Sunteți pe pagina 1din 9

Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr.

2/2010

METODE INTERACTIVE UTILIZATE N INTERACTIVE METHODS USED IN


NVMNTUL PRIMAR PRIMARY EDUCATION

Cristina TOMESCU Cristina TOMESCU


Colegiul Naional Tudor Vladimirescu, National College Tudor Vladimirescu,
Trgu-Jiu Trgu-Jiu

Capul unui om talentat este ca o sal iluminat cu The head of a talented man is like a lit room
perei i oglinzi. Din afar vin ideile ntr-adevr reci i with walls and mirrors. From outside come ideas
indiferente, dar ce societate, dar ce petrecere gsesc. really cold and indifferent, but what a company,
what a party they find.
Mihai Eminescu Mihai
Eminescu

Rezumat: Rdcinile nvturii sunt amare, dar Abstract: Teaching roots are bitter, but its
fructele ei sunt dulci. Proverbul aduce n discuie gustul pe fruit is sweet. "Moot saying" taste "that learning
care procesul de nvare l poate avea. Utilizarea metodelor can play. Using interactive teaching- learning
interactive de predare nvare n activitatea didactic methods contribute to improving the quality of
contribuie la mbuntirea calitii procesului instructiv - training process and education, with an active
educativ, avnd un caracter activ participativ i o real character - and a real participatory asset value -
valoare activ formativ asupra personalitii elevului. the format on the student's personality.

Cuvinte cheie: metod, predare, nvare activ Keywords: method, teaching, active learning

coala contribuie tot mai mult la modelarea School increasingly contribute to


personalitii i la cultivarea trsturilor ei. n shaping personality traits and to cultivate
ntreaga oper de formare a omului nou, a them. The entire work of training the new
personalitii sale , un rol important , uneori chiar man, his personality an important role,
decisiv, l au primii ani de coal. sometimes even decisive, they have
colii primare i revine sarcina de a forma kindergarten.
primele deprinderi de munc intelectual. De Primary school has the burden of work
aceea, este necesar ca nvtorul s fie preocupat as the first intellectual skills. It is
n permanen de perfecionarea metodelor i therefore necessary that the teacher is
procedeelor de predare nvare, a stilului de always concerned with improving the
munc n general, pentru optimizare a procesului methods and processes of teaching and
instructiv educativ. learning style of work in general, to
Cadrul didactic trebuie s fie animat de o optimize the training process -
puternic receptivitate fa de tot ce este nou i educational.
important n specialitatea sa i n pedagogie, iar n The teacher must be animated by a
practic s dovedeasc un efort continuu spre strong receptivity to everything new and
autodepire, pentru a face fa sarcinilor pe care le important in his specialty in pedagogy
ridic nvmntul. and in practice to prove a continuing
Rdcinile nvturii sunt amare,dar fructele effort to strive to meet the higher burden
ei sunt dulci. Proverbul aduce n discuie gustul placed on them.
pe care procesul de nvare l poate avea. Teaching roots are bitter, but its fruits

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
53
Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2010

Utilizarea metodelor interactive de predare are sweet. Using interactive teaching


