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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

Language plays a great part in human life. The effects of language are

remarkable and include much of what distinguishes man from animals

(Bloomfield, 1933: 3). Language is a complex of knowledge and abilities enabling

poets of the language to communicate with each other, to express ideas,

hypotheses, emotions, desires, and all the other things that need to be expressed.

Furthermore, these knowledge systems are studied in scientific way; it is called

linguistics.

Linguistics is the scientific study of language - how it is put together and

how it functions. According to Abrams (1999: 140) Linguistics is the systematic

study of the elements of language and the principles governing their combination

and organization. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or

subfields of study: 1) language in context, 2) language meaning, and 3) language

form. The study of language meaning is concerned with how languages employ

logical structure and real-world references to convey process and assign meaning,

as well as to manage and resolve ambiguity. In linguistics, the study of meaning is

devoted to semantics.

Semantics is a branch of linguistics which relates with meaning. Linguistic

itself has brought to the subject of semantics a certain degree of Analytic rigour

combined with a view of the study of meaning as an integrated component within

the total theory of how language works (Leech, 1981: 10).

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There are certain kinds of meaning or certain aspects of meaning in

linguistics. Katz (1972:1) states that semantics is the study of linguistic meaning.

It is concerned with what sentence and other linguistics object express, not with

the arrangement with their syntactic parts or with their pronunciation.

Leech (1969: 5), defines the aim of semantics is to explain and describe the

meaning in natural language. To make our starting point in ordinary usage more

explicit, people may even say that the goal of semantics is to explain what

underlies the use of the word means and related term (sense, nonsense, signify,

ambiguous, antonym, synonymy, etc.) in English and other language. In semantic

analysis, the language which uses the unreal meaning is called figurative

language. One way to understand a figurative language is by studying semantics.

Perrine and Thomas (1983: 81) state that figurative language is a persuasive

language. It is another way of adding an extra dimension to language, which can

attract the readers attention. In other words, it means that figurative language is

an additional way of saying something than using the usual one. There are many

kinds of figurative language.

Figurative language conveys meaning or heighten effect, it will give more

meaning to the words, beautify them, and emphasize their meaning. Because of

some reasons above, figurative language is one important elements of poem. As

stated by Perrine (1963 : 61) Figurative language may be defined as any way of

saying something other than the ordinary way. Figure of speech is one of the

important intrinsic elements in a poem which is more dominant than other

element. The use of figurative language make the poems sound more beautiful,

and the use of such figures also make poems attract the readers attention.
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Knickerbockers and Williard (1963:310) state that poem is the fusion of

sound and sense or a melting together of sound and sense. Poem might be defined

as a kind of language that says it more intensely than does ordinary language. The

poet is using many figurative languages as the techniques to make their poem

interesting to read. It is a special way of using words.

There are a lot of things that can be discussed in a poem, but this research

analysis concentrates only on the analysis of the figurative language used in the

poem. Edgar Allan Poes poems are chosen to analyze because they are rich with

the kinds of figurative language. According to Ingram (1899) Edgar Allan Poe

was one of the genius American poet is capable for communicate his sense to

poems. He has used a lot of figurative languages in his poems.

According to Padni (2012: 2), The idea and message of a poem sometimes

difficult to understood by the people. In other to find out at least the idea of the

poem, people should have basic knowledge about figurative language, since the

ideas in a poem are mostly conveyed in figurative language.

This research focused on analyzing the kinds and meanings of figurative

language that occur in Edgar Allan Poes poems. It was considered as an

important thing to understand what actually the meanings which contain within

the poems. Because it is useless, if people just read the poems without

understanding what actually the poets want to convey to the readers. Thus, people

need to analyze figurative language in poems more deeply.

There were some previous studies, Iriyanti (2010), Agustini (2016) and

Suryani (2013) that discussed about the used of figurative language in Poems but

most of them discussed by the literature side and they just analyzed one or three
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poems. But, in this research, the researcher interested to discuss by linguistics side

and expand this research through analysing kinds and meanings of figurative

language used in five of Edgar Allan Poes poems. Therefore the researcher

interested in conducting a research entitled An Analysis of figurative Language

Used in Edgar Allan Poes Poems.

B. Formulations of the Problems

Based on the background above, the researcher formulated the problems as

follows:

1. What kinds of figurative languages are used in Edgar Allan Poes poems?

2. What meanings of figurative language are used in the Edgar Allan Poes

poems?

C. The Scopes of the Problems

The researcher limited the analysis on the description of kinds of figurative

language and meaning of the figurative language used in the 8 Edgar Allan Poes

poems. The titles of poem were Annabel Lee, The Sleeper, A Dream Within A

Dream, To One in Paradise, Alone, Spirit of the Death, The Lake and Evening

Stars. The framework of the analysis was using Leechand Abramss 8 types of

figurative language, there were personification, simile, metaphor, hyperbole,

irony, paradox, metonymy and symbolism.

D. Objectives of the Research

The objectives of the research as follows:

1. To describe the kinds of figurative language used in the Edgar Allan Poes

poems.
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2. To describe the meanings of figurative language used in the Edgar Allan Poes

poems.

E. Significances of the Research

Hopefully, the theoretical implication in this research improved the

understanding of figurative language used in the Edgar Allan Poes poems, and

practical implication of the research was expected to give some advantages for:

1. The Lecturers

This research was expected to provide an additional teaching material

for lecturer, so it can be used for teaching related to figurative language in

the class especially in English prose and Poetry subject.

2. The Students

This research had been us eful as information for language learners to

improve their linguistics knowledge especially in figurative language.

3. Other Researcher

The research hoped this research could give early information and

reference who want to continue or conduct a research on the similar topic.

F. Operational Definition

To avoided misunderstanding about this topic, it was important to define

several terms used in this research, as follows:

1. Analysis

Analysis is an attempt to observe in detail any matter or thing by

breaking the components in the constituent or constituent to examine

further.
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2. Semantics

Semantics is a brach of linguistics which relates with meaning.

Semantics is considered as study of meaning in language. It deals with all

linguistics aspects from words, phrases, and sentences in language.

3. Figurative Language

Figurative language is language that uses words or expressions with a

meaning that is different from the literal interpretation.

4. Edgar Allan Poe

Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston on January 19, 1809. He was an

American researcher, editor, and literary critic. Poe is best known for his

poetry and short stories, particularly his tales of mystery and the macabre.

5. Poem

Poem is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through

meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choice so as to evoke an

emotional response. The poems entitled Annabel Lee, The Sleeper, A

Dream Within A Dream, To One in Paradise, Alone, Spirit of the Death,

The Lake and Evening Stars.


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CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Theoretical Descriptions

1. Semantics Theory

Semantics is a branch of linguistics which relates with meaning.

Semantics is considered as a study of meaning in language. It deals with the

expression of linguistic objects such as word, phrases and sentences. It does not

pay attention to the syntactical arrangement or pronunciation of linguistics

object. Katz (1972: 1) states that semantics is the study of linguistics meaning.

It is concerned with what sentence and other linguistics object express, not

with the arrangement with their syntactic parts or with their pronunciation.

Semantics has long been an object of study within the philosophy. It is

said that the term semantics itself was introduced into English at the end of the

19th century. Araya (2008: 32) states that during the late nineteenth century,

other important disciplines emerged as innovative ways to study language.

Semantics was one of those new approaches. Based on etymology, the word

semantics originally comes from Greek word semantikos means significant;

semainein means to show, signify or indicated by sign; from sema means

sign.

Semantics has developed and became worthy study. There are two factors

that make semantics become important and worthy study. First, meaning is

strictly connected with communication. A certain meaning can be delivered

through communication which plays an important role in human life. Second,


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the process of human attempts to comprehend the nature of meaning involves

the mental ability by the use of reasoning and perception.

Araya (2008: 32) states hat semantics helped to establish the differences

between syntactic and meaningful constructions. In other words, it clarified

that one thing was to have syntactically correct linguistic structures, and

another, to construct semantically good constructions. Semantics is one of

branches of linguistics studying about the meaning, and it is considered as a

major branch of linguistics devoted to the study of meaning in language

(Crystal, 1999: 310). From this definition, we have to know what is meant by

meaning.

Semantics has been variously described as the science of sign, of

symbolismic behavior or of communication-system. It focuses on the scope of

the term "communication". There are certain concepts relevant to the

investigation of all communication-systems, human and non-human, natural

and artificial. As stated by Leech (1981: 9), Semantics is central to the study

of communication; and as communication becomes more and more crucial

factor in social organization, the need to understand it becomes more and more

pressing.

Semantics is not only the center of communication study but also the

center of the study of the human mind thought processes, cognition,

conceptualization-all these are intricately bound up with the way in which we

classify and covey our experience of the world through language. Leech (1981:

9) states that semantic has often seemed baffling because there are many

different approach to it, and the ways in which they are related to one another
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rarely clear, even to writes on subject. It has also seemed blaffing because it is

cogniting turning in upon itself.

According to Yule (2006: 5) there are some terms of semantics, such as

semasiology, semiology, semiotics, sememis, and semics. Scholar has often

used some of these terms to suit their own interest and orientation. These terms

are used referring to other things beyond the semantics proper. To make a clear

definition, it is necessary to redefine semantics into a more specific definition.

Semantics could be limited into the study of more specific types of meaning

only and to make a clear limit of the study of meaning into linguistics proper.

Then we may say that semantics is the study of meaning of words, phrases, or

sentences in language.

For clearer understanding on semantics, there are some definitions of

semantics given by some linguists below:

1. Semantics is the branch of linguistics concerned with studying

meaning the meaning of words and sentences (Hornby, 1972: 789).

2. Semantics is the study of meaning that concerned with what

sentences and other linguistics objects express, not with the

arrangement of their syntactic parts or their pronunciations (Katz,

1972: 1).

All the definitions above are different in some respects but principally

semantics is a division of linguistics dealing with meaning of words, its study

concerned with meaning of linguistics string. It means that we must focus our

attention to what sentences or other linguistics objects express not to

arrangement of their syntactic part of their grammatical form.


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2. Figurative Language

Abrams (1999: 96) defined figurative language as a conspicuous

departure from what users of a language apprehend as the standard meaning of

words, or else the standard order of words, in order to achieve some special

meaning or effect. Figures are sometimes described as primarily poetic, but

they are integral to the functioning of language and indispensable to all modes

of discourse. According to Saputri (2014: 22) Figurative language is language

that uses words or expressions with a meaning that is different from the literal

interpretation. It requires people to use imagination to figure out the poet's

meaning.

Figurative language refers to words, and groups of words, that exaggerate

or alter the usual meaning in figures of speeches of the component of words. A

figure of speech may be said to occur whenever a poet or researcher, from the

sake of freshness or emphasis, departs from the usual denotations of words

(Kennedy, 1983: 479). The more figurative expressions used will obviously

enrich the vocabularies of the users. One can be considered to possess a great

number of vocabularies provided that he or she understands well the meaning

of the words or phrases literally. Therefore, figurative language becomes

essential in the learning vocabularies.

According to Crystal (1999:11) There are two purposes of using

figurative language namely pragmatic purpose and referential purpose. The

pragmatic purpose of using figurative language is to appeal the sense or

interest, to clarify, to please, to delight and to surprise. While, the referential

purpose of using figurative language is to describe mental process or state, a


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concept, a person, an object, a quality or an action more comprehensively and

concisely.

When the sentences has hidden meaning, non- literally meaning or

figurative meaning exist beside it. Non-literal meaning would be more difficult

to understand without knowing the context, the situation or atmosphere of

sentence being expresses. As stated by Crystal (1999:116) Figure of Speech is

an expressive use of language where words are used in a non-literal way to

suggest illuminating comparisons and resemblances.

Figurative language is often found in literary works, such as; articles in

newspaper, advertisements, novels, poems, etc. Figurative language is the use

of words that go beyond their ordinary meaning. It requires using the

imagination to figure out the poet's meaning. When a researcher uses literal

language, he or she is simply stating the facts as they are. Figurative language,

in comparison, uses exaggerations or alterations to make a particular linguistic

point. Araya (2008) defined any form of figurative language works

deconstructively to re-create meaning when writing a poem, a play, a story, or

when taking place in a conversation, speech, and/or lecture. This is to say

people perceive the world as if it were a metaphorical expression. So, language

becomes a metaphorical means rather than a system to refer to the world.

Another term used for figurative language is hidden meaning.

Figurative language occurs when sentence and word contain hidden meaning.

If someone wants to interpret a figurative expression, someone have to know

the context and the atmosphere of the sentence that expressed. For example,

Mr. Faisal flies to Jakarta. This sentence will sound vague and clumsy if we
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interpret literally. The verb flies belong to characteristic of bird. Figuratively,

this sentence means Mr. Faisal goes to Jakarta by plane (Leech, 1969: 27).

3. Kinds of Figurative Language

There are many kinds of figurative language. Leech (1981:11) has

classified figurative meaning into 8 types. They are: personification, simile,

metaphor, hyperbole, irony, litotes, metonymy and oxymoron. Meanwhile,

Abrams (1999: 90) divides it becomes ten kinds; they are metaphor, simile,

synecdoche, personification, metonymy, allegory, overstatement (hyperbole),

irony, symbolism, and paradox. These are the types of figurative languages

commonly used by poets all over the world:

a. Personification

Personification is a kind of figurative expressions in which an animate

object given a human quality. The word personification derives from Latin

words; persona means person, actor, or mask used I the theatre and fix

means to make. Actually, personification is the transfer of human

characteristic to an object, animal, or abstract idea. It makes the animals and

the animate objects talk or behave as humans do.

According to Abrams (1999: 99) Personification, in which either an

inanimate object or an abstract concept is spoken of as though it were

endowed with life or with human attributes or feelings. Leech (1969: 158)

states that personification whereby an abstraction is figuratively represented

as human actually combines all three categories the concreteness, the

animistic and the humanizing.


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Examples:

1) Earth received an honored guest.

2) The stars are envious of your eyes.

In the first expression, earth as the inanimate object is depicted as

human. Literally, it implies that the earth can greet someone with reception.

It is absolutely impossible. Figuratively, it express that the earth become the

nice place because it receive someone to leave. In the second expression,

the word stars is the inanimate object is depicted as human. Stars are

envious of your eyes, because her eyes are more beautiful than the stars

which shine in every night.

b. Simile

Simile is a kind of figurative meaning comparing two essentially

unlike things. Simile expresses a direct comparison between things, which

have one or more points in common and be recognized by the use of the

word like and as. As stated by Abrams (1999: 97), in a simile, a

comparison between two distinctly different things is explicitly indicated by

the word like or as.

Examples:

1) Tom is running like Ferrari

2) Her smile was like the sun

We can find the simile in the expression above by word like. This

expression compares two things, he and Ferrari. The ability of Tom in

running compared with Ferrari. The word Tom is indicates male (human

being). Ferrari is a fast car that can reach 300 km/hour speed. Therefore, the
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sentence means that Tom can run fast. Meanwhile, in the second expression,

smile and sun is comparing as a subject. The girl was very happy at that

time, like the sun shine in the morning sunny. It is comparison of things

that have pints of likeness.

c. Metaphor

The word metaphor comes from Greek; it means to carry over. In a

metaphor, a word or expression that in literal usage denotes one kind of

thing is applied to a distinctly different kind of thing, without asserting a

comparison (Abrams, 1999: 97). This statement is supported by Perrine

(1983: 571), metaphor is the process of comparing two unlike things as if

they are one. This thing happened because metaphor does not have

connective words such as like, as, than, similar to and seems determining

them as figurative.

Example:

1) You are the queen all flowers among.

This sentence becomes a metaphor because you is identified with

the queen all flowers among. You refer to the lover. The flower is the part of

plant. It looks beautiful with brightly colored. In this expression, He

compares his lover with the queen all flowers among means that his girl is

very beautiful because you have got the qualities of the flower that is

beautiful.

d. Hyperbole

According to Abrams (1999: 120) Hyperbole is bold overstatement, or

the extravagant exaggeration of fact or of possibility. It may be used either


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for serious or ironic or comic effect. Hyperbole, like the other two figures,

is frequently concerned with personal values and sentiment; that is, with

making subjective claims which, however exaggerate ( Leech, 1969: 168).

