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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Litere i tiine Sociale, Nr.

2/2012

PROPAGAND VERSUS COMUNICARE PROPAGANDA VS. POLITICAL


POLITIC COMMUNICATION
- PERSPECTIVE TEORETICE N ERA - THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES IN
INFORMAIONAL - THE INFORMATION ERA -

dr. Bogdan-Alexandru TEODOR dr. Bogdan-Alexandru TEODOR


Valentin-Ionu NICULA41 Valentin-Ionu NICULA

Abstract: n lucrarea de fa am ncercat s Abstract: The present paper aims to identify some
ntreprindem un demers cognitiv n vederea stabilirii unor conceptual delimitations regarding propaganda and
delimitri conceptuale referitoare la propagand i political communication, from the perspective of the new
comunicarea politic, din perspectiva noilor mutaii transformations inherent to the information era.
aprute n era informaional. Starting from the definition of the two concepts and
Pornind de la definirea celor dou concepte i the interdependent nature of the relationship established
stabilirea interdependenelor existente ntre ele, se between the two, the paper aims to facilitate the
faciliteaz nelegerea implicaiilor acestora n societatea understanding of their impact on modern society and their
actual i a efectelor pe termen mediu i lung asupra effects on social relations or political systems.
relaiilor sociale ori sistemelor politice la nivelul crora Once these two concepts are defined and the
se manifest. boundaries between them properly traced, propaganda
Odat realizat definirea celor dou procese i can be easier identified, in its multitude of
stabilirea granielor dintre acestea, poate fi identificat communicational forms, using both conventional and non-
mult mai uor aciunea de propagand, n multitudinea de conventional media channels. Consequently, protective
manifestri comunicaionale derulate pe multiple canale and defensive measures can be taken faster at individual,
media, convenionale i neconvenionale, i se pot lua organizational or state level.
mult mai rapid i mai facil msuri de protecie i
contracarare, att la nivel individual ct i organizaional
ori statal.

Motto: Non nova, sed nove Motto: Non nova, sed nove

Introducere Introduction
Noiunea de comunicare a nceput s fie The concept of communication started to be
utilizat n secolul XIV i provine din latinescul used at the beginning of the 14th century and
communis, care nseamn a pune n comun, a comes from the Latin word communis, which
fi n relaie, a mprti. n secolul urmtor, ca means to hold in common, to be in relation with
urmare a dezvoltrii drumurilor i potei, se and to share. In the next century, as a result of
mbogete cu sensul de a transmite. Ulterior, the development of roads and the post, the
ca urmare a apariiei trenului, telegrafului, concept is enriched with the meaning of to
automobilului, telefonului, radioului, transmit. Further on, as a result of the invention
televizorului, internetului, acest sens tinde s se of the train, telegraph, the automobile, the
situeze n prim plan. telephone, radio, television and the Internet, this
Toate procesele sociale implic un proces meaning tended to take precedence over the
de comunicare, adic acte individuale de others.

41
Valentin Ionu NICULA, Academia Naional de Informaii Mihai Viteazul Bucureti, adresa: Bucureti, Str. Odi, nr.
20, sect. 1, tel.: 0765 577 219, email: val_nicula@yahoo.com,
Bogdan Alexandru TEODOR, Academia Naional de Informaii Mihai Viteazul Bucureti, adresa: Bucureti, Str. Odi,
nr. 20, sect. 1,, tel.: 0723 675 979, email: teodor_bogdan_alexandru@yahoo.com.

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transmitere i receptare42 ale unui mesaj. All social processes imply a process of
nelegem astfel c a comunica implic aciunea communication, meaning individual acts of
de a transmite un mesaj despre ceva cuiva transmission and reception of a message. Thus,
care este receptorul, mesaj venit din partea we understand that communication implies the
unei entiti numite emitor. action of transmitting a message about
Reprezentnd latura complex a vieii something to somebody, who is the receiver,
sociale, fr de care aceasta nu poate exista, while the message is emitted by an entity defined
deoarece relaiile i structurile sociale nu s-ar as the emitter.
putea realiza altfel dect prin comunicare, Communication represents the complex side
aceasta nu poate fi redus doar la cteva of social life, which cannot exist without it, as
caracteristici generale, ntruct n diferite social relations and structures cannot be
domenii ale vieii sociale discutm despre developed without communication. Therefore,
anumite aspecte, ceea ce face ca i comunicarea this concept cannot be reduced to its general
s capete diverse accente n funcie de domeniul characteristics, because the different fields of
n cauz. Astfel, sunt utilizate sintagme de genul social life are characterized by different aspects,
comunicare politic, comunicare which makes communication receive different
organizaional, comunicare de grup etc. forms depending of the field in question.
fiecare avnd specificul su. n cele ce urmeaz Therefore, we use different expressions such as
vom trata domeniul comunicrii politice ca political communication, organizational
domeniu distinct al comunicrii, precum i communication, group communication, each
interdependenele sale cu propaganda politic, n with its own characteristics. In the next part of
vederea stabilirii unor delimitri conceptuale, the paper we will focus on the field of political
din perspectiva noilor mutaii aprute n era communication, as a distinct category of
informaional, fr a fi un demers exhaustiv. communication, with an emphasis on its
intersections with political propaganda. The
1. Comunicarea politic aim is to identify some conceptual delimitations,
Politica este activitatea desfurat de from the perspective of the new mutations,
diferite grupuri cu scopul de a cuceri puterea, iar which have appeared in the Information Age.
n unele cazuri de a o pstra. Practic, este vorba Because of the complexity of the topic in debate,
despre indivizi care vor s ctige ncrederea this theoretical endeavor does not claim to offer
altor indivizi, iar acest lucru nu se poate realiza an all-encompassing analysis of the subject at
fr o comunicare eficient. n orice form de hand.
organizare politic, comunicarea a fost utilizat
de conductori pentru a se adresa celor condui 1. Political Communication
i pentru a relaiona cu mediul exterior, respectiv Politics is an activity conducted by different
cu ali actori politici. groups with the purpose of gaining power, and in
Jacques Seguela, consultant politic n some cases of preserving the power obtained.
spaiul francez, consider c o comunicarea Actually, this concerns individuals who want to
politic eficient trebuie s urmeze regula celor gain the trust of other individuals, and this
trei S43, i anume simplitate pentru ca cannot be accomplished without efficient
cetenii s poat nelege ceea ce politicienii vor communication. In all forms of political
42
Denis McQuail, Comunicarea, Institutul European, Iai, 2000, p. 13.
43
Jacques Seguela apud Gabriel Thoveron, Comunicarea politic azi, Antet, Bucureti, 1996, p. 5.

