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# Outlines

Introduction
Digital Logic Design (DLD) Digital Systems (Concept of Discrete & Binary)
Lecture 2 Binary Logic (Logic Gates)
AND
Dr. Jamshed Iqbal OR
Associate Professor NOT
Department of Electrical Engineering NAND and NOR
XOR
Conversion: Other No.systems Decimal

## National University of Computer &

Emerging Sciences

## Digital Systems Digital Systems

A digital system is a system that How to obtain discrete data?
manipulates discrete elements information Either emerge from the nature of the data
represented internally in binary form being processed
Discrete: Example: Students deposit record (Finite
fields like Name, Roll no., fees, fine)
Any set that is restricted to a finite number of
elements contains discrete information Quantized (sampled) from a continuous
process
Examples:
- Set of 10 decimal digits Example
- 26 letters of the alphabet (ADCs)
- 52 playing cards
- 64 squares of chessboard
Digital Systems
Digital Systems
Analog Signal
Discrete values. But how many?
- Value of signal exists The whole basis of digital electronics is
at any instant of time
- Occurs in continuous based on the simplicity of the on/off or
form 0/1 model
All quantities and values must be coded
Digitized Signal
into this bi-level set of 0s and 1s
- Value of signal only All storage and transmission of values in a
exists at discrete
points in time
digital system occurs using these two
binary digits (bits)

## Binary Logic (Gates)

Digital Systems Digital circuits process data by means of
Voltage range for logic levels binary logic elements (called as logic
gates)
2.0 V 2.7V (TTL), 3.5 V (CMOS)

## 0.5 V 0.8V (TTL), 1.5 V (CMOS)

Basic Binary Operations Binary Logic (AND)
x y z
Binary Arithmetic AND 0 0 0
x y
Subtraction 1 0 0
z
Multiplication 1 1 1
Binary Logic z=xy=xy
AND
x , y = 0 (for Open)
OR = 1 (for Close) x AND y is equal to z
NOT
z = 1 if and only if (iff) x=1 and y=1

## Binary Logic (OR) Binary Logic (NOT)

x y z x z
OR - Also called as Inverter
x 0 0 0 0 1
- Compliment operation
0 1 1 1 0
y
z 1 0 1
z = x = x
1 1 1
z=x+y
x , y = 0 (for Open) NOT x is equal to z
= 1 (for Close) x OR y is equal to z
z = 1 if x=1 or if y=1 or if both =1
Three Levels Binary Logic (Caution)
Binary logic and binary arithmetic are
similar (but NOT same)
Dot . for multiplication and also for AND
x Plus + for addition and also for OR
z
Prime ' for complement and also for NOT
Arithmetic variables designates number
1 bit memory cell (RAM) that may consist of many digits, whereas,
Logical variable is always 1 or 0 x y z
Example: 0 0 0
1 OR 1 = 1 0 1 1
1 plus 1 = (10)2 1 0 1
1 1 1

## Timing Diagram (AND) NAND, NOR & X-OR

NAND (N AND) = AND + NOT
NOR (N OR) = OR + NOT
Practice Q
Make Truth Table of NAND and NOR?
Also draw Timing Diagram of both gates?
XOR (Exclusive OR)

Draw Timing Diagram of OR, x, y Make Truth Table of X-OR and comment
anything special?
Table of Gates Table of Gates (Contd)

## Any No. Sys. Decimal Any No. Sys. Decimal

Let us first revise who things go in Binary No. System: Base 2
Decimal number system Only two digits: 0 or 1
Base (or radix): 10 system Convert (11010)2 into Decimal
Only 10 numbers (09)
7392 means 7 thousands, plus 3
hundreds, plus 9 tens, plus 2 units. i.e. Practice Q
Convert (11010.11)2 into Decimal
Convert (4021.2)5

Representation: (7392.41)10 or 7392.41
Any No. Sys. Decimal Any No. Sys. Decimal
Octal No. System: Base 8 A little short cut:
Only 8 digits (Taken from decimal set) : 07 Convert (110101)2 into Decimal
Convert (127.4)8 into Decimal ONLY consider powers of two with coeff. of 1

Practice Q
Convert (4021.2)8 in decimal

Binary Arithmetic
Easy
DIY
Prog. Fundamental
THANKS
JAMSHED.IQBAL@NU.EDU.PK
ROOM G-06 - EE DEPTT.