nvare n activitatea didactic contribuie la methods - teaching learning contribute
mbuntirea calitii procesului instructiv - to improving the quality of training
educativ, avnd un caracter activ participativ i o process - education, with an active
real valoare activ formativ asupra personalitii character - and a real participatory asset
elevului. value - the format on the student's
personality.
BRAINSTORMING
BRAINSTORMING
Brainstorming-ul este o metod de stimulare a
creativitii i imaginaiei elevilor, dar i de Brainstorming is a method of
formare a unor trsturi de personalitate stimulating creativity and imagination of
(spontaneitate, altruism etc.). Se realizeaz prin students, but also training of personality
formularea a ct mai multor idei, ca rspuns la o traits. Is done by issuing as many ideas in
situaie enunat de profesor sau un elev, dup response to a statement put forward by
principiul cantitatea genereaz calitatea. the teacher or a student, after the
Un moment de brainstorming se poate crea n "quantity creates quality.
orice etap a leciei i poate s se desfoare de la 5 A moment of brainstorming can be
minute pn la ntreaga or (50 minute). Pentru created at any stage of the lesson and can
desfurarea optim a unui brainstorming, se take place from 5 minutes up to full
impune respectarea unor reguli, enunate de liderul hours. For the proper conduct of a
grupului (profesorul, elevul) chiar de la nceputul brainstorm, to enforce compliance with
activitii: rules, set by the group leader.
solicitarea de exprimare a ideilor rapid n fraze, -request for expression of ideas
propoziii sau cuvinte scurte i concrete fr quickly in phrases, sentences or short
cenzur words and concrete without censorship,
sunt interzise aprecierile critice, ironiile, - Critical assessments are prohibited,
contradiciile, orice manifestare de acest gen the ironies, contradictions, any event of
care inhib imaginaia participanilor this type which inhibit the imagination of
sunt ncurajate asociaiile neobinuite de idei, participants,
combinrile i ameliorrile soluiilor propuse - are encouraged unusual associations
de ceilali of ideas, combinations and other
imaginaia trebuie s fie liber, exprimndu-se improvements proposed solutions,
orice idee i vin elevului n minte, care este - imagination must be free, be
acceptat fr cenzur expressing any idea in mind the fit
toi elevii trebuie s comunice o idee student who is accepted without
censorship,
Metoda se parcurge prin derularea urmtoarelor - All students must communicate an
etape: idea.
The method is run through the
1. Alegerea temei/problemei i prezentarea ei following steps:
- liderul (profesorul sau un elev) va comunica 1. Choosing the theme / problem and
tema pus n discuie i va prezenta/reaminti its presentation.
regulile - Leader (teacher or student) will
-subiectul brainstorming-ului se poate formula communicate the topic under discussion
prin diferite noiuni sau concepte, prin ntrebri and present / recall rules,
(Ce tii despre...?, Ce ai face dac ai fi...?, Ce - brainstorm the topic may be brought
ai propune...?, Cum s-ar putea realiza...?, Cum by different notions or concepts, the

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
54
Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2010

explicai...?, Ce ntrebri ai pune...? etc.), prin questions (What do you know about ...?,
prezentarea unor imagini, a unui film (metoda What would you do if you have ...?, ...?,
poate s precead dezbaterea lor). What you propose?
2. Generating ideas.
2. Generarea ideilor -All students will communicate
-toi elevii i vor comunica ideile, dup ideas, according to the rules laid
regulile enunate, fr nici o cenzur down, without any censorship,
- toate ideile vor fi scrise pe tabl sau flipchart - All ideas will be written on the
n ordinea emis de participani board or flip chart in the order issued
- etapa se ncheie cnd toi participanii i-au by participants,
exprimat cel puin o idee -Phase ends when all participants
have expressed at least an idea.
3. Evaluarea calitii ideilor 3. Quality assessment ideas.
- reluarea ideilor pe rnd i gruparea lor pe -Replay ideas and turn them on
diferite criterii various criteria group,
- analiza critic, argumentarea, - critical analysis, argument,
contraargumentarea ideilor emise anterior, la counter-ideas previously issued to the
nivelul ntregii clase sau al unor grupuri mai whole class or smaller groups.
mici 4. Selecting the most important ideas
-Freely discuss the original
4. Selectarea celor mai importante idei solutions.
- se discut liber soluiile originale i fezabile 5. Display ideas results in forms as
varied and original.
5. Afiarea ideilor rezultate n forme ct mai
variate i originale
METHOD KNOW/ I WANT TO
METODA TIU / VREAU S TIU / AM KNOW / I FOUND
AFLAT
Metoda tiu/Vreau s tiu/Am aflat-este o The method I know / I want to know / I
metod ce urmrete contientizarea elevilor n found out is a method that seeks student
legtur cu propria awareness about their own business
lor activitate de cunoatere , respectiv knowledge.
stimularea abilitilor metacognitive i a Place these questions:
gndirii critice. How can I use this information?
Gndirea critic nu este o materie de What significance has this information
studiu , ci un produs , este un nivel la care for me?
ajunge gndirea noastr n momentul n care How do I connect this knowledge of what
gndim critic din obinuin ca modalitate we knew before?
fireasc de interaciune cu ideile i informaiile pe What I think about that?
care le descoperim. n acelai timp este un proces
care are loc atunci cnd cel ce nva i pune
ntrebri de genul:
-Ce semnificaie au aceste informaii pentru mine
?
-,,Cum pot s folosesc aceste informaii?
-,,Cum pot lega aceste cunostine de ceea ce tiam
dinainte?
-Care ar fi consecinele aplicrii acestor idei ,