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s transimt; spectacol pentru a atrage organizations, communication has been used by


atenia i interesul oamenilor i a da o form leaders to address those who are led and to
plcut; i, nu n ultimul rnd, comunicarea interact with the external environment, namely
trebuie s aib substan adic, mesajele s other political actors.
aib o ncrctur de idei despre problemele Jacques Seguela, a French political analyst
importante, s nu fie simple vorbe fr coninut. considers that an efficient political
Un alt autor francez, Roland Cayrol communication must follow the rule of the three
apreciaz c noua comunicare politic este S, namely simplicity because citizens must
fruct al unei noi Sfinte Treimi: televiziunea, understand the message which politicians want
sondajele, publicitatea44, trecnd peste alte to transmit; show to captivate the attention
aspecte legate de efectele comunicrii asupra and interest of people and to transform this
cetenilor sau asupra spaiului public. n process into something entertaining; and finally
opoziie, Jacques Gerstle este de prere c o political communication must have substance
asfel de definire este mult prea ngust i meaning that the messages transmitted must
superficial.45 have actual meaning and not be devoid of
content.
1.1. Definiii: Another French author Roland Cayrol
Cele mai multe definiii ale comunicrii considers that the new political communication
politice au ca element comun intenionalitatea: is the result of a new Holy Trinity: television,
Comunicarea politic este neleas ca fiind o polls, publicity, passing through other aspects
aciune teleologic o aciune orientat, related to the effects of communication on
programat, proiectat pentru anumite scopuri citizens and the public space. In opposition,
(politice). Fiind vorba de o aciune strategic, Jacques Gerstle states that such a definition is
acest tip de comunicare politic ar implica much too narrow and shallow.
reguli, proceduri, tehnici i resurse adecvate n
anumite evenimente politice.46 1.1. Definitions:
Un alt element al definiiilor este Most of the definitions of the concept
eterogenitatea condiiilor care concur la political communication are centered around
producerea comunicrii politice. De aceea, unii the common concept of intent. Political
autori asociaz comunicarea politic unui communication is understood as a teleological
spaiu sau cmp de relaii sociale. Astfel, action - an action orientated, programmed,
pentru Gosselin, comunicarea politic este un designed for certain purposes (political). As this
cmp n care se intersecteaz diverse modaliti is a strategic action, this type of political
de persuadare a electoratului. D. Wolton communication implies adequate rules,
asociaz comunicarea politic unui spaiu n care procedures, techniques and resources for certain
se relaioneaz discursurile contradictorii a trei political events.
actori care au legitimitatea de a se exprima n Another common element to most
mod public asupra politicii: oamenii politici, definitions is the heterogeneity of the
jurnaliti i opinia public prin intermediul conditions, which concur to the creation of
sondajelor de opinie. Belanger asimileaz political communication. This is why some
44
Roland Cayrol apud Gabriel Thoveron, op. cit., p. 11.
45
Jacques Gerstl, Comunicarea politic, Institutul European, Iai, 2002, p. 16.
46
Camelia Beciu, Politica discursiv. Practici politice ntr-o campanie electoral, Editura Polirom, Iai, 2000, p. 27.

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comunicarea politic relaiilor sociale tipice authors associate political communication with a
pentru procesul de influenare, o influenare n space or field of social relations. Thus, for
primul rnd voit, apoi transformat n aciune Gosselin, political communication is a field
sau, dimpotriv, n aciune omis. ntotdeauna intersected with different methods of persuading
este vorba de o intervenie intenional the electorate. D. Wolton associated political
referitoare la un eventual comportament al communication with a space where the
receptorului. Negrine abordeaz comunicarea contradictory discourses of the three actors,
politic din perspectiva unui sistem complex de which have the legitimacy of expressing
comunicare a informaiilor politice, centrat pe themselves in public on politics: decision-
practici jurnalistice, pe o anumit socializare makers, journalists and public opinion through
politic a societii i pe democratizarea polls, interact. Belanger assimilates political
instituiilor statului.47 communication to standard social relations in the
Camelia Beciu precizeaz, ns, c aceste process of influence, an intentional influence
caracteristici sunt definitorii nu doar pentru then put into practice or on the contrary,
comunicarea politic, ci i pentru orice act de influence which is omitted from action. In
comunicare (care este intenional, reglementat i general, we speak of an intentional intervention
contextual). Aceeai autoare continu prin a regarding a potential behavior of the recipient.
defini comunicarea politic drept o interaciune Negrine analyses political communication from
ntre actorii politici, mass-media, public i the perspective of a complex system of
electorat, mai precis ntre actani cu o identitate communication of political information, centered
formal i reprezentativ, dar cu resurse i on journalistic practices and on a certain political
motivaii diferite. Aceast interaciune socialization of the society and the
instituional se realizeaz printr-o serie de democratization of state institutions.
coduri i ritualuri, care dau vizibilitate spaiului However, Camelia Beciu mentions that
public.48 these features are not characteristic solely for
Jacques Gerstle descrie o viziune political communication, but for all acts of
reducionist asupra comunicrii politice, care communication (which is intentional, controlled
poate fi ntlnit la ali autori, potrivit creia ar fi and contextual). The same author proceeds to
un ansamblu de tehnici i procedee de care define political communication as an interaction
dispun actorii politici, cel mai adesea among political actors, mass-media, public and
guvernanii, pentru a seduce, dirija i nela electorate, more precisely among actors with a
opinia. Mergnd pe aceeai linie critic, autorul formal and representative identity, but with
francez nu este de acord cu asimilarea different resources and driven by different
comunicrii i marketingului politic i cu ideea motivations. This institutional interaction is
deja amintit c noua comunicare politic ar fi created through a series of codes and rituals,
produsul a trei tehnici: televiziunea, sondajele i which give visibility to the public sphere.
publicitatea.49 Jacques Gerstle describes a narrow vision
Acestea se manifest ntr-adevr n cadrul on political communication, which is
comunicrii, dar nu epuizeaz problema. Autorul encountered in the works of other authors,

