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SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES is funded principally through a gran t o f th e
SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES is funded principally through a gran t o f th e

SPE DISTINGUISHED LECTURER SERIES

is funded principally through a grant of the

SPE FOUNDATION

The Society gratefully acknowledges those companies that support the program by allowing their professionals to participate as Lecturers.

And special thanks to The American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers (AIME) for their contribution to the program.

BP EXPLORATION Wellbore Quality Characterization for Drilling and Casing Ru nning in Challenging Wells Dr.
BP EXPLORATION Wellbore Quality Characterization for Drilling and Casing Ru nning in Challenging Wells Dr.

BP EXPLORATION

Wellbore Quality Characterization for Drilling and Casing Running in Challenging Wells

Dr. Colin Mason Senior Drilling Specialist Sunbury-on-Thames United Kingdom

Telephone:Telephone: +44+44 19321932 739518739518 Email:Email: masoncj@bp.commasoncj@bp.com

Lecture Overview

Lecture Overview IntroductionIntroduction DefinitionDefinition MeasuringMeasuring wellborewellbore qualityquality

IntroductionIntroduction DefinitionDefinition MeasuringMeasuring wellborewellbore qualityquality MManaganagiingng wewellbllboreore quaqualitlityy FieldField casecase studiesstudies ConclusionsConclusions

MM anaganag ii ngng wewe llbllboreore quaqualitlit yy FieldField casecase studiesstudies ConclusionsConclusions

Introduction

"Wellbore"Wellbore quality"quality" commoncommon oilfieldoilfield conceptconcept OftenOften associatedassociated withwith directionaldirectional drillindrillingg OftenOften linkedlinked withwith performanceperformance improvementsimprovements DiverseDiverse interinterppretationsretations forfor eacheach discidiscipplineline NoNo uniqueunique definitiondefinition existsexists NoNo provenproven methodmethod ofof measurementmeasurement existexist Context:Context: DrillingDrilling andand CompletionsCompletions

Wellbore Quality Parameters

Attribute

 

Influenced by

 

Tortuosity

 

Directional driller

 

Wellbore spiralling

Directional drilling BHA

 

Cuttings bed

 

Drilling practices

 

Ledging

 

Drilling practices / environment

Lost circulation

 

Drilling practices / environment

W

e

llb

ore

b

k

rea ou

t

M

u

d

i

we g

ht /

exposure

ti

me

Formation damage

Mud type / mud properties

Target hole size

 

Planning / Learning

 

Measurable

 

Chosen methodology

 

Definition Quality Wellbore

StraightStraight wellborewellbore – minimalminimal tortuositytortuosity andand minimalminimal holehole spirallingspiralling (micro(micro--tortuosity)tortuosity) RoundRound gaugegauge holehole – minimalminimal wellborewellbore break-break-out,out, nono wash-wash-outsouts andand holehole notnot undergaugeundergauge SmoothSmooth wellborewellbore – minimalminimal ledgingledging CleanClean holehole – minimalminimal residualresidual cuttingscuttings bedbed IntegrityIntegrity – nono leakage,leakage, nono formationformation damagedamage FitFit forfor purposepurpose – casingcasing oror logslogs willwill runrun toto depthdepth

Benefits Quality Wellbore

ImprovedImproved weightweight transfertransfer – betterbetter ROPROP GoodGood holehole cleanincleaningg –– ggauauggee holehole LowerLower vibrationvibration – constantconstant drillingdrilling parametersparameters TroubleTrouble--freefree tritrippss && casincasingg runsruns –– ggauauggee holehole BetterBetter loglog qualityquality – gauge,gauge, nonnon--spiralledspiralled holehole CompetentCompetent cementcement bondbond –– gaugegauge holehole ReducedReduced torquetorque andand dragdrag – lowlow tortuositytortuosity

Influences: Subsurface Environment

Geology influences wellbore quality

PorePore PressurePressure // FractureFracture GradientGradient GeothermalGeothermal GradientGradient FormationFormation TypesTypes RockRock StrengthStrength StressStress OrientationOrientation FracturesFractures // FaultingFaulting LifeLife ofof fieldfield issuesissues – depletiondepletion