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
55
Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2010

pentru mine i pentru ceilali (dac se lucreaz n


grup)?
- ,,Ce cred eu despre asta?
-, ,Ce anume pot face n alt fel acum, cnd dein
aceste informaii?
- ,,Cum sunt afectate convingerile mele de aceste
idei?

TIU VREAU S TIU AM NVAT

KNOW I WANT TO KNOW I FOUND

CIORCHINELE CLUSTERS
Este o metod de brainstorming neliniar
care stimuleaz gndirea critic, conexiunile dintre Brainstorming is a linear method that
idei, crearea unei structuri grafice, a unor clasificri stimulates critical thinking, connections
i corelri de cunotine, utiliznd informaii dintr- between ideas, create a graphical
o surs analizat. Este o metod grafic antrenant structure, classification and correlation
ce poate fi utilizat pentru reinerea informaiei of knowledge. It can be used in learning
dintr-un text, dar i pentru observarea i activities, setting the knowledge and
comentarea unei imagini sau film. Se poate folosi summative assessment. As ideas come,
n activitile de nvare, de fixare a cunotinelor they form "branches" that are passed in
i la evaluarea sumativ a uneia sau a mai multor smaller circles side by lines linked to the
uniti de nvare. ntr-un cerc, n mijlocul unei main topic. A topic may have many
foi/plane/tabl se scrie un cuvnt, o sintagm care branches and numerous branch branch.
s reprezinte subiectul. Pe msur ce vin ideile, se
formeaz ramuri care se trec n cercuri mai mici Realization steps of the method:
pe lateral, legate de subiectul principal prin linii. determining the way work;
Aceste subiecte-ramur pot avea, la rndul, write a word to be searched in the
subiecte-mldie. Un subiect poate avea middle of the road;
numeroase ramuri, iar o ramur numeroase method can be used brainstorm for
mldie. five minutes;
Etapele de realizare ale metodei: read text / document;
6. stabilirea modalitii de lucru: individual, pe individually record ideas,
grupe de 4-5-6 elevi sau cu ntreaga clas expressions, knowledge that students
7. se scrie un cuvnt/tem/sintagm ce urmeaz a come to mind in connection with the
fi cercetat n mijlocul foii, planei sau tablei proposed theme around the central word,
8. se poate utiliza metoda brainstorming-ului dragging the lines between it and the
timp de 5 minute information noted
9. se citete textul/documentul, se observ exchange of ideas - along with

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
56
Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2010

imaginea ntr-un timp propus (15 20 minute) fellow bank;


