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TRSR Corridor Feasibility Design

ENB372 Assignment 2
Civil Design Team 2
Christian Nielsen, Ricky Tran, Rajdeep Dutta
Executive Summary
This report includes the civil geometric design, conducted to assess the feasibility of a rejuvenation of
an existing two-way, undivided road. It summarises the design process with the investigation bounds
such as:

Design Traffic- BTC provided estimates such as projected AADT, % of heavy commercial vehicles, traffic
composition, general access vehicle and future bus network.

Design Speed- The operating speed and thus, design speed was determined to be 80 km/hr. Both
horizontal curves along corridor were found to be safe for drivers, in terms of limiting curve speed.
The operating speed for trucks was determined as 70 km/hr.

Type Cross Section- The type cross section of Tilley Road will consist of a 6 meter median, 7 meter
carriageway consisting of two 3.5m road lanes, 2 meter bike lane and a 4.5 meter urban border only
on the left side heading North. Kerb and channelling is also utilised within the road corridor where
appropriate and a bus stop has been implemented between the Bacton Road intersection.

Sight Distance- The stopping sight distance for cars and trucks were determined as 121.537m and
114m, respectively. The safe intersection sight distance for cars and trucks were determined as
188.203m and 172.333m, respectively. 12D SSD and SISD reports approved that sufficient SSD is
provided for both cars and trucks along the entire length of the corridor (using SSD) and at
intersections (using SISD).

Alignment Development and Coordination- The final design alignment adhered to AGRD section 6, 7
and 8 to provide a safe, economical and coordinated alignment, which integrated all relevant controls
requested by the client and those of all other stakeholders. The design achieves an economical balance
of earthwork while maintaining intersection and property access, increasing safety and keeping the
crest, which is critical for preventing contamination of the Tingalpa Reservoir.

Intersection Design A staggered left-right t-intersection will be constructed at the Bacton road
intersection and a channelized right at the Waste Treatment Plant intersection. The intersections are
both un-signalised and designed in accordance to AGRD.

Road Drainage- A transverse slope of -3% guides runoff to barrier kerb and channel. For the kerb inlet
design, side inlet is required for bicyclists safety. Pit & Pipe system, of which the kerb and channel
is a part, where runoff enters the underground drainage network with suitable piping, leading into
council catchment basins and then into creeks. Sizing should be considered and a filtration system
should be implemented. Adequate capacity of inlets and underground drainage system must be
provided at the bottom of the vertical sag to decrease water pooling on the surface. This must be done
in accordance with the criteria set in Queensland Urban Drainage Manual.

Structural Elements- A bridge has been designed in accordance with AGRD for Tilley road and will
provide a consistent type cross section with the approaching road, important factors surrounding the
bridge design have been considered. A bus stop will also be constructed between the Bacton Road
intersections in anticipation for future use.

Resumptions- Throughout the design there was an aim to minimize resumptions, and this was
achieved through the use of a modified type cross-section which removed the urban border on the
RHS of the road. No high ecologically significant areas required resumptions, however partial
resumptions of the kerb side driveway on 188 Bacton Road needed to be resumed.

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................ I
Notation ....................................................................................................................................... iv
1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 Location of Project ............................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Scope of Project ................................................................................................................. 1
2.0 Planning Considerations .............................................................................................................. 2
2.1 Assumptions ...................................................................................................................... 2
2.2 Restrictions & Constraints .................................................................................................. 2
3.0 Design Traffic ............................................................................................................................... 2
4.0 Design Speed ............................................................................................................................... 3
4.1 Determination of Design Speed................................................................................................ 3
4.2 Limiting Curve Speed vs. Operation Speed ............................................................................... 3
4.3 Operation Speed for Trucks ................................................................................................ 3
5.0 Type Cross Section ....................................................................................................................... 3
5.1 Carriageway Width .................................................................................................................. 3
5.2 Shoulder and Bicycle Lanes ...................................................................................................... 3
5.3 Crossfall ................................................................................................................................... 4
5.5 Batter Slope ............................................................................................................................. 4
5.6 Median .................................................................................................................................... 4
5.7 Urban Border ........................................................................................................................... 4
5.8 Kerb and Channelling ............................................................................................................... 4
6.0 Sight Distance .............................................................................................................................. 4
6.1 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD) .................................................................................................. 4
6.1.1 Reaction Time (Rt) ............................................................................................................. 4
6.1.2 Design Speed (V) ............................................................................................................... 5
6.1.3 Longitudinal Deceleration Coefficient (d)........................................................................... 5
6.1.4 Longitudinal Grade (a) ....................................................................................................... 5
6.2 Safe Intersection Sight Distance (SISD) ..................................................................................... 5
7.0 Alignment Development and Coordination .................................................................................. 5
7.1 Horizontal Alignment ............................................................................................................... 5
7.1.1 Control Line Geometry ...................................................................................................... 5
7.1.2 Horizontal Curves .............................................................................................................. 5
7.1.3 Curve Transitions and Widening ........................................................................................ 6
7.1.4 Superelevation .................................................................................................................. 6