47
Ibidem.

48
Ibidem, p. 28.
49
Jacques Gerstle, op. cit., p. 16.

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aduce n discuie faptul c se uit influenele din according to which the concept can be defined as
antichitate, unde comunicarea i politica erau a set of techniques and procedures used by
strns legate, n acest sens amintindu-l pe political actors, generally decision-makers to
Aristotel, care definete omul nu doar ca animal seduce, control and deceive public opinion.
social, ci i ca animal dotat cu capacitate Following the same critical approach, the French
lingvistic, adic simbolic.50 authors do not agree with the assimilation of
Gerstle se refer n continuare la political communication and political marketing
comunicarea politic ca la un ansamblu de teorii and with the aforementioned idea that the new
i tehnici i susine c definirea comunicrii political communication is the result of three
politice este problematic, pentru c vizeaz doi techniques: television, polls and publicity.
termeni care acoper domenii largi: comunicarea Although these three elements are present in
i politica. the process of communication, they alone cannot
Analiznd etimologic termenul offer the necessary explanation. The author
comunicare (din lat. communis - a mpri i a mentions the fact that the influence of the
transmite sau a stabili o relaie) reiese c Antiquity, when communication and politics
trstura fundamental a comunicrii const n were tightly bound is forgotten. In this respect he
stabilirea unei legturi sociale, comunicarea makes a reference to Aristotle, who defined man
fiind un proces social fundamental de la care not only as a social animal, but also as an
pornete oricare alt fapt social.51 animal endowed with linguistic, namely
symbolic capacity.
1.2. Abordri teoretice: Gerstle then expands on the fact that
Comunicarea politic este definit din political communication is a set of theories and
perspectiva mai multor abordri concurente n techniques and states that defining political
funcie de concepia asupra politicului, a communication is very difficult, as it must take
comunicrii, a relaiei i accentului pe care l into consideration two general concepts that
pun pe aspectele paradigmatice, simbolice sau cover wide theoretical fields: communication
structurale. Jacques Gerstle enumer patru and politics.
asemenea abordri, dup cum urmeaz:52 By analyzing the concept communication
1.Abordarea din perspectiva (from the Latin word communis to share, to
comportamentalist, pornete de la Lasswell, transmit and to establish a relation) we discover
care definea aciunea de comunicare prin cei 5 that the fundamental characteristic of
C: Cine spune ce, cui, prin ce mijloace i cu ce communication consists in creating social links,
rezultate? as communication is a fundamental social
n 1949, Shannon i Wearer au propus process standing at the basis of all other social
logica teoriei matematice a comunicrii, n care facts.
aceasta era definit ca o sum de factori
emitorul, mesajul, receptorul, codul, canalul i 1.2. Theoretical approaches:
situaia, conceput ca proces liniar, i anume, Political communication is defined from a
transmiterea informaiei coninute n mesaj, de la multitude of concurrent perspectives depending
emitor la receptor. Comunicarea este on the theoretical approach on politics and