10. se noteaz individual ideile, sintagmele, final products are displayed;
cunotinele care le vin n minte elevilor n group rapporteur presented the
legtur cu tema propus n jurul cuvntului product and answer questions,
central, trgndu-se linii ntre acesta i self-evaluation and assessment is
informaiile notate made for each product.
11. schimbul de idei mpreun cu colegul de If the method is not used by groups, but
banc, apoi n grup, elevul discut i involved the whole class, then clusters
completeaz ciorchinele individual will be carried on board or flip chart, and
12. se realizeaz un produs al grupei sau al clasei, in this situation:
un afi pe coal mare, fiecare grup folosete - Follow steps 1-5, stopping work when
alt culoare de scris stabilit la nceput i se they have exhausted all ideas, within the
fixeaz timpul de lucru (10 minute) time advertised,
13. produsele finale se afieaz i se realizeaz - Finally, clusters will rearrange,
turul galeriei using concepts .
14. raportorul grupei prezint produsul i rspunde
ntrebrilor The final products can be
15. se face autoevaluarea i evaluarea pentru displayed in class. Clusters "can be
fiecare produs n parte, dup criterii dinainte used successfully to all classes, the
stabilite i cunoscute de elevi. complexity of its features are
Dac metoda nu se utilizeaz pe grupe, ci organized according to age of pupils.
este implicat ntreaga clas, atunci ciorchinele se
va realiza pe tabl sau flipchart, i n aceast Class IInd:
situaie: Subject: Environmental Knowledge
- se urmeaz paii 1-5, activitatea oprindu-se cnd Topic: Pets (recapitulation)
s-au epuizat toate ideile, n limita de timp -Students are divided into groups of six
anunat students.
- n final, ciorchinele se va reorganiza, utilizndu- -Each team receives one sheet, which is
se conceptele, ideile fezabile, elevii notndu-i n written in its center.
caiete forma definitiv a ciorchinelui. -Students arrows drawn on the sheet in
Produsele finale pot rmne afiate n that oval writing animals belonging to
clas, iar cele individuale se vor pstra n that category.
Portofoliul elevului. Ciorchinele se poate utiliza -Once students have completed the
cu succes la toate clasele, gradul de complexitate al schedule board and have come to the
acestuia se organizeaz n funcie de whole class, the animals in that category.
particularitile de vrst ale elevilor.
Clasa a II-a
Obiectul: Cunoaterea mediului QUINTET
Tema: Animalele(recapitulare)
Elevii sunt mprii n grupe de cte 6 elevi. Method quintet focuses on student
Fiecare echip primete cte o fi, care are power, contributing to the ability to
scris n centrul ei, ntr-un oval, animale summarize and synthesize information.
domestice/animale slbatice din ara Quintet is a poem that requires synthesis
noastr/animale slbatice din alte zone ale of information / content from a text in
lumii. clear language. It is a poem of five lines
Elevii traseaz pe fi sgei din acel oval, whose construction is based on certain
scriind animalele care fac parte din acea rules that students must comply.
categorie. Work starts from a keyword of the day

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
57
Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2010