Examples:

1) I'm doing over 9000 things right now.

2) These books weight a ton.

In the first expression consists of the exaggeration, because the phrase

doing over 9000 things means she or he is busy. And in the second

expression, the phrase weight a ton indicates an exaggeration. Through the

phrase, the poet wants to emphasize those books are heavy.

e. Irony

Leech (1969: 171) describes irony as a mode of expression which

postulates a double audience, one of which is in the knowand aware of the

poets intention whilst the other is naive enough to take the utterance at its

face value.

Accrording to Abrams (1999: 135), In most of the modern critical uses

of the term irony there remains the root sense of dissembling or hiding

what is actually the case; not, however, in order to deceive, but to achieve

special rhetorical or artistic effects. Irony is a way of speaking or writing by

saying something while the meaning is another. It refers to a situation in

which reality differs from appearance. It occurs in sentence or words when

they imply contrast or opposite meaning.

Examples:

1) Your handwriting is very good so I cannot read it


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2) Bandung city is very beautiful with the garbage.

The first expression above can be considered as irony since the

expression want to say that his handwriting is very bad. Meanwhile, the

second expression can be considered as irony because this statement is

contrary to fact. It is impossible if a city look beautiful with garbage in

everywhere. It means that the city is not beautiful.

f. Paradox

The term Paradox is from the Greek word paradoxon that means

contrary to expectations, existing belief or perceived opinion. It is a

statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly but may include a

latent truth. It is also used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to

accepted traditional ideas. A paradox is often used to make a reader think

over an idea in innovative way. As stated by (1999: 201), A paradox is a

statement which seems on its face to be logically contradictory or absurd,

yet turns out to be interpretable in a way that makes good sense.

Example:

1) Heavenly hurt, it gives us

It is paradoxical statement that is contradictory, but in fact in the

heaven isnt any hurts or an afflication. There are any happiness in the

heaven.

g. Metonymy

Metonymy is a change of name, the use of the one word for another,

the use of an idea by means of terms involving association. As stated by

Abrams (1999: 98), metonymy (Greek for "a change of name") is the
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literal term for one thing is applied to another with which it has become

closely associated because of a recurrent relationship in common

experience.

Metonymy is a figurative meaning in which the name of one object or

idea substituted for that of another closely associated with it. Leech (1969:

152) says metonymy is a figure of speech that consists in using the name of

one thing for that of something else with which it is associated.

Example:

1) Lands belonging to the crown

The expression above consists of metonymy. The metonymy in

sentence is crown which has close relation with the empire or kingdom.

That is because King or Queen who rules the Kingdom usually wears crown

as the symbolism of their power. This means that the land belongs to the

king or a kingdom.

h. Symbolism

Symbolism is applied only to a word or phrase that signifies an object

or event which in its turn signifies something, or has a range of reference,

beyond itself (Abrams, 1999: 311). Symbolism is a thing (could be an

object, person, situation or action) which stands for something else more

abstract. Many poets have used the rose as a symbolism of youth and

beauty; a flag is a piece of cloth which stands for or is a symbolism of a

nation. (Fadaee, 2011: 2).

Example:

1) I heard a fly buzz when I died


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The word fly is a symbolism of the death. The central image of the

fly could most likely be connected with the death and decay.

4. Meaning

Meaning plays a very important role in communication. There would be

no language without meaning. Language is an instrument for conveying

meaning. Leech (1969:5) says The aim of semantics is to explain and describe

meaning in natural language.

There are some opinions about meaning according to semantics:

a. Crystal (1999: 222) stated, this basic notion is used in linguistics

both as a datum and as a criterion of analysis: linguists study

meaning, and also use meaning as a criterion for studying other

aspects of language.

b. Bloomfield (1933: 139) stated, meaning of a linguistics form as a

situation in which the poets utter it and response which it calls forth

in the hearer.

By paying attention to the definitions above, the word meaning has a

number different notions and varieties since poet use a word to mean

something different from what it denotes in expressing their ideas, minds,

feeling.

a. Seven Types of Meaning


Leech (1981 : 8-23) has defined seven types of meaning. The seven types

of meaning are as follows:


1. Conceptual meaning is the clear and logical definiton of a word based on

the sturcture and form of the word.


For examples:
House : a building made for people to live in
Horse : a kind of animal which has four legs, a mane and a tail.
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2. Connotative meaning is the communicative value and an expression has

by the virtue of what it refers to to over and above its peurely conceptual

content. For example, the word red has the conotation of brave and the

word black has the conotation of magic, evil or fear.


3. Social meaning is a piece of language conveys about the social

circumstances of it use. It is connected with the situation in which an

utterance is uttered. For examples, the words horse, steed and hag have

the same conceptual meaning but the convey different social

circumstances of their use.


Horse (general)
Steed (poetic)
Hag (slang)
4. Affective meaning is meaning that expresses the personal feelings or

attitude of the speakers or the writers. For example, Im very glad to

hear your voice, but I wonder if you would be so kind as to lower your

voices a little.
5. Reflected meaning is the meaning that arises in case of multiple

conceptual meaning when one sense of a word forms part of our response

to another sense. For example, it has become increasingly difficult to use

term like intercourse, ejaculation, and erection, in innocent senses

without conjuring up their sexual associations.


6. Collocative meaning consists of the association of a word acquires on

account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment.

For example, The word handsome and beautiful have commom

ground in the meaning good looking. The word handsome refers to

man and beautiful refers to woman.


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7. Thematic meaning means what is communicated by the way in which a

speaker or writer organizes the message in terms of ordering, focus and

emphasis. It is usually applied in the use of acctive and passive forms.


For examples:
a) She likes orange juice the most
b) Orange juice she like the most

c) Its orange juice that she likes the most

Therefore, meaning has a number of different interpretations since

poet expressing their ideas, minds and feeling. The interpretation has to do

in the study of semantics.

b. Literal and Non-literal Meaning

There are two kinds of meaning, they are literal meaning and non-

literal meaning. Saputri (2014: 14) states that literal meaning is when the

poet says something that has natural meaning or does not have other

meaning. While, non-literal meaning is a kind of meaning which means

something different from what the word means. Non-literal meaning

occurs when the speaker means different from the word or sentences really

means.

There are so many terms of non literal meaning, such as figure of

speech, figurative expression and figurative language. Saeed (2003:15)

says, Non literal language is traditionally called figurative language

which is described including by irony (facetious way of speaking),

hyperbole (exaggerated way of speaking), metaphor, simile,

personification and litotes. And the term figurative language would be

used in this thesis.


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5. Definition of Poem

Poem is a universal as language and almost as ancient. The most

primitive people have used it, and the most civilized have cultivated it because

it has given pleasure. People have read it, listen to it, or recited it because they

liked it and give them enjoyment.

According to Childs & Fowler, (2006: 181), The terms poem,

poetry,poetic and poetics seem to be necessarily frequent in critical writing

but various in their senses. Poem use certain language it is ordinary language

that people use everyday. It takes an origin from emotion recollected in

tranquality. The certain language used in poems due to the beauty. This is

necessary because when the poems researcher in ordinary language, it make no

strong impression to the readers.

In the real life, death, pain, and suffering are not pleasureable, but in

poems, they may be. For good readers, they will be enjoyable when transmitted

through the medium of art. Poetry can be recognized only by a response made

to it by a good reader; someone who has acquired some sensitive to poetry, but

there is a catch here, in reading the poem.

6. Elements of Poem

The basic element of poem is a set of instruments used to create a poem

become more powerful and enticing. These are elements of poems commonly

used by poets all over the world:

a. Imagery

According to Perrine (1963: 45) Imagery may be defined as the

representation through language of sense experience. Imagery is one of


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the most common in criticism, and one of the most variable in meaning. Its

applications range all the way from the "mental pictures" which, it is

sometimes claimed, are experienced by the reader of a poem, to the totality

of the components which make up a poem (Abrams, 1999: 121).

b. Rhythm

The term rhythm refers to any wavelike recurrence of motion and

sound. In speech it is the natural sise and fall of language. All language is

to some degree rhytymical, for all language involves some kinds of

alternation between accented and unaccented sylabbles. Language varies

considerably, however, in degree to which it exhibits rhytym.

c. Ryhme

A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounding words occuring at the

end oflines in poems or song. According to Abrams (1999: 273) In

English versification, standard rhyme consists of the repetition. Rhyme is

identity in sound of some part, especially the end, of words or lines of

verse. A rhyme occurs when two or more words have similar sounds. This

words rhyme: night, sight, fight, so do these: flying, dying, implying.

d. Tone

Tone, in literature, may be defined as the researchers or poets

attitude toward his subject, his audience or himself. It is the emotional

coloring, or the emotional meaning, of the work and is an extremely

important part of the full meaning (Abrams, 1999: 177). In spoken

language it is indicated by the inflections of the poets voice. If, for

instance, a friend tell you, I am going to get married today, the fact of
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the statement are entirely clear. But the emotional meaning of the

statement may vary widely according to the tone of the voice with which it

is uttered. The tone may be excited (I am going to get married today!); it

may be incredulous (I can not beleive it! Im going to get married

today).

e. Figurative Language

Abrams (1999: 97), Figurative languages are sometimes described as

primarily poetic. Figurative Language is a conspicuous departure from

what users of a language apprehend as the standard meaning of words, or

else the standard order of words, in order to achieve some special meaning

or effect. Because of some reasons above, figurative language is one

important elements of poem.

7. Forms of Poems

All kinds of poems are wtitten in several styles. These styles are defined

by the number of lines in each stanza. These are forms of poems commonly

used by poets all over the world:

a. Blank verse

Abrams (1999: 24) stated that blank verse consists of lines of iambic

pentameter (five-stress iambic verse) which are unrhymedhence the

term "blank".

b. Sonnet

According to Abrams (1999: 290) Sonnet is A lyric poem consisting

of a single stanza of fourteen iambic pentameter lines linked by an intricate


24

rhyme scheme. The English or Shakespearean sonnet is made up of three

quatrains and a couplet and rhymes abbacddceffegg.

c. Heroic couplet

Abrams (1999: 114) stated that heroic couplet is a pair of ten-syllable

lines that rhyme: a poem as a whole can be written in a sequence of heroic

couplets. A heroic couplet commonly used in epic and narrative poetry,

and consisting of a rhyming pair of lines in iambic pentameter.

d. Ballad

Ballad is a song, transmitted orally, which tells a story. According to

Abrams (1999: 18) Ballads are thus the narrative species of folk songs,

which originate, and are communicated orally, among illiterate or only

partly literate people.

e. Limerick

A limerick is a form of poetry in five-line, with a strict rhyme scheme

(aabba), which is sometimes obscene with humorous intent (Peck and

Coyle, 1984: 41). Limericks are humorous, rhyming; five lines poems with

a specific rhtyhm pattern and rhyme scheme.

f. Free verse

Free Verse is sometimes referred to as "open form" verse, or by the

French term vers libre. Most free verse also has irregular line lengths, and

either lacks rhyme or else uses it only sporadically (Abrams, 1999: 105).

g. Haiku
25

Haiku is a Japanese poetic form that represents, in seventeen syllables,

ordered into three lines of five, seven, and five syllables (Abrams, 1999:

114).

B. Related Previous Study

In this research, the researcher also described the previous study. It was

written by Iryanti (2010) entitled A Figurative Language Analysis on Sylvia

Plath Poems. This research had several differences and similarities with the

researchers research. The similarities between her thesis and this research were

subject of the study about the analysis of figurative language used, kinds and

meanings of it. And both of the researchers used library research to collect the

data of research. Beside that, both of the researchers used descriptive qualitative

method.

Nevertheless, the differences between both of them were, (1) the figurative

language analysis by Iryanti was taken on Sylvia Plaths poems. (2) The figurative

language analysis by Iryanti was about figurative language used on three Sylvia

Plaths poems, entitled: Mirror, Morning Song, and Methapors, while the

researcher analyze about figurative Language Used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems,

entitled: Annabel Lee, The Sleeper, A Dream Within A Dream, Alone, To One in

Paradise, Spirit of the Dead, The Lake and Evening Star.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

A. Time and Place of the Research


26

This research was conducted for several months from September 2016 until

June 2017. The researcher conducted this research in the library of STKIP PGRI

Lubuklinggau to find the references. The researcher analyzed and described the

kinds and meanings in the 8 Edgar Allan Poes poems, entitled Annabel Lee, The

Sleeper, A Dream Within A Dream, Alone, To One in Paradise, Spirit of the Dead,

The Lake and Evening Star.

B. Research Procedure

Research design is plan and the procedure for research that span the

decision from broad assumption to detailed methods of data collection and

analysis. This research was qualitative research. Qualitative research demonstrate

a different approach to scholarly inquiry than methods of quantitative research

(Cresswell, 2009: 174).

To be more specific, the type of this research was mostly descriptive

qualitative research. Descriptive analysis means to describe what actually happen

to procedures about method which are useful in research. Descriptive qualitative

approach does not apply the detail arithmetic calculation or statistic contains

sentences or description of the objects (Moleong, 2009:11).

This research used the descriptive qualitative research because this

research used non numeral data that had purpose to describe and analyze the types

and meaning of figurative language used in Edgar Allan Poes poems. This

research was carried out by formulating problem, collecting data, classifying data,

and analyzing data.

C. Research Data
27

1. Primary Data

The primary data is the data which is being observed. Primary data are

the representations of speech events with spatiotemporal coordinates

(Lehmann, 2004: 25). In this research, the primary or main data came from

Edgar Allan Poes poem. The poems were analyzed based on their kinds and

meanings of figurative language used in Edgar Allan Poes poems.

2. Secondary Data

The secondary data is the supporting data used in the study. Secondary

data are more abstract in some respect (Lehmann, 2004: 26). If the primary

data came from the Edgar Allan Poes poem, the secondary data came from

articles, books, journal and other literatures.

D. Technique of Collecting the Data

Technique of collecting the data is a technique to collect the data. In order to

get some data were required in this research, the researcher conducted library

research. Library research is the study that use library source to get information.

In this research, the researcher used analysis of documents for collecting the data.

To obtain the data, the researcher used the Edgar Allan Poes poems as the

data source and focus on the Figurative Language. The data were taken from the

poemhunter.com. The poems entitled Annabel Lee, The Sleeper, A Dream Within

A Dream, Alone, To One in Paradise, Spirit of the Dead, The Lake and Evening

Star.

The procedures of collecting the data were as follows:

1. Selecting the Edgar Allan Poes poems in the internet;

2. Reading the poems more than once;


28

3. Underlining all the words, sentences and phrases having figurative

language as the data;

E. Technique of Analyzing the Data

The technique of the data analysis had been used in this research was

qualitative research because the object of the research was in the form of words

not in numbers. According to Creswell (2009: 4) Qualitative research is a means

for exploring and understanding the meaning individuals or groups ascribe to a

social or human problem. The steps had been going to be applied are as follows:

1. Identifying the kinds of figurative language contain in Edgar Allan

Poes poems;

2. Reducing the unnecesary data;

3. Classifying the kinds of figurative languages;

4. Analyzing the figurative language based on kinds and also the meanings

of figurative languages; and

5. Drawing conclusion of the data that had been analyze

F. Accountability of the Research


1. Credibility

In conducting research, credibility is needed in order to make the

research can be responsible. According to Lincoln & Guba cited in Moon et al

(2016: 2), credibility refers to the degree to which the research represents the

actual meanings of the research participants, or the truth value. Prolonged

involvement is the step used to enhance credibility. The researcher read the
29

poems of Edgar Allan Poe more than once. In this way, the researcher

develops an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon under study.

2. Transferability

Transferability, a type of external validity, refers to It refers to the

degree to which research results can be applied to a context apart from where

they were gained or with different subjects. (Bitsch, 2005: 85).

To make the result of this research can be understood by all people

and also can be applied by other people, then this research gave a detail, clear

and systematic. This research gave early information to the other researcher

in conducting a similar topic. The other researcher would get some

knowledges about figurative language which people often use and hear in

daily communication. Besides, the other researcher also be able to distinguish

the functions of humor in a suitable situation and condition.

3. Dependability

Dependability refers to the stability of findings over time.

