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QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE ISO 9001:2008

CERTIFIED PHILIPPINE UNIVERSITIES

Catalino N. Mendoza, DMS, PhD, DBA(c)


Nestor C. Camello, PhD
Christopher V. Manaois, EdD
Marilou Q. Tolentino, DBA

ABSTRACT

The study is focused on the determination of the extent of implementation


and impact of the Quality Management System requirements in the different ISO
9001-2008 Certified Universities in the Philippines.

Specifically discussed the level of implementation of communication


process, physical work environment and customer satisfaction as well as the
level of impact to the members of the organizations such as psychological work
environment, employee satisfaction, suitability, benefits to the organization and
applicability eventually used as bases in the development of enhancement
programs that would intensify the implementation of Quality Management
System requirements to delights the customers needs of ISO 9001:2008
Certified Philippine Universities.

Key Words: ISO 9001:2008, Quality Management System, Philippine


Universities, Three Major Island Groups

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INTRODUCTION

Educational institutions all over the world yearn to have the capacity and the
facility to offer high quality service, that is, quality education. Such an ultimate goal
may be achieved by assuring that the institutions processes and systems are of
excellent quality. Motivated by this intention, schools and universities subject
themselves to various accrediting and evaluating bodies which propel them to
improve and strive so that their objective may be attained.
In the Philippines, a lot of educational institutions have been availing of the
services of various accrediting bodies that help in imposing standards through the
development of performance indicators for quality education. Because of the
growing recognition on the importance of educational performance to the
competitive performance of other nations, private and public agencies are
responding to improving the quality of educational performance within their existing
resources to meet the needs of the industries in the Philippines and abroad.
The accreditation movement in the Philippines began in 1951 through the
initiative of a group of educators from private higher education institutions who
were convinced to enhance quality in higher education through a system of
standards, continuous monitoring of implementation, and self-assessment.
According to Arcelo (2003), the system of higher education in the Philippines
adopted accreditation as a means of achieving high-level quality on a voluntary
basis.
One of the standards employed by schools and universities in the country is
the quality management system specifically that of ISO 9000 which helps assess
whether the system is of good quality or still progressing. ISO 9001 is intended to
be used in a contract between a customer and a supplier. When a supplier is ISO
9001 accredited, the customer could be convinced that it is fulfilling the
requirements of the standards by showing to them the ISO certification.
Hoyle (2009) stated that the ISO 9000 family of standards is a set of criteria
that can be applied to all organizations regardless of type, size and product or
service provided. When applied correctly these standards will help organizations
develop the capability to create and retain satised customers in a manner that
satises all the other stakeholders. Implementing quality management system that
conforms to ISO 9001:2008 entails documenting operating procedures, training,
internal auditing, and corrective procedures. Using ISO 9001:2008 helps ensure
that customers get consistent, good quality goods and services, which in turn bring
many benefits to the company.
A number of companies specialized in certification of supplier to ISO 9001.
This is called third party certification and the certifying company is a certification
body. To start with the certification, the supplier invites bids from several
certification bodies; the supplier agrees a contract with one certification body and
the selection criteria are usually price, reputation and competence in the suppliers
business area (http://www.oskarsson.se). On the other hand, the eight principles of
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ISO 9001:2008 consist of customer focus, leadership, involvement of people,
process approach, system approach to management, continual improvement,
factual approach to decision making, and mutually supplier relationships These
principles provide the reasons for the requirements and are thus very important
(Sumaedi, 2011).
Educational institutions particularly Colleges and Universities that offer
Higher Education aim to become ISO 9001:2008 because of the many benefits
such a certification can provide. These advantages include edge in facing
competition, acquiring public acceptability, receiving a stamp of quality and many
others.
Having an ISO 9001:2008 certification, a certified institution is directed to
abide by the principle of TQM and ISO which is continual improvement. Thus, it
has to regularly subject itself to both internal and external audits. However, since
audits like these do not happen every day, there is no measure to check the
consistency and the veracity of compliance that may be presented or shown
during an audit.
Conversely, according to UNIDO (2012), several studies regarding the effect
of ISO certification have been carried out in different countries across the globe
with varying results. In recent years, some concerns have been expressed in the
Asian developing economies and elsewhere about whether accredited certification
to ISO 9000 has been achieving the desired outcomes, or whether excessive
attention to obtaining certification has shifted the focus away from the effectiveness
of the quality management system of the organizations involved.
The researchers, are faculty members of ISO 9001:2008 certified
universities recognized the great role the members of the institution play in
making sure that ISO standards become the way of life of the organization and
not just an occasional occurrence. Having been involved in ISO audits, the
researchers realized that having ISO certification is not an assurance of a perfect
and excellent system. The certified organizations and institutions must work hard
to sustain and maintain its compliance with the ISO standards. In order to do so,
every member of the institution must recognize and fulfil his or her essential role
in maintaining required standards. Participation and cooperation of members of
the certified institution is essential to ensure that the institution complies with the
standard whether there is an audit or not.
This study, which was focused on identifying the extent of implementation
and impact of QMS requirements on ISO 9001 certified universities, was
necessary since its findings provided relevant data that may be used by the
tertiary educational institutions in the Philippines in identifying the strengths,
improving the weaknesses and enhancing the implementation of ISO. Involving
the employees as the respondents may foster awareness on and recognition of
their roles in maintaining consistent conformance of tertiary educational
institutions to ISO standards.