Dup ce au finalizat fia elevii, cei care au fost or lesson from previous lesson and
desemnai experi, vin la tabla i prezint students during the given must show
ntregii clase, animalele din acea categorie, pe sensitivity to those discussed in class,
care a reuit s le gseasc. based on their creative abilities.
Rules of drawing up a quintet:
CVINTETUL -first verse is composed of thematic word
Metoda cvintetului pune accent pe fora -The second line consists of two words
elevului, contribuind la formarea capacitii de a - The third line consists of three words
rezuma i sinteti-za informaiile , de a surprinde - The fourth line consists of four words
complexitatea unor idei, sentimente i convingeri that form a sentence tors
n cteva cuvinte . -The fifth verse is composed of a single
Cvintetul este o poezie care impune word
sintetizarea informaiilor/coninuturilor dintr-un Snow
text n exprimri clare , care descriu sau prezint cold fluffy
reflecii asupra temei date sau subiectului dat. covering, cooling, freezing
Este o poezie de 5 versuri a crei construcie are Snow is loved by children.
la baz anumite reguli pe care elevii trebuie s le velvet
respecte, iar timpul de ntocmire este de Winter
5-7 minute. Beautiful, cold,
Activitatea pornete de la un cuvnt-cheie din soaring, starting singing
lecia zilei respective sau din lecia anterioar , iar Running away from us.
elevii , n timpul dat , trebuie s dovedeasc Shine
receptivitatea la cele discutate n clas , bazndu-
se pe capacitile lor de creaie.
Regulile de ntocmire a unui cvintet: TREE IDEAS
-primul vers este format din cuvtul tematic(
un substantiv); Technique called 'ideas tree' involves
-al doilea vers este format din dou cuvinte group work. Is a graphical method
(adjective care s arate nsuirile cuvntului keyword is written in a rectangle at the
tematic ); base page, in the middle.
-al treilea vers este format din trei From this rectangle is also branch of
cuvinte(verbe la gerun ziu care s exprime knowledge mentioned branches of a tree.
aciuni ale cuvntu lui tematic); Tree drawing sheet that is passed from
-al patrulea vers este format din patru cuvinte one State to another group and each
ce formea z o propoziie prin care se afirm student has the opportunity to read what
ceva esenial despre cuvntul tematic ); his colleagues wrote.
-al cincilea vers este format dintr-un singur This form of group activity is
cuvnt, care sintetizeaz tema/ideea. advantageous because it proposes to
teach a new form of organization and
Zpad systematization of knowledge.
Iarna
rece, pufoas,
frumoas, friguroas, EXPLOSIVE STAR
acoperind ,rcorind, nghend
zburnd, plecnd cntnd, Stellar explosion is a method of
Noi copiii o iubim . stimulating creativity, a child how to
Fuge de la noi. relax and rely on the wording of
catifea questions for solving problems and new

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
58
Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2010

strlucire discoveries.
Objectives:
COPACUL IDEILOR Formulation of questions and
Tehnica numit ,,copacul ideilor presupune make connections between ideas found in
munca n grup.Este o metod grafic n care children
cuvntul cheie este scris ntr-un dreptunghi la baza
paginii,n partea central. Material:
De la acest dreptunghi se ramific asemenea - A large star, small yellow five-star, five
crengilor unui copac toate cunotinele red arrows
evocate.Foaia pe care este desenat copacul trece de Method description:
la un membru la altul al grupului i fiecare elev 1.Children sit in a semicircle propose
are posibilitatea s citeasc ce au scris colegii si. to solve problem, the big star central idea
Aceast form de activitate n grup este to write or draw.
avantajoas deoarece le propune elevilor o nou 2. On five stars is written on one
form de organizare i sistematizare a question: What? WHO? WHERE? WHY?
cunotinelor. WHEN? ,and five children in each group
extracted a question. Each child chooses
EXPLOZIA STELAR one of five 3-4 colleagues, organizing
Explozia stelar este o metod de stimulare a itself in five groups.
creativitii, o modalitatea de relaxare a copiilor i 3. Groups cooperate in drafting
se bazeaz pe formularea de ntrebri pentru questions.
rezolvarea de probleme i noi descoperiri. 4. At the end of time, the children
Obiective: return to large semicircle around steluei
Formularea de ntrebri i realizarea de compiled common questions. Children
conexiuni ntre idele descoperite de copii n grup respond to questions or other groups to
prin interaciune i individual pentru rezolvarea formulate questions questions.
unei probleme. 5. It considers the questions of
Material : children, their effort to develop the right
O stea mare, cinci stele mici de culoare questions and how cooperation and
galben, cinci sgei roii, jetoane interaction.
Descrierea metodei:
1. Copiii aezai n semicerc propun problema de Stellar explosion is effective because
rezolvat; pe steaua mare se scrie sau deseneaz the corresponding image after reading the
ideea central. requirements and steps required for its
2. Pe 5 stelue se scrie cte o ntrebare de tipul : methodology.
CE? CINE? UNDE ? DE CE ? CND ? iar cinci Traditional teaching in that teacher
copii din grup extrag cte o ntrebare. lecture, a demonstration, and student role
Fiecare copil din cei cinci i alege cte 3-4 colegi, is to track not only produces very little
organizndu-se astfel n cinci grupuri. learning. Is insufficient time for learning
3. Grupurile coopereaz n elaborarea if students during teacher explanations
ntrebrilor. just listen and see a demonstration made
4. La expirarea timpului, copiii revin n semicerc by the teacher. The brain does not
n jurul steluei mari i comunic ntrebrile function as a DVD or cassette. The brain
elaborate , fie un reprezentant al grupului , fie is not simply a receiver of information.
individual, n funcie de potenialul grupului / Students should organize what they
grupei. Copiii celorlalte grupuri rspund la heard and saw everything in a orderly
ntrebri sau formuleaz ntrebri la ntrebri. and meaningful. If students are not
5. Se apreciaz ntrebrile copiilor, efortul provided during the discussion,