FracturesFractures // FaultingFaulting Life Life of of field field issues issues – – depletiondepletion
M16 M11 M14 M15 M05 Influences: Wellbore Placement M09 M03 M02 M18 M06 M15z M01
M16
M11
M14
M15
M05
Influences: Wellbore Placement
M09
M03 M02
M18
M06
M15z
M01
F21
F19
M12
WellpathWellpath selectionselection
TortuositTortuosityy ((pplannedlanned versusversus actual)actual)
M08 F20
M
07
M17
M10
F18
0
M13
M04
5,000
10,000
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
Equivalent Departure (ft)
TVD BRT (ft)

Influences: Mud System

Influences: Mud S y stem In this application an OBM is needed to stabilise a shale

In this application an OBM is needed to stabilise a shale

Influences: Directional Drilling Tools

RRoottaarryy StSteeeerraablblee TTooooll

Tools RR oo tt aa rr yy StSt eeee rr aa blbl ee TT oooo ll

LongLong

gaugegauge

PDCPDC

bitbit

StSt eeee rr aa blbl ee TT oooo ll LongLong gaugegauge PDCPDC bitbit SteerableSteerable MotorMotor TriconeTricone

SteerableSteerable MotorMotor

StSt eeee rr aa blbl ee TT oooo ll LongLong gaugegauge PDCPDC bitbit SteerableSteerable MotorMotor TriconeTricone
StSt eeee rr aa blbl ee TT oooo ll LongLong gaugegauge PDCPDC bitbit SteerableSteerable MotorMotor TriconeTricone

TriconeTricone BitBit

Hole Spiralling – Introduction

Hole S p irallin g – Introduction HoleHole spirallingspiralling existsexists inin mostmost wellswells Pitch,Pitch,

HoleHole spirallingspiralling existsexists inin mostmost wellswells Pitch,Pitch, amplitude,amplitude, drift,drift, gaugegauge –– keykey parametersparameters NegativelyNegatively impactsimpacts drillingdrilling andand completioncompletion operationsoperations UsuallyUsually cancan bebe detecteddetected fromfrom logslogs EffEffececttss moremore pronouncepronouncedd iinn hhororiizonzonttaall // ERDERD wewellllss LongLong gaugegauge bitsbits –– tendtend toto helphelp reducereduce spirallingspiralling

// ERDERD wewe llll ss LongLong gaugegauge bitsbits – – tendtend toto helphelp reducereduce spirallingspiralling
// ERDERD wewe llll ss LongLong gaugegauge bitsbits – – tendtend toto helphelp reducereduce spirallingspiralling
// ERDERD wewe llll ss LongLong gaugegauge bitsbits – – tendtend toto helphelp reducereduce spirallingspiralling

Hole Spiralling – Imaging

Hole S p irallin g – Imaging
Hole S p irallin g – Imaging
Hole S p irallin g – Imaging

Hole Spiralling – Image Log

Image Log shows Spiral Hole from PDM and RSS (Cannot be seen in Survey)
Image Log
shows
Spiral
Hole from
PDM and
RSS
(Cannot be
seen in
Survey)

Limitation of MWD Survey Tools

Limitation of MWD Surve y Tools MWD survey tool crosses the trough or valley of a

MWD survey tool crosses the trough or valley of a spiral hole. Inclination and direction of the drift is being measured. This effect is called “micro-tortuosity”

Problems associated with a S iralled Hole

p

Problems associated with a S iralled Hole p Reduced Drift Higher friction forces , higher T&D

Reduced Drift Higher friction forces, higher T&D Lower ROP, poor weight transfer Casing hangs up Ambiguous log response

weight transfer Casin g hang s up Ambiguous log response Unstable bit Higher vibration More tool

Unstable bit Higher vibration More tool failures Shortened bit life More trips

Cuttings Bed Traps Poor hole cleaning Backreaming and short trips Stuck pipe Poor cement job

S p

irallin

g

results from Unstable Bit

Confined by high-side troughs

Confined by low-side peaks
Confined by
low-side
peaks

HowHow SpirallingSpiralling isis CreatedCreated

Measuring Wellbore Quality

ExplicitExplicit methodsmethods – physicalphysical measurementsmeasurements

–– individualindividual measuresmeasures possiblepossible – difficultdifficult toto interpretinterpret inin termsterms ofof wellborewellbore qualityquality –– specificspecific examplesexamples illustratedillustrated

ImplicitImplicit methodsmethods indirectindirect measurementsmeasurements

–– measuremeasure responsesresponses toto wellborewellbore qualityquality – IllustratedIllustrated byby analogyanalogy andand applicationsapplications