Dependability answers the question whether research results would be the

same, were the study replicated with the same or similar participants in a

similar context. (Bitsch, 2005: 86). In this research, the researcher audited the

whole datas from the whole processes in qualitative research. The process

was begun by formulating the problem.

CHAPTER IV
FINDING AND DISCUSSION
30

A. Findings

There were some findings in this research including the kinds of figurative

language based on the word classification (word, phrase, and sentence) and the

meanings of figurative language. In this research, the researcher analyzed 8 Edgar

Allan Poes poems entitled Annabel Lee, The Sleeper, A Dream Within A Dream,

Alone, To One in Paradise, Spirit of the Dead, The Lake and Evening Star. (see in

appendix B).

1. Kinds of Figurative Language

There are many kinds of figurative language. This research focused on 8

kinds of figurative language including personfication, metaphor, simile,

hyperbole, irony, paradox, metonymy, and symbolism. In this section, the

researcher just described 8 poems of Edgar Allan Poes poem entitled Annabel

Lee, The Sleeper, A Dream Within A Dream, Alone, To One in Paradise, Spirit of

the Dead, The Lake and Evening Star.

These are the kinds of figurative languages used in Edgar Allan Poes

poems:

a. Annabele Lee

The poem "Annabel Lee" consisted 41 lines. It was like many of

Poe's poems, it explored the theme of the death of a beautiful

woman. The narrator, who fell in love with Annabel Lee when they were

young, had a love for her so strong that even angels were envious. He

retained his love for her even after her death. Every night, he dreams of
31

Annabel Lee and sees the brightness of her eyes in the stars. Every night

he lies down by her side in her tomb by the sea.

The table below described the kinds of figurative language used in

Annabele Lee by Edgar Allan Poe.

Table 4.1
The list of figurative Language Found in Annabele Lee

Kinds of Figurative
No Line Quotation of Poem
Language
1 5 And this maiden she lived with no other Hyperbole
thought, Than to love and be loved by me.
2 11-12 With a love that the winged seraphs of Hyperbole
heaven coveted her and me
3 17 So that her high-born kinsman came Symbolism
4 21 The angels, not half so happy in Heaven, Paradox
5 24-25 That the wind came out of a cloud, Personification
chilling and killing my Annabel Lee.
6 31-32 Nor the demons down under the sea, can Hyperbole
ever dissever my soul from the soul
7 34 For the moon never beams without Personification
bringing me dreams
8 36 And the stars never rise but I see the Hyperbole
bright eyes
9 39 Of my darling, my darling, my life and my Methapor
bride
10 41 In her tomb by the side of the sea. Symbolism

Table 4.1 above described the summary of the figurative language

which occured in Edgar Allan Poes Poems entitled Annabele Lee. There

were 13 lines that used figurative language in the Annabele Lee. From the

table above the researcher found 10 figurative language in this poem.

2 personifications; e.g For the moon never beams without

bringing me dreams (line 34).

1 metaphor; Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride (line

39)
32

4 hyperboles; e.g And this maiden she lived with no other thought,

Than to love and be loved by me (Line 5)

1 paradox; The angels, not half so happy in Heaven (line 21)

2 symbolisms; e.g So that her high-born kinsman came (Line 17).

b. The Sleeper

This poem consisted 60 lines. This poem focused on the death of a

beautiful woman, a death which the mourning narrator struggles to deal

with while considering the nature of death and life. Poe praised The

Sleeper as a "superior" poem. He wrote to an admirer: "In the higher

qualities of poetry, it is better than The Ravenbut there is not one man in

a million who could be brought to agree with me in this opinion."

The table below described the kinds of figurative language used in

The Sleeper by Edgar Allan Poes poems.

Table 4.2
The list of figurative Language Found in The Sleeper

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 2 I stand beneath the mystic moon. Symbolism
2 3-4 An opiate vapor, dewy, dim, Exhales from out Personification
her golden rim.
3 6-7 Upon the quiet mountain top, Steals drowsily Personification
and musically
4 8 Into the universal valley. Symbolism
5 9 The rosemary nods upon the grave; Personification
6 13 Looking like Lethe, see! the lake Simile
7 14 A conscious slumber seems to take, Paradox
8 20-21 The wanton airs, from the tree- Personification
top, Laughingly through the lattice drop-
9 27 Neath which thy slumbering soul lies hid, Symbolism
10 29 Like ghosts the shadows rise and fall! Simile
11 30-31 Oh, lady dear, hast thou no fear? Why and Irony
what art thou dreaming here?
33

12 33-34 Strange is thy pallor! strange thy dress, Methapor


Strange, above all, thy length of tress,
13 39 Heaven have her in its sacred keep. Personification
14 41 This bed for one more melancholy, Metonymy
15 42-43 I pray to God that she may lie, Forever with Symbolism
unopened eye.
16 49 For her may some tall vault unfold- Symbolism
17 57 Some tomb from out whose sounding door Personification

Table 4.2 above described the summary of the figurative language

which occured in Edgar Allan Poes poem entitled The Sleeper. There

were 23 lines that used figurative language in the Annabele Lee. From the

table above the researcher found 17 figurative languages in this poem.

6 personifications; e.g Upon the quiet mountain top, Steals

drowsily and musically (Line 6-7)

2 similes; e.g Looking like Lethe, see! the lake (line 13),

1 metaphor; Strange is thy pallor! strange thy dress, Strange,

above all, thy length of tress (line 33-34)

1 irony; Oh, lady dear, hast thou no fear? Why and what art thou

dreaming here? (line 30-31)

1 paradox; A conscious slumber seems to take (line 14)

1 metonymy; This bed for one more melancholy (line 41)

5 symbolisms; e.g For her may some tall vault unfold- (line 49).

c. A Dream Within A Dream


34

This poem first published in 1849. The poem was 24 lines, divided

into two stanzas. The poem questions the way one can distinguish between

reality and fantasy, asking, "Is all that we see or seem but a dream within a

dream?" The poem dramatized a confusion in watching the important

things in life slip away. Realizing he could not hold on to even one grain

of sand leads to his final question that all things were a dream.

The table below described the kinds of figurative language used in A

Dream Within a Dream by Edgar Allan Poes poems.

Table 4.3
The list of figurative Language Found in A Dream Within A Dream

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 1 Take this kiss upon the brow! Symbolism
2 6 Yet if hope has flown away Personification
3 10-11 All that we see or seem Is but a dream within a Methapor
dream.
4 12-13 I stand amid the roar of a surf-tormented shore Personification
5 15 Grains of the golden sand Symbolism
6 16 How few! yet how they creep Personification
7 17 Through my fingers to the deep. Metonymy
8 18 ( While I weep--while I weep! ) Hyperbole
9 19-20 O God! can I not grasp Them with a tighter Hyperbole
clasp?
10 22 One from the pitiless wave? Personification
11 24 But a dream within a dream? Symbolism

Table 4.3 above described the summary of the figurative language

which occured in Edgar Allan Poes poem entitled A Dream Within A

Dream. There were 15 lines that used figurative language in the A Dream

Within A Dream. From the table above the researcher found 11 figurative

languages in this poem.


35

4 personifications; e.g One from the pitiless wave? (line 22),

1 metaphor; All that we see or seem Is but a dream within a dream

(line 10-11)

2 hyperboles; e.g ( While I weep--while I weep! ) (line 18)

1 metonymy; Through my fingers to the deep (line 17)

3 symbolisms; e.g Grains of the golden sand (line 15).

d. Alone

Alone" consists 22 lines, it was originally written in 1829 and left

untitled and unpublished during Poe's lifetime. Alone" is often interpreted

as autobiographical, expressing the author's feelings of isolation and inner

torment. "Alone" was evidence that "Poe really was a haunted man. The

poem, however, is an introspective about Poe's youth, written when he was

only 20 years old.

The table below described the kinds of figurative language used in

Alone by Edgar Allan Poes poems.

Table 4.4
The Kinds of Figurative Language in Alone

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 4 My passions from a common spring Symbolism
2 6 My sorrow -- I could not awaken, My heart to Methapor
joy at the same tone
3 8 And all I lov'd -- I lov'd alone Irony
4 9 Then -- in my childhood -- in the dawn Methapor
5 10 Of a most stormy life -- was drawn Hyperbole
6 12 The mystery which binds me still Personification
7 16 In its autumn tint of gold Metonymy
8 19-20 From the thunder, and the storm And the Personification
cloud that took the form
9 21 (When the rest of Heaven was blue) Paradox
36

10 22 Of a demon in my view Symbolism

Table 4.4 above described the summary of the figurative language

which occured in Edgar Allan Poes poem entitled Alone. There were 11

lines that used figurative language in Alone. From the table above the

researcher found 10 figurative languages in the poem.


2 personifications; e.g The mystery which binds me still (line 12)
2 metaphors; e.g Then -- in my childhood -- in the dawn (line 9)
1 hyperbole; Of a most stormy life -- was drawn (line 10)
1 irony; And all I lov'd -- I lov'd alone (line 8)
1 paradox (When the rest of Heaven was blue) (line 21)
1 metonymy; In its autumn tint of gold (16)
2 symbolisms; My passions from a common spring (line 4).

e. To One in Paradise

This poem first published in 1832. The poem was 26 lines, "To

One in Paradise" was first published without a title as part of the short

story "The Visionary" (later renamed "The Assignation"). It evolved into

"To Ianthe in Heaven" and then into "To One Beloved" before being

named "To One in Paradise" in the February 25, 1843 Saturday Museum.

The poem inspired a song composed by Sir Arthur Sullivan.

The table below described the kinds of figurative language used in

To One in Paradise by Edgar Allan Poes poems.

Table 4.5
The Kinds of Figurative Language in To One in Paradise

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 3 A green isle in the sea, love Metonymy
2 5 All wreathed with fairy fruits and flowers, Symbolism
3 6 And all the flowers were mine. Methapor
4 7 Ah, dream too bright to last! Personification
5 8 Ah, starry Hope! Personification
37

6 8-9 Ah, starry Hope! that didnt arise, But to be Paradox


overcast!
7 10 A voice from out the Future cries, Methapor
8 16 (Such language holds the solemn sea Personification
To the sands upon the shore)
9 17 Shall bloom the thunder-blasted tree Hyperbole
10 19 And all my days are trances, Methapor
11 20-21 And all my nightly dreams,Are where thy grey Metaphor
eye glances,

Table 4.5 above described the summary of the figurative language

which occured in Edgar Allan Poes poem entitled To One in Paradise. There

were 13 lines that used figurative language in To One in Paradise from the

table above the researcher found 11 figurative languages in this poem.

3 personifications; e.g Ah, dream too bright to last! (line 7)

4 metaphors; e.g And all my days are trances (line 19)

1 hyperbole; Shall bloom the thunder-blasted tree (line 17)

1 paradox; Ah, starry Hope! that didnt arise, But to be overcast! (line

8-9)

1 metonymy; A green isle in the sea, love (line 3)

1 symbolism; All wreathed with fairy fruits and flowers (line 5).

f. Spirit of the Dead

This poem was 28 lines, "Spirits of the Dead" was first titled

"Visits of the Dead" when it was published in the 1827 collection

Tamerlane and Other Poems. The title was changed for the 1829 collection

Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems. The poem follows a dialogue


38

between a dead speaker and a person visiting his grave. The spirit tells the

person that those who one knows in life surround a person in death as

well.

The table below described the kinds of figurative language used in

Spirits of the Death by Edgar Allan Poes poems.

Table 4.6
The Kinds of Figurative Language in Spirits of the Dead

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 1 Thy soul shall find itself alone Personification
2 2 'Mid dark thoughts of the grey tomb-stone Symbolism
3 5-6 Be silent in that solitude, Which is not Methapor
loneliness -- for then
4 7 The spirits of the dead who stood Paradox
5 12 And the stars shall look not down, Personification
6 13 From their high thrones in the Heaven, Metonymy
7 14 With light like Hope to mortals given Simile
8 16-17 To thy weariness shall seem, As a burning and a Simile
fever
9 21 From thy spirit shall they pass Paradox
10 22 No more -- like dew-drop from the grass: Simile
11 23 The breeze -- the breath of God -- is still Methapor
12 24 And the mist upon the hill Symbolism
13 25-26 Shadowy -- shadowy -- yet unbroken, Is a Methapor
symbolism and a token
14 26-27 How it hangs upon the trees,A mystery of Symbolism
mysteries!

Table 4.6 above described the summary of the figurative language

which occured in Edgar Allan Poes poem entitled Spirits of the Death. There

were 18 lines that used figurative language in the Spirits of the Death. From the

table above the researcher found 14 kinds of figurative language in the poem.

2 personifications; e.g Thy soul shall find itself alone (line 1)

3 similes; e.g With light like Hope to mortals given (line 14)
39

3 metaphors; e.g The breeze -- the breath of God -- is still

(line 23)

2 paradoxes; e.g The spirits of the dead who stood (line 7)

1 metonymy; From their high thrones in the Heaven (line 13)

3 symbolisms; e.g How it hangs upon the trees, A mystery of

mysteries!.

g. The Lake

This poem first published in 1826. The poem was 23 line. First

appearing simply as "The Lake" in Poe's 1827 collection Tamerlane and

Other Poems, the amended title appeared in 1829 collected in Al Aaraaf,

Tamerlane, and Minor Poems. The poem is a celebration of loneliness and

the thoughts inspired by a lake. For the 1845 collection The Raven and

Other Poems, Poe reworked the first line ("In youth's spring, it was my

lot") to "In spring of youth it was my lot.

The table below described the kinds of figurative language used in

The Lake by Edgar Allan Poes poems.

Table 4.7
The Kinds of Figurative Language in The Lake

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 1 In spring of youth it was my lot Methapor
2 4 So lovely was the loneliness Paradox
3 5 Of a wild lake, with black rock bound Personification
4 7 But when the Night had thrown her pall Personification
6 9 And the mystic wind went by Personification
7 12 To the terror of the lone lake. Personification
8 13 Yet that terror was not fright, Paradox
40

9 17 Nor Love- although the Love were thine. Methapor


10 18 Death was in that poisonous wave, Personification
11 19 And in its gulf a fitting grave Symbolism
12 20 For him who thence could solace bring Methapor
13 22 Whose solitary soul could make an Personification
14 23 An Eden of that dim lake. Metonymy

Table 4.7 above described the summary of the figurative language

which occured in Edgar Allan Poes poem entitled The Lake. There were 14

lines that used figurative language in The Lake. From the table above the

researcher found 14 figurative languages in this poem.

6 personifications; e.g Of a wild lake, with black rock bound (line 5)

2 metaphors; e.g In spring of youth it was my lot (line 1)

2 paradoxes; e.g So lovely was the loneliness (line 4)

1 metonymy; An Eden of that dim lake. (line 23)

3 symbolisms; e.g And in its gulf a fitting grave (line 19).

h. Evening Star

This poem first published in 1845. The poem was 23 lines. In the

poem, a stargazer thinks all the stars he sees look cold, except for one

"Proud Evening Star" which looks warm with a "distant fire" the other

stars lack. The poem was influenced by Thomas Moore's poem "While

Gazing on the Moon's Light". "Evening Star" was adapted by choral

composer Jonathan Adams into his Three Songs from Edgar Allan Poe in

1993.

The table below described the kinds of figurative language used in

Evening Star by Edgar Allan Poes poems.

Table 4.8
41

The Kinds of Figurative Language in Evening Star

Kinds of
N
Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
o
Language
1 1 'I was noontide of summer Methapor
2 5 Of the brighter, cold moon, Symbolism
3 7-8 Herself in the Heavens,Her beam on the waves. Hyperbole
4 10 On her cold smile Personification
5 11 Too cold- too cold for me- Hyperbole
6 12 There pass'd, as a shroud, Simile
7 15 Proud Evening Star, Symbolism
8 18-19 For joy to my heart Is the proud part Methapor
9 20 Thou bearest in Heaven at night, Hyperbole
10 22-23 Thy distant fire,Than that colder, lowly light. Paradox

Table 4.8 above described the summary of the figurative language

which occured in Edgar Allan Poes poem entitled Evening Star. There were 13

lines that used figurative language in Evening Star. From the table above the

researcher found 10 figurative languages in the poem.

