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SEMINARIO INTERNACIONAL

Diseo y Durabilidad del Shotcrete

Design &
Modeling
Plan
Design of a wet-mix shotcrete mixture
Strength and durability
Pumping:
Basic rules for shotcrete pumping
State-of-the-art approach

Modeling of shotcrete placement


Strength & Durability

Shotcrete is a method to place concrete


so (almost) everything we know about concrete
applies to shotcrete
The main difference is in the consolidation or
compaction
Concrete: vibration
Shotcrete: high velocity of the material

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Strength & Durability

The single most important factor for strength


and durability is the water/cement ratio!!
Mas importante: razon agua/cemento!
because the w/c controls the porosity

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Strength &
Durability

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Strength & Durability

Unfortunately, this statement is incomplete:


water/cement ratio is the most important
parameter, as long as:
the fresh concrete is stable and homogeneous
placement and consolidation is complete
curing (hydration) takes place

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Concrete Mix Design
The challenge is the same everywhere around the
globe:
Produce the cheapest ($) concrete while reaching the
specifications of the engineer
It is a simple calculation:
1 ton of cement: 180 $-220 $
1 ton of aggregate: 10-50 $
1 litre of water: ??? $
Admixtures: 5 - 60 $ (& ++)
For a concrete (m3) : 130-200 $/m3 (& ++)

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Concrete Mix Design

The lowest cost means less cement and more


water (w/cm ) and a lot of aggregates...

The specifications of the engineer (strength &


durability) usually translate into a low w/cm

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Concrete Mix Design
A good mix design is therefore a
compromise where we look for:
Maximum amount of aggregate
A low w/cm for durable and strong paste
while maintaining adequate workability for
placement and consolidation (minimum amount
of paste in the system + admixtures)
and preventing instability (segregation or
bleeding)

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How to Mix design ACI 211

Select a w/c based on exposure conditions


AND compressive strength (< value)

Based on aggregate* size, air content and


target slump, choose water content and
calculate cement content

* gradation per ASTM C33
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How to Mix design ACI 211

Based on sand Fineness Modulus, select
coarse aggregate content
Fill the rest of the space with sand
Adjust water content for Saturated Surface
Dry (SSD) conditions of aggregates
Try it !

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PUMPING CONCRETE

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Concrete Pumping Why ?
Concrete pumping is widely used for:
Hard to reach places
Multi story buildings
Floors
Slabs on grade
Wet-mix shotcrete
Blockage
Stops productivity
$$$
Demoralizes the troops
Excessive wear on equipment
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How to Mix design for the PUMP
ACI 304.2R
Select a w/c based on exposure conditions AND
compressive strength (< value)

Based on aggregate* size, air content and target


slump , choose water content and calculate
cement content
TARGET SLUMP: 5-15 cm 2-6

* gradation per ASTM C33 and more

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Sand gradation -(304.2R)

Sieve
No.50: 15%-30%
Target FM: 2.68 No.100: 5%-10%
max variation: 0.2

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ACI 304.2R

Combined aggregate -(304.2R)

Combined aggregates

No zig-zags! Usually results in


coarse agg./total
agg. <50%

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Aggregates
Gradation
Interesting Quotes (304R-00)
For gradation purposes, the fine and coarse
aggregate should be considered as one

The use of extra quantities of cementitious


materials as the only means to correct
pumping difficulties is shortsighted and
uneconomical. Correcting any deficiencies in
the aggregate gradation is more important.

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Literature review
Other publications (on concrete) all agree on
the importance of:
Coarse aggregate/Total aggregate content (<50%)
Fineness modulus of sand (2.5 2.9)
Amount of fines in the mix (all sources)
Gradation of the entire aggregate portion
Slump (5-15 cm 2-6)
Air content (3% -5%; up to 12% for shotcrete)
Admixture

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IF WE GO A LITTLE FURTHER

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Pumping Concrete
Pumpability (definition)
The ability of confined concrete to flow
under pressure while maintaining its
initial properties
which led to types of studies:
Stability under pressure
Mobility under pressure

Gray, 1962; Beaupr, 1994


Pumping Concrete
Mobility: Ede (1967) observed that the
concrete flow in a pipe respected the laws of
hydraulics
Flow is independent of pressure
Head loss is linear Browne & Bamforth, 1977;
Tattersall & Banfill, 1983;
Kaplan, 2000; Chapdelaine, 2006
Flow vs. friction
Several studies are available, but results vary
considerably:
Only consider slump, omit viscosity
Slump & Viscosity ?
Rheology
Study of fluids in motion
No se puede mostrar la imagen en este momento.

Bingham rheological
model
= 0 +
Yield stress (0)
Plastic viscosity ()
Friction in the pipe ?
Tribology
Study of the interaction of surfaces in relative motion

Chapdelaine, 2006
Behavior
(Kaplan, 2000; Chapdelaine, 2006)
Bilinear model
Low speed tribology
Interface prop.
Higher speeds
rheology and tribology
Interface & flow prop.
Key pumping parameters
PIZZA EFFECT!