Measuring Wellbore Quality

ExplicitExplicit MethodsMethods

DriftDrift –– calipercaliper logslogs SurfaceSurface finishfinish inferredinferred fromfrom imageimage logslogs MicroMicro--tortuositytortuosity // spirallingspiralling –– pitchpitch,, amplitudeamplitude TortuosityTortuosity // doglegsdoglegs –– statisticalstatistical analysisanalysis PPseuseuddoo measuremeasure –– didirecrectitionaonall diffidifficucultltyy iinnddexex

Caliper Logs – Drilling vs. Trip-Out 12 Colville HRZ Kuparuk Kuparuk C Miluveach Kingak 11.5
Caliper Logs – Drilling vs. Trip-Out
12
Colville
HRZ
Kuparuk
Kuparuk C
Miluveach
Kingak
11.5
Colville
11
10.5
10
9.5
9
8.5
8
Caliper during Drilling
Caliper during Trip-Out
7.5
7
16,000
16,500
17,000
17,500
18,000
18,500
19,000
Diamet er (ins.)

Measured Depth (ft)

Measuring Wellbore Quality

ImplicitImplicit MethodsMethods

RequireRequire aa methodologymethodology // philosophyphilosophy IdentifyIdentify appropriateappropriate responseresponse variablevariable InformationInformation toto characterizecharacterize responsesresponses AnalysisAnalysis andand interpretationinterpretation SScorcoriingng // ranrankikingng processprocess

AnalysisAnalysis andand interpretationinterpretation SS corcor ii ngng // ranran kiki ngng processprocess
AnalysisAnalysis andand interpretationinterpretation SS corcor ii ngng // ranran kiki ngng processprocess
AnalysisAnalysis andand interpretationinterpretation SS corcor ii ngng // ranran kiki ngng processprocess
AnalysisAnalysis andand interpretationinterpretation SS corcor ii ngng // ranran kiki ngng processprocess

Head Trauma Injury Assessment

ScenarioScenario

PatientPatient arrivesarrives atat EmergencyEmergency RoomRoom AAppapparreentnt HHeaeadd InInjujurryy ImmediateImmediate assessmentassessment ofof brainbrain functionfunction neededneeded NoNo immediateimmediate visualvisual assessmentassessment ppossibleossible – nono usefuluseful explicitexplicit measuremeasure HowHow doesdoes thethe physicianphysician carrycarry outout thethe evaluation?evaluation? ResponsesResponses toto stimulistimuli areare carriedcarried outout – implicitimplicit measuresmeasures

Head Trauma Injury Assessment

Head Trauma Injur y Assessment GCSGCS ≥≥ 1313 MildMild BrainBrain InjuryInjury 99 ≤≤ GCSGCS ≤≤ 1212

GCSGCS ≥≥ 1313 MildMild BrainBrain InjuryInjury 99 ≤≤ GCSGCS ≤≤ 1212 ModerateModerate BrainBrain InjuryInjury 33 ≤≤ GCSGCS ≤≤ 88 SevereSevere BrainBrain InjuryInjury

GCSGCS ≤≤ 88 SevereSevere BrainBrain InjuryInjury ThreeThree responsesresponses determinedetermine

ThreeThree responsesresponses determinedetermine overalloverall severityseverity ofof headhead traumatrauma

determinedetermine overalloverall severityseverity ofof headhead traumatrauma GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale
determinedetermine overalloverall severityseverity ofof headhead traumatrauma GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale

GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale

The Wellbore Quality Scorecard (WQS)

MethodologyMethodology

TechniqueTechnique basedbased onon headhead traumatrauma assessmentassessment WellboreWellbore qualityquality inferredinferred fromfrom responseresponse variablesvariables –– drilling,drilling, tripping-tripping-outout andand casingcasing runningrunning PrimaryPrimary responseresponse variablesvariables areare T&DT&D parametersparameters SurfaceSurface logginglogging datadata usedused toto characterizecharacterize responsesresponses TrendTrend analysisanalysis principalprincipal evaluationevaluation tooltool ExtentExtent andand intensityintensity ofof datadata variationsvariations evaluatedevaluated