50
Ibidem, p. 17.
51
Ibidem, p. 22.
52
Ibidem, p. 32-38.

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caracterizat de efectul su asupra receptorului. communication used and on the emphasis lay on
In 1956, H. Eulau, S. J. Eldersveld i M. the paradigmatic, symbolic or structural aspects.
Janowitz n Political Behaviour definesc Jacques Gerstle cites four such approaches, as
comunicarea din perspectiv behaviorist drept follows:
unul dintre cele trei procese (cu liderul i cu 1. The behavioral approach originating in
structurile de grup), prin care influenele politice the works of Lasswell, who defined the process
sunt mobilizate i transmise ntre instituiile of communication through the 5 W: Who says
guvernamentale i comportamentul electoral al what, to whom, through what means and with
cetenilor. what results?
Referitor la efectele comunicrii asupra In 1949, Shannon and Wearer put forth the
electorilor, se disting trei generaii de modele. logic of the mathematical theory of
nc de la nceputul studiilor asupra comunicrii communication, in which communication is
politice, a fost pus n practic schema stimul- defined as a sum of factors the emitter, the
rspuns, aplicat mai nti propagandei, apoi message, the receiver, the code, the canal and the
campaniilor electorale. Este o schem liniar n situation, conceived as a linear process, namely
care se pornete de la ipoteza efectelor directe the transmission of the information contained in
asupra intei, bazat pe presupunerea c oamenii the message, from the emitter to the receiver.
au reacii uniforme. Aceast ipotez a fost Communication is characterized by its effect on
infirmat de rezultatele empirice obinute dup the recipient.
1940, n studii care au demonstrat c oamenii In 1956, H. Eulau, S. J. Eldersveld and M.
reacioneaz diferit la comunicarea electoral, Janowitz in Political Behavior define
fie n funcie de caracteristicile lor sociale, aa communication from a behavioral perspective as
cum reiese din modelul Columbia, fie n funcie one of the three processes (with the leader and
de atitudinile politice, conform modelului group structures), through which political
Michigan. Se arat, aadar, c pe termen lung, influences are mobilized and transmitted
factorii menionai blocheaz efectele directe ale between governmental institutions and the
comunicrii electorale, fiind observate doar electoral behavior of citizens.
efecte limitate asupra unui elector considerat Regarding the effects of communication on
pasiv, care trimite napoi doar un vot ca reflex al those who elect, three generations of models can
poziiei sale sociale ori al afilierii partizane. be identified. From the early times of studies on
Modelul audienei active le combate pe celelalte political communication, a stimulus-response
dou, bazndu-se pe diversitatea utilizatorilor de model was put into practice and applied first to
surse mediatice i a motivaiilor care i anim. propaganda and then to electoral campaigns.
De aici rezult c publicul face alegerile n mod This is a linear model which starts from the
selectiv i dinamic i c alegtorul se poate hypothesis of direct effects on the target, based
decide n cel mai scurt timp nu doar mecanic, on the presupposition that people have uniform
dar i n funcie de felul n care evalueaz oferta reactions. This hypothesis was infirmed by the
politic i electoral. empirical results obtained in 1940, in studies
2. Abordarea din perspectiv structuro- which have shown that people react differently
funcionalist definete comunicarea politic n to electoral communication, either according to
contextul societii ca pe un ansamblu al their social characteristics as it is presented in the
sistemelor aflate n relaie. Astfel, comunicarea Columbia model, or according to their political
politic este ansamblul de procese interactive attitudes in conformity with the Michigan model.

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dintre elementele unui sistem politic i ntre Therefore, it is shown that on the long run, the
acest sistem i elementele nconjurtoare. aforementioned factors block the direct effects of
3. Abordarea interacionist vede electoral communication, being observed solely
comunicarea sub forma unei interaciuni. the limited effects on an elector perceived as
Aceasta prezint dou direcii, n funcie de passive, who sends back just a vote reflecting
dimensiunea simbolic i pragmatic a either his social position or his political
comunicrii: interacionismul strategic i cel affiliation. The model of the active audience
simbolic. counters the other two, being based on the
Interacionismul strategic nu reduce diversity of media users and of the motivations
comunicarea la utilizarea semnelor codate, ci which drive them. From this we draw the
consider comunicarea politic drept o aciune conclusion that the public makes its choices in a
strategic: un actor trebuie s-i nfrunte selective and dynamic manner and that the voter
adversarii i s ia decizii n funcie de context. can decide in the shortest time-span, not just
Comunicarea politic poate fi vzut ca jocul mechanically, but also in relation to the manner
relaiilor de putere, ale crui resurse i mize sunt in which he evaluates the political and electoral
mijloacele materiale, simbolice, informaionale, offer.
juridice sau chiar umane. 2. The structural-functionalist approach
Promovat de G. H. Mead, interacionismul defines political communication in the context of
simbolic este studiul relaiei dintre sine i society as a set of interacting systems. Therefore,
societate, vzut ca un proces de comunicare political communication is a set of interactive
simbolic ntre actanii sociali.53 processes among the elements of a political
4. Abordarea dialogic se centreaz pe cele system and between this system and the
dou abordri precedente: intersubiectiv surrounding elements.
(interacionsim simbolic) i praxiologic 3. The interactionalist approach sees
(interacionism strategic). communication as an interaction. Here we
Modelul are la baz ideea c legitimitatea se encounter two directions, depending on the
bazeaz pe consensul obinut prin discuie. Este symbolic and pragmatic dimension of
de tradiie filosofic i ajunge pn la Aristotel. communication: the strategic and symbolic
Prin discurs, oamenii pot stabili puncte comune interaction.
ntre opinii contradictorii i pot ajunge la o Strategic interactionalism does not reduce
decizie graie unei discuii argumentative. communication to the use of coded signs and
Spaiul public rezult din interlocutoriul considers political communication a strategic
cetenilor care i desvresc libertatea prin action: an actor must face his adversaries and
participarea la problemele publice.54 take decisions depending on the context.
Political communication can be regarded as a
2. Propaganda game of power relations, where resources and
Propagandaeste un concept asociat cu o stakes are material, informational, juridical or
ambiie sau practic totalitar, ceea ce a dus la even human.
degradarea sa. Aceasta reprezint o aciune de Promoted by G. H. Mead, symbolic
convingere prin instigare, ce tinde s nlocuiasc interactionalism is the study of the relation
raiunea cu impresionabilitatea, tergnd linia de among self and the society, seen as a process of