Pipe : 15 cm (6)
Pipe : 5 cm (2)
Lubricating layer: 2 mm
Lubricating layer: 2 mm
Paste in layer: 2.6% Paste in layer: 7.8%

Chapdelaine, 2006
Reducers
The MIX must therefore allow for a
rapid reorganization of the aggregates
to allow the migration of paste to the
exterior wall, while accelerating, and
while maintaining stability (not
segregation) !
= 15 cm (6)
Vout = 9

= 5 cm (2)
Vin = 1
SHOTCRETE

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Wet-mix Process
The concrete is pumped through a hose
and air is added at the nozzle to accelerate
the mixture to a high velocity
Wet-mix Process
Wet-mix Shotcrete
2 in. hose High Output
Wet-mix Shotcrete
1.5 in. hose Low Output
What is different with shotcrete?
Two supplemental requirements:
We have to pump in smaller hose diameter:
Pumping concrete in general: = 10-15cm (4-6)
Shotcrete: = 3.7-6 cm (1.5-2.5)

We need it to stick on the receiving surface!

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Literature review
ACI 506R-05 Guide to shotcrete suggests:
the use of its Gradation #2 with 10 mm nominal
max. aggregates
Max. aggregate size = 1/3 of hose diameter
the use of 390-450 kg/m3 of cement (and adds)
a W/CM between 0.4 and 0.5

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ACI 506R-05 Guide to shotcrete

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Challenges in wet-mix shotcrete
Limit hose blockages

Limit (eliminate!) fall-outs from


shotcreted surface

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How ?
Limit hose blockages
Increase workability while maintaining stability
(improve mix design (!), use of AEA and SP)
Target: slump of 5 - 12.5 cm (2-5)
Challenges & Dangers:
Difficulties in controlling quality and uniformity of mix
components (usually aggregate gradation)
Overuse of SP, creating stability problems: if it does not
pump at 15 cm slump, there is a problem!!

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How ?
Eliminate fall-outs from shotcreted
surface
Use set-accelerator at the nozzle
Dangers:
If the previous slide is not working and the mix pumped
is unstable or just too workable (slump > 15 cm), then
one needs more set-accelerator to prevent fall-outs
which may (will) result in reduced strength and
durability

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Examples of mix design
#1 -Mortar #2 - Concrete #3 SF Concrete
Cement (kg/m3) 540 450 395
Silica fume (kg/m3) - - 32
Sand (0-5 mm) 1600 1630 1090
(kg/m3)
Coarse agg. (2.5-12 - 235 600
mm) (kg/m3)
Water 230 170 210
(kg/m3) (w/b = 0.42) (w/b = 0.38) (w/b = 0.49)
AEA (ml/kg binder) 12.5 - -
SP (ml/kg binder) 1.3 - -
Air content (%) 10.3 5.0 4.6
Slump (cm) 12 4.5 5

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Summary
We have identified:
the aggregate gradations (sand & combined),
FM, (Coarse Agg./Total Agg)
the water/cement ratio
for strength and durability

as the control parameter of our shotcrete


production.

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LETS GO EVEN FURTHER

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Research Project
Objective
Improve and understand wet-mix shotcrete

Special attention is given to properties relating


to:
Pumpability of concrete
To pump or not to pump?
Shootability of shotcrete
To stick or not to stick?
Results
Pumpability:
% Paste
Pumping pressures
Rheology
&Tribology
Shootability
Air flow
Rebound
In-place proportions
Hardened
properties
Pumpability
Pre-bagged material Example of mix

More than 25 mixes Constituants Proportions

W/B = 0.4 Type 10SF 392 kg/m3

Variable paste content Water 157 kg/m3


Variable air content (3- Sand 0-5 mm 828 kg/m3
13%)
Gravel 2.5-10 mm 761 kg/m3
> 40 m3 of concrete
Target Slump 75 mm
Air 13 %
Pumpability
Cement Air
Paste Pump or
Mix Content content
content% not?
kg/m3 %

DF-10SF-13 392 41.9 NP


DF-10SF-13mod1 405 13 42.8 Blocage
DF-10SF-13mod 415 43.5 Pumped
DF-10SF-7 406 41.5 NP
7
DF-10SF-7mod 444 39.6 Pumped
DF-10SF-3 438 35.1 NP
3
DF-10SF-3mod 465 37.0 Pumped
DF-10-13 403 42.4 NP
13
DF-10-13mod 420 43.6 Pumped
ACI-10SF-13 400 42.4 NP
13
ACI-10SF-13mod 415 43.5 Pumped
Pumpability

Cement Air Paste


Mix Content content content Pump or not?
kg/m3 % %
DF-10SF-13mod 415 13 43.5 Pumped
DF-10SF-7mod 444 7 39.6 Pumped
DF-10SF-3mod 465 3 37.0 Pumped
DF-10-13mod 420 13 43.6 Pumped
ACI-10SF-13mod 415 13 43.5 Pumped
Active Paste Content
Mix Proportions (v/v)
80X