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7.2 Vertical Alignment ................................................................................................................... 6
Vertical Curves........................................................................................................................... 6
Grading Considerations.............................................................................................................. 7
7.3 Alignment Coordination ........................................................................................................... 7
8.0 Intersections and Connections ..................................................................................................... 7
8.1 Bacton Road Intersection ......................................................................................................... 7
8.2 Waste Treatment Plant Intersection ........................................................................................ 7
8.3 Signalisation ............................................................................................................................ 8
9.0 Road Drainage ............................................................................................................................. 8
9.1 Structures ................................................................................................................................ 8
9.2 Longitudinal Drainage .............................................................................................................. 8
9.3 Other Requirements ................................................................................................................ 8
10.0 Structural Elements ................................................................................................................... 8
10.1 Bridges................................................................................................................................... 8
10.2 Bus Stop................................................................................................................................. 8
11.0 Resumptions ............................................................................................................................ 10
12.0 Conclusions and Recommendations ......................................................................................... 10
Bibliography .................................................................................................................................... 11
14.0 Appendices .............................................................................................................................. 12
Appendix A1: Type Cross Section Plan.......................................................................................... 12
Appendix A2: Bridge Conceptual Plan .......................................................................................... 13
Appendix B: Long Section Plots .................................................................................................... 14
Appendix C: Cross Section Plots ................................................................................................... 15
Appendix D: Section 3.1 in Project Brief ....................................................................................... 16
Appendix E: 2Horizontal Curves ................................................................................................. 17
Appendix F: Calculations for Limiting Curve Speed vs. Operation Speed ....................................... 18
Appendix G: Table G SSD Summary ........................................................................................... 20
Appendix H: SSD Calculations ...................................................................................................... 20
Appendix I: Table I SISD Summary ............................................................................................. 21
Appendix J: SISD Calculations ....................................................................................................... 21
Appendix K: Calculations for Horizontal Alignment ...................................................................... 22
Horizontal Curves .................................................................................................................... 22
Curve Transitions and Widening............................................................................................... 23
Superelevation ........................................................................................................................ 24
Superelevation Development Length ....................................................................................... 24
Appendix L: Calculations for Vertical Alignment ........................................................................... 25

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Vertical Curves......................................................................................................................... 25
Grading Considerations............................................................................................................ 26
Appendix M: Areas of Moderate and High Ecological Significance ................................................ 27
Appendix N: Vertical Controls ...................................................................................................... 28
Appendix X1: Intersection Drawings AUTOCAD ............................................................................ 30
Appendix X2: Kerb and Channel Detail ......................................................................................... 31
Appendix Y1: Table of Contributions ............................................................................................ 32
Appendix Y2: Meeting Minutes .................................................................................................... 33

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Notation
Notation Description Units

AADT Annual Average Daily Traffic Vpd


LCS Limiting Curve Speed Km/hr
SSD Stopping Sight Distance M
SISD Safe Intersection Sight Distance M
Rt Reaction Time Secs
V Operation Speed Km/hr
V1 Initial Operating Speed Km/hr
V2 Final operating Speed Km/hr
a Longitudinal Grade %
d Logitudinal Deceleration Coefficient N/A
CWTC Chandler Waste Transfer Centre N/A
TSRP Tilley South Rejuvenation Project N/A
TREP Tilley Road Extension Project N/A
BTC Belmont Town Council N/A
Se Superelevation %
Sro Superelevation Runoff M
Tro Tangent Runout M
Le Superelevation development length M
e1 Normal Crossfall %
e2 Maximum Superelevation %
AGRD Australian Guide to road design N/A

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1.0 Introduction
The rejuvenation of the southern segment of Tilley Road (TRSR) is the fifth and final stage in the
overall Tilley Road Extension Project (TREP). This rejuvenated corridor along with TREP will form the
northern portion of the State Route B30, delivering a continuous link between Port of Brisbane and
Old Cleveland Road, ensuring reduced traffic congestion and improved road safety for all road users
(Bunker, 2016, p. 1). The report considers the feasibility of the proposed TRSR by performing
geometric design. The feasibility design study will be communicated through the identification of
planning considerations, geometric design specifics (including rationales) and recommendations.

