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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRECIPITATION The part of precipitation retained temporarilyat th

AND RUNOFF PART 1 e ground surface as interception or depression s

torage so that it doesnt appear as infiltration or
PRECIPITATION - It is defined as the fall water surface runoff either during the rainfall period or
from the atmosphere to the earth surface in any shortly thereafter.
physical form.
FLOOD a flood is an overflowing of water onto
RUNOFF - Runoff is precipitation that did not get normally dry land.
(infiltrated) absorbed into the soil, or did not
evaporate, and therefore, made its way from the Influences on flood size
ground surface into places that water collect.
1. Antecedent soil moisture
INFILTRATION - is the process by which The largest influence on the size of a flood,
precipitation or water soaks into subsurface soils apart from the amount and intensity of
and moves into rocks through cracks and pore rainfall, is the wetness of the soil
spaces. immediately prior to the rainfall or snow melt

2. Deforestation
There is also considerable evidence that a
large vegetation cover, such as forest,
decreases the severity of flooding.

3. Urbanization
Urban areas have a greater extent of
impervious surfaces than in most natural
Types of runoff landforms. Consequently the amount of
infiltration excess overland flow is high.
1. Surface (overland) runoff
It is that portion of rainfall, which enters the 4. Climate change
stream immediately after the rainfall. This is not easy to do as climate is naturally
so variable. What can be said though is that
2. Subsurface runoff
That part of rainfall, which first leaches into river channels slowly adjust to changes in
the soil and moves laterally without joining flow regime which may in turn be influenced
the water - table to the Streams Rivers or by changes in climate.
oceans is known as sub - surface runoff.

3. Base flow
It is delays flow, defined as that part of rainfall
which after falling on the ground surface
infillrated into the soil and meets so the water
table and flow to the streams oceans etc.


-Water held on land surface