Example – Torque Trend Data 35 N arrow Very low open hole friction factor bandwidth
Example – Torque Trend Data
35
N
arrow
Very low open hole friction factor
bandwidth
30
indicative of good drilling practices
also OBM used so good lubricity
hole quality considered excellent
25
20
15
FF = 0.17/0.11
Surface Torque
10
Bit Torque
5
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
Measured Depth (m)
Torque
(kft.lb)

Wellbore Quality Scorecard – Guidelines

 

Casing Running Response (8 points)

Score

Drilling Response (5 points)

Score

Severe casing running problems

 
   

Severe drilling problems

- stuck pipe

- near stuck pipe incident

0

1

- stuck casing

0

- casing pulled due to downhole problems

0

Differential sticking environment

 

Transient drilling problems

 

- static friction > 100 klbs on connections

1

- poor hole cleaning with high cuttings bed

2

- static friction > 50 klbs on connections

2

- severe pack-off

2

Intervention needed during casing run

 

- severe loss circulation

2

- erratic torque and drag response

3

- unplanned rotation needed

3

- unplanned circulation needed

4

   

T

orque an

d d

rag response

- joints wiped to reduce drag

5

- all parameters follow smooth trend - lower than expected torque and drag

4

   

5

Casing run without significant problems

   

- elevated but smooth drag levels

6

Final Trip-out Response (7 points)

Score

- achieved expected drag levels

7

Stuck pipe

 

0

- better than expected drag levels

8

Residual cuttings bed / differential sticking

 

Transient tripping-out problems

 

- section length with overpulls > 100 klbs

1

- loss circulation

5

- section length with overpulls > 50 klbs

2

- unplanned circulation

5

- unplanned reaming and back-reaming

5

Ledges

 

Drag response

 

- isolated overpulls > 100 klbs

3

- smooth drag levels measured throughout

6

- isolated overpulls > 50 klbs

4

- better than expected drag levels recorded

7

Wellbore Quality Scores Interpretation

WQSWQS isis recordedrecorded asas aa resrespponseonse mnemonicmnemonic

–– D4T5C5D4T5C5 (Drilling(Drilling 4;4; Tripping-Tripping-outout 5;5; CasingCasing RunningRunning 5)5)

WQSWQS == sumsum ofof eacheach responseresponse scorescore

0 < WQS 2

stuck pipe or stuck casing

2 < WQS 6

low quality wellbore

6 < WQS 10

medium wellbore quality

10

< WQS 14

high wellbore quality

14

< WQS < 20

excellent wellbore quality

 

WQS = 20

“The Perfect Wellbore!”

Case Study Horizontal Well Norway

26” conductor SizeSize WeightWeight GradeGrade ConnectionConnection TopTop BottomBottom BottomBottom @ 486m
26” conductor
SizeSize
WeightWeight
GradeGrade
ConnectionConnection
TopTop
BottomBottom
BottomBottom
@ 486m
insins
ppfppf
TypeType
TVDTVD RKBRKB
TVDTVD RKBRKB
MDMD RKBRKB
26"26"
267267
XX--6565
XLCXLC--SS
SurfaceSurface
478478 mm
478478 mm
1313--3/8"3/8"
7272
PP--110110
DinoDino VamVam
SurfaceSurface
14431443
mm
15211521
mm
13-3/8” shoe
99--5/85/8""
5353 55
PP--110110
NewNew VamVam
SurfaceSurface
26542654
mm
32003200
mm
@
1,521m
5½"5½"
32.632.6
QQ--125125
VamVam TopTop
25542554 mm MDMD
25162516
mm
53985398
mm
5½” TOL
Drill 2,198m 8½” horizontal section
@ 2,554m
Run 2 844m 5½” thick wall liner
,
9-5/8" shoe
@ 3,200m
5½” shoe
@ 5,398m
String RPM Case Study – Drilling Response (D3) 50 1,000 Erratic Torque Response 45 900
String
RPM
Case Study – Drilling Response (D3)
50
1,000
Erratic Torque Response
45
900
Vibration problems in chalk reservoir
BHA 8: RSS + PDC Bit
BHA 9: RSS + PDC Bit
40
800
FF=0.20/0.15
String RPM
35
700
30
600
25
500
20
400
15
300
10
200
5
100
0
0
3,100
3,300
3,500
3,700
3,900
4,100
4,300
4,500
4,700
4,900
5,100
5,300
5,500
Surface T orque (kNm)

Measured Depth (m)