1.1 Location of Project


Tilley Road is located within the suburb of Chandler between the Mt. Gravatt Capalaba Road/Tilley
Road roundabout at its south and Tilley Road/Sleeman Centre Access roundabout at its north. It
spans 1.7km in length, with a mix of heavy vegetation and properties situated on either side.

1.2 Scope of Project


The scope of this project involves the rejuvenation of the four-lane, undivided road with rural
formation to a four-lane, divided road with an urban formation, along with other required upgrades
such as the corridors cross-section, vertical and horizontal alignment, preliminary road drainage
requirements and structural elements.

In relation to the geometric design presented, 12D modelling software was used with the following
aspects considered within the study scope:

Horizontal and vertical long section development and coordination


Cross-sections development
Design traffic and speed (determination of design speed, LCS and trucks operation speed)
Sight distance (SSD, horizontal curve perception and SISD)
Intersections/Connections development
Cross-sectional elements (urban border, bicycle lanes, traffic lanes and median)
Assessment of drainage (urban kerb and channel and underground drainage system) and
structural requirements (bridges and safety barriers) and other treatments (e.g. bus bays)

Note: The design was taken in accordance with Part 3: Geometric Design, Part 4: Intersections and
Crossing & Part 4A: Unsignalised and Signalised Intersections in Australian Guide to Road Design
(AGRD).

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2.0 Planning Considerations
2.1 Assumptions
Assumptions were specified by the client Belmont Town Council (BTC) for the horizon year, such as
the Annual Average Daily Traffic is 25, 000 vehicles per day, where in terms of traffic composition,
the percentage of heavy (commercial) vehicles is 5.0 % and is to consist of pedestrians, on and off
road bicycles, school buses, public buses (future public bus routes are planned with stops near Bacton
Road) and horses (due to horseback riding activity). Sufficient funding is provided by the client so
there are no direct funding-related restrictions to design, other than those mentioned in next section.
The Bacton staggered T general position is upheld and the four-lane divided Tilley road has
appropriate right turn pockets and left turn deceleration lanes, and also bus stop tapers are
considered.

2.2 Restrictions & Constraints


The posted speed limit of 70 km/hr along the entire length of the corridor is to be used for design.
The corridor must continue to provide exiting property access and must be cost-effective in terms of
property resumptions (Bunker, 2016, p. 4), which must be limited when applicable. Specifications
for the bridge to be implemented are mentioned in Section 10.1. Additionally, the widths of cross-
sections elements can be changed, except for the median kerb block and the kerb & channel block,
for which, the specifications are made in 9.0 Road Drainage. The first horizontal curve (i.e. at the
southern end) must not be superelevated and must have a minimum curve radius of 150m.
Earthwork quantities (i.e. cut and fill) must be equitably balanced. Bike lanes/emergency stopping
lanes) must exist on Tilley Road. All design calculations must be made using AGRD sources.

3.0 Design Traffic


Reasonable estimates based on current research and practices are provided by the client (BTC) to aid
in the design for the horizon year.

The projected AADT is 25, 000 vehicles per day in a two-way direction, where the percentage of heavy
vehicles (commercial) is 5.0 %. The design (anticipated) traffic composition, established by BTC and
supported in the route investigation, include heavy vehicles (school buses, future public buses, on
either side near Bacton Road, 19 m semi-trailers, garbage trucks) and light vehicles (cycles (on-road
and off-road), off-carriageway horses, cars, motor vehicles, cars with trailers) and pedestrians. The
19 m semi-trailer, classified as a general access vehicle is the design vehicle and so, the road
pavement (beyond the scope of this report) and road geometry must sustain its axial load and be
wide enough to allow it to operate at the posted speed of 70 km/hr along the entire length of the
corridor. Other heavy general access vehicles are 12.5 m for trucks and buses in length with a height
and width of 4.3 m and 2.5 m, respectively, which will be permitted along the corridor (Roads and
Traffic Authority, 2014).

Since future bus stops will be needed on either side, near Bacton Road, depending on whether they
are a primary or secondary bus route, their frequency will determine the need for facilities such as
dedicated lanes.

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4.0 Design Speed
4.1 Determination of Design Speed
The post-rejuvenated posted speed limit will be 70 km/hr for the entire length of the TRSR corridor,
as justified by the rationale in Section 3.1 (Appendix D) of project brief for the suggested cross-section
and for safety of greater bicyclist volumes. The design speed must be at least, equal to the 85 th
percentile speed (i.e. operating speed) in light traffic conditions and provide some margin over the
designated speed limit of 70 km/hr. The corridor will consistently have an urban cross-section (i.e.
operate in an urban environment) however, its alignment will vary and cause the operating speed
and thus, cause design speed to vary. Speed measurements of the corridor or of a comparable road
should be used to determine the operating speeds. However, lack of this data means operating
speeds cannot be determined in this manner, but an operating speed of 10km/hr higher than the
posted speed limit will be assumed, as it will offer a safety factor and often replicates a drivers
desired speed (Austroads, 2010, p. 12). Hence, the operating speed and thus, the design speed will
be 80 km/hr. This design speed is for cars which are the principal design vehicle for road alignments,
even though 19 m semitrailer (truck) is defined as the design vehicle in 3.0 Design Traffic.