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
59
Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2010

acestora de a elabora ntrebri corecte precum i investigation, action and eventually to


modul de cooperare i interaciune. teaching, learning takes place.
Explozia stelar este eficient n lectura dup - Learn about understanding and this
imagini deoarece corespunde cerinelor i etapelor means more than just knowing the facts,
impuse de metodologia acesteia : enumerare, - Students construct knowledge based
descriere, interpretare. on what they already know or believe,
Predarea tradiional n sensul n care profesorul - Students formulate new knowledge by
ine o prelegere, face o demonstraie, iar rolul modifying their current concepts and
elevilor este acela de a urmri, nu produce nvare reasoning and by adding new concepts to
dect n foarte mic msur. what is already known.
Este insuficient pentru nvare dac n timpul - Learning is socially mediated
orei elevii doar ascult explicaiile profesorului i environment in which students interact
vd o demonstraie fcut de profesor. Cauza with each other.
acestui fenomen, ine de nsui funcionarea - effective learning by students requires
creierului. Creierul nu funcioneaz ca un DVD taking control of their learning.
sau casetofon. Creierul nu este un simplu receptor - transfer, the ability to apply that
de informaie. knowledge in us is affected by the extent
Elevii trebuie s organizeze ceea ce au auzit i to which students learn for understanding
vzut ntr-un tot ordonat i plin de semnificaii. and learning with understanding.
Dac elevilor nu li se ofer ocazia discuiei, a
investigaiei, a aciunii i eventual a predrii,
nvarea nu are loc.
nvarea presupune nelegerea, iar aceasta Bibliography:
nseamn mai mult dect cunoaterea faptelor.
Elevii construiesc cunoaterea pe baza a ceea Bru, 2007: Marc Bru, In teaching
ce deja cunosc sau cred. methods, Bucharest, 2007.
Elevii formuleaz noile cunotine prin
modificarea i raionarea conceptelor lor curente i Ionescu, Chi, 1992: Miron Ionescu,
prin adugarea de noi concepte la ceea ce cunosc Vasile Chi, Strategies for teaching and
deja. learning, Bucharest, 1992.
nvarea este mediat de mediul social n care
elevii interacioneaz unii cu alii. Pintilie, 2002: M. Pintilie, Modern
nvarea eficient necesit preluarea de ctre methods of learning-evaluation, Editura
elevi a controlului asupra propriei nvri. eurodidact, Cluj-Napoca, 2002.
Transferul, respectiv capacitatea de a aplica
cunotine n situaii noi este afectat de gradul n
care elevii nva pentru nelegere i nva cu
nelegere.

Bibliografie:
Bru, 2007: Marc Bru, Metodele n pedagogie,
Bucureti,2007
Ionescu, Chi, 1992: Miron Ionescu, Vasile
Chi, Strategii de predare-nvare, Bucureti, 1992
Pintilie, 2002: M. Pintilie, Metode moderne de
nvare-evaluare, Editura Eurodidact, Cluj-
Napoca, 2002

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
60
Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria tiine ale Educaiei, Nr. 2/2010

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Education Sciences Series, Issue 2/2010
61