1 personification; On her cold smile (line 5)

1 simile; There pass'd, as a shroud (line 12)

2 metaphors; e.g 'I was noontide of summer (line 1)

3 hyperboles; e.g Thou bearest in Heaven at night,

1 Paradox; Thy distant fire,Than that colder, lowly light. (line 22-23),

2 symbolisms; e.g Proud Evening Star (line 15).

2. Meanings of Fingurative Language in Edgar Allan Poes Poems

As mentioned in theoretical framework in the chapter II before Language

is an instrument for conveying meaning. According to Leech, there are 7 types

of meaning, conceptual meaning, connotative meaning, social meaning,

affective meaning, reflected meaning, collocative meaning, dan thematic


42

meaning. But in this research the researcher just focused on 4 meanings, they

are; connotative meaning, social meaning, reflected meaning and collocative

meaning.

Figurative language belongs to non literal meaning. The researcher

concludes that the meaning of figurative language is hidden or implicit. It

means what is said or written is not meant as what is said or written is. In this

explanation below would describe the meanings of the Edgar Allan Poes

poems based on the using of figurative languages.

a. Connotative Meaning

The connotative meaning must be learned and mastered based

on the language experience and the usage. Some of the connotative

meaning had been written on the dictionary if these meaning become

to general connotation.

Based on the kinds of figurative language that had been found,

the researcher found 42 connotative meanings of figurative language

used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems. The following table presents the

connotative meaning of 8 Edgar Allan Poe poems as follow:

Table 4.9
Connotative meaning of figurative language in 8 Edgar Allan Poes
Poems

No Poems Connotative
meaning
1 Annabele Lee 5
2 The Sleeper 6
3 A Dream Within A Dream 6
4 Alone 7
5 To One in Paradise 3
6 Spirit of The Dead 4
43

7 The Lake 6
8 Evening Star 5
Total 42

b. Social Meaning
Social meaning is a piece of language conveys about the social

circumstances of it use. It is connected with the situation in which an

utterance is uttered.
Based on the kinds of figurative language that had been found,

the researcher found 30 Social meanings of figurative language used

in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems. The following table presents the

connotative meaning of 8 Edgar Allan Poe poems as follow:

Table 4.10
Social meaning of figurative language in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems

No Poems Social meaning


1 Annabele Lee 4
2 The Sleeper 8
3 A Dream Within A Dream 1
4 Alone 1
5 To One in Paradise 5
6 Spirit of The Dead 4
7 The Lake 4
8 Evening Star 3
Total 30

c. Reflected Meaning

Reflected meaning is the meaning that arises in case of

multiple conceptual meaning when one sense of a word forms part of

our response to another sense.


Based on the kinds of figurative language that had been found,

the researcher found 16 Reflected meanings of figurative language

used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems. The following table presents the

connotative meaning of 8 Edgar Allan Poe poems as follow:


Table 4.11
44

Reflected meaning of figurative language in 8 Edgar Allan Poes


Poems

No Poems Reflected meaning


1 Annabele Lee 1
2 The Sleeper 2
3 A Dream Within A Dream 3
4 Alone 1
5 To One in Paradise 1
6 Spirit of The Dead 5
7 The Lake 2
8 Evening Star 1
Total 16

d. Collocative Meaning

Collocative meaning consists of the association of a word

acquires on account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in

its environment.
Based on the kinds of figurative language that had been found,

the researcher found 8 collocative meanings of figurative language

used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems. The following table presents the

connotative meaning of 8 Edgar Allan Poe poems as follow:


Table 4.12
Collocative meaning of figurative language in 8 Edgar Allan Poes
Poems

No Poems Connotative
meaning
1 Annabele Lee 0
2 The Sleeper 1
3 A Dream Within A Dream 1
4 Alone 1
5 To One in Paradise 2
6 Spirit of The Dead 1
7 The Lake 1
8 Evening Star 1
Total 8

B. Discussion
45

The researcher had analyzed the 8 poems by Edgar Allan Poe, entitled

Annabel Lee, The Sleeper, A Dream Within A Dream, To One in Paradise, Alone,

Spirit of the Death, The Lake and Evening Stars. The findings showed that Edgar

Allan Poe used figurative language in his poems. Based on Abrams (1999: 96),

Figurative language as a conspicuous departure from what users of a language

apprehend as the standard meaning of words, in order to achieve some special

meaning or effect. According to Saputri (2014: 22) Figurative language is

language that uses words or expressions with a meaning that is different from the

literal interpretation. The used of figurative language had also made the poems

sound more beautiful, and the used of such figures also made poems become more

interesting to be read by the readers.

1. Kinds of Figurative Language in Edgar Allan Poes Poems

The researcher found the kinds and meanings of figurative language

used in Edgar Allan Poes Poems. There are 8 kinds of figurative language

used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes poems, they were personification, simile,

methapor, hyperbole, irony, paradox, metonymy and symbolism.

Personification means giving human characteristics to an object.

According to Abrams (1999: 99), Personification is the inanimate object is

spoken as though it were endowed with life or with human attributes or

feeling. Based on the analyising of the data, the researcher found 25

personifications used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes poems. Below are the

examples of the sentences in the poems that used personification.


46

In Annabele Lee, For the moon never beams without bringing

me dreams (Line 34). The poet uses figure of speech of

personification in this line. The poet uses the word the moon

because he wants to give human sensibilities and human

characteristics to the word moon, so this word as if acts like life-

like being.

In The Sleeper, Upon the quiet mountain top, Steals drowsily

and musically (Line 6-7). This sentence includes figurative

language of personification. It can be seen in the clause above. The

mountain as the inanimate objects is depicated as human, which

can steals something drowsily and musically.

In A Dream Within A Dream One from the pitiless wave? (line

22). This sentence includes figurative language of personification.

The word wave is given human characteristic. The wave as the

inanimate objects is depicated as human, which pitiless or act

rudely as human do.

In Alone The mystery which binds me still (line 12). This

sentence is using the figurative language of personification. The

word mystery as an inannimate object is given human quality

which can binds some body.

In To One in Paradise Ah, dream too bright to last! (line 7). This

line is categorized as personification. The word dream as an


47

inanimate thing is given the living character. The poet tosses

figurative language of personification by telling us that dream is

bright.

In Spirit of The Dead Thy soul shall find itself alone (line 1).

This sentence is considered as personification because the soul as

an inanimate thing which personify as can do human activity like

find something. The word soul is used to describe himself which

feeling the loneliness in his life.

In The Lake Of a wild lake, with black rock bound (line 5). This

sentence includes figurative language of personification. It can be

seen by the phrase wild lake. The lake as the inanimate objects

is depicated as animal, which has a characteristic wild.

In Evening Star personification; On her cold smile (line 5). This

sentence includes figurative language of personification. It can be

seen in the phrase cold smile. The smile as the inanimate objects

is depicated as human being, which has a characteristic and feeling

cold.

Simile is a kind of figurative meaning comparing two essentially

unlike things. According to Abrams (1999: 97) Simile is a kind

comparison between two distictly different things indicated by the word

like or as. Based on the analyising of the data, the researcher found 6

similes used in 3 Edgar Allan Poes poems. Below are the examples of the

sentences in the poems that used Simile.


48

In The Sleeper Looking like Lethe, see! the lake (line 13). This

sentence includes figurative language of simile. The word 'like' as a

figure of speech is the main feature. The sentence is to distinguish

two unlike things: the Lethe and the lake.

In Spirit of The Dead With light like Hope to mortals given (line

14). The sentence above is indicate as smilie. It compares two

unlike things between light and hope. Those are connected by the

word like.

In Evening StarThere pass'd, as a shroud (line 12). This

sentence is also indicated as smilie which compares two unlike

things that are connected by the word as. The term passd

compares with the term a shourd.

Methapor is a word expression that apllied to a distictly different kind

of things, without asserting a comparison (Abrams, 1999: 97). In the

poem, the poet tries to describe something by comparing two different

objects. Based on the analyising of the data, the researcher found 16

methapors used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes poems. Below are the examples of

the sentences in the poems that used methapor.

In Annabele Lee. Of my darling, my darling, my life and my

bride (line 39). This statement is considered as methapor. The poet

wants to conveys that the man really loves Annabel Lee and feeling

hurt by the dead of Annabel Lee. He uses my darling as Annabel

Lee which is compared with My Life and My bride.


49

In The Sleeper Strange is thy pallor! strange thy dress, Strange,

above all, thy length of tress (line 33-34). The sentcence above is

considered of metaphor. Because the sentence includes a direct

comparison between the strange condition of the woman and her

pallor, dress, tress and all above her

In A Dream Within A Dream. All that we see or seem Is but a

dream within a dream (line 10-11). This sentence is indicated as

metaphor. It is indicated since the poet compares between all that

we see with a dream. The poet uses the terms see and seem to

depict the fact that nothing we see or feel is more real than a

dream.

In Alone Then -- in my childhood -- in the dawn (line 9). The

clause above uses figurative of methapor which compares between

the poetss childhood and in the dawn.

In To One in Paradise. And all my days are trances (line 19).

This sentence above is indicated as metaphor. It can be seen since

the poet compares two unlike things between all my days with

trances.

In Spirit of The Dead The breeze -- the breath of God -- is still

(line 23). The sentence is categorized as the figurative language of

methapor. The poet compares two unlike things, beetwen the

breeze and the breath of God.


50

In The Lake. In spring of youth it was my lot (line 1). In the

above line poem includes figurative language of metaphor.

Because the sentence includes a direct comparison between the

condition of the poet in spring youth and his lot.

In Evening Star 'I was noontide of summer (line 1). The sentence

above is recognized as methapor. It compares two unlike things

beetween I represents the poet himself and noontide of summer

as the condition of the poet at the time.

Hyperbole is bold everstatement, or the extravagant exxaggeration of

fact or of possibility ( Abrams 1999: 120). Hyperbole is a figurative for

exaggeration. It tells more than the truth about the size, number, or degree

of something without intending to deceive. Based on the analyising of the

data, the researcher found 12 hyperboles used in 6 Edgar Allan Poes

poems. Below are the examples of the sentences in the poems that used

personification.

In Annabele Lee And this maiden she lived with no other

thought, Than to love and be loved by me (Line 5). A clause And

this maiden she lived with no other tought is hyperbole form. The

poet uses this phrasal hyperbole to describe the characters feeling.

This clause exaggerates the statement to emphasis Annabel Lees

feeling.

In The Sleeper An opiate vapor, dewy, dim, Exhales from out

her golden rim (line 3-4). This clause is considered as figurative


51

language of hyperbole. This is an overstatement sentence, since the

poet uses the words opiate vapor. The moonlit air is not really an

opiate.

In A Dream Within A Dream g ( While I weep--while I weep! )

(line 18). This clause is considered as figurative language of

hyperbole. This is an overstatement clause, since the poet uses the

word weeping. The poet states how he weeps as his misery

overwhelmed his defenses, as he breaks down.

In Alone Of a most stormy life -- was drawn (line 10). This

clause above is categorized as hyperbole. The poet uses the word

stormy in order to describe a childhood which shows the poets

life fulling of disasters.

In To One in Paradise Shall bloom the thunder-blasted tree

(Line 17). This clause is considered as figurative language of

hyperbole. This is an overstatement clause, since the poet is

weeping. The sentence shall bloom the thunder-blasted tree tells

about the poet, about his loony, chemically-depressed voice.

In Evening Star Thou bearest in Heaven at night (line 20). The

fiigurative langugae of hyperbole can be found in the sentence

above. The poet illustrates the woman as someone who comes from

the paradise in the night.

Irony is a way of speaking or writing by saying something while the

meaning is another (Abrams, 1999: 135). Irony is a way of speaking or


52

writing by saying something while the meaning is another. Based on the

analyising of the data, the researcher found 2 Ironies used in 2 Edgar Allan

Poes poem. Below are the examples of the sentences in the poems that

used irony.

In The Sleeper Oh, lady dear, hast thou no fear? Why and what

art thou dreaming here?. In the sentence above is included

figurative language of Irony. The poet obviously knows if she was

dead, but his controrted mind has convinced him that there is a

point in asking her, as if she may awake and answer.

In Alone And all I lov'd -- I lov'd alone (Line 8). The phrases

are recognized as irony. It is because in fact, there is nobody wants

to live alone.

Paradox is a statement which seems on its face to be logically

contradictory or absurd, yet turns out to be interpretable in a way that

makes good sense (Abrams, 1999: 201). Based on the analyising of the

data, the researcher found 9 paradoxes used in 7 Edgar Allan Poes poems.

Below are the examples of the sentences in the poems that used paradox.

In Annabele Lee The angels, not half so happy in Heaven (line

21). In this sentence The angels, not half so happy in Heaven is

contradictory, in fact there is not anyone unhappy in the heaven,

conversely there are full of happiness in the heaven.

In The Sleeper A conscious slumber seems to take (line 14). The

sentence includes figurative language of paradox. The sentence


53

consious slumber is contradictory, in fact slumber sleep is the

condition of someone who is unaware feeling.

In Alone (When the rest of Heaven was blue) (line 21). (line 7).

The sentence above is recognized as paradox. The senctence is

paradoxical since the poet uses the phrase heaven was blue. It is

contradictory with the fact cause nobody knows how the heaven is.

In To One in Paradise Ah, starry Hope! that didnt arise, But to

be overcast! (line 8-9). In this clause includes figurative language

of paradox. The pharse starry hope is contradictory since the next

phrase to be overcast.

In Spirit of The Dead The spirits of the dead who stood. The

sentence above consists the figurative language of paradox. The

poet uses the phrase the spirit of the dead which has the contrast

meaning with the traditional idea.

In The Lake So lovely was the loneliness (line 4). In the clause

above includes figurative language of paradox. The pharse so

lovely is contradictory since the next phrase the loneliness. The

word love means happiness, therefore it is contrast with the word

loneliness which literally means sadness.

In Evening Star Thy distant fire,Than that colder, lowly light.

(line 22-23). This lines consist figurative langugae of paradox. This

sentences are contrast with the traditional idea. The word fire is a
54

thing which has a very hot and light characteristic nor cold

characteristic

Metonymy is the literal term for one thing is applied to another with

which it has become closely associated because of a recurrent relationship

in common experience (Abrams, 1999: 98). Based on the analyising of the

data, the researcher found 6 metonymies used in 6 Edgar Allan Poes

poems. Below are the examples of the sentences in the poems that used

metonymy.

In The Sleeper This bed for one more melancholy (line 41). This

phrase uses a figurative language of metonymy. The metonymy in

this clause is this bed which refers to the cemetery.

In A Dream Within A Dream. Through my fingers to the deep

(line 17). This phrase consists of metonymy. Metonymy is in the

line when it says the deep to represent the ocean. Those few

somehow manage to creep through the poet's fingers down to the

deep, or the ocean.

In Alone In its autumn tint of gold (16). The clause is recognized

as metonymy. The poet depicts the sun in his life using

descriptive language tint of gold.

In To One in Paradise A green isle in the sea, love (line 3). This

phrase consists of metonymy. Metonymy is in the line when it says


55

an island to represent the paradise because of paradise in the

title.

In Spirit of The Dead From their high thrones in the Heaven

(line 13). This expression consists figurative language of

metonymy. The metonymy in this clause is thrones which refers

to God.

In The Lake An Eden of that dim lake. (line 23). The clause is

regcogized as metonymy. The word Eden refers to paradise.

Meanwhile the words Dim lake refers to death that was in the

wave (the lake) and a grave for him which would bring him relief

from his dark thoughts.

Symbolism is a thing (could be an object, person, situation or action)

which stands for something else more abstract. Symbolism is applied only

to a word or phrase that signifies an object or event which in its turn

signifies something, or has a range of reference, beyond itself (Abrams,

1999: 311). Based on the analyising of the data, the researcher found 21

symbolisms used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes poems. Below are the examples

of the sentences in the poems that used symbolism.

In Annabele Lee So that her high-born kinsman came (Line 17).

The phrase is considered as a symbolism. The qords high-born

kinsman refers of the angel of the death.


56

In The Sleeper For her may some tall vault unfold- (line 49).