53
G. H. Mead apud Jacques Gerstl, op. cit., p. 39.
54
Ibidem, p. 42.

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demarcaie ntre adevr i fals55. n perioada de symbolic communication among different social
nceput a propagandei aceasta reprezenta o actors.
metod de control absolut al statului asupra 4. The dialogic approach: is centered on the
educaiei, informrii, muncii i a tuturor two aforementioned approaches: intersubjective
activitilor vieii cotidiene printr-o (symbolic interactionalism) and praxeological
supraveghere atent i prin promovarea de idei, (strategic interactionalism).
oameni i partide politice. The model is based on the idea that
Originea cuvntului provine din expresia legitimacy is based on the consensus in debate.
latin congregatio de propaganda fide, This is a philosophical tradition that leads to
congregaie de propagare a credinei. Termenul Aristotle. Through discourse, people can
presupune, evident, transmiterea unei informaii establish common points among contradicting
ctre un public, informaie care trebuie s fie opinions and can reach a decision as a result of
salutar pentru acesta i care nu e perceput de an argumentative debate. The public space is
informator ca mincinoas ci, dimpotriv, ca the result of citizens interacting, who gain their
expresie a singurului adevr56. nelegem deci c liberty through the participation in public
prin aceast form de comunicare nu se affairs.
transmite dect o singur variant a adevrului, 2. Propaganda
ceea ce determin nelegerea c celelalte sunt Propagandais a concept associated with an
eminamente false i aceast variant adevrat ambition or totalitarian practice, which led to its
face sau trebuie s fac, obiectul credinei degradation. Propaganda can be defined as an
publicului ca urmare a interaciunii cu ideile action of persuading through instigation, which
prezentate. tends to replace ration with naivety, erasing the
Dup unii autori ns, publicitatea este un separation line among truth and falsehood. In
nou tip de propagand: Publicitatea politic, the early age of propaganda, this represented a
numit uneori i propagand, este forma pltit a method of absolute control of the state over
difuzrii informaiei de ordin politic.57 Aceasta education, information, work and all daily
nseamn c un mesaj este diseminat ca urmare a activities through intense surveillance and
faptului c un actor politic sau un partid au through the promotion of ideas, people and
cumprat spaiu de difuzare, iar aceast political parties. The origin of the world comes
diseminare se face fr influena exterioar a from the Latin term congregatio de propaganda
mijloacelor de comunicare. Este o form prin fide, a congregation for promoting faith. The
care se face ca ceea ce se dorete s ajung la term implies, obviously, the transmission of
populaie s ajung n forma dorit de cel care information towards the public, information that
pltete pentru apariie. must be necessary and which is not perceived by
De la apariie i pn n prezent, s-a constat the informer as false, but on the contrary it is
o diversificare a aciunilor propagandistice, believed to be a reflection of the one truth. We
schimbndu-se coninutul, forma i tehnicile de therefore understand that through this form of
rspndire a mesajului, multitudinea lor communication only one side of the truth is
reprezentnd un obstacol pentru teoreticienii transmitted, which implies that the other versions
comunicrii. Diversitatea definiiilor i are necessarily false and this one true version is

55
Gabriel Thoveron, Comunicarea politic azi, Editura Antet, Bucureti, 1999, p. 5.
56
Vladimir Volkoff., Tratat de dezinformare, Editura Antet, Bucureti, 1999, p. 18.
57
Andrei Stoiciu, Comunicarea Politic. Cum se vnd idei i oameni, Editura Humanitas (Libra), Bucureti, 2000, p. 14.

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abordrilor, ca i interesul pentru analiza or should be the object of public faith.


propagandei denot importana acestui tip de According to some authors, publicity is a
aciune n societatea contemporan. Opiniile new type of propaganda: Political publicity,
specialitilor oscileaz ntre extreme precum sometimes called propaganda, is the paid form of
totul este propagand n societatea actual i disseminating political information. This means
extrema care mpinge propaganda n plan secund that a message is disseminated as a result of the
n raport cu alte categorii ale interaciunii sociale fact that a political actor or political party has
de tip simbolic.58 bought broadcasting space and this
Propaganda este o specie a comunicrii, dissemination is done without external influence
avnd ca particularitate faptul c scopul aciunii on communication means. This way the person
sale este ascuns sau necunoscut. Aa cum who pays for the service manages to transmit to
susinea ministrul nazist al propagandei, Joseph the population what he desires, in the shape he
Gobbels, Propaganda devine ineficient n desires.
momentul n care suntem contieni de existena From its origins and up to the present, we
acesteia. Totodat, propaganda susine o cauz notice a diversification of propaganda actions, as
doctrin, regim partid sau instituie o idee they change content, form and the techniques of
care presupune la rndul ei, coagularea unei disseminating the message, their variety
micri etc.59 representing an obstacle for communication
2.1. Definiii: scholars. The diversity of definitions and
n accepiunea lui Bogdan Teodorescu60, approaches, as well as the interest for the
aciunea propagandistic trebuie analizat la analysis of propaganda denotes the importance
intersecia dintre un scop definit de un lider of this type of action in contemporary society.
politic i efectul de supunere/ascultare obinut de The opinion of specialists oscillates between
acesta la nivelul maselor, prin intermediul unor extremes such as all is propaganda in
mijloace non-violente (n sens fizic.). Toate contemporary society and the extreme that places
definiiile propuse de autorul menionat se propaganda in the background as compared to
axeaz pe cuplul conceptual cheie, care se other types of social interactions of a symbolic
regsete fie n mesajul explicit, fie n cel nature.
implicit al definiiei: Propaganda is a type of communication,
1) Comunicarea al crei scop estre s characterized by the fact that the purpose of this
influeneze gndirea, emoiile i aciunile unui action is disguised or unknown. As the Nazi
grup prin selectarea i manipularea atent a propaganda official Joseph Goebbels claimed
informaiilor. (Milton Greenberg); Propaganda becomes inefficient when we
2) Prezentarea deliberat n faa unei mase become aware of its existence. Moreover,
de oameni a unui punct de vedere subiectiv, n propaganda supports a cause doctrine, regime,
sensul unei tehnici de influenare a aciunilor political party and institutions an idea that
umane prin intermediul reprezentrilor. (Harold supposes in its turn, the coagulation of a
Lasswell); movement.
3) Comunicarea unui punct de vedere cu 2.1. Definitions:

58
tefan Stnciugelu, Logica manipulrii, Editura C.H. Beck, Bucureti, 2010, p. 91.
59
Ibidem, p. 92.
60
Teodorescu Bogdan, Propaganda, n Teodorescu B., Guu D., Enache R., Cea mai bun dintre lumile posibile.
Marketingul politic n Romnia 1990-2005, Editura Comunicare.ro, Bucureti, 2005, p. 11-12; apud tefan Stnciugelu, op.
cit., p. 93.

