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SCULPTURE

Etymology

The term of " sculpture" comes from Latin word " sculpere"
which means to cut or remove pieces with a stone.

Definition

It is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining


hard and/or plastic material, sound, and/or text and or light,
commonly stone (either rock or marble), metal, glass, or wood.
Aesthetic art of modeling shaping single block or mash materials
into a 3 dimensional form out of rock, wood, and metal.

Example: Statue of David and U.P Oblation


Statue of David U.P Oblation
History
The sculpture prowess of the Philippines occurred during
Spanish regime. The sculpture started when people begun to worship
statues anino. People began to do something on clays, loams then it
evolves through technology. It is often use to form religious item like
catholic saints. It is known to be the oldest art form.

It varied and is illustrative of how sculpture has changed extensively


over the ages. The art of sculpture continues as a vital art form
worldwide. From pre-historic and ancient civilizations to the
contemporary, from the utilitarian and religious to Modernist
abstraction, and conceptual manifestations of both form and content,
a continuous stream of creativity & an extremely modest show of
compassion. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in
many cultures, and until recent centuries large sculptures, too
expensive for private individuals to create, were usually an
expression of religion or politics.
Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities
include the cultures of the Ancient Mediterranean, India and China, as
well as many in South America and Africa. Moses's rejection of the
Golden Calf was perhaps a decisive event in the history of sculpture.

Aniconism remained restricted to the Jewish, Zoroastrian and


some other religions, before expanding to Early Buddhism and Early
Christianity, neither of which initially accepted at least large sculptures.
In both Christianity and Buddhism these early views were later
reversed, and sculpture became very significant, especially in
Buddhism. Christian Eastern Orthodoxy has never accepted
monumental sculpture, and Islam has consistently rejected all figurative
sculpture. Many forms of Protestantism also do not approve of
religious sculpture.

There has been much iconoclasm of sculpture from


religious motives, from the Early Christians, the Beeldenstorm
of the Protestant Reformation to the recent destruction of the
Buddhas of Bamyan by the Taliban. Nonetheless, the Buddha
remains a popular subject for sculptural art, and sculptors all
over the world celebrate the Buddha in their work.
Materials in Sculpture Elements of Sculpture

1. Cluster 1. Form
2. Plastic 2. Color
3. Aluminum 3. Line
4. Bronze 4. Volume
5. Rock 5. Perspective
6. Wood 6. Texture
7. Metal 7. Style
Types of Sculpture
Some common forms of sculpture are:

1. Free-standing sculpture, sculpture that is surrounded on all sides, except


the base, by space. It is also known as sculpture "in the round", and is
meant to be viewed from any angle.

2. Sound sculpture - Sound sculpture (related to sound art and sound


installation) is an intermedia and time based art form in which sculpture
or any kind of art object produces sound, or the reverse (in the sense that
sound is manipulated in such a way as to create a sculptural as opposed
to temporal form or mass).

3. Light sculpture - is an intermedia and time based art form


in which sculpture or any kind of art object produces light,
or the reverse (in the sense that light is manipulated in such
a way as to create a sculptural as opposed to temporal form
or mass).
4. Jewelry objects of personal adornment made of precious metals,
gems, or imitation materials.

5. Relief - the sculpture is still attached to a background; types are bas-


relief, alto-relievo, and sunken-relief

6. Site-specific art - is artwork created to exist in a certain place

7. Kinetic sculpture - involves aspects of physical motion

a. Fountain - the sculpture is designed with moving water


b. Mobile
8. Statue - representation list sculpture depicting a specific entity,
usually a person, event, animal or object

a. Bust - representation of a person from the chest up


b. Equestrian statue - typically showing a significant person on
horseback

9. Stacked art - a form of sculpture formed by assembling objects


and 'stacking' them

10. Architectural sculpture - Architectural sculpture is the term for the


use of sculpture by an architect and/or sculptor in the design of a
building, bridge, mausoleum or other such project.
Function
Sculpture functions as an integral part of many ceremonies and
events. Often unnoticed, it gives us a visual reference for our emotional
experiences throughout the passages of life. Tombstones, for example,
are a form of sculpture commemorating death, a universal event.

Processes and Techniques


Processes in sculpting vary, and always depend on the
materials used. There is cast sculpture, where a material, such as
bronze, begins as a clay form that is cast in a mould to produce a given
shape; there is also carved sculpture, such as wood or stone.
Two distinct methods have emerged; an additive process,
where material is added again and again to build up the form,
for example with clay, and the subtractive process, where
the artist removes or subtracts materials to create the form,
as in marble or stone carving.
Sculpture may be free standing (sometimes referred to as
sculpture in the round even if it is a square shape), often on a
pedestal or base where you can walk around it, or relief, where
raised forms project from a background or surface. There is low
relief, where the figure emerges at a level closer to the surface;
and high relief, where the figure may almost be completely
detached from the surface or ground. Types of representation and
composition in relief are defined by their need for the ground
plane on which the forms are superimposed or from which they
emerge. Relief can be carved in wood or stone; molded in clay or
wax; cast in metal, plaster or resin.
Music
Etymology

The word music comes from the Greek mousik


(tekhn) by way of the Latin musica. It is ultimately
derived from mousa, the Greek word for muse.