Hooklo ad (tonnes) / Surface Torq ue (kNm)

Case Stud

Tri

in -out Res onse (T2)

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

0

BHA 9: Hookload

BHA 9: Surface Torque

Pick-Up: FF=0.15/0.20

Mud Type: OBM Weight = 1.50 SG PV = 36 cP YP = 21 lbf/100ft²

500

1,000

y

pp

g

p

 

9-5/8" Shoe

TD @

@ 3,200m

5,398m

 
 

Elevated Drag

Elevated Drag

 

4,400-4,600m

5,200-5,400m

 
 

R

i

eam ng

/B

ac -ream ng

k

i

needed to reduce drag

 

1,500

2,000

2,500

3,000

3,500

4,000

4,500

5,000

5,500

Measured Depth (m)

Case Study – Liner Running Response (C3) 250 9-5/8" Shoe Liner Shoe @ 3,200m @
Case Study – Liner Running Response (C3)
250
9-5/8" Shoe
Liner Shoe
@ 3,200m
@ 5,398m
SS
evereevere
SliSli
pp ss
titi
cc
kk
ee
ffff
ecec
tt
8¼" Reamer Shoe
67m
5"
18.0# Q125 H-125 Liner
whenwhen runningrunning linerliner
453m
5"
26.7# Q125 Vam Top HT
200
2,252m
5½" 32.6# Q125 Vam Top HT
69m
7"
32.0# P110 Vam Top HT
2,557m
5½" 26.4# DP 5½" FH
Mud Type: OBM
Weight = 1.50 SG
PV = 35 cP
YP = 19 lbf/100ft²
150
Surface Torque
Hookload
Slack-Off: FF=0.12/0.45
100
50
8¼" solid centraliser on 5" casing
8"
solid centraliser on 5½" casing
8¼" solid centraliser on 7" casing
0
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
5,500
Ho okload (tonn es) / Torque (k Nm)

Measured Depth (m)

Completed Wellbore Quality Scorecard

HorizontalHorizontal WellWell OffshoreOffshore NorwayNorway

WQSWQS

DrillingDrilling ResponseResponse (max(max 55 points)points) PersistentPersistent erraticerratic torquetorque responseresponse observed.observed. ObservObservationation isis indicativeindicative ofof vibrationvibration problemsproblems typicallytypically seenseen inin thethe chalkchalk reservoir.reservoir. VibratiVibrationsons areare consideredconsidered aa transienttransient problemproblem andand shouldshould notnot sisiggnificantlnificantlyy imimppactact overalloverall wellborewellbore qqualitualityy AverageAverage rotaryrotary frictionfriction factorsfactors ofof 0.20/0.150.20/0.15 areare typicaltypical ofof fieldfield--widewide torquetorque behaviour.behaviour.

33

FinalFinal TripTrip--outout OfOf HoleHole ResponseResponse (max(max 77 points)points) ElevatedElevated dragdrag levelslevels inin excessexcess ofof 50klbs50klbs areare obsobservederved fromfrom 4,3004,300 toto 4,600m4,600m andand fromfrom 5,2005,200 toto 55,,400m400m indicatinindicatingg aa ppossibleossible holehole cleanincleaningg pproblem.roblem. OverOverppullsulls alsoalso occuroccur atat chalkchalk // shaleshale transitiontransition zones.zones. AA formform ofof slipslip--stickstick axialaxial dragdrag isis alsoalso presentpresent whenwhen tripping-tripping-outout throughthrough thethe openopen holehole section.section. AverageAverage pick-pick-upup frictionfriction factorsfactors ofof 0.15/0.200.15/0.20 areare typicaltypical ofof fieldfield--widewide experience.experience.

22

LinerLiner RunningRunning ResponseResponse (max(max 88 points)points) LinerLiner runningrunning inin openopen holehole isis farfar fromfrom smooth;smooth; significantsignificant axialaxial slip-slip-stickstick eventsevents observedobserved whichwhich increaseincrease inin intensityintensity withwith depth.depth. StringString hashas toto bebe workedworked significantlysignificantly overover lastlast 600m.600m. StringString alsoalso hadhad toto bebe torquedtorqued toto overcomeovercome tighttight spotsspots // ledges.ledges. SlackSlack--offoff frictionfriction factorsfactors ofof 0.12/0.450.12/0.45 areare inin lineline withwith fieldfield--widewide experience.experience.