The senctence is regarded as Symbolism. Symbolism in this

sentence is tall vault unfold which refers to coffin. The word

vault can be inferred as coffin because they have similar

chracteristic

In A Dream Within A Dream Grains of the golden sand (line

15). This sentence includes figurative language of symbolism. In

this clause the poet depicts his weakness through the imagery of

his grasping grains of sand.

In Alone My passions from a common spring (line 4). In the

sentence above consists the figurative language of symbolism. The

common spring symbolismizes the spring of happiness.

In To One in Paradise All wreathed with fairy fruits and flowers

(line 5). This phrase includes the figurative language of symbolism.

In this clause the poet uses the word fairy fuits is the Symbolism.

In Spirit of The Dead How it hangs upon the trees,A mystery of

mysteries!.

In The Lake And in its gulf a fitting grave (line 19). This phrase

is categorized as symbolism. The words gulf fitting grave means

the best place as the way to reveal how he finds solace in solitude.

In Evening Star Proud Evening Star (line 15). The expression

consists figurative language of symbolism. Symbolism in this


57

clause is evening star. The poet uses the words evening star to

represent a woman that he loves.

2. The Meaning of Figurative Language in Edgar Allan Poes Poems

Figurative language belongs to non-literal meaning. The researcher

concluded that Edgar Allan Poe used figurative language in his poems to

convey meaning or heighten effect. It will give more meaning to the

words, beautify them, and emphasize their meaning.


According to Leech, there are 7 types of meaning, conceptual

meaning, connotative meaning, social meaning, affective meaning,

reflected meaning, Collocative meaning, dan thematic meaning. The

meanings of figurative language which are found by the researcher were

connotative, social, reflected and collocative meanings.


The researcher only took 8 sentences for each type of meaning in

the 8 Edgar Allan Poes poems as the data representative to be described in

this section. The researcher only discussed 4 types of meaning which had

been found in this research, the were connotative meaning, social meaning,

reflected meaning and collocativ e meaning. These types of meaning were

listed and classified based on Leechs theory about the types of meaning.

a. Connocative Meaning

Connotations play a major role in the language of literature, of politics, of

advertising, and of song lyrics. Certain words or sentences convey a

connotative meaning because of the use of figurative language or figure of

speech. In this research the researcher found 42 connotative meanings which

was used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems.


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The poet uses some words which had unreal meaning or connotative

meaning in order to make the poem become more beautiful and interesting

to be read. Below are the connotative meanings that have been found in the

8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems:

1) Annabele Lee

That the wind came out of a cloud, chilling and killing my

Annabel Lee. (Line 24-25). The word wind reffers the illness. It is

used to describe the illness which has made his Annabel Lee died.

Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride (Line 39). The

poet regards Annabel Lee as his whole life and his bride. Nor the

demons down under the sea, can ever dissever (Line 31-32) The

poet and Annabel Lee had a very strong love so that make the

goodness side and the badness side can not separate their love. And

the stars never rise but I see the bright eyes (Line 36). This

sentence means even Annabel Lee has died, the man can still see

her bright eyes in his dream. The angels, not half so happy in

Heaven ( Line 21). The poet wants to describe the degree of the

angels envy by stating that they are not even half as happy as he

and Annabel Lee.

2) The Sleeper

An opiate vapor, dewy, dim, Exhales from out her golden

rim (Line 3-4). Therefore, the poet personifies opiate vapor while

stimultaneously can exhale such as if acts like life-like being. The

rosemary nods upon the grave (Line 9). The poet has a purpose for
59

using the rosemary because it is evergreen shrub (or herb) in the

mint family long used as a symbolism of remembrance. The

wanton airs, from the tree-top, Laughingly through the lattice drop-

(Line 20-21). The term wanton means capricious, changeable,

playful. Figuratively, this phrasal means the movement of the air

causes crisscrossing bars on the casement window. The rosemary

nods upon the grave; (Line 9). The poet has a purpose for using

the rosemary because it is evergreen shrub (or herb) in the mint

family long used as a symbolism of remembrance.

3) A Dream Within A Dream

Yet if Hope has flown away (Line 6). hope has flown means

any less gone. So the poet implies that he ponders whether hope

is any less gone if it flies away. (While I weep--while I weep! )

(Line 18). The poet states how he weeps as his misery

overwhelmed his defenses, as he breaks down. He tells us twice

that he is weeping while the sand slips through his fingers. That

causes him a lot of frustration. O God! can I not grasp them with a

tighter clasp? (Line 19-20). The poet so desperately wants to

save the sands and hold them tighter because he wants to prove

that he can do it, to prove that everything is real and not just a

fleeting illusion. Through my fingers to the deep (Line 17). The

term the deep represent the ocean. Those few somehow manage

to creep through the poet's fingers down to the deep, or the ocean..

Grains of the golden sand (Line 15). He undergoes great


60

sufferings as he fails to hold on to the golden sand, a symbolism

for his yearnings. The golden sand then falls to the deep, to that

abstract space where he couldnt reach. But a dream within a

dream? (Line 24). The phrase A dream symbolismizes something

which a person cannot possess, for this reason it becomes so

desirable and attractive.

4) Alone

The mystery which binds me still (line 12). Figuratively,

the mystery refers to the death of a significant person in the poets

life. It can be concluded that it was a sudden death, and the poet

did not know why it happened. And the cloud that took the form

(line 20). This clause means that the poet believes this force to be

in the form of a cloud that is standing in the way of him and

happiness. Of a most stormy life -- was drawn (line 10). The poet

uses the word stormy in order to describe a childhood which

shows the poets life fulling of disasters. The phrase stormy life

describe that he had a very hard life starting from childhood. And

all I lov'd -- I lov'd alone (line 8). This line means that actually

he was sad to be alone. from a young age, the poet had no one to be

loved and love him. But, he try to keep going his life. In its autumn

tint of gold (line 16). The term tint of gold reffers to sun. This

idea of a sun in his life could represent the idea of bright

happiness. Meanwhile, autumn symbolize the fall. So it can be

conclude the fall of happiness. My passions from a common spring


61

(line 4). This can be understood by the line My passion from a

common spring; from the same source I have not taken; where the

common spring symbolizes the happiness of which everyone has

got but not him. Of a demon in my view (line 22). The phrase

demon in his view can represent the poets depression that is

obscuring his view of life. In a way, it blocks him from 'the

Heavens', it refers to the world outside him, and he can not escape

it hence he was alienated and alone.

5) To One in Paradise

Ah, dream too bright to last! (line 7). The poet tosses

figurative language of personification by telling us that dream is

bright. Literary, dream can not be bright as stars or sun. But

figuratively, this phrase means big hope or big wish of someone.

And all the flowers were mine. (line 6). The word flower means

every hapiness in the heaven. The poet imagines that all the

happinesses are belonging to him. A voice from out the Future

cries (line 10). The word voice reffers to clue, meanwhile cries

means sadness. It means the poet is just imagining what will

hapend in the future with his life will be misserable.

6) Spirit of The Dead

And the stars shall look not down (line 12). The poet says

that the night frowns down on the souls of the dead, and the stars

instigate them to retain their umbilical cord-like connection to the


62

earth. No more -- like dew-drop from the grass: (line 22). This

sentence means that the spirit is no more pass as easily as dew

dripping from grass. This shows that he finally had come to terms

from being frustrated and aggravated to a resignation that death

occurs as and when it wants to. The breeze -- the breath of God --

is still (line 23). It shows that the poet tells if the breath of the

God as calm as the breeze of the wind. He believes if his life is still

exist, since he has a faith to the God who give him life. And the

mist upon the hill (line 24). The word mist is a symbol for the veil

between life and death, the two realms of consciousness: waking

consciousness and the subconscious. This words means as hard as

we try to explore our subconscious minds, we can never know all

that exists in that part of the psyche.

7) The Lake

Of a wild lake, with black rock bound (line 5). Figuratively,

this phrasal describes the lake as his lonely and a miserable life.

Therefore, the phrase black rock bound means how hard his life

fulling with loneliness. But when the Night had thrown her pall

(line 7). Imagery was also used in this poem with the line but

when the night had thrown her pall because it pictures someone

going pall when something happens. And the mystic wind went by

(line 9). the word murmuring means blow. This phrase means

when the wind blows a kinship with the Lake and what it

represents, which is a solace and comfort. To the terror of the lone


63

lake (line 12). Literally, the word terror personify the lake which

can give the terror of someone. Figuratively, this phrasal describes

the lake as his extreme isolation and loneliness. Death was in that

poisonous wave, (line 18). This phrasal describes the wave as his

life. It means the poet has a life full of disasters, the next phrase

can be the stronger imagery which describe his hard life.

8) Evening Stars

On her cold smile (line 10). Figuratively, this phrasal

describes the smile of the woman that very cold. The word cold

means cruel here. Herself in the Heavens, Her beam on the waves

(line 7-8). The poet tells that the woman is in the heaven, but

figuratively this sentence means the woman has a big part to

control him. Too cold- too cold for me- (line 11). From this

sentence in the line 11, the reader realizes that the moon

(mentioned in line 5), is a woman that controls him because he is

her slave. The woman is too cruel and detached for him. Of the

brighter, cold moon (line 5). The moon - shining a cold, white light

upon the world is the symbolism for a beauty with a stone heart. A

woman (probably) in the port's life who has him. Proud Evening

Star (line 15). The poet uses the words evening star to represent a

woman that he loves. The symbol is a star. It stands for beauty and

love in this poem because he admires and loves them so much.

This symbol came from the context of this poem.

b. Social Meaning
64

Social meaning is a piece of language conveys about the social

circumstances of it use. It is connected with the situation in which an

utterance is uttered. In this research the researcher found 30 social meanings

which was used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems.

The poet uses the social meanings in order to shows the readers about

the social circumtances in this poem. For example the using of words thy,

thou, thine show the poetic sense in this poem. By this way, the poem can

be flowery and interesting to be read. Below are the social meanings that

have been found in the 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems:

1) Annabele Lee

And this maiden she lived with no other thought, Than to

love and be loved by me (Line 5). Annabele Lee (maiden) has no

complex emotions that may darken or complicate her love. With a

love that the winged seraphs of heaven coveted her and me (Line

11-12). The word coveted means to want something really badly,

usually something that does not belong to you. So that her high-

born kinsman came, And bore her away from me (Line 17-18).

The phrase above is considered as a symbolism of the angel of the

death. The poet conveys that finally something can separate the

man and Annabel Lee which is the death. In her tomb by the side

of the sea. (Line 41). uses the word tomb is the symbolism of the

death. The poet uses the tomb to tell that finally Annabele was

died and leaving him alone.

2) The Sleeper
65

Heaven have her in its sacred keep. This chamber changed

for one more holy (Line 39-40). The poet wants to describe the

mans hopes that heaven will place her under its care in the holiest

of burial chambers. Looking like Lethe, see! the lake (Line 13). In

greek mythology lethe is one of the rivers of hades. So it means

that the poet does not know if he should keep her in his heart or

forget about her completely. Strange is thy pallor! strange thy

dress, strange, above all, thy length of tress, (Line 33-34). The poet

finds the strange condition of her skin which is so pale and the

lenght of her hair has not changed, but only diminished in color.

Oh, lady dear, hast thou no fear? Why and what art thou dreaming

here? (Line 30-31). The poet obviously knows if she was dead, but

his controrted mind has convinced him that there is a point in

asking her, as if she may awake and answer. A conscious slumber

seems to take (Line 4). Figuratively, This sentence can be inferred

as he sees himself confused when he reaches the cemetery. Neath

which thy slumbering soul lies hid (Line 27). Therefore, the poet

uses the term soul in its generic definiton of Individual. The

definition of death includes the fact that the soul has left the body.

I stand beneath the mystic moon (Line 2). The poet describes the

condition of environment of the man who is standing in a cemetery

at midnight in june observing the moon. For her may some tall

vault unfold- (Line 49). The word vault can be inferred as

coffin because they have similar chracteristic. By this sentences


66

the poet wants to convey if the woman was placed in the coffin at

the funerals.

3) A Dream Within A Dream

One from the pitiless wave? (Line 22). The pitiless wave

seems to symboliize the power of illusion or fantasy that keeps

defeating the poet's attempts to convince himself that what is in

front of him is real and can be grasped.

4) Alone

(When the rest of Heaven was blue) (line 21). The sentence

means if the poet wants to convey that when he looks at his life,

and even though the rest of everything is blue (representing

good), his view is still blocked by the bad.

5) To One in Paradise

Such language holds the solemn sea to the sands upon the

shore (line 16). Without desire of life, the poet would have nothing,

and be completely disconnected from the rest of the world

(symbolized by the solemn sea), being now only an overcast,

lonely island of a man, too gloomy to see past the shore. And all

my days are trances, (line 19). The poet used the term trances to

explain about all his days as unconsious life. It can be inferred as

adding of stronger imagery to supports that the he live in the

heaven on his illusion. And all my nightly dreams,Are where thy


67

grey eye glances, (line 20-21). In this case the poet explain his

nightly dreams as the place of grey eye glances means that he

always dreaming and thinking about his lover everynight. A green

isle in the sea, love (Line 3). The term an island represents the

paradise because of paradise in the title, combined with the

beautiful imagery, it can be interpreted that the love between them

was like being in a paradise. All wreathed with fairy fruits and

flowers (line 5). The poet use this simbol to give of the descriptions

which can make their love seem unreal and almost magical. The

symbol also can make the sensation of havean.

6) Spirit of the Dead

Thy soul shall find itself alone (line 1). The word soul is

used to describe himself which feeling the loneliness in his life.

From this sentence the poet wants to convey that he is alone. He

predicts what will happen after death. To thy weariness shall seem,

As a burning and a fever (Line 16-17). It means life filled with

hopelessness is certainly not desirable, we must concede that hope

is also the reason people cling to their sorrows. From thy spirit

shall they pass (line 21). From the words my soul, passing the

poet describes how all of your thoughts and ideas will never go

away. All of the parts of your mind are stuck and will never leave

your spirit. From their high thrones in the Heaven, (line 13). The

word thrones can be inferred as the hope to people from above


68

Giving. Therefore, the poet uses the term thrones in its generic

definiton of streghth.

7) The Lake

Whose solitary soul could make an Eden (line 22). This way

reveal how he finds solace in solitude place and this place has

become his paradise which able to successfully slowly dying due

to the extreme isolation and loneliness. Nor Love- although the

Love were thine (line 17). the phrase the love with the word

thine. The word thine means yours. So it can be concluded

that the purpose of the poet to use this expression is to tell that the

love belongs to the woman or his lover woman. For him who

thence could solace bring (line 20). This phrase means that the

poet describes himself as someone who can bring the happiness in

the future of his lone imagination. An Eden of that dim lake (line

23). The word Eden refers to paradise. Meanwhile the words

Dim lake refers to death that was in the wave (the lake) and a

grave for him which would bring him relief from his dark

thoughts.

8) Evening Star

There pass'd, as a shroud (line 12). This sentence means

the death pass as easily as a shroud. The poet wants to convey the

cold smile of the woman compared by the death and the shourd.

Thou bearest in Heaven at night (line 20). The poet illustrates the

woman as someone who comes from the paradise in the night. In


69

fact, the woman is an ordinary woman that does not come from

the heaven. Thy distant fire, Than that colder, lowly light. (line

22-23). this lines describe how gazing at the evening star makes

him happy even though it is so far away. Though the moon's light

is brighter, the light of the star is more powerful to him.

c. Reflected Meaning

Reflected meaning is the meaning that arises in case of multiple

conceptual meaning when one sense of a word forms part of our response to

another sense. In this research the researcher found 16 reflected meanings

which was used in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems.

The poet uses some reflected meanings in this poem to give the highten

effects in the story of the poem. By using the words that have reflected

meaning, the poet wants to make the readers use their imagination in

understanding the poem. Below are the reflected meanings that have been

found in the 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems:

1) Annabele Lee

For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams

(Line 34). Moon never beams describe the missing feeling. This

line means annabele lee was died, it made her life become sorrow.