4.2 Limiting Curve Speed vs. Operation Speed


Limiting curve speeds were determined for the two horizontal curves along TRSR corridor (Appendix
E) and concluded that operation speed for cars (80 km/hr) and trucks (70 km/hr) is lower and
therefore, drivers are safe to take those curves. Calculations shown in Appendix F.

4.3 Operation Speed for Trucks


Since the posted speed limit for the corridor is 70 km/hr, it cannot be classified as a high speed urban
arterial road; truck speeds cannot closely match car speeds. However, Table 3.4 in AGRD considers
grades, poor acceleration, etc. which aid truck speeds and so, for a road alignment, since a basic
design vehicle is a car, its operating speed will be equal to the operating speed (80 km/hr) determined
above and thus, from the table, the operating speed for trucks is 70 km/hr (Austroads, 2010, p. 24).

5.0 Type Cross Section


The TSRP cross section will be constructed according to BCC Suburban Routes Drawing A, however
due to the constraints of the existing road and other influencing factors; a general cross section has
been designed in accordance with AGRD to ensure that all stakeholders in the project achieve
desirable outcomes. Refer to Appendix A1 for type cross section drawings.

5.1 Carriageway Width


Either side of the road will have a 7.0 m wide carriageway which will support two traffic lanes up to
3.5m wide in each direction. Class 1 and 2 heavy vehicles up to 19m long are likely to use the road,
and as such minimum road widths are not advisable. In sections that are highly constrained for road
width a 3.5m wide road with is suitable, as it allows for heavy vehicles to safely pass adjacent vehicles
(National Heavy Vehicle Regulator , 2016).

5.2 Shoulder and Bicycle Lanes


Cycling amenity will be provided by 2m wide on-road exclusive bicycle lanes. The bicycle lanes will
connect to the carriageway to the right and kerb and channel drainage to the left. The 2m width of
the lanes is suitable for posted speeds up to 80km/hr and will be maintained wherever possible,
however it is important to note the interaction between lane width, kerb road interface and the safe
distances between cyclists and vehicles.

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5.3 Crossfall
The cross-fall will be designed at 3% in accordance to AGRD (part 3 section 4.2). This is to allow for
adequate drainage of the carriageway on straights and curves.

5.5 Batter Slope


A standard batter slope ratio of 1:1.5 for cut and 1:2 for fill was used to stabilize the road and prevent
erosion or slope failure.

5.6 Median
A median of 6m will be adopted in certain chainages to according to AGRD (part 3 section 4.7.1) to
shelter turning vehicles and traffic signals. The medium will be reduced at intersections to allow for
channelised turns and seagulling.

5.7 Urban Border


A 4.25m wide urban border was designed according to the clients specifications, as the difference in
width to the recommended width of 4.3m from AGRD Section 4.11.3 was regarded as negligible in
terms of driver and pedestrian comfort. In order to prevent inundation of property accesses, a cross
fall of 1.0% was taken, sloping towards the kerb and channel drainage. This urban border was only
designed for the left hand side of the road when heading north. This decision was made due to the
restraints on the road casement, so that unnecessary property and land resumptions were not made.
Due to the low property density of the TSRP, footpaths were designed on the Sleeman Center side of
the road, as a higher proportion of foot traffic would be present here.

5.8 Kerb and Channelling


Barrier kerbs will be utilised at the urban border. A clearance of 0 m from AGRD (part 3 section 4.11.3)
will be required from the edge of traffic lane to line of kerb. A barrier kerb was selected to provide
extra safety to pedestrians. The kerb and channel at the median will be a semi-mountable kerb, also
with a 0 m clearance to the edge of the traffic lane. This semi mountable kerb will provide extra safety
to errant drivers so that they have a greater chance to correct their vehicles without a crash occurring.

6.0 Sight Distance


6.1 Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)
The length of the corridor must have at least minimum Stopping Sight Distance, assuming a hazard
may occur anywhere along the road. The parameters determined for the SSD model and the resulting
SSD value are mentioned in Table G (Appendix G) and the justification for these parameters are
discussed in the following sections. From Table G, a minimum stopping sight distance of 121.537 m
(cars) and 114 m (trucks) is required for drivers along the corridor to recognise, react and brake to a
stop prior to reaching a hazard. 12D SSD reports (provided in the final 12d folder) approve that along
the entire length of the corridor, sufficient SSD is provided for both cars and trucks. Calculations for
determining SSD for cars and trucks are shown in Appendix H.

