictory with expected high power factor in low speed

and low magnet-demagnetization risks.

range, which requires low q-axis inductance. These

A general strategy for optimal pole number selection can be

considerations could be added to the pole number selection

adopted by following steps below:

steps if necessary.

1. A series of threshold values for power densities over

volume, weight and cost, power factor and

magnet-demagnetization should be set up. VII. CONCLUSIONS

2. Calculate curves of relationships between some typical In low-speed multiple-pole PM machines, there is no strict

parameters and the pole number based on analytical limitations in pole number selection. Therefore pole number

expressions provided in the above sections. The parameters could be varied as an optimization freedom to improve overall

include magnet flux leakage, equivalent airgap length, armature performance. To do a fair performance comparison for

machines with different pole numbers, some design constraints

1273

and common parameters are defined. Then effects of pole permanent-magnet Machine," Industry Applications, IEEE

number selection on various performances including power Transactions on, vol.40, pp. 121-127, 2004.

density, power factor and magnet-demagnetization are [8] T. Wen-Bin and C. Ting-Yu, "Analysis of flux leakage in a

brushless permanent-magnet motor with embedded magnets,"

analyzed. Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, vol.35, pp. 543-547, 1999.

First, three main factors influencing power capability of the [9] Pyrhonen, J., Jokinen, T., Hrabovcova, V., Design of rotating

machine, i.e. magnet leakage flux, equivalent airgap length and electrical machines, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2008.

iron saturation, are considered. It is found that both very high [10] K. W. Klontz, T. J. E. Miller, M. I. McGilp, H. Karmaker and P.

and very low pole numbers are undesirable because the Zhong, "Short-Circuit Analysis of Permanent-Magnet

power/length ratios will be low and machine axial lengths are Generators," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on,

relatively long. In the intermediate region for the pole number, vol.47, pp. 1670-1680, 2011.

machines have high power densities over volume and cost. [11] S. Ruoho and A. Arkkio, "Partial Demagnetization of Permanent

Magnets in Electrical Machines Caused by an Inclined Field,"

Machines with slightly higher pole numbers have some Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, vol.44, pp. 1773-1778, 2008.

advantage in power density over weight. [12] C. Kral, A. Haumer, M. Bogomolov and E. Lomonova,

Second, the relationship between various reactance "Harmonic wave model of a permanent magnet synchronous

components and pole number are explored. It is found that as machine for modeling partial demagnetization under short circuit

pole number increases, airgap reactance and end-winding conditions," in Proc. 2012 Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2012

XXth International Conference on, pp. 295-301.

leakage reactance decreases, whereas slot and tooth-tip leakage

[13] T. Sebastian and G. Slemon, "Transient torque and short circuit

reactance increases. The synchronous reactance, as the sum of capabilities of variable speed permanent magnet motors,"

these reactance components, is low for pole numbers in a Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, vol.23, pp. 3619-3621, 1987.

certain region and the low synchronous reactance brings high

power factor and low convertor cost.

Third, magnet-demagnetization risks under short circuit

faults are evaluated. Derivation shows that the demagnetization

field is dependent on the proportion of the airgap component in

the total inductance. High pole numbers could mitigate

magnet-demagnetization due to their high leakage inductance

components.

In the last section, a pole number selection strategy aimed at

overall performance optimization is proposed. By applying it to

a 2-MW wind generator design, this strategy has been proved

valid and effective.

REFERENCES

[1] T. M. Jahns, The Expanding Role of PM Machines in

Direct-Drive Applications, in Proc. of 2011 Intl. Conference on

Electric Machines and Systems (ICEMS11), Beijing, China,

Aug. 2011.

[2] R. S. Semken, M. Polikarpova, X. Ro, X. Ytta, P. and J.

Alexandrova, et al., "Direct-drive permanent magnet generators

for high-power wind turbines: benefits and limiting factors,"

Renewable Power Generation, IET, vol.6, pp. 1-8, 2012.

[3] F. Liang, D. W. Novotny, R. Fei and X. Xingyi, "Selection of the

pole number of induction machines for variable speed

applications," in Proc. 1993 Industry Applications Society

Annual Meeting, 1993., Conference Record of the 1993 IEEE,

pp. 367-373.

[4] T. A. Lipo, Introduction to AC Machine Design, Wisconsin

Power Electronics Research Center, University of Wisconsin,

Madison, WI, 1996.

[5] J.R. Hendershot Jr., THE Miller, Design of Brushless

Permanent-Magnet Motors, Magna Physics Publishing and

Oxford University Press, 1994.

[6] H. Surong, L. Jian, F. Leonardi and T. A. Lipo, "A general

approach to sizing and power density equations for comparison of

electrical machines," Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions

on, vol.34, pp. 92-97, 1998.

[7] Q. Ronghai and T. A. Lipo, "Analysis and modeling of air-gap

and zigzag leakage fluxes in a surface-mounted

1274

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