2) The Sleeper

Upon the quiet mountain top steals drowsily and

musically. (Line 6-7). Figuratively, this phrase describes the quiet

environment by the soft breeze carrying the mist creates a warm

and memorable moment. Some tomb from out whose sounding


70

door (Line 57). The word Sounding door means someone

belongs the tomb that had been died.

3) A Dream Within A Dream

Grains of the golden sand How few! yet how they creep.

(Line 15-16). The words grains of sand creep. The man holding the

sand is his way of connecting to realityto something physical

then it makes sense that he feels bummed. All that we see or seem Is

but a dream within a dream (Line 10-11). The poet uses the terms

see and seem to depict the fact that nothing we see or feel is more

real than a dream. Despite his failures, he had straight up said all that

we see and seem is just a dream within a dream. Take this kiss upon

the brow! And, in parting from you now (Line 1-2). The kiss to be a

symbolism of the last time to someone on their deathbed. The poet

agrees with the woman after she suggests that life is all a dream.

4) Alone

My sorrow -- I could not awaken, My heart to joy at the

same tone (line 6). The poet expresses his lamentation of being

unable to let go of the grief and rekindle the spark of happiness and

joy. He is so bogged down by the events in his life that he feels that

he is destined for such a doomed life where hell never manage to

fit in.

5) To One in Paradise

Ah, starry Hope! that didnt arise, But to be overcast!. (line

18) The word starry is meant bright hope, therefore its be contrast
71

with the word overcast which meant dark. It means the poet is

feelingg hopeless with his life.

6) Spirit of the Dead

With light like Hope to mortals given (line 14). This shows

that he finally has come to terms from being frustrated and

aggravated to a resignation that death occurs as and when it wants

to, and it is only a matter of time before one has to give in to death.

Be silent in that solitude, Which is not loneliness -- for then (line

5-6). The poet wants to compares his feeling and condition in the

silentness. But, it is not the loneliness for other peope around him.

He just feels the loneliness by himself, there is no one care and

understand his feeling. Shadowy -- shadowy -- yet unbroken, Is a

symbolism and a token (line 25-26). The words mean how death

is everywhere and inevitable. The death works very mysteriously of

the soul as psyche. It can bee seen since the poet says a symbol

and a token. The spirits of the dead who stood (line 7). The dead

is something scary, which is not someone wanted. But figuratively,

this expression means The spirits of the dead who lived their lives

are here. How it hangs upon the trees, A mystery of mysteries!

(line 26-27). This sentence shows how complicted his life fulling of

mystery. The poet uses the God imagery and leaves us grasping for

exactly what a mystery of mysteries is.

7) The Lake
72

In spring of youth it was my lot (line 1). The unstated

comparison is between the poet's youth in the season of spring with

his lot. This mean the poet tells his life being terrible since he was

young. Yet that terror was not fright (line 13). figuratively in this

poem the terror means that it is not fear. It is regarded ad the

peace of isolation, along with the self discovery that comes with it

(terrifying, but not that of fear).

8) Evening Star

For joy to my heart Is the proud part (line 18-19). This

lines show how the poet really love the woman. For him, the

woman is someone who make him happy. Therefore his heart is the

proud part caused be loved by her.

d. Collocative Meaning

Collocative meaning consists of the association of a word acquires on

account of the meanings of words which tend to occur in its environment. In

this research the researcher found only 8 collocative meanings which was used

in 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems.

Edgar Allan Poes poem was wiritten two century ago. Edgar Allan

Poe used few collocative meanings in his poems. The most collocative

meanings were found In To One in Paradise. There are only 2 sentences

which containts collocative meanings in this poem. But the researcher

would give the example from Spirit of the Dead to represent the
73

collocative meaning. Below are the collocative meanings that have been

found in the 8 Edgar Allan Poes Poems:

1) The Sleeper

Universal Valley (Line 8). The word Valley is the symbolism of

the Graveyard. The poet uses Universal Valley for representing the

universality of death . Therefore it can evoke the feeling of

spiritualism.

2) A Dream Within A Dream

I stand amid the roar of a surf-tormented shore (Line 12-13).

Torment means something that someone feels. It is a description of how a

person feels when someones emotions wrack them, not when waves

wrack a shore.

3) Alone

Then -- in my childhood -- in the dawn (line 9). Term in the dawn

expresses his young age. Then circumstances that drew him even further

away from people. So, It means that the poet never feel happy since he

was very young.

4) To One in Paradise

Ah, starry Hope! (Line 8). Certainly, the hope does not shine as the

star literally but rather hope is exist and precious. So the poet implies

that the hope is still exist, he can wish for his dreams be come true. Shall

bloom the thunder-blasted tree (line 17). It is about his loony,


74

chemically-depressed voice continuing on about how bad things are,

saying that the death of his lover has resulted in his island being stripped

from the previously nice things about it.

5) Spirit of the Dead

'Mid dark thoughts of the grey tomb-stone (line 2). The poet uses the

phrase grey tomb-stone to refer the grave or the death. But the

phrase dark thoughts also implies that the soul is symbolic of a

persons psyche, one who is obsessed with his own mortality or the

death of someone close.

6) The Lake

And in its gulf a fitting grave (line 19). The words gulf

fitting grave means the best place as the way to reveal how he

finds solace in solitude. The place which he can die there, in peace,

would be the ideal place to die.

7) Evening Star

'I was noontide of summer (line 1). The poet wants to

describe himself as the noontide of summer. He is dreamy and

relaxed, it also describes this is heavens, admire, and proud evening

star.

Edgar Allan Poe, whose cloudy personal life is a virtual legend,

considered himself primarily a poet. Poe was criticized for writing about

such a subject and for trying to elicit a shock response from his readers.

Edgar Allan Poes poems are not short enough to read in one sitting. The

poems are not be brief, they contain a good emotional experience and good
75

substance. Most of his poem is poes life experiences and the poems are not

be too complicated but they have honest meaning.

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

A. Conclusion

The research aimed to describe figurative language used in Edgar Allan Poes

poems. The objectives of the study are to describe the kinds of figurative language

used in Edgar Allan Poes poems and to describe the meanings of figuartive

language used in Edgar Allan Poes poems. This research had analyzed and

discussed about the kinds and meanings of figurative languages found in Edgar

Allan Poes poems such as Annabel Lee, The Sleeper, A Dream Within A Dream,

Alone, To One in Paradise, Spirit of the Dead, The Lake and Evening Star.
After analyzing the data, the researcher concluded some findings as follow:
1. There were 96 figurative languages in 8 Edgar Allan Poes poems, and

the kinds of figurative language were 25 personifications, 6 similes,

16 metaphors, 11 hyperboles, 2 Ironies, 9 paradoxes, 6 metonymies,

and 21 symbolisms.
76

2. The meanings of the figurative languages found in the poems were

classified into 42 connotative meanings, 30 social meanings, 16

reflected meanings and 8 collocative meanings.


The use of figurative language had also made the poems sound more

beautiful, and the use of such figures also made poems attract the readers

attention. In the construction of this poem, the poet is aware of using figurative

languages and it is used intentionally to strengthen the poems meaning.

C. Suggestions

Based on the conclusion above, some suggestions for the teachers of

English, students and other researchers.

The suggestion had purpose to make the research better. The suggestions are

as follows:

1. To the Lecturers of English

The lecturers would know kinds and meanings of figurative language

used by Edgar Allan Poes poems. The research would enrich the knowledge

related to semantics research. Therefore, the lecturers could use it as

teaching resources to teach semantics especially in figurative language.

2. To the Students

The researcher suggested the students to learn and use the research to

study more about linguistics, especially semantics research which learn

about the language and the meaning. The result of research could enrich

students knowledge about the meaning in language and they also could find

other figurative language in other literary work.

3. To the Other Researchers


77

The researcher believed that this result of research might give

contribution to other researchers to conduct research related to semantics. To

other researchers who wanted to conduct the similar research, they could

propose other problems related to figurative language used in poems.

4. For Institution

For institution, the research might contribute in providing lecturers,

students and other language researchers because the result of research

revealed another phenomenon in semantics study. The institution better

provided also other researches related semantics research to enrich the

references for the users.


78

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81

Appendices A

EDGAR ALLAN POE


82

EDGAR ALLAN POES BIOGRAPHY

Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts to parents who were poverty-


stricken actors. Early in his life, Poe's father deserted the family and at almost
three years old his mother died of tuberculosis-a very painful and gruesome
sickness. He and his younger brother were present at their mother's death and
83

the two were left alone with their mother's dead body for two days before
anyone found them.

Poe was then taken in and raised by the. wealthy Allan family of
Richmond, Virginia. Poe had many conflicts with John Allan and,
subsequently, he was never formally adopted. One of these points ofconflict
occurred when Poe could not pay his gambling debts at the University of
Virgini~ and he was forced, either by his father or the university, to withdraw.
Soon thereafter,

Poe moved in with his aunt where he eventually fell in love with his young
first cousin Virginia Clemm. In 1836 (when Virginia was 13) and remained in
the home of Virginia's mother. This period oftime in Poe's life was one ofrare
happiness. The small, happy family moved several places around the country,
including Pennsylvania and New York City. It was during this time (from 1836
to 1847) that Poe produced most ofhis great literary works.

Poe had been drinking and using drugs to some extent during this time, but
it was after his beloved wife Virginia died in 1847 of Tuberculosis (the same
disease that clamed his mother) that he seemed to go offthe deep end. After
many drinking binges, Poe had one last relatively successful year lecturing
and producing works of literature and prose. On October 3, 1849, however, he
was found in Baltimore, Maryland (he had been en route to New York from
Richmond) half-conscious and delirious, inexplicably calling out the name ofa
famous polar explorer. He died the next day and was buried in the
Presbyterian Cemetery in Baltimore.

Contributions to Literature Poe's fame in the US came in a roundabout


way. He was first famous with the French symbolismists in France. Only
through the influence ofthe French symbolismists did he become known in his
own country. His influence on criticism was quite profuse. He defined how a
short story should be written. He alone invented the detective story. Poe is also
responsible for furthering the gothic movement in the US. Among his literary
progeny are Stephen King, Anne Rice, and Dean Koontz.
84

Timeline

1809 Poe is born in Boston, Massachusetts


1811 Mother dies and is orphaned
1827 Joins the army under an assumed name
Publishes Tamerlane and Other Poems
1829 Publishes Al Aaraaf
Poe's stepmother, Frances Allan, dies
1830 John Allan helps Poe get into West Point
1831 Publishes Poems; makes no money with poetry so turns to fiction
and criticism
1832 Publishes 5 short stories in newspapers
1836 Poe marries Virginia Clemm, his 13 year-old cousin
1838 Publishes only novel Narrative ofArthur Gordon Pym
1839 Publishes "The Fall ofthe House ofUsher"
1836 Publishes his great mystery stories like "The Tell-Tale Heart" and
"The Black Cat"
1845 "The Raven" is published and gains him much acclaim.
1847 Virginia dies of Tuberculosis
1849 Publishes "Annabel Lee

8 EDGAR ALLAN POES POEMS

Annabel Lee
(Published 1849)

It was many and many a year ago,


In a kingdom by the sea,
85

That a maiden there lived whom you may know


By the name of ANNABEL LEE;--
And this maiden she lived with no other thought
Than to love and be loved by me.
She was a child and I was a child,
In this kingdom by the sea,
But we loved with a love that was more than love
I and my Annabel Lee
With a love that the winged seraphs of heaven
Coveted her and me.

And this was the reason that, long ago,


In this kingdom by the sea,
A wind blew out of a cloud by night
Chilling my Annabel Lee;
So that her high-born kinsman came
And bore her away from me,
To shut her up in a sepulcher
In this kingdom by the sea.

The angels, not half so happy in Heaven,


Went envying her and me:--
Yes! that was the reason (as all men know,
In this kingdom by the sea)
That the wind came out of a cloud, chilling
And killing my Annabel Lee.

But our love it was stronger by far than the love


Of those who were older than we
Of many far wiser than we-
And neither the angels in Heaven above,
Nor the demons down under the sea,
86

Can ever dissever my soul from the soul


Of the beautiful Annabel Lee:--

For the moon never beams without bringing me dreams


Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And the stars never rise but I see the bright eyes
Of the beautiful Annabel Lee;
And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side
Of my darling, my darling, my life and my bride,
In her sepulcher there by the sea
In her tomb by the side of the sea.

The Sleeper
(Published 1831)

At midnight, in the month of June,


I stand beneath the mystic moon.
An opiate vapor, dewy, dim,
Exhales from out her golden rim,
And, softly dripping, drop by drop,
Upon the quiet mountain top,
Steals drowsily and musically
Into the universal valley.
The rosemary nods upon the grave;
The lily lolls upon the wave;
Wrapping the fog about its breast,
The ruin molders into rest;
Looking like Lethe, see! the lake
A conscious slumber seems to take,
And would not, for the world, awake.
All Beauty sleeps!- and lo! where lies
Irene, with her Destinies!

O, lady bright! can it be right-


This window opens to the night?
The wanton airs, from the tree-top,
Laughingly through the lattice drop-
The bodiless airs, a wizard rout,
Flit through thy chamber in and out,
And wave the curtain canopy
So fitfully- so fearfully-
87

Above the closed and fringed lid


'Neath which thy slumbering soul lies hid,
That, o'er the floor and down the wall,
Like ghosts the shadows rise and fall!
Oh, lady dear, hast thou no fear?
Why and what art thou dreaming here?
Sure thou art come O'er far-off seas,
A wonder to these garden trees!
Strange is thy pallor! strange thy dress,
Strange, above all, thy length of tress,
And this all solemn silentness!

The lady sleeps! Oh, may her sleep,


Which is enduring, so be deep!
Heaven have her in its sacred keep!
This chamber changed for one more holy,
This bed for one more melancholy,
I pray to God that she may lie
Forever with unopened eye,
While the pale sheeted ghosts go by!

My love, she sleeps! Oh, may her sleep


As it is lasting, so be deep!
Soft may the worms about her creep!
Far in the forest, dim and old,
For her may some tall vault unfold-
Some vault that oft has flung its black
And winged panels fluttering back,
Triumphant, o'er the crested palls,
Of her grand family funerals-

Some sepulcher, remote, alone,


Against whose portal she hath thrown,
In childhood, many an idle stone-
Some tomb from out whose sounding door
She ne'er shall force an echo more,
Thrilling to think, poor child of sin!
it was the dead who groaned within.

A Dream Within A Dream


(published 1850)

Take this kiss upon the brow!


And, in parting from you now,
Thus much let me avow
You are not wrong, who deem
88

That my days have been a dream;


Yet if hope has flown away
In a night, or in a day,
In a vision, or in none,
Is it therefore the less gone?
All that we see or seem
Is but a dream within a dream.

I stand amid the roar


Of a surf-tormented shore,
And I hold within my hand
Grains of the golden sand
How few! yet how they creep
Through my fingers to the deep,
While I weep -- while I weep!
O God! can I not grasp
Them with a tighter clasp?
O God! can I not save
One from the pitiless wave?
Is all that we see or seem
But a dream within a dream?

To One in Paradise
(Published 1832)

Thou wast all that to me, love,


For which my soul did pine-
A green isle in the sea, love
A fountain and a shrine,
All wreathed with fairy fruits and flowers,
And all the flowers were mine.

Ah, dream too bright to last!


Ah, starry Hope! that didst arise
But to be overcast!
A voice from out the Future cries,
'On! on!'- but o'er the Past
(Dim gulf!)my spirit hovering lies
Mute, motionless, aghast!
89

For, alas! alas! Me


For me the light of Life is over!
'No more- no more- no more-'
(Such language holds the solemn sea
To the sands upon the shore)
Shall bloom the thunder-blasted tree
Or the stricken eagle soar!

And all my days are trances,


And all my nightly dreams
Are where thy grey eye glances,
And where thy footstep gleams-
In what ethereal dances,
By what eternal streams.

