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The Extremis

In Iron Man Movie 3 (2013), Maya Hansen and Aldrich Killian developed a virus called Extremis.
Extremis allows a user to essentially hack into the genetic operating system of living organism. What uber
cool about it is if the user's body decides to accept the Extremis, the user is granted with regenerative
healing abilities, making them able to repair all wounds, including previously amputated limbs.
Fascinating, isnt it... ?

Extremis virus regenerating Aldrich Killians arm

In real life, some animals like sea stars, newts and salamanders actually
have the regenerative ability. If these animals suddenly lose an arm or a leg,
their bodies react by forming new tissues, nerves and blood vessels which
then become a new fully functional limb. Human body in the other hand
responds to wound or a cut by quickly patching it up with scar tissue.

Studies of salamanders are revealing

that the regeneration process can be
divided into pivotal stages, beginning
with the wound-healing response
(wound epidermis), followed by the Stages of salamander limb regeneration
formation of a blastema by cells that
revert to some degree to an embryonic state, and nally, the initiation of a developmental
program to build the new limb. But researchers are still puzzled by the details. How the
reversion is triggered? How do all those regenerating cells know where they should be and
what shape to take on? The truth is we just dont know, yet.
When we were embryos we likely could regenerate many of our tissues, including our limbs. But, like most mammals, our impressive regenerative
abilities were lost during embryogenesis. Growing new human limbs or organs may be a matter of providing a different set of genetic instructions
to our cells -- essentially, a blueprint that would guide them in creating various types of differentiated cells and organizing them into a structure,
says David M. Gardiner, professor of developmental and cell biology at the University of California-Irvine. All animals have the kind of repair cells
called macrophages and they seem to be responsible to salamanders remarkable regeneration capability. Macrophages rush into the wound side and
eat up dead cells and patogens while triggering the release of other immune cells. Mammals are also used them to repair mucles. Australian
Regenerative Medicine Institute found out reduced numbers of macrophages in salamanders wound side made the regeneration take much longer
and when they removed all the macrophages the poor guy could no loger regrow limb rather ended up with a lot of scar tissues, just like humans do.
Is that mean that we'll soon know how to help human regenerate lost limb? Researchers say there is still a long way to understand the complexity
of regeneration, plus considering it takes some small salamanders over a year to regenerate limb and larger ones over a decade. Its difcult to say
how soon scientists might be able to unlock and program the human regenerative process. Still more immediate benet which might come from this
research like how to make wounds heal faster with little if any scarring. Not a new leg but still pretty awesome.

The body of Extremis user can glow

Correlating the idea that the body of the Extremis user is able to
glow, other feature will probably become a reality. Scientists have
developed nanoparticles contrast agent. Injected into the body, the
nanoparticles attach themselves to particular molecules or cells,
then give ourescent glow that can be detected with imaging

The best way to cure most cases of cancer is to surgically remove the cancer
cells. Identifying the margins can be difcult to do during a procedure. A novel
kind of nanoparticle is allowing surgeons to identify cancer cells, where to cut,
Cancer cells with specic genes glow red once inltrated by novel nanoparticles
and whether there is any residue left, because the cancer cells glow. The (left). The nanoparticles dont glow in cells without the gene (right).
nanoparticlesdubbed nanoaresattach themselves to individual cancer cells
and then glow, allowing cancerous cells to be detected. Each nanoare consists of a chunk of gold coated with uorescent molecules and snippets
of DNA. The DNA is selected to correspond to RNA found in particular cancer cells. Once introduced into the environment, the nanoparticles will
enter cancer cells and the DNA will bind to the target RNA, triggering the release of uorescent molecules and causing the cancer cells to glow.
Different types of cancer cells can be detected by attaching different strands of DNA and uorescent molecules of different colors. Shuming Nie,
chair of biomedical engineering at Emory University-Atlanta, says To design anything that works inside the human body is enormously challenging,
because the human body is immensely complex. However, our imaginations are also unlimited. So if we work together, I think certainly in the next
generation we'll have some of these nanoparticles with specialized functions able to do very unusual things in the human body.
References: Assignment 01; Ken Muneoka, Manjong Han and David M. Gardiner. 2008. Regrowing Limbs: Can Name : Nadya Amalia (30215006)
People Regenerate Body Parts?, Scientic American Magazine.;; http://news.discovery. Teacher : Dr. Suprijadi Haryono, M.Eng
com/human/evolution/why-cant-humans-regenerate-body-parts-1308231.htm; Subject : Visualisasi dalam Sains