7%
Inital Concrete
Atmospheric

Solid Volume
93%
Pressure (250 psi) Pressure

Air = 100%

Air content = 7% Air


7%
80X
Under Pumping

Remaining
100 Concrete
Under Solid areVolume
%pressure, air bubbles dissolved
= 93%of the mix
The solid phase now occupies 100%
volume
Air content
0% 0% Air
Active Paste Content
Example (7% air) Volume Volume
39.6% 32.6% = 35.1 = =
100% 93%
93% 100
Proportions Proportions
DF-10SF-7mod (atmosphere) (under pressure)

Vol /m3 Vol /m3


Cement 444 kg/m3 0.145 478 kg/m3 0.156
Water 178 kg/m3 0.178 191 kg/m3 0.191
Sand 0-5 mm 861 kg/m3 0.321 925 kg/m3 0.345
Agg. 2.5-100 mm 791 kg/m3 0.283 850 kg/m3 0.304
Air 7.0 % 0.07 0% 0
Admixtures 0.003 0.004
Paste Volume 39.6 % 35.1
Active paste
Mix
Cement
Content
Air
content
Paste ACTIVE Pump or
kg/m3 %
content%
PASTE % not?

DF-10SF-13 392 13 41.9 33.2 NP


DF-10SF-13mod1 405 13 42.8 34.2 Blocage
DF-10SF-13mod 415 13 43.5 35.1 Pumped
DF-10SF-7 406 12 41.5 33.5 NP
DF-10SF-7mod 444 7 39.6 35.1 Pumped
DF-10SF-3 438 3 35.1 33.1 NP
DF-10SF-3mod 465 3 37 35.1 Pumped
DF-10-13 403 13 42.4 33.8 NP
DF-10-13mod 420 13 43.6 35.1 Pumped
ACI-10SF-13 400 13 42.4 33.8 NP
ACI-10SF-13mod 415 13 43.5 35.1 Pumped
Pumpability
Cement Air Paste
ACTIVE Pump or
Mix Content content content
kg/m3 % % PASTE % not?

DF-10SF-13mod 415 13 43.5 35.1 Pumped


DF-10SF-7mod 444 7 39.6 35.1 Pumped
DF-10SF-3mod 465 3 37.0 35.1 Pumped
DF-10-13mod 420 13 43.6 35.1 Pumped
ACI-10SF-13mod 415 13 43.5 35.1 Pumped

Caution: it worked for our aggregates,


equipment and our range of
workability values
Discussion-Shotcrete
By imagining the mechanisms and phenomena that
take place in the hose:
Lubricating layer
Flow distribution
Pizza effect in reducers

It offers us the opportunity to better understand


concrete pumping and to improve on:
mixture design
equipment
job site conditions (longer pumping line, fewer clogs, etc)
Conclusions
Concrete pumping is more and more popular
and in constant evolution
Increase use of wet-mix shotcrete and
stringent design requirements (will) forces
engineers to better understand concrete
rheology and pumping mechanism
Remember

Concrete under
pressure

Active Paste Content


MODELING OF SHOTCRETE
PLACEMENT

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Background
Study of particles transport

Zone of
interest!
Mix
Design

In-Place

Transport
(Equipment)
Background
A wide range of particle velocities are reported in literature

-Stewart (1933)
220-330 MPH (Gunite)

-Austin and Robins (1995)


65-135 MPH (dry-mix)
25-65 MPH (wet-mix)

- Armelin high-speed filming (1997)


11- 60 MPH

No characterization of the entire flow of particle out


of the nozzle
Methodology
Measurement of particle velocity at the nozzle
Description:
Shotcrete cinematic
X= 1 m
X= 0,5 m
X= 0,1 m

Nozzle

Nozzl
e
Y (m)

Y (m)
Y (m)

U (m/s) U (m/s) U (m/s)


Shotcrete cinematic
Wet-Mix 200cfm- 100 cm - 36 in

nozzl
e

Experimental data : Captured weight per unit of time


Modlisation
Objective & Methodology

Study Rebound (through Armelins model 1997)

Impact point

Armelin, 1997

Impact model

Particles
trajectory Verify and enhance
Particle tracking during the impact rebound model
accuracy
Discussion
Perspective of this study
Effect of equipment on material exit velocities,
velocity profiles and energy profiles
Understanding and describing the flow of material

Effect of material flow characteristics on:


rebound
in-place compaction
in-place mechanical properties
durability
Concluding remarks

There is a lot of material available on concrete


pumping
Many subjects are of interest and linked:
pumping, placement, durability, etc.
Research in shotcrete is strong !
Look for it!
Special thanks
This type of research requires strong support
from the industry
Contributors
Marc JOLIN, prof.
Dep of Civil Eng.
Laval University
marc.jolin@gci.ulaval.ca