6.1.1 Reaction Time (Rt)


A reaction time of 2.0 seconds was chosen as firstly, as per AGRDs Table 5.2, the TRSR corridor can
be classified as being a high speed urban section and has few intersections (split intersection at
Bacton Road and access to BCC Waste Transfer Centre). Secondly, 2 seconds is a general minimum
value for roads with alert drivers. The driver composition for the TRSR corridor will generally include
local residents (cars) and heavy vehicle drivers (trucks), such as those accessing the waste transfer
centre, who would be expected to maintain alert traffic conditions for safety (Austroads, 2010, p.

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102). Thirdly, hazard recognition will contribute to reaction time, where, its improvement will
increase with driver eye height increase. Even though, trucks (design vehicle) being the heaviest
vehicles are harder to move, but as shown in Table 5.1 in AGRD, they find it least difficult to recognise
a hazard due to their height (Austroads, 2010, p. 101) and vice versa, for cars. So, the reactions time
can be offset to 2 seconds, where its not as high as 2.5 seconds (considering a trucks ease in hazard
recognition) and not low as 1.5 seconds (considering a cars difficulty in hazard recognition, in
comparison to a trucks ease) (also, in Table 5.1).

6.1.2 Design Speed (V)


As justified in 4.1 Determination of Design Speed, the design speed was found to be 80 km/hr for
cars. The design speed for trucks will be 70 km/hr as justified as car/truck speed relationship in Table
3.4 (AGRDs Table 3.4) (Austroads, 2010, p. 24).

6.1.3 Longitudinal Deceleration Coefficient (d)


Using AGRDs Table 5.3, 0.29 was chosen as the maximum value for semitrailers (design vehicle), as
it is ideal for the truck to brake on the corridors dry, sealed urban road area and is the minimum
value required by vehicle standards regulations. 0.36 was used for cars as it is the desirable maximum
value for stopping sight distance for a characteristic urban road type. (Austroads, 2010, p. 103).

6.1.4 Longitudinal Grade (a)


In comparison to a flat or positive grade, when a car travels along a downward sloped section of a
road (negative grade), due to gravitational acceleration, it covers greater distance to come to a stop.
Henceforth, to consider the most critical situation (i.e. requiring the longest distance to stop), the
steepest negative grade in the proposed vertical alignment of -3.316 was used, as found in 12D.

6.2 Safe Intersection Sight Distance (SISD)


The sight distance at the intersections (i.e. split intersection at Bacton Road and access to BCC Waste
Transfer Centre) must have at least minimum Safe Intersection Sight Distance for safety. The
parameters for the SISD model are the same as for SSD model, except Reaction Time (Rt) is replaced
by Decision Time (DT) with an extra 3 seconds allowed for observation time. From Table I (Appendix
I), a minimum safe intersection sight distance of 188.203 m (cars) and 172.333 m (trucks) is required
for drivers close at the intersections to recognise, react and brake to a stop prior to reaching a hazard.
12D SISD reports (Provided in final 12d folder) approve that at the intersections, sufficient SISD is
provided for both cars and trucks. Calculations for determining SISD for cars and trucks are shown in
Appendix J.

7.0 Alignment Development and Coordination


7.1 Horizontal Alignment
7.1.1 Control Line Geometry
As shown in Appendix E, the horizontal alignment of Tilley Rd consists of two primary curves and
three tangents. In order to reduce resumptions and unbalanced cut and fill, the new horizontal
alignment closely resembles the current road casement. Calculations and tables regarding horizontal
alignment can be found in Appendix K.

7.1.2 Horizontal Curves


Horizontal curves were designed using 12d and guidelines in AGRD Section 7. The minimum curve
radius was found in accordance with AGRD table 7.5, based upon the maximum superelevation and
design friction factors of 5% and 0.16 (taken from AGRD table 7.4), and for an operating speed of

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80km/h. The minimum radii curve was taken as 240m, however for the steepest vertical grade of
3.316% a maximum radius of 247.58m was required, after adjustments were made. The designed
grades of 440m and 450m for the south and north most horizontal curves met the minimum radius
requirements. For the design of the road no transitions have been considered.

7.1.3 Curve Transitions and Widening


For the design radii and operating speeds, the maximum radius requiring spiral design was taken
from table 7.2 as 300m, and as such no spiral design was required. No pavement widening was
required for any curves based upon the semi-trailer design vehicle, as the maximum radius requiring
widening taken from table 7.11 is 300m.