33

WQSWQS (D3T2C3)(D3T2C3) AA scorescore ofof 88 correspondscorresponds toto aa mediummedium qualityquality wellbore.wellbore.

88

THE PERF ECT WELLBORE !

Cost

Well

Cost vs. Wellbore Quality Relationship

Field data suggests

Low WQS very high D&C costs

Too high WQS higher D&C costs

Optimum WQS lowest D&C costs

 

Train

Low

Medium

High

Excellent

 

Wreck

 

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20

WQS

Wellbore Quality Scorecard

LearningsLearnings

AA lowlow WQSWQS doesdoes notnot alwaysalways equateequate toto poorpoor performanceperformance AA llowow WQSWQS cancan bbee ddueue ttoo ddegreeegree ooff diffidifficucultltyy ooff ddrrilliillingng andand casingcasing runningrunning inin thatthat fieldfield PoorlPoorlyy desidesiggnedned casincasingg runrun cancan resultresult inin failurefailure ImplicationsImplications ofof scoringscoring wellborewellbore qualityquality needneed toto bebe understoodunderstood byby operatorsoperators // serviceservice companiescompanies WellboreWellbore QualityQuality hashas toto bebe managedmanaged atat fieldfield levellevel NeedNeed toto understandunderstand CostCost vs.vs. WellboreWellbore QualityQuality relationshiprelationship

Managing Wellbore Quality

DrillingDrilling PracticesPractices

OperatingOperating ParametersParameters (WOB,(WOB, RPM,RPM, FlowFlow Rate)Rate) ConnectionConnection practicespractices HoleHole cleaningcleaning practicespractices MudMud weightweight managementmanagement ManagingManaging packpack--offsoffs VibrationVibration managementmanagement ECDECD managementmanagement

Managing Wellbore Quality

TrippingTripping // CasingCasing RunningRunning PracticesPractices

SurgeSurge andand SwabSwab PressurePressure CyclesCycles

– cancan resultresult inin rockrock fatiguefatigue

ManaManagginingg DownholeDownhole ProblemsProblems

– cuttingscuttings bed,bed, ledging,ledging, packpack--offs,offs, overpullsoverpulls

CirculationCirculation LossesLosses

– especiallyespecially duringduring casingcasing runningrunning

Enhancing Wellbore Quality

EmergingEmerging TechnologiesTechnologies

ContinuousContinuous CirculationCirculation SystemSystem

– reducesreduces swabswab andand surgesurge cyclescycles inin wellwell

ECDECD ReductionReduction

– reducesreduces downholedownhole annularannular pressurespressures

FractureFracture GradientGradient EnhancementEnhancement

– strengthensstrengthens wellborewellbore byby formingforming stressstress cagecage

EnhancementEnhancement – – strengthensstrengthens wellborewellbore byby formingforming stressstress cagecage
EnhancementEnhancement – – strengthensstrengthens wellborewellbore byby formingforming stressstress cagecage
EnhancementEnhancement – – strengthensstrengthens wellborewellbore byby formingforming stressstress cagecage

Wellbore Quality Characterization

ConclusionsConclusions

CharacterizationCharacterization importantimportant conceptconcept CanCan reflectreflect degreedegree ofof difficultydifficulty MostMost valuevalue forfor horizontalhorizontal andand ERDERD wellswells IndustryIndustry standardstandard definitiondefinition neededneeded MeasurementMeasurement protocolprotocol biggestbiggest challengechallenge WellboreWellbore qualityquality scorecardscorecard promisingpromising techniquetechnique SoftwareSoftware needed:needed: efficiency,efficiency, clarityclarity && consistencyconsistency WellboreWellbore qualityquality enhancingenhancing technologytechnology existsexists

Additional Slides

Hole Spiralling – Inferred from Logs

Hole S p irallin g – Inferred from Lo g s LogLog Evidence:Evidence: CaliperCaliper vs.vs. NeutronNeutron

LogLog Evidence:Evidence: CaliperCaliper vs.vs. NeutronNeutron PorosityPorosity vs.vs. SonicSonic DTDT