Alone
(published 1875)

From childhood's hour I have not been


As others were -- I have not seen
As others saw -- I could not bring
My passions from a common spring
From the same source I have not taken
My sorrow -- I could not awaken
My heart to joy at the same tone
And all I lov'd -- I lov'd alone
Then -- in my childhood -- in the dawn
Of a most stormy life -- was drawn
From ev'ry depth of good and ill
The mystery which binds me still
From the torrent, or the fountain
From the red cliff of the mountain
From the sun that 'round me roll'd
In its autumn tint of gold
From the lightning in the sky
As it pass'd me flying by
From the thunder, and the storm
And the cloud that took the form
90

(When the rest of Heaven was blue)


Of a demon in my view

Spirits of the Dead


(Published 1829)

Thy soul shall find itself alone


'Mid dark thoughts of the grey tomb-stone
Not one, of all the crowd, to pry
Into thine hour of secrecy:
Be silent in that solitude
Which is not loneliness -- for then
The spirits of the dead who stood
In life before thee are again
In death around thee -- and their will
Shall then overshadow thee: be still.

For the night -- tho' clear -- shall frown


And the stars shall look not down,
From their high thrones in the Heaven,
With light like Hope to mortals given
But their red orbs, without beam,
To thy weariness shall seem
As a burning and a fever
Which would cling to thee for ever :

Now are thoughts thou shalt not banish


Now are visions ne'er to vanish
From thy spirit shall they pass
No more -- like dew-drop from the grass:

The breeze -- the breath of God -- is still


And the mist upon the hill
Shadowy -- shadowy -- yet unbroken,
Is a symbolism and a token
How it hangs upon the trees,
A mystery of mysteries!

The Lake
(Published in 1826)
91

In spring of youth it was my lot


To haunt of the wide world a spot
The which I could not love the less-
So lovely was the loneliness
Of a wild lake, with black rock bound
And the tall pines that towered around.

But when the Night had thrown her pall


Upon that spot, as upon all,
And the mystic wind went by
Murmuring in melody-
Then- ah then I would awake
To the terror of the lone lake.

Yet that terror was not fright,


But a tremulous delight-
A feeling not the jewelled mine
Could teach or bribe me to define-
Nor Love- although the Love werethine.

Death was in that poisonous wave,


And in its gulf a fitting grave
For him who thence could solace bring
To his lone imagining-
Whose solitary soul could make
An Eden of that dim lake.

Evening Stars
(Published 1845)

'Twas noontide of summer,


And mid-time of night;
And stars, in their orbits,
92

Shone pale, thro' the light


Of the brighter, cold moon,
'Mid planets her slaves,
Herself in the Heavens,
Her beam on the waves.
I gazed awhile
On her cold smile;
Too cold- too cold for me-
There pass'd, as a shroud,
A fleecy cloud,
And I turned away to thee,
Proud Evening Star,
In thy glory afar,
And dearer thy beam shall be;
For joy to my heart
Is the proud part
Thou bearest in Heaven at night,
And more I admire
Thy distant fire,
Than that colder, lowly light.

APPENDICES B

The Kinds of Figurative Language in Annabele Lee


93

Kinds of Figurative
No Line Quotation of Poem
Language
1 5 And this maiden she lived with no other Hyperbole
thought, Than to love and be loved by me.
2 11-12 With a love that the winged seraphs of Hyperbole
heaven coveted her and me
3 17-18 So that her high-born kinsman came Symbolism
4 21 The angels, not half so happy in Heaven, Paradox
5 24-25 That the wind came out of a cloud, Personification
chilling and killing my Annabel Lee.
6 31-32 Nor the demons down under the sea, can Hyperbole
ever dissever my soul from the soul
7 34 For the moon never beams without Personification
bringing me dreams
8 36 And the stars never rise but I see the Hyperbole
bright eyes
9 39 Of my darling, my darling, my life and my Methapor
bride
10 41 In her tomb by the side of the sea. Symbolism

The Kinds of Figurative Language in The Sleeper

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 2 I stand beneath the mystic moon. Symbolism
2 3-4 An opiate vapor, dewy, dim, Exhales from out Personification
her golden rim.
3 6-7 Upon the quiet mountain top, Steals drowsily Personification
and musically
4 8 Into the universal valley. Symbolism
5 9 The rosemary nods upon the grave; Personification
6 13 Looking like Lethe, see! the lake Simile
7 14 A conscious slumber seems to take, Paradox
8 20-21 The wanton airs, from the tree- Personification
top, Laughingly through the lattice drop-
9 27 Neath which thy slumbering soul lies hid, Symbolism
10 29 Like ghosts the shadows rise and fall! Simile
11 30-31 Oh, lady dear, hast thou no fear? Why and Irony
what art thou dreaming here?
12 33-34 Strange is thy pallor! strange thy dress, Methapor
Strange, above all, thy length of tress,
13 39 Heaven have her in its sacred keep. Personification
14 41 This bed for one more melancholy, Metonymy
15 42-43 I pray to God that she may lie, Forever with Symbolism
unopened eye.
94

16 49 For her may some tall vault unfold- Symbolism


17 57 Some tomb from out whose sounding door Personification

The Kinds of Figurative Language in A Dream Within A Dream

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 1 Take this kiss upon the brow! Symbolism
2 6 Yet if hope has flown away Personification
3 10-11 All that we see or seem Is but a dream within a Methapor
dream.
4 12-13 I stand amid the roar of a surf-tormented shore Personification
5 15 Grains of the golden sand Symbolism
6 16 How few! yet how they creep Personification
7 17 Through my fingers to the deep. Metonymy
8 18 ( While I weep--while I weep! ) Hyperbole
9 19-20 O God! can I not grasp Them with a tighter Hyperbole
clasp?
10 22 One from the pitiless wave? Personification
11 24 But a dream within a dream? Symbolism

The Kinds of Figurative Language in Alone

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 4 My passions from a common spring Symbolism
2 6 My sorrow -- I could not awaken, My heart to Methapor
joy at the same tone
3 8 And all I lov'd -- I lov'd alone Irony
4 9 Then -- in my childhood -- in the dawn Methapor
5 10 Of a most stormy life -- was drawn Hyperbole
6 12 The mystery which binds me still Personification
7 16 In its autumn tint of gold Metonymy
8 19-20 From the thunder, and the storm And the Personification
cloud that took the form
9 21 (When the rest of Heaven was blue) Paradox
10 22 Of a demon in my view Symbolism
The Kinds of Figurative Language in To One in Paradise

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
95

1 3 A green isle in the sea, love Metonymy


2 5 All wreathed with fairy fruits and flowers, Symbolism
3 6 And all the flowers were mine. Methapor
4 7 Ah, dream too bright to last! Personification
5 8 Ah, starry Hope! Personification
6 8-9 Ah, starry Hope! that didnt arise, But to be Paradox
overcast!
7 10 A voice from out the Future cries, Methapor
8 16 (Such language holds the solemn sea Personification
To the sands upon the shore)
9 17 Shall bloom the thunder-blasted tree Hyperbole
10 19 And all my days are trances, Methapor
11 20-21 And all my nightly dreams,Are where thy grey Metaphor
eye glances,

The Kinds of Figurative Language in Spirits of the Dead

Kinds of
No Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
Language
1 1 Thy soul shall find itself alone Personification
2 2 'Mid dark thoughts of the grey tomb-stone Symbolism
3 5-6 Be silent in that solitude, Which is not Methapor
loneliness -- for then
4 7 The spirits of the dead who stood Paradox
5 12 And the stars shall look not down, Personification
6 13 From their high thrones in the Heaven, Metonymy
7 14 With light like Hope to mortals given Simile
8 16-17 To thy weariness shall seem, As a burning and a Simile
fever
9 21 From thy spirit shall they pass Paradox
10 22 No more -- like dew-drop from the grass: Simile
11 23 The breeze -- the breath of God -- is still Methapor
12 24 And the mist upon the hill Symbolism
13 25-26 Shadowy -- shadowy -- yet unbroken, Is a Methapor
symbolism and a token
14 26-27 How it hangs upon the trees,A mystery of Symbolism
mysteries!

The Kinds of Figurative Language in The Lake

No Line Quotation of Poem Kinds of


96

Figurative
Language
1 1 In spring of youth it was my lot Methapor
2 4 So lovely was the loneliness Paradox
3 5 Of a wild lake, with black rock bound Personification
4 7 But when the Night had thrown her pall Personification
6 9 And the mystic wind went by Personification
7 12 To the terror of the lone lake. Personification
8 13 Yet that terror was not fright, Paradox
9 17 Nor Love- although the Love were thine. Methapor
10 18 Death was in that poisonous wave, Personification
11 19 And in its gulf a fitting grave Symbolism
12 20 For him who thence could solace bring Methapor
13 22 Whose solitary soul could make an Personification
14 23 An Eden of that dim lake. Metonymy

The Kinds of Figurative Language in Evening Star

Kinds of
N
Line Quotation of Poem Figurative
o
Language
1 1 'I was noontide of summer Methapor
2 5 Of the brighter, cold moon, Symbolism
3 7-8 Herself in the Heavens,Her beam on the waves. Hyperbole
4 10 On her cold smile Personification
5 11 Too cold- too cold for me- Hyperbole
6 12 There pass'd, as a shroud, Simile
7 15 Proud Evening Star, Symbolism
8 18-19 For joy to my heart Is the proud part Methapor
9 20 Thou bearest in Heaven at night, Hyperbole
10 22-23 Thy distant fire,Than that colder, lowly light. Paradox

The Meanings of Figurative Language in Annabele Lee


97

Figurative Types of
No Quote of Poem Meaning
Language meaning
1 Personification That the wind The word wind reffers the Connotative
came out of a illness. It is used to describe meaning
cloud, chilling the illness which has made his
and killing my Annabel Lee died.
Annabel Lee.
(Line 24-25)
2 Personification For the moon Moon never beams describe Reflected
never beams the missing feeling. This line meaning
without bringing means annabele lee was died, it
me dreams. (Line made her life become sorrow.
34)
3 Methapor The poet regards Annabel Lee Connotative
Of my darling,
as his whole life and his bride. meaning
my darling, my
life and my bride
(Line 39)
4 Hyperbole And this maiden Annabele Lee (maiden) has no Social
she lived with no complex emotions that may meaning
other thought, darken or complicate her love.
Than to love and
be loved by me.
(Line 5)
5 Hyperbole Nor the demons The poet and Annabel Lee had Connotative
down under the a very strong love so that make meaning
sea, can ever the goodness side and the
dissever. (Line badness side can not separate
31-32) their love.
6 Hyperbole And the stars This sentence means even Connotative
never rise but I Annabel Lee has died, the man meaning
see the bright can still see her bright eyes in
eyes. (Line 36) his dream.
7 Paradox With a love that The word coveted means to Social
98

the winged want something really badly, meaning


seraphs of usually something that does
heaven coveted not belong to you.
her and me. (Line
11-12)

8 Paradox The angels, not The poet wants to describe the Connotative
half so happy in degree of the angels envy by meaning
Heaven. stating that they are not even
( Line 21) half as happy as he and
Annabel Lee.
9 Symbolism So that her high- The phrase above is considered Social
born kinsman as a symbolism of the angel of meaning
came, And bore the death. The poet conveys
her away from that finally something can
me. separate the man and Annabel
(Line 17-18) Lee which is the death.

10 Symbolism In her tomb by uses the word tomb is the Social


the side of the symbolism of the death. The meaning
sea. (Line 41) poet uses the tomb to tell that
finally Annabele was died and
leaving him alone.

Meanings of Figurative Language in The Sleeper

Figurative Types of
No Quote of Poem Meaning
Language figurative
1 Personification An opiate vapor, Therefore, the poet Connotative
dewy, personifies opiate vapor meaning
99

dim, Exhales from while stimultaneously can


out her golden exhale such as if acts like
rim. (Line 3-4) life-like being.
2 Personification Upon the quiet Figuratively, this phrase Reflected
mountain top describes the quiet meaning
steals drowsily and environment by the soft
musically. (Line 6- breeze carrying the mist
7) creates a warm and
memorable moment.
3 Personification The rosemary nods The poet has a purpose for Connotative
upon the using the rosemary meaning
grave; (Line 9) because it is evergreen
shrub (or herb) in the mint
family long used as a
symbolism of
remembrance.
4 Personification The wanton airs, The term wanton means Connotative
from the tree- capricious, changeable, meaning
top, Laughingly playful. Figuratively, this
through the lattice phrasal means the
drop- movement of the air causes
(Line 20-21) crisscrossing bars on the
casement window .
5 Personification Heaven have her in The poet wants to describe Social
its sacred keep. the mans hopes that meaning
This chamber heaven will place her under
changed for one its care in the holiest of
more holy. (Line burial chambers.
39-40)
6 Personification Some tomb from The word Sounding door Reflected
out whose means someone belongs the meaning
sounding tomb that had been died.
door (Line 57)
100

7 Simile Looking In greek mythology lethe is Social


like Lethe, see! the one of the rivers of hades. meaning
lake. (Line 13) Drinking from this river
causes forgetfulness. So it
means that the poet does
not know if he should keep
her in his heart or forget
about her completely.
8 Simile Like the ghosts which Connotative
Like ghosts the
always follow human. meanng
shadows rise and
Shadows means the woman
fall! (Line 29)
who he loved always exist
in his imagination.
9 Methapor Strange is thy The poet finds the strange Social
pallor! strange thy condition of her skin which meaning
dress, strange, is so pale and the lenght of
above all, thy her hair has not changed,
length of tress, but only diminished in
(Line 33-34) color.
10 Irony Oh, lady dear, hast The poet obviously knows Social
thou no fear? Why if she was dead, but his meaning
and what art thou controrted mind has
dreaming here? convinced him that there is
(Line 30-31) a point in asking her, as if
she may awake and answer.
He emagines her answering
him and he imagines what
she could be dreaming
about.
11 Paradox A conscious The sentence in fact Social
slumber seems to slumber sleep is the meaning
take. (Line 4) condition of someone who
101

is unaware feeling.
Figuratively, This sentence
can be inferred as he sees
himself confused when he
reaches the cemetery.
12 Metonymy Neath which thy Therefore, the poet uses the Social
slumbering soul term soul in its generic meaning
lies hid (Line 27) definiton of Individual.
The definition of death
includes the fact that the
soul has left the body.
13 Symbolism I stand beneath The poet describes the Social
the mystic condition of environment of meaning
moon. (Line 2) the man who is standing in
a cemetery at midnight in
june observing the moon,
which he calls as the
mystic moon.
14 Symbolism This bed for one the bed is the thing for Connotative
more melancholy. lying. Meanwhile the word Meaning
(Line 41) melancholy is refers to the
mans lover. The poet uses
those terms to describe the
present place for the girl
who has died.
15 Symbolism For her may some The word vault can be Social
tall vault unfold- inferred as coffin because meaning
(Line 49) they have similar
chracteristic. By this
sentences the poet wants to
convey if the woman was
placed in the coffin at the
funerals.
102

16 Symbolism Universal Valley the word Valley is the Collocative


(Line 8) symbolism of the meaning
Graveyard. The poet uses
Universal Valley for
representing the
universality of death .
Therefore it can evoke the
feeling of spiritualism.
17 Symbolism I pray to God that The phrase unopened eye Connotative
she may lie, is considered as a meaning
Forever with symbolism of the death.
unopened eye (Line The poet can not accept her
42-43) death by pray to God that
she may lie, but the real
fact is she has died.

The Meanings of Figurative Language in A Dream Within a Dream

Figurative
No Quote of Poem Meaning
Language
1 Personification Yet if Hope has hope has flown means any Connotative
flown away less gone. So the poet meaning
(Line 6) implies that he ponders
whether hope is any less
gone if it flies away.
2 Personification I stand amid the Torment means something Collocative
roar of a surf- that someone feels. It is a meaning
tormented shore description of how a person
(Line 12-13) feels when someones
emotions wrack them, not
when waves wrack a shore.
3 Personification Grains of the The words grains of sand Reflected
golden sand creep. The man holding the meaning
How few! yet how sand is his way of
103

they creep. (Line connecting to realityto


15-16) something physicalthen it
makes sense that he feels
bummed.
4 Personification One from the The pitiless wave seems to Social
pitiless wave? symboliize the power of meaning
(Line 22) illusion or fantasy that keeps
defeating the poet's attempts
to convince himself that
what is in front of him is
real and can be grasped.
5 Methapor All that we see or The poet uses the terms Reflected
seem Is but a see and seem to depict meaning
dream within a the fact that nothing we see
dream. (Line 10- or feel is more real than a
11) dream. Despite his failures,
he had straight up said all
that we see and seem is just
a dream within a dream.
6 Hyperbole ( While I weep-- The poet states how he Connotative
while I weep! ) weeps as his misery meaning
(Line 18) overwhelmed his defenses,
as he breaks down. He tells
us twice that he is weeping
while the sand slips through
his fingers. That causes him
a lot of frustration.
7 Hyperbole O God! can I not The poet so desperately Connotative
grasp them with a wants to save the sands meaning
tighter clasp? and hold them tighter
(Line 19-20) because he wants to prove
that he can do it, to prove
that everything is real and
104

not just a fleeting illusion.