7.1.4 Superelevation
For the two horizontal curves, the maximum superelevation was taken in accordance with AGRD
section 7.7.3 as +3%, resulting in a change of 6% elevation around curves from the normal
carriageway cross fall of -3%, as mentioned in section 5. Due to the gently sloping terrain the
maximum recommended superelevation of +5% taken from table 7.7 was not necessary, and the max
of 3% was used to aid the drainage capabilities of the road.

7.1.4.2 Superelevation Development Length


The rounded superelevation development length of 55m was taken from table 7.9 in order to satisfy
the rate of rotation and relative grade criteria for the given design speed and number of carriageways.
Based on the normal cross fall and superelevation, the superelevation runoff (Sro) and tangent
runout (Tro) were both found to be equal to 27.5m.

Typical superelevation runoff positioning has been used, with 60% of the Sro being located within
the tangent and the other 40% being located within the curve.

7.2 Vertical Alignment


Design of the vertical alignment for the TSRP has been done so that cut and fill is balance, road user
safety is maintained, all mandatory vertical controls were adhered to, drainage considerations were
taken into account and sight distance along the road and at key intersections was kept at safe levels
for all road conditions. Calculations and tables for vertical alignment can be found in Appendix L.

The mandatory vertical controls that were considered are:

Property accesses.
Existing topography of the road.
Bacton Rd and Tilley Waste Transfer Centre intersections.
Pedestrian access.
Service and utility plant.
Connection to the proposed bridge at 192.5-209.5CH.
Crest south of CWTC.

Figures showing these controls can be seen in Appendix N

Vertical Curves
For the TSRP four vertical curves were designed, including 3 sag curves and one crest curve. Of the
three sag curves, one was designed in an area of cut at 1300-1320CH with a K value of 15. This was
done to provide safer intersection sight distance for the CWTC for the predicted heavy vehicles
travelling here. The other two sag vertical curves were located in areas of fill at 33-133CH and 277-
422CH with respective K-values of 33.166 and 65 respectively. These two curves provided the vertical

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transition to the proposed bridge design outlined in section 10 of this report. The crest vertical curve
is located at 900-1240CH with a K-value of 61, meeting the design minimum values from table 8.7.
This crest curve was designed to span over a larger distance than the current curve, so that cut and
fill balance was achieved as well as providing safer sight distances and overall road safety and driver
comfort. The maximum grades experienced on this curve was 3.316% in the northern side and 2.239%
in the southern direction, making the road suitable for heavy vehicles and enthusiast cycling.

Grading Considerations
During the design grades were designed in accordance with AGRD Section 8.5, with an aim to keep
grades as low as possible while adhering to all mandatory controls, balance of earthworks, drainage
function and vehicle safety.

As the highest grade is 3.316% heavy performance vehicle speed reduction as outlined by table 8.2
is expected to be minor, and all grades have been kept below the maximum of 7% taken from table
8.3. The longest length of maximum grade of 2.239%, approximately just under 800m and located
South of the vertical crest was determined to be satisfactory and below the desirable maximum value
of 1800m taken from table 8.4. Likewise, the desirable minimum grade of 1% for roads with kerb and
channel drainage taken from table 8.5 has been met, with the minimum tangent grade being 2.041%

7.3 Alignment Coordination


Coordination of the vertical and horizontal alignments was done based heavily upon AGRD section 6,
as well as other constraints such as the given topology and controls, with the primary aim of creating
a safe alignment that balanced the considerations of all stakeholders as best as possible.

Recommended in AGRD Section 6.2, optimal safety and aesthetics are achieved for a sag vertical crest
when it is located entirely within a horizontal curve. This however was not deemed to be feasible for
the design, as designing this would lead to exorbitant levels of fill earthmoving, as well as decreasing
the sight safety at the top of the crest. Completely flattening the crest was not an option as it provides
a critical drainage path for the CWTC away from the nearby Tingalpa Reservoir, so prevent
contamination of the water body. The compromise of beginning the horizontal curve before the crest
apex from the Southern approach was made, as this best balanced safety, economy and the interests
of the public. Overall the alignment coordination creates a safe and smooth flowing road. Long
section plots showing the coordination of alignments can be seen in Appendix B.

8.0 Intersections and Connections


8.1 Bacton Road Intersection
A left-right staggered t-intersection will be adopted for the Bacton road intersection. In accordance
to AGRD section 4.11, a left-right staggered t-intersection is suitable for roads in which it will not
operate to full capacity. Additional advantages include: Driver safety when crossing between minor
and major roads and easier manoeuvres compared to a right-left stagger. An addition of a pedestrian
crossing will allow residents to cross Tilley Road and access surrounding properties. Refer to
Appendix X1 for conceptual plan drawings of the Bacton Road Intersection.