Image Log Section

Ima g e Lo g – 8½ ” Section

Image Logs – 6-1/8Hole Spiralling

Ima g e Lo g s – 6- 1/8 ” Hole S p irallin g

Image Logs – 6-1/8Hole Spiralling

Ima g e Lo g s – 6- 1/8 ” Hole S p irallin g

Wellbore Quality vs. Tubing Life

Wellbore Quality vs . Tubin g Life SlantSlant drillindrillin gg CanadaCanada HeavyHeavy OilOil ReservoirReservoir

SlantSlant drillindrillingg CanadaCanada HeavyHeavy OilOil ReservoirReservoir PadPad DrillingDrilling 600m600m TVDTVD

drillindrillin gg CanadaCanada HeavyHeavy OilOil ReservoirReservoir PadPad DrillingDrilling 600m600m TVDTVD

Canada High DLS Slant Well

Canada – Hi g h DLS Slant Well Tubing Wear vs. DLS/hole angle for high-DLS well

Tubing Wear vs. DLS/hole angle for high-DLS well Well on production for 2½ months before failure

Canada Low DLS Slant Well

Canada – Low DLS Slant Well Tubing Wear vs. DLS/hole angle for low-DLS well Well on

Tubing Wear vs. DLS/hole angle for low-DLS well Well on production for 21 months before failure

String RPM Drilling 12¼” Section – Azerbaijan Well 45 900 Surface Torque - BHA 7
String
RPM
Drilling 12¼” Section – Azerbaijan Well
45
900
Surface Torque - BHA 7
Mud Type: SOBM
Surface Torque - BHA 6
40
Weight = 1.60 SG
PV = 40 cP
YP = 29 lbf/100ft²
800
On-Bottom: FF=0.25/0.30
Off-Bottom: FF=0.25/0.30
35
700
Surface RPM
30
WOB = 20 klbs
Bit Torque = 5 kft.lb
Flow Rate = 1,000 GPM
600
25
500
20
400
15
300
10
200
5
100
0
0
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
Surface T orque (kft.lb)

Measured Depth (m)

Tripping-out 12¼” Hole – Azerbaijan Well 500
Tripping-out 12¼” Hole – Azerbaijan Well
500
450 Hookload Pick-Up: FF=0.20/0.20 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Hookl oad (klbs)
450
Hookload
Pick-Up: FF=0.20/0.20
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
Hookl oad (klbs)
0 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000 Measured Depth (m)
0
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
Measured Depth (m)
Block Velo city (m/s) Running 9-5/8” Casing – Azerbaijan Well 800 8 13-3/8" Shoe 12-1/4"
Block Velo city (m/s)
Running 9-5/8” Casing – Azerbaijan Well
800
8
13-3/8" Shoe
12-1/4" TD
@ 1,560m
@ 4,415m
700
7
Hookload
Static Up Drag
600
Static Down Drag
Pick-Up Trend
6
Slack-Off Trend
Slack-Off: FF=0.20/0.30
500
Block Velocity
5
400
4
Mud Type: SOBM
Weight = 1.60 SG
PV = 37 cP
300
YP = 26 lbf/100ft²
3
200
2
100
1
0
0
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
4,500
5,000
Hooklo ad (klbs)

Measured Depth (m)

WQS Azerbaijan Well

WQS – Azerbaijan Well
M16 M11 M14 M15 M05 WQS: Wytch Farm ERD Wells M09 2M0 M03 M18 M15z
M16
M11
M14
M15
M05
WQS: Wytch Farm ERD Wells
M09
2M0
M03
M18
M15z M06
0
M01
F21
F19
M12
M08 F20
M07
M17
M10
5,000
F18
M13
M04
10,000
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
Equivalent Departure (ft)
TVD BRT (ft )
Wytch Farm – Torques 12¼” Section 40
Wytch Farm – Torques 12¼” Section
40
35 M05 30 M09 M11 M14 25 M16 20 15 10 5 Surface T orque
35
M05
30
M09
M11
M14
25
M16
20
15
10
5
Surface T orque (kft.lb)
0 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 Measured Depth (m)
0
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
Measured Depth (m)
Wytch Farm – 9-5/8” Casing Runs 60 M09 40 M11 M14 20 M16 0 -20
Wytch Farm – 9-5/8” Casing Runs
60
M09
40
M11
M14
20
M16
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
Measured Depth (m)
String W eight (klbs)

Wytch Farm ERD Wells WQS Summary

W y tch Farm ERD Wells – WQS Summary C ommen ts on hi gh WQS

Comments on high WQS

Good learning curve

Continuous ERD drilling program