Definition

Consist of sounds and silences in such a manner


as to convey emotions and feelings of the composer.
Combination of melodious tones, and sounds
of varying pitch to produce harmony.
Function of Music
1. Religious and ceremonial purpose

2. Release the tensions and emotion

3. To listen to music intelligently

4. Therapeutic value

5. For entertainment

6. Experience reflect music

7. Learning is made easy to music


Properties of Music
1. Pitch - highness and lowness of tone.
2. Duration - the length of time over which vibration is maintained.
3. Volume - loudness and softness of voice.
4. Timber/tone color - distinctive or individual quality of the sound.

Elements of Music

1. Rhythm - the over all movement or swing of music, slow or fast


movements.
2. Melody - emotional motions, sometimes called the memory
element of music. It is what the listener remembers.
3. Harmony - it is the combination of different tones and blending of voice.
4. Dynamics - the softness and loudness of voice. It is the force of music.
5. Style - the result of restraining, temperament. Singers way of doing his
music.

Different Mediums of Music

I. Vocal medium refers to human voice.

Vocal classes
a. Soprano - highest register of voice for female

Example: Sylvia dela Torre and Armida


Siguion-Reyna, (coloratura soprano) Charlotte Church
b. Mezzo soprano - medium register of voice for female

Example: Betty Allen (america) and Lea Salonga

c. Alto - lowest register of voice for female

Example: Claire dela Fuente and Isay Alvarez

d. Tenor - highest register of voice for male

Example: Luciano Pavarotti was (this century's most famous tenor)


Carreras, Pavorotti, Placido Domingo, and Eric Caruso

e. Baritone - medium register of voice for male

Example: Nonoy Zuiga

f. Bass - lowest register of voice for male

Example: Tim Riley (performed in Gold City Quartet)


Solo - singing without accompaniment

Duet - a group of two singers or a composition of two voices

Acappella- is an all-male Contemporary Christian vocal group founded


in 1982 by Keith Lancaster, who has variously played the role
of singer, songwriter and producer throughout the group's
history. Chorus or choir - a musical ensemble of singers.

Choir/chorus - a body of singers who perform together. Often applied


to groups affiliated with a church.

Quartet - a method of instrumentation (or a medium), used to


perform a musical composition, and consisting of four parts.
II. Instrumental medium - with the use of musical instruments.

1. Strings - They consist of the violin, viola, cello, and double


bass. They all have the same basic shape, but are very different
in size. They each have four strings, are made of wood, and are
played by drawing a bow across the strings or plucking the
strings with the fingers.
2. Brass - instruments are the loudest members of the orchestra.
They include French horn, trumpet, trombone, and tuba. Brass
instruments are long tubes of metal which the player blows into
through a mouth-piece at one end. The player makes a buzzing
sound with his or her lips, and the sound comes out the other end
which is wider, like a bell.
3. Woodwinds - instruments are most commonly made of wood or
metal, and are played by blowing air across an opening at one end
or through a "reed", and by covering and uncovering holes along
the instrument with fingers or levers, keys, and pads. The
members of this family are flute and piccolo, oboe and English
horn, clarinet and bass clarinet, and bassoon and contra-bassoon.
4. Percussion - instruments are the rhythm section of the orchestra.
They make sounds when they are struck, scraped, or rattled with
hands or special sticks. Some percussion instruments have a
definite highness or lowness, a quality called pitch, and some do
not have a definite pitch. Xylophone, timpani, chimes,
vibraphone, and Celesta are examples of pitched percussion
instruments, while bass drum, snare drum, triangle, cymbals, and
tambourine are non-pitched percussion instruments.
Kinds of Music
1. Program music - any music which is connected on poem or
story more on literature.
Example: An Alpine Symphony by Richard Strauss

2. Folk music - tradition music of people, race, generation which


is past from one generation to another generation.

Example: Tinikling, Singkil, Itik-Itik

3. Art music - normally accompanied by piano. The most


sophisticated of all.

Example: Serenade by Franz Schubert


4. Jazz music - more on trumphets, violin, clarinet, trombone,
drums, and saxophone.

Example: Careless Whisper and Somewhere Over the


Rainbow

5. Classical music - depicts love

Example: Oh ilaw, hating gabe, nasan ka irog

6. Opera - combination of song, dance, acting, ballet,


Broadway

Example: Miss Saigon, Chicago, les miserables,


New York
Composer - a person who create musical or literary work

Best Composers

Vennie Saturno = Be my Lady


Ogie Alcasid = Kung mawawala ka
Danny Tan = Close to where you are
Lito Camo = Para Sayo
Ryan Cayabyab = Kailangan Kita
Jose Marie Chan = Christmas in our hearts
Louie Ocampo = Say that you love me
George Canseco = Kastilyong Buhangin