8.2 Waste Treatment Plant Intersection


A channelized right turn (CHR) will be utilised for the waste treatment plant intersection. Section 4.8
of AGRD states that CHR treatment is preferable for general use on major roads. The Advantages of
a CHR in relation to this project is that it provides provisions for kerb and channel connection and
bike lanes. Similar to the Bacton Road intersection, a pedestrian crossing will be provided. Refer to
Appendix X1 for conceptual plan drawings of the Waste treatment plant intersection.

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8.3 Signalisation
The client has provided information confirming that both the Bacton Road sections and Waste
treatment centre will not reach an AADT of over 1000. Therefore, the need for signalised
intersections is unwarranted.

9.0 Road Drainage


9.1 Structures
Two pre-stressed concrete bridge exists with free-flow conditions for water underneath. These
bridges will have guardrails on their sides, where the opening within the guardrail will permit surface
runoff to follow the fall slope (cross-fall) down into the watercourse below. TRSR corridor intersects
with creek lines at various chainages identified in submission 1. But underground piped drainage and
culverts already exist to provide passage for these water lines. However, to sustain the dual
carriageway, these culverts will need upgrades.

9.2 Longitudinal Drainage


The road surface, for the entire length of the design has a transverse slope of -3%, which leads surface
runoff along the fall of the slope to the outfall drainage, which is the barrier kerb and channel
(specifications in Appendix X2). As kerb inlet design, side inlet is required, instead of grate inlet,
because the latter is not compatible for bicycle travel, and TRSR is to be made safe for bicycle travel,
as per clients requirements. The kerb and channel is part of the Pit & Pipe system, where the run
off is then lead into the underground drainage network, which requires an appropriate piping system,
leading to major council catchment basins and then into creeks. Since the road is kerbed, in order for
this system to work effectively, carefully attention should be given to sizing and the drainage system
itself and a filtration system is required to prevent it from getting clogged.

9.3 Other Requirements


The drainage at the bottom of the vertical sag curve must be considered as kerbs are used. Adequate
capacity of inlets and underground drainage system is required to minimise water pooling on the
surface, as this a low point in elevation from both direction and so, more runoff accumulation is
expected. This must be done in accordance with the criteria set in Queensland Urban Drainage
Manual.

10.0 Structural Elements


10.1 Bridges
The two bridges have been conceptually designed based on recommendations from AGRD. The
bridges will provide a consistent level of service along the portion of the road. The following factors
have been considered in the design: road geometry, traffic volume and composition, climate
conditions, terrain and the location of the bridge.

The cross-section of the bridge will be consistent with the approaching road and sag curves have
been avoided to prevent low points. Widening of the bridge will not be needed as the bridge is
located on a straight alignment. A conceptual design of the bridge section can be found in Appendix
A2.

10.2 Bus Stop


As outlined in 2.0 Planning Considerations, planning considerations have been undertaken for the
design of a new bus stop. This bus stop has been integrated into the road cross-section as an indented

8
stopping bay, located at 745CH, in between the staggered Bacton-Tilley Rd intersections. This
location was chosen due to its proximity to local residences, the safe sight provided by the vertical
and horizontal straights and for similarity with the current unsealed bus stopping zone. This bus bay
can be seen in the attached 12d file and AUTOCAD intersection drawings.

9
11.0 Resumptions
Although resumptions of land and property are not desirable, small resumptions were necessary for
the design of the TSRP. Due to the narrow 35m wide road casement and the close proximity and
overlap of private property boundaries into this casement, partial property resumptions have been
proposed. The following table shows the resumptions needed for the design:
Table 1 - Resumptions

Road Chainages Side of Road Type of Resumption


25-50 Right Land (fill General ecological significance)
110-325 Left Land for Bridge (fill)
145-230 Right Land for Bridge (fill)
565-650 Left Partial Property Resumption 188 Bacton Road (fill)
765-845 Left Land (fill)
900-1200 Left Land (cut)
915-1220 Right Land (cut)
1305-1355 Left Land (cut)
1475-1510 Left Land (fill)
1470-1510 Right Land (fill)

Most of the proposed land resumptions are minor with only slight resumptions of areas with general
ecological significance, as shown in Appendix M, at 25-50CH. The fill at 145-230CH on the right side
of the road located is located in an area of high ecological significance, however, due to the
construction methods of the bridge it is highly unlikely that the levels of fill shown in the 12d model
will be necessary. Due to the tight constraints of property boundaries on Tilley Rd, partial property
resumptions of 188 Bacton Rd are necessary, however primary access will still be provided via Bacton
Rd until construction works are complete, and resumptions will only require construction

12.0 Conclusions and Recommendations


Tilley Road has been upgraded to a four-lane divided urban arterial road with key elements including
the design speed, horizontal and vertical alignment, type cross section, sight distance, road drainage,
intersections, alignment coordination and structural elements all designed using appropriate
engineering practice and judgement. Recommendations for the design include: further investigation
to alignment coordination and an addition of a second bus stop heading Southbound for future use.
Overall, a safe, applicable and cost efficient road corridor has been designed for Tilley Road in
accordance AGRD, the requirements and constraints of the client whilst fulfilling Brisbanes future
infrastructure requirements.