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scopul de a determina subiectul cruia i se According to Bogdan Teodorescu,


adreseaz comunicarea s accepte de bun voie propaganda activities must be analyzed at the
acest punct de vedere ca i cum ar fi al lui nsui. intersection between a purpose defined by a
(A. Pratkins, E. Aronson); political leader and the obedience/submission
4) Inducerea comportamentului dorit unui effect obtained at the level of the masses through
grup folosind doar mijloace comunicaionale. (L. non-violent means. All definitions put forth by
Fraser); the aforementioned author are centered on this
5) Efortul sistematic de a manipula conceptual couple, which can be encountered
credinele, atitudinile sau aciunile altor either in the explicit message of the definition or
personaje prin intermediul diverselor simboluri, in its implicit content.
n vederea ndeplinirii unui obiectiv. 10) Communication whose purpose is to
(Enciclopedia Britanica); influence thought, emotions and the actions of a
6) Orice declaraie provenit de la o surs group through a careful selection and
care ne place. (J. Schumpeter); manipulation of information. (Milton
7) Planul minuios i predeterminat de a Greenberg);
comunica ceva unui public pe baza manipulrii 11) The intentional presentation in front of
simbolurilor, n vederea ndeplinirii unui a large group of people of a subjective
obiectiv. (G. Jowett V. ODonell); perspective, by using manipulation techniques of
8) O aciune constant n istoria omenirii human actions through representations. (Harold
prin care structura dominant a societii a Lasswell);
determinat, prin mijloace comunicaionale, 12) The communication of a point of view
supunerea maselor de ex. impunerea unui with the purpose of determining the subject, to
sistem politic, a unei credine religioase, a unei whom the communication is addressed to accept
formule etice (impunere de coduri morale, legi willingly this point of view as being his. (A.
ori diferite coninuturi combinate ale acestora). Pratkins, E. Aronson);
(O Thompson) ; 13) The inducement of a desired behavior to
9) Calea prin care liderul unui sistem a group by using solely communication means.
impune ascultarea supuilor si, folosind (L. Fraser);
informaia i imaginea, nu alte forme de 14) The systematic effort of manipulating
constrngere. (B. Teodorescu). faith, attitudes and actions of other people
n alt ordine de idei, Jean Marie Domenach through symbols in order to accomplish a certain
a emis urmtoarele reguli ale propagandei:61 objective. (Encyclopedia Britannica);
I. Regula orchestrrii. ntr-o aciune de 15) Any declaration from a source we like.
propagand, temele instigrii trebuie s se repete (J. Schumpeter);
sub forme variate, s se adapteze la diferite 16) The well-thought and predetermined
categorii de public. plan of communicating something to a public on
II. Regula simplificrii i a inamicului unic. the basis of symbol manipulation, in the attempt
Mesajul politic trebuie vulgarizat la maxim. of fulfilling a certain objective. (G. Jowett, V.
Sloganul i simbolurile grafice trebuie ODonell);
simplificate, ncrcate mistic i nu neaprat 17) A constant action in the history of
explicate. mankind through which the dominant structure

61
Jean-Marie Domenach, Propaganda politic, Institutul European, Iai, 2004, p. 69-97.

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III. Regula deformrii i a caricaturizrii. of society has determined, through


Se bazeaz pe deformarea tirilor, care este un communication means, the submission of the
procedeu jurnalistic utilizat n mod curent de masses eg: the introduction of a certain
presa partizan, ce evideniaz doar informaiile political system, of a religious faith, an ethical
convenabile. n paralel se folosete n mod formula (the introduction of moral codes, laws or
frecvent procedeul citatelor detaate de context. different similar contents). (O. Thompson) ;
IV. Regula transferului. Mesajul trebuie s 18) The manner in which the leader of a
aib ntotdeauna n vedere background-ul system gains the submission of his subjects, by
cultural, bagajul informaional i nivelul de using information and images, without other
educaie al grupului-int. forms of coercion. (B. Teodorescu).
V. Regula unanimitii i contagiunii. Se On the other hand, Jean-Marie Domenach
bazeaz pe studiile psihologilor, care au has developed the following rules of
demonstrat c opiniile ntr-un grup se propaganda:
consolideaz sub presiunea valorilor grupului I. Rule of orchestration. In a propaganda
din care face parte individul. Exemplu: action, the instigation themes must repeat in
Psihologii americani, n cadrul unui experiment, varied forms and adapt to the different categories
au introdus 60 de subieci pe care i-au sftuit s of the public.
afirme c liniile drepte i paralele erau curbe, iar II. Rule of simplification and the single
pe restul de 40 i-au folosit drept cobai. Acetia enemy. The political message must be highly
din urma au susinut la finele experimentului, trivialized. The slogans and graphic symbols
dup ce n prealabil i-au dat cu prerea primii must be simplified, mystically charged and not
60, c liniile ar fi fost ntr-adevr curbe, necessarily explained.
confirmnd ipoteza. III. Rule of distortion and caricature. It is
based on the distortion of news, which is a
2.2. Tipologie: journalistic method frequently used by the
La sfritul secolului trecut, n contextul partisan press, by which emphasis is laid only on
rzboiului din Golf, s-a vorbit despre some pieces of information. In addition to this,
propaganda alb aceea care recunoate i i another method currently used is that of
asum deschis sursa; propaganda gri lanseaz extracting the quotes from their original context.
mesaje fr a preciza sursa acestora, iar IV. Rule of transfer. The message must
identificarea rmne la aprecierea receptorului; always take into consideration the cultural
propaganda neagr care afirm o fals surs background, the information baggage and the
de provenien a mesajelor i metapropaganda, level of education of the target-group.
identificat de Hedi i Alvin Toffler, care V. Rule of unanimity and contagiousness.
discrediteaz propaganda celeilalte tabere.62 It is based on psychological studies, which have
Clin Hentea sintetizeaz accepiunile proven that opinions in a group are consolidated
ctorva autori n privina tipologiilor under the pressure of group values. Example:
propagandei, dup cum urmeaz:63 American psychologists have conducted an
- Oliver Thomson, folosind drept criteriu experiment with 100 subjects, 60 of which were
maniera de concepere a mesajului advised to declare that straight and parallel lines
propagandistic, a identificat trei tipuri de are in fact curves, while the other 40 were used