8 Metonymy Through my fingers The term the deep Connotative
to the deep. (Line represent the ocean. Those meaning
17) few somehow manage to
creep through the poet's
fingers down to the deep, or
the ocean. He just can not
hold on to them.
9 Symbolism Take this kiss upon The kiss to be a symbolism Reflected
the brow! And, in of the last time to someone meaning
parting from you on their deathbed. The poet
now. (Line 1-2) agrees with the woman after
she suggests that life is all a
dream.
10 Symbolism He undergoes great Connotative
Grains of the
sufferings as he fails to hold meaning
golden sand
on to the golden sand, a
(Line 15)
symbolism for his
yearnings. The golden
sand then falls to the
deep, to that abstract space
where he couldnt reach.
11 Symbolism But a dream within The phrase A dream Connotative
a dream? (Line symbolismizes something meaning
24) which a person cannot
possess, for this reason it
becomes so desirable and
attractive. The poet tells life
as a dream and explaining
how it in fact is a dream.

The Meanings of Figurative Language in Alone


105

Figurative Types of
No Quote of Poem Meaning
Language meaning
1 Personification The mystery Figuratively, the mystery Connotative
which binds me refers to the death of a meaning
still (line 12) significant person in the
poets life. It can be
concluded that it was a
sudden death, and the poet
did not know why it
happened.
2 Personification And the cloud that This clause means that the Connotative
took the form (line poet believes this force to be meaning
20) in the form of a cloud that is
standing in the way of him
and happiness.
3 Methapor My sorrow -- I The poet expresses his Reflected
could not awaken, lamentation of being unable meaning
My heart to joy at to let go of the grief and
the same tone rekindle the spark of
(line 6) happiness and joy. He is so
bogged down by the events
in his life that he feels that
he is destined for such a
doomed life where hell
never manage to fit in.
4 Methapor Then -- in my Term in the dawn Collocative
childhood -- in the expresses his young age. meaning
dawn (line 9) Then circumstances that
drew him even further away
from people. So, It means
that the poet never feel
happy since he was very
young.
106

5 Hyperbole Of a most stormy The poet uses the word Connotative


life -- was drawn stormy in order to describe meaning
(line 10) a childhood which shows
the poets life fulling of
disasters. This is how the
poet felt when they were
young. The phrase stormy
life describe that he had a
very hard life starting from
childhood.
6 Irony And all I lov'd -- I This line means that Connotative
lov'd alone (line actually he was sad to be meaning
8) alone. from a young age, the
poet had no one to be loved
and love him. But, he try to
keep going his life
7 Paradox (When the rest of The sentence means if the Social
Heaven was blue) poet wants to convey that meaning
(line 21) when he looks at his life,
and even though the rest of
everything is blue
(representing good), his
view is still blocked by the
bad.
8 Symbol In its autumn tint The term tint of gold Connotative
of gold (line 16) reffers to sun. This idea of meaning
a sun in his life could
represent the idea of bright
happiness. Meanwhile,
autumn symbolize the fall.
So it can be conclude the
fall of happiness.
9 Symbolism My passions from a This can be understood by Connotative
107

common spring the line My passion from a meaning


(line 4) common spring; from the
same source I have not
taken; where the common
spring symbolizes the
happiness of which
everyone has got but not
him.
10 Symbolism Of a demon in my The phrase demon in his Connotative
view (line 22) view can represent the meaning
poets depression that is
obscuring his view of life.
In a way, it blocks him from
'the Heavens', it refers to the
world outside him, and he
can not escape it hence he
was alienated and alone.

The Meanings of Figurative Language in To One in Paradise

Figurative
No Quote of Poem Meaning Types of
Language meaning
1 Personification Ah, dream too The poet tosses figurative Connotative
bright to last! (line language of personification meaning
7) by telling us that dream is
bright. Literary, dream can
not be bright as stars or sun.
But figuratively, this phrase
means big hope or big wish
of someone.
2 Personification Ah, starry Hope! Certainly, the hope does not Collocative
(Line 8) shine as the star literally but meaning
rather hope is exist and
108

precious. So the poet


implies that the hope is still
exist, he can wish for his
dreams be come true.
3 Personification Such language Without desire of life, the Social
holds the solemn poet would have nothing, meaning
sea to the sands and be completely
upon the shore disconnected from the rest
(line 16) of the world (symbolized by
the solemn sea), being now
only an overcast, lonely
island of a man, too gloomy
to see past the shore.
4 Methapor And all the flowers The word flower means Connotative
were mine. (line 6) every hapiness in the meaning
heaven. The poet imagines
that all the happinesses are
belonging to him
5 Methapor A voice from out The word voice reffers to Connotative
the Future cries, clue, meanwhile cries meaning
(line 10) means sadness. It means
the poet is just imagining
what will hapend in the
future with his life will be
misserable.
6 Methapor And all my days The poet used the term Social
are trances, (line trances to explain about all meaning
19) his days as unconsious life.
It can be inferred as adding
of stronger imagery to
supports that the he live in
the heaven on his illusion.
7 Methapor And all my nightly In this case the poet explain Social
109

dreams,Are where his nightly dreams as the Meaning


thy grey eye place of grey eye glances
glances, (line 20- means that he always
21) dreaming and thinking
about his lover everynight.
8 Hyperbole Shall bloom the It is about his loony, Collocative
thunder-blasted chemically-depressed voice meaning
tree (line 17) continuing on about how
bad things are, saying that
the death of his lover has
resulted in his island being
stripped from the previously
nice things about it.
9 Paradox Ah, starry Hope! The word starry is meant Reflected
that didnt arise, bright hope, therefore its be meaning
But to be overcast! contrast with the word
overcast which meant
dark. It means the poet is
feelingg hopeless with his
life.
10 Metonymy A green isle in the The term an island Social
sea, love (Line 3) represents the paradise meaning
because of paradise in the
title, combined with the
beautiful imagery, it can be
interpreted that the love
between them was like
being in a paradise.
11 Symbol All wreathed with The poet use this simbol to Social
fairy fruits and give of the descriptions meaning
flowers, (line 5) which can make their love
seem unreal and almost
magical. The symbol also
110

can make the sensation of


havean.

The Meanings of Figurative Language in Spirit od The Dead

Figurative
No Quote of Poem Meaning Types of
Language Meaning
1 Personification Thy soul shall find The word soul is used to Social
itself alone (line 1) describe himself which Meaning
feeling the loneliness in his
life. From this sentence the
poet wants to convey that he
is alone. He predicts what
will happen after death. His
soul will find itself alone,
but he will not feel lonely,
merely a sense of solitude.
2 Personification And the stars shall The poet says that the night Connotative
look not down (line frowns down on the souls of meaning
12) the dead, and the stars
instigate them to retain their
umbilical cord-like
connection to the earth.
3 Simile With light like This shows that he finally Reflected
Hope to mortals has come to terms from meaning
given (line 14) being frustrated and
aggravated to a resignation
that death occurs as and
when it wants to, and it is
only a matter of time before
one has to give in to death.
4 Simile To thy weariness It means life filled with Social
shall seem, As a hopelessness is certainly not Meaning
111

burning and a fever desirable, we must concede


(Line 16-17) that hope is also the reason
people cling to their
sorrows, in the hope that
they may see their loved
ones again in the afterlife.
5 Simile No more -- like This sentence means that the Connotative
dew-drop from the spirit is no more pass as Meaning
grass: (line 22) easily as dew dripping from
grass. This shows that he
finally had come to terms
from being frustrated and
aggravated to a resignation
that death occurs as and
when it wants to.
6 Methapor Be silent in that The poet wants to compares Reflected
solitude, Which is his feeling and condition in meaning
not loneliness -- the silentness. But, it is not
for then (line 5-6) the loneliness for other
peope around him. He just
feels the loneliness by
himself, there is no one care
and understand his feeling.
7 Methapor The breeze -- the It shows that the poet tells if Connotative
breath of God -- is the breath of the God as meaning
still (line 23) calm as the breeze of the
wind. He believes if his life
is still exist, since he has a
faith to the God who give
him life.
8 Methapor Shadowy -- The death is represented by Reflected
shadowy -- yet shadowed yet tranquil. The Meaning
unbroken, Is a words mean how death is
112

symbolism and a everywhere and inevitable.


token (line 25-26) The death works very
mysteriously of the soul as
psyche. It can bee seen since
the poet says a symbol and
a token.
9 Paradox The spirits of the The dead is something Reflected
dead who stood scary, which is not someone meaning
(line 7) wanted. But figuratively,
this expression means The
spirits of the dead who lived
their lives are here. Death
surrounds him; the spirits
want him to be still.
10 Paradox From thy spirit From the words my soul, Social
shall they pass passing the poet describes Meaning
(line 21) how all of your thoughts
and ideas will never go
away. All of the parts of
your mind are stuck and will
never leave your spirit.
11 Metonymy From their high The word thrones can be Social
thrones in the inferred as the hope to Meaning
Heaven, (line 13) people from above Giving.
Therefore, the poet uses the
term thrones in its generic
definiton of streghth. This
the streght from the God
that give the hope.
12 Symbolism 'Mid dark thoughts The poet uses the phrase Collocative
of the grey tomb- grey tomb-stone to refer Meaning
stone (line 2) the grave or the death. But
the phrase dark thoughts
113

also implies that the soul is


symbolic of a persons
psyche, one who is obsessed
with his own mortality or
the death of someone close.
13 Symbolism And the mist upon The word mist is a symbol Connotative
the hill (line 24) for the veil between life and meaning
death, the two realms of
consciousness: waking
consciousness and the
subconscious. This words
means as hard as we try to
explore our subconscious
minds, we can never know
all that exists in that part of
the psyche.
14 Symbolism How it hangs upon This sentence shows how Reflected
the trees, A complicted his life fulling of Meaning
mystery of mystery. The poet uses the
mysteries! (line God imagery and leaves us
26-27) grasping for exactly what a
mystery of mysteries is. All
that is supposed to make
him less fearful of death.

The Meanings of Figurative Language in The Lake

Figurative
No Quote of Poem Meaning Types of
Language Meaning
1 Personification Of a wild lake, Figuratively, this phrasal Connotative
with black rock describes the lake as his meaning
bound (line 5) lonely and a miserable life.
Therefore, the phrase black
114

rock bound means how


hard his life fulling with
loneliness
2 Personification But when the Imagery was also used in Connotative
Night had thrown this poem with the line but meaning
her pall (line 7) when the night had thrown
her pall because it pictures
someone going pall when
something happens.
3 Personification And the mystic the word murmuring Connotative
wind went by (line means blow. This phrase meaning
9) means when the wind blows
a kinship with the Lake and
what it represents, which is
a solace and comfort.
4 Personification To the terror of the Literally, the word terror Connotative
lone lake. (line 12) personify the lake which meaning
can give the terror of
someone. Figuratively, this
phrasal describes the lake as
his extreme isolation and
loneliness.
5 Personification Death was in that this phrasal describes the Connotative
poisonous wave, wave as his life. It means Meaning
(line 18) the poet has a life full of
disasters, the next phrase
can be the stronger imagery
which describe his hard life.
The word death is also
personified as it is in a
wave.
6 Personification Whose solitary This way reveal how he Social
soul could make an finds solace in solitude Meaning
115

Eden (line 22) place and this place has


become his paradise which
able to successfully slowly
dying due to the extreme
isolation and loneliness.
7 Methapor In spring of youth The unstated comparison is Reflected
it was my lot (line between the poet's youth in Meaning
1) the season of spring with his
lot. This mean the poet tells
his life being terrible since
he was young.
8 Methapor Nor Love- although the phrase the love with Social
the Love were the word thine. The word Meaning
thine. (line 17) thine means yours. So it
can be concluded that the
purpose of the poet to use
this expression is to tell that
the love belongs to the
woman or his lover woman.
9 Methapor For him who The word him refers to the Social
thence could solace poet himself. Meanwhile the meaning
bring (line 20) word means the joyful or
happiness. This phrase
means that the poet
describes himself as
someone who can bring the
happiness in the future of
his lone imagination.
10 Paradox So lovely was the The word love means Connotative
loneliness (line 4) happiness, therefore it is Meaning
contrast with the word
loneliness which literally
means sadness. But
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figuratively it means that


the poet is not frightened.
Therefore, he thinks that the
death is the only solace for
those who are without hope.
11 Paradox Yet that terror was Literally, the terror is Reflected
not fright, (line 13) something which full of Meaning
frighten. But, figuratively in
this poem the terror
means that it is not fear. It is
regarded ad the peace of
isolation, along with the self
discovery that comes with it
(terrifying, but not that of
fear).
12 Metonymy An Eden of that The word Eden refers to Social
dim lake. (line 23) paradise. Meanwhile the Meaning
words Dim lake refers to
death that was in the wave
(the lake) and a grave for
him which would bring him
relief from his dark
thoughts. This place has
become his paradise, and to
die there, in peace, would be
the ideal place to die where
he can truely escape the
world.
13 Symbolism And in its gulf a The words gulf fitting Collocative
fitting grave (line grave means the best place meaning
19) as the way to reveal how he
finds solace in solitude. The
place which he can die
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there, in peace, would be the


ideal place to die.

The Meanings of Figurative Language in Evening Star

Figurative
No Quote of Poem Meaning Types of
Language Meaning
1 Personification On her cold smile Figuratively, this phrasal Connotative
(line 10) describes the smile of the meaning
woman that very cold. The
word cold means cruel
here.
2 Simile There pass'd, as a This sentence means the Social
shroud, (line 12) death pass as easily as a meaning
shroud. The poet wants to
convey the cold smile of the
woman compared by the
death and the shourd.
3 Methapor 'I was noontide of The poet wants to describe Collocative
summer (line 1) himself as the noontide of Meaning
summer. He is dreamy and
relaxed, it also describes
this is heavens, admire, and
proud evening star.
4 Methapor For joy to my heart This lines show how the Reflected
Is the proud part poet really love the woman. Meaning
(line 18-19) For him, the woman is
someone who make him
happy. Therefore his heart is
the proud part caused be
loved by her.
5 Hyperbole Herself in the The poet tells that the Connotative
Heavens, Her woman is in the heaven, but meaning
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beam on the waves. figuratively this sentence


(line 7-8)
means the woman has a big
part to control him.
6 Hyperbole Too cold- too cold From this sentence in the Connotative
for me- (line 11) line 11, the reader realizes meaning
that the moon (mentioned in
line 5), is a woman that
controls him because he is
her slave. The woman is too
cruel and detached for him.
7 Hyperbole Thou bearest in The poet illustrates the Social
Heaven at night woman as someone who Meaning
(line 20) comes from the paradise in
the night. In fact, the
woman is an ordinary
woman that does not come
from the heaven.
8 Paradox Thy distant fire, this lines describe how Social
Than that colder, gazing at the evening star Meaning
lowly light. makes him happy even
(line 220-23)
though it is so far away.
Though the moon's light is
brighter, the light of the star
is more powerful to him.
9 Symbolism Of the brighter, The moon - shining a cold, Connotative
cold moon, (line 5) white light upon the world meaning
is the symbolism for a
beauty with a stone heart. A
woman (probably) in the
port's life who has him. But
who is engrossed deep in
her own glamour and power
to pay him any heed - a
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helpless lover he stands.


10 Symbolism Proud Evening The poet uses the words Connotative
Star (line 15) evening star to represent a meaning
woman that he loves. The
symbol is a star. It stands for
beauty and love in this
poem because he admires
and loves them so much.
This symbol came from the
context of this poem.