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The findings of the study would further provided information that may help
the ISO 9001 certified universities management assess their programs for
human resources to further enhance the work environment in the organization,
since, after all, the backbone of the organization are its employees or workers
and its customers. The company that gives prime importance to its employees
and customers may be assured of the genuine support and cooperation of the
members of the organization in all endeavors, particularly in maintaining
conformance with ISO standards. Once employees feel that they are being given
significance, they will not hesitate to exert all their efforts in helping achieve the
goals of the organization.
The questionnaire designed by the researchers and which was used as
survey instrument may also be adapted by the participating tertiary educational
institutions as they conduct periodic evaluation of ISO conformance. Doing
periodic assessment on the impact may help the management in fostering the
culture of aiming for high quality standards at all times and in different
circumstances. Also, this study provided relevant data on how QMS can be
effectively implemented in the entire Higher Education sector. The proposed
enhancement program prepared by the researchers may be used by the
participating ISO 9001 certified universities to strengthen the implementation of
ISO 9001:2008 QMS requirements in their operations.

Conceptual Framework

The study was anchored on Demings theory of Total Quality


Management. Communication process, physical work environment and customer
satisfaction were conceived as influencing the impact of ISO 9001:2008 based
quality management system. The following discussions outline the relationships
suggested in the framework.
The communication process is the guide toward realizing effective
communication. It is through the communication process that the sharing of a
common meaning between the sender and the receiver takes place. Individuals
that follow the communication process will have the opportunity to become more
productive in every aspect of their profession (http://web.njit.edu). It is essential
that effective communication channel is established to ensure that everyone
understands what they are required to achieve and how they are performing. No
journey should be undertaken without a means of knowing where they are, how
far they have to go, what obstacles are likely to lie in the path ahead or what
forces will inuence success.
The term physical work environment is used to describe the surrounding
conditions in which an employee operates. It can be composed of physical
conditions such as office temperature, or equipment such as personal
computers. It can also be related to factors such as work processes or
procedures (http://www.money-zine.com). Physical work environment is crucial
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for the organizations success, because it has the major and direct impact on the
performance of its workers.
In a competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers,
customer satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become
a key element of business strategy. The best way to find out whether your
customers are satisfied is to ask them (http://www.doortraining.com). The ISO
9001:2008 QMS standards, clause 8.2.1, requires the organization to monitor
information relating to customer perception as to whether the organization has
met customer requirements and requires the methods of obtaining and using this
information to be determined.
A healthy psychological work environment is imperative to ensure job
satisfaction and well-being in the workplace. Psychological factors of the work
environment are those that arise from an individuals inner needs and external
inuences which include recognition, responsibility, achievement, advancement,
reward, job security, interpersonal relations, leadership, afliation, self-esteem,
and occupational stress. They tend to affect or shape the emotions, feelings,
personality, loyalty and attitudes of people and therefore the motivation of people
towards the job to which they have been assigned (Hoyle, 2009).
Employee job satisfaction is an intangible element within the workplace
that can impact productivity, employee morale, turnover and retention. Employee
satisfaction levels are higher when employers create working conditions that
foster the psychological and physical well-being of its employees
(http://www.insidebusiness360.com).
Benefits to the organization determine whether the organizations
management system and objectives are relevant to the organization. If the
management system continues driving the organization against existing
objectives, it will fail to satisfy customers and other stakeholders (Hoyle, 2009).
Beyond compliance and conformance, there are four things to test the
suitability of the system: the activity gets the results desired, resources (people,
equipment, money) are used wisely and effectively, people are able to do it right
the first time, and the right processes and controls are selected (Russell, 1998).
The applicability of ISO 9001:2008 QMS depends on how the employees
and the management react to the new system. The reaction and reception of the
workers to innovation is the key ingredient to successful implementation of the
new system (Ismael, 2006). Acceptance or refusal of the employees to the ISO
9001:2008 QMS requirements is very important for the success of the system,
as it has major impacts on the degree of involvements and commitment of the
management and the workers (Russell, 1998).
At the end, enhancement program will be formulated to encourage
organization workers to participate in the improvement of the implementation and
impact of the requirements of ISO 9001:2008 QMS standards.