62
Clin Hentea, Propagand fr frontiere, Editura Nemira, Bucureti, 2002, p. 20.
63
Ibidem,p. 20-21.

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propagand: propaganda raional care as guinea pigs. At the end of the experiment, the
utilizeaz doar date i fapte concrete i latter supported the idea that straight lines were
adevrate, expuse ntr-o anumit logic, in fact curves, after hearing the opinion of the
persuadnd prin selecia argumentelor favorabile other 60 individuals, thus confirming the
scopului propus; propaganda raional- hypothesis on which the experiment was based.
emoional folosete mai ales aluzia, asocierea
sau transferul de imagine, sugernd fr s 2.2. Typology:
afirme concret, fiind cel mai greu de perceput i At the end of the last century, in the context
propaganda emoional forma care utilizeaz of the Gulf War there was much talk about white
orice modalitate de exploatare a strilor propaganda propaganda which openly
emoionale. acknowledges and assumes its source; grey
- Roger Muchielli, n Psihologia publicitii propaganda which launches messages without
i a propagandei, distinge urmtoarele tipuri de mentioning their source, and identification is
propagand: de ndoctrinare i expansiune required of the recipient; black propaganda
avnd drept obiectiv atragerea i convingerea which declares a false source and meta-
indiferenilor sau oscilanilor; de agitaie propaganda, identified by Heidi and Alvin
(prepropagand) se bazeaz pe exploatarea Toffler, which discredits the propaganda of the
unei singure idei sau a unui singur mesaj i other side.
propaganda de integrare specific regimurilor Clin Hentea has synthesized the opinion of
totalitare, avnd ca scop consolidarea i several scholars on the types of propaganda as
meninerea simpatizanilor sau a celor deja follows:
convini. - Oliver Thomson, by using as a criterion
the manner in which the propaganda message is
3. Perspectivele erei informaionale elaborated, has identified three types of
ncepnd cu anul 1983, momentul apariiei propaganda: rational propaganda which uses
Internetului, domeniul comunicrii se afl ntr-o solely concrete and accurate data and facts,
permanent schimbare. Apariia i dezvoltarea presented in a certain logic, while persuasion is
acestui mediu de comunicare au produs o attained by the selection of those arguments
revoluie n difuzarea informaiilor. Unii which are favorable to the desired objective;
cercettori aseamn aceast revoluie cu cea rational-emotionalpropaganda frequently uses
declanat de apariia tiparului cu litere mobile, hints, image association and transfers, always
inventat de Johann Guttenberg. implying but without clearly stating something,
Evoluia mediului virtual a generat it is the hardest to perceive and
numeroase discuii privind capacitatea sa de a emotionalpropaganda the form that uses any
genera schimbri n peisajul politic, economic, method of exploiting human relations.
social, i cultural. n paralel s-au conturat dou - Roger Muchielli, in the Psychology of
tabere: optimitii cei care considerau c Publicity and Propaganda distinguished among
apariia mediului virtual va aduce la schimbarea the following types of propaganda:
comunicrii, mai ales n spaiul politic, i indoctrination and expansion having as
pesimitii care considerau c Internetul nu are objective the inveiglement and persuasion of
anse s schimbe peisajul politic i electoral al those indifferent or undecided; agitation (pre-
viitorului, considerndu-l un instrument de propaganda) it is based on the exploitation of a

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comunicare de mna a doua64. single idea or a single message and integration


n aceiai ordine de idei, Philippe Breton propaganda this is specific to totalitarian
vorbea despre trei categorii de atitudini fa de regimes, having as a purpose the consolidation
noile tehnologii: tehnofilii cei care consider and conservation of sympathizers and those
c noile tehnologii vor ocupa un loc central, already persuaded.
determinnd dispariia sau nlturarea
mijloacelor de comunicare tradiionale; 3. The Perspectives of the Information
tehnofobii o categorie ostil tehnicii n general Age
i care se opune ascendenei noilor tehnologii ale Starting with 1983, the moment when the
informaiei i comunicrii; i criticii sau Internet appeared, the field of communication
tehnorealitii- cei care adopt o poziie has undergone a continuous transformation. The
echilibrat considernd c utilizarea raional a appearance and creation of this communication
Internetului constituie un factor de progres65. environment has determined a revolution in
information dissemination. Some scholars
Concluzii compare this revolution with that started after the
Fascinaia pe care Internetul o exercit n appearance of the mobile printing press, invented
prezent este foarte mare, fiind similar celei pe by Johann Guttenberg.
care mijloacele media tradiionale au exercitat-o The evolution of the virtual environment
n deceniile anterioare asupra membrilor has generated numerous debates regarding its
Generaiei X sau Baby Boomers. Noutatea i capacity to produce changes in the political,
inovaia din acest moment contribuie la economic, social and cultural arena. In parallel
ntreinerea acestei fascinaii. Cu toate acestea, two sides have been created: the optimists
nimic nu arat cu certitudine c folosirea those who believe that the appearance of a
Internetului nu va pierde n timp din importana virtual environment will lead to a transformation
pe care o are n prezent, determinnd o nou of communication, especially in the public arena
discuie asupra efectelor minimale ale diverselor and pessimists who believed that the Internet
campanii66. La nivelul rii noastre, acest aspect will not change the future political and electoral
trebuie ponderat i cu gradul relativ redus de stage, as it is a second-rate communication
rspndire pe care Internetul l are n mediul instrument.
rural, ce reprezint aproximativ jumtate din Furthermore, Philippe Breton spoke of three
populaie, aspect care limiteaz semnificativ categories of attitudes towards these new
puterea de influen a acestui mijloc de technologies: technophils those who consider
comunicare. that the new technologies will occupy a central
Pornind de la definirea celor dou concepte position, determining the disappearance or
comunicare politic i propagand am replacement of traditional communication;
ncercat s facilitm nelegerea implicaiilor technophobes a category of people hostile to
acestora n societatea actual i a efectelor pe technology in general, which opposed the
termen mediu i lung asupra relaiilor sociale i development of the new informational and
sistemelor politice la nivelul crora se manifest. communicational technologies; and critics or

64
Tudor Slcudeanu, Paul Aparaschivei, Florena Toader, Bloguri, Facebook i politic, Editura Tritonic, Bucureti, 2009,
p.142-143.
65
Paul Dobrescu, Alina Brgoanu, Mass media i societatea, Editura Comunicare.ro, Bucureti, 2003, p.97 apud Tudor
Slcudeanu, Paul Aparaschivei, Florena Toader, op. cit., Editura Tritonic, Bucureti, 2009, p.144.
66
Tudor Slcudeanu, Paul Aparaschivei, Florena Toader, op. cit., p. 198.

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Odat realizat definirea celor dou procese techno-realists those who adopt a balanced
i stabilirea granielor dintre acestea, poate fi approach considering the rational use of Internet
identificat mult mai uor aciunea de as a factor of progress.
propagand, n multitudinea de manifestri
comunicaionale derulate pe multiple canale Conclusions
media, convenionale i neconvenionale, i se The fascination exerted by the Internet in
pot lua mult mai rapid i mai facil msuri de the present is very high, being similar to that
protecie i contracarare, att la nivel individual exerted by traditional media in the past decades
ct i organizaional ori statal. over the members of Generation X or Baby
Boomers. The novelty and innovation from this
BIBLIOGRAFIE moment contributed to the conservation of this
1. Beciu, Camelia, Politica discursiv. Practici fascination. However, nothing indicates that the
politice ntr-o campanie electoral, Editura Polirom, Iai,
use of the Internet will not loose its current
2000.
2. Domenach, Jean-Marie, Propaganda politic, importance over time, by determining the start of
Institutul European, Iai, 2004. a new debate on the minimal effects of different
3. Gerstl, Jacques, Comunicarea politic, Institutul campaigns. In Romania, these aspects must be
European, Iai, 2002. carefully analyzed as well as the relatively low
4. Hentea, Clin, Propagand fr frontiere, Editura
degree of dispersion which the Internet has in the
Nemira, Bucureti, 2002.
5. McQuail, Denis, Comunicarea, Institutul rural area, which represents almost half of the
European, 2000. population, an aspect that significantly limits the
6. Slcudeanu, Tudor, Aparaschivei, Paul, Toader, power of influence of this communication mean.
Florena, Bloguri, Facebook i politic, Editura Tritonic, Starting from the definition of the two
Bucureti, 2009.
concepts political communication and
7. Stnciugelu, tefan, Logica manipulrii 33 de
tehnici de manipulare politic romneasc, Editura C.H. propaganda we have tried to facilitate the
Beck, Bucureti, 2010. understanding of their impact on modern society
8. Stoiciu, Andrei, Comunicarea Politic. Cum se and of their medium and short term effects over
vnd idei i oameni, Editura Humanitas (Libra), Bucureti, social relations and political systems.
2000.
Once accomplished the definition of the two
9. Thoveron, Gabriel, Comunicarea politic azi,
Editura Antet, Bucureti, 1996. processes and the charting of the dividing line
10. Volkoff, Vladimir, Tratat de dezinformare, between the two, once can more easily identify
Editura Antet, Bucureti, 1999. propaganda actions in the multitude of
communicational manifestations taking place on
multiple conventional and unconventional media
channels. Furthermore, protection and
countering methods can be taken more rapidly
and efficiently, both at individual, organizational
and state level.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
1. Beciu, Camelia, Politica discursiv. Practici
politice ntr-o campanie electoral, Editura Polirom, Iai,
2000.
2. Domenach, Jean-Marie, Propaganda politic,
Institutul European, Iai, 2004.

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3. Gerstl, Jacques, Comunicarea politic, Institutul


European, Iai, 2002.
4. Hentea, Clin, Propagand fr frontiere, Editura
Nemira, Bucureti, 2002.
5. McQuail, Denis, Comunicarea, Institutul
European, 2000.
6. Slcudeanu, Tudor, Aparaschivei, Paul, Toader,
Florena, Bloguri, Facebook i politic, Editura Tritonic,
Bucureti, 2009.
7. Stnciugelu, tefan, Logica manipulrii 33 de
tehnici de manipulare politic romneasc, Editura C.H.
Beck, Bucureti, 2010.
8. Stoiciu, Andrei, Comunicarea Politic. Cum se
vnd idei i oameni, Editura Humanitas (Libra), Bucureti,
2000.
9. Thoveron, Gabriel, Comunicarea politic azi,
Editura Antet, Bucureti, 1996.
10. Volkoff, Vladimir, Tratat de dezinformare,
Editura Antet, Bucureti, 1999.

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