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Figure 1
CNM Model on Analysis and Evaluation in the Philippine ISO 9001:2008
Certified Universities

Statement of Objectives

The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of implementation


and impact of QMS requirements on ISO 9001-2008 certified universities in the
Philippines.
Specifically, this study aimed to measure the extent of implementation of
ISO 9001:2008 QMS requirements in terms of communication process, physical
work environment and customer satisfaction and the level of impact of ISO
9001:2008 QMS requirements in reference to psychological work environment,
employee satisfaction, suitability, benefits to the organization and applicability.
It also aimed to determine the significant difference in the extent of
implementation of QMS requirements among the participating ISO 9001:2008
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certified universities and the significant difference in the impact of ISO
9001:2008 QMS requirements of the Philippine Universities.
The study focus as well on significant relationships between the extent of the
implementation and the impact of QMS and a design of what enhancement
program could be proposed in order to intensify the implementation of ISO
9001:2008 QMS requirements in the ISO 9001:2008 certified universities in the
Philippines.

RESEARCH METHOD

Research Design
The focus of the study was to gather information about the extent of the
implementation and the impact of QMS requirements on ISO 9001-2008 certified
universities in the Philippines. The researchers used the quantitative research.
Quantitative research involves the collection and analysis of numerical data,
which are usually rendered in the form of statistics (Lurenberg, 2008). On the first
phase, literature was obtained from the secondary sources, books, journal,
internet references and so forth. On the second phase, the quantitative survey
was conducted to the general administrative and support services employees in
the participating ISO 9001:2008certified universities in the Philippines.

Respondents/Subjects of the Study`


The participants of the study were composed of the general administrative
and support services employees from which 590 came from Luzon , 390 from
Visayas, and 510 from Mindanao. There were 490 males, and 1000 females with
a minimum of 6 months service record regardless of their employment status.
The number of participants was determined through convenience sampling.
Convenience sampling involves including in the sample whoever happens to be
available at the time (Lorenburg, 2008)

Data Gathering Instruments


The inferential statistics was utilized in this research work to look into the
extent of the implementation and impact of QMS requirements on ISO 9001:2008
certified universities in the Philippines. Inferential statistics is a mathematical
method that employs probability theory for deducing (inferring) the properties of a
population from the analysis of the properties of a data sample drawn from it. It is
concerned with the precision and reliability of the inferences it helps to draw
(http://www.businessdictionary.com).
The main data-gathering instrument used in this study was the
questionnaire which was developed by the researchers with the help of the
consultant. Questionnaire is a written set of questions that are given to people in
order to collect facts or opinions about something (http://www.merriam-
webster.com/).
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For items under respondents profile, the frequency counts and percentages
were used for scoring purposes.

Data Gathering Procedures

Upon the approval of the questionnaire, the researchers and other leg work
assistance personally distributed the final copies to the participants of ISO
9001:2008 certified universities in the Philippines. The researchers requested the
help of the head of the Human Resource Department in the distribution of the
questionnaires. During the distribution of the questionnaires, the researchers
guaranteed the confidentiality of all the information that are gathered.
Upon the retrieval of the questionnaire, the researchers simultaneously
conducted informal interview to validate the information provided in the survey
instrument. Both open and closeended questions about the topic were asked to
generate a more comprehensive and insightful understanding of the topic under
study.

Statistical Tools Used


The collected data were treated using SPSS program to facilitate the
analyses and interpretation as basis for critical analysis. Questionnaires with three
or more missing data were excluded in the analysis. In all, 1490 questionnaires
were entered in the analysis. The data collected were treated with the following
statistical tools:
Weighted Mean and Standard Deviation is used to determine the
responses obtained from the Likert scale of 1 to 5 posted in part 2 and part 3 of
the questionnaire.
One way ANOVA is used to determine the significant differences between
the extent of implementation and the impact of QMS requirements among the
ISO 9001-2008 certified participating universities in the Philippines.
Simple Linear Regression is used to determine the relationship between
the extent of implementation and the impact of QMS requirements among the
ISO 9001:2008 certified participating universities in the Philippines.

THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY

Communication process, physical work environment, and customer


satisfaction were the requirements of ISO 9001:2008 used in this study to
determine its extent of implementation in the Philippine Education system. The
statistical treatment of the data of these three requirements gathered composite
means between 4.31 and 4.1. It means that the three requirements of ISO
9001:2008 QMS were implemented in the three major island groups . But when the
variables under the three requirements of ISO were treated individually, it appeared
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that sufficient lighting for maximum comfort and productivity was highly
implemented in Visayas and Luzon, and room air-temperature conducive to
working was highly implemented in Visayas.
The five indicators used to determine the impact of ISO 9001:2008 QMS
requirements to the three major island groups were psychological work
environment, employee satisfaction, suitability, benefits to the organization, and
applicability. The weighted means between 3.51 and 4.44, indicated that the
respondents agreed that ISO 9001:2008 QMS requirements had impact to
psychological work environment, employee satisfaction, and benefits to the
organization. It was also found that the respondents agreed that ISO 9001:2008
QMS was suitable and applicable to Philippine Education system.
The F-value of 2.375 and 0.121 and the probability values (ANOVA) of .097
and .886 revealed that the three major island groups has no significant difference
in the extent of implementation of communication process and customer
satisfaction, but a significant difference in physical work environment was found as
manifested by the F-value of 8.36 with probability value of .000. The mean
difference of 0.0367 with a probability value of .961 indicated that Visayas and
Luzon has no significant difference in the implementation of physical work
environment, but Visayas and Mindanao have significant difference in
implementing the physical work environment as indicated by the probability value
of .001. The mean difference of 0.457 indicated that Visayas implemented the
physical work environment better than Mindanao, while Luzon was better in
implementing the physical work environment when compared to Mindanao as
supported by the mean difference of -0.421 and probability value of .008.
The F-values of 0.496, 2.369, 2.134, 0.294 and 2.306 with probability values
of .610, .097, .122, .746, and .103 indicated that the impact of the ISO 9001:2008
QMS requirements among the three major island groups has no significant
difference. Relationship between the extent of the Implementation and the impact
of ISO 9001:2008 QMS requirements.The statistical treatment of communication
process (R= .654, p= .000), physical work environment (R= .685, p= .000), and
customer satisfaction (R= .678, p= .000) indicated high positive relationship with
psychological work environment. The statistical treatment of communication
process (R= .676, p= .000), physical work environment (R= .700, p= .000), and
customer satisfaction (R= .763, p= .000) indicated high positive relationship with
employee satisfaction. The statistical treatment of communication process (R= .
637, p= .000), physical work environment (R= .650, p= .000), and customer
satisfaction (R= .691, p= .000) indicated high positive relationship with suitability.
The statistical treatment of communication process (R= .713, p= .000), and
customer satisfaction (R= .681, p= .000) revealed high positive relationship, while
physical work environment (R= .557, p= .000) indicated moderate relationship with
benefits to the organization. The statistical treatment of communication process
(R= .745, p= .000) and customer satisfaction (R= .664, p= .000) showed high
positive relationship, while physical work environment (R= .590, p= .000) indicated
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moderate relationship with applicability.

CONCLUSIONS
Sufficient lighting for maximum comfort and productivity was highly
implemented in the Visayas and Luzon, and room air temperature conducive to
working was highly implemented in the Visayas. Psychological work
environment, employee satisfaction, suitability, benefits to the organization and
applicability were the impacts of the requirements of ISO 9001:2008 QMS.
The extent of implementation of ISO 9001:2008 QMS requirements among
the three major island groups in term of physical work environment had significant
difference. The impact of the ISO 9001:2008 QMS requirements among the three
major island groups had no significant difference. The relationship between the
extent of the implementation and the impact of ISO 9001:2008 QMS requirements
was positively related.

FUTURE USE
Conduct benchmarking of the best practices of other international schools
and other organizations on the implementation of the physical work environment.
Conduct an assessment on the present lighting set-up in the workplace,
including the position of the source of light and type of work of the employees.
Evaluate the present condition of the air-conditioning units in all offices of
the institutions to determine the necessity for repair or replacement/upgrade and
at the same time conduct regular inspection/maintenance of the air-conditioning
unit.
Assess the existing process equipment in each department and consult
the department heads of each department for possible replacement/addition or
upgrade of the process equipment. Replace obsolete and/or provide additional
process equipment as per assessment and/or as per department heads
recommendation.
Conduct training/seminars for all employees on customers complaints
management and minimize if not eliminate costumers complaints
Distribute Customer Service Postcard Questionnaires (CSPQ) to all
departments to gather information concerning current and future needs,
feedbacks, perceptions, suggestions and complaints of the customers for an
improved customer service then develop an strategic plan for the entire institution
in meeting the needs, address the feedbacks, perceptions, and complaints of the
customers and conduct monthly assessment and evaluation on the effectiveness
of the strategic plan.

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Conduct an institutional quality policy seminar and workshop to determine
the effectiveness of the policy by implementing the SWOT analysis (Strenghts,
Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) of the institution thru one-on-one
orientation to employees on their responsibilities and authorities in the
organization their quality objectives projects using extended detail activities with
a bar chart showing timescales and responsibilities.
Require department head of different offices to submit their
communication process, post their communication chart on the strategic wall in
their respective areas of responsibilities, and evaluate the appropriateness of the
process by requiring the department heads to provide feedback on their
communication process.

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