10
Bibliography
Austroads. (2010). Guide to Road Design Part 3: Geometric Design. Retrieved May 8, 2016, from
Austroads Online Publication:
https://www.onlinepublications.austroads.com.au/items/AGRD03-10

Bunker, J. (2016). Tilley Road South Rejuvenation Feasibility Design Study Project Brief March 2016.
Queensland, Australia: Queensland University of Technology.

National Heavy Vehicle Regulator . (2016, March 04). Class 1 Heavy Vehicles. Retrieved from
National Heavy Vehicle Regulator Web site: https://www.nhvr.gov.au/road-access/mass-
dimension-and-loading/classes-of-heavy-vehicles/class-1-heavy-vehicles

Roads and Traffic Authority. (2014, March 3). National Heavy Vehicle Reform Vehicle Operations -
Heavy Vehicle Mass, Loading and Access. Retrieved May 9, 2016, from Roads and Maritime
Services - NSW Government Website:
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:LmHU9LucsOsJ:www.rms.nsw.g
ov.au/documents/projects/western-nsw/katoomba-lithgow/heavyveh-
mass0706.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=au

11
14.0 Appendices
Appendix A1: Type Cross Section Plan

12
Appendix A2: Bridge Conceptual Plan

13
Appendix B: Long Section Plots

14
Appendix C: Cross Section Plots

15
Appendix D: Section 3.1 in Project Brief

(Bunker, 2016, pp. 3, 6)

16
Appendix E: 2Horizontal Curves

Note: This is the horizontal long-section produced on 12D for the entire TRSR corridor.

17
Appendix F: Calculations for Limiting Curve Speed vs. Operation Speed
Horizontal Curve, indicated as 1, has radius of 450 m (R450) and superelevation of 0.03 (3%):

From Table 3.3, as shown below, in AGRD (Austroads, 2010, p. 21), the radius of 450 m falls within
the following ranges marked in red and we assume 105 km/hr:

From Table 7.4, as shown below, in AGRD (Austroads, 2010, p. 144), absolute maximum side
friction factor for cars, corresponding to 105 km/hr was found using linear interpolation.

105 km/hr corresponds


to fabs_max of 0.14 via
linear interpolation

Therefore, using

() = 127( + _max )

Where,

R = 450 m

e = 0.03 (3%)

fabs_max = 0.14

LCS results as 98.567 km/hr. So, the operating speed of 80 km/hr (cars) is less than 98.567 km/hr.

The same process was repeated for trucks were for a speed of 105 km/hr, the absolute maximum
side friction (fabs_max ) is 0.12.

Therefore, using the same formula for Limiting Curve Speed (LCS) as above was used, where the
fabs_max = 0.12, but all values for the other parameters remained the same. This resulted in a LCS of
92.588 km/hr. So, the operating speed of 70 km/hr (trucks) is less than 92.588 km/hr.

Horizontal Curve, indicated as 2, has radius of 440 m (R440) and superelevation of 0.03 (3%):

From Table 3.3, as shown below, in AGRD (Austroads, 2010, p. 21), the radius of 440 m falls within
the following ranges marked in red and we assume 103 km/hr:

18
From Table 7.4, as shown below, in AGRD (Austroads, 2010, p. 144), absolute maximum side
friction factor for cars, corresponding to 103 km/hr was found using linear interpolation.

103 km/hr corresponds


to fabs_max of 0.148 via
linear interpolation
Therefore, using

() = 127( + _max )

Where,

R = 440 m

e = 0.03 (3%)

fabs_max = 0.148

LCS results as 99.733 km/hr. So, the operating speed of 80 km/hr (cars) is less than 99.733 km/hr.

The same process was repeated for trucks were for a speed of 103 km/hr, the absolute maximum
side friction (fabs_max ) is 0.12.

Therefore, using the same formula for Limiting Curve Speed (LCS) as above was used, where the
fabs_max = 0.12, but all values for the other parameters remained the same. This resulted in a LCS of
91.553 km/hr. So, the operating speed of 70 km/hr (trucks) is less than 91.533 km/hr.

19
Appendix G: Table G SSD Summary
Parameter Selection
Reaction Time (Rt) 2.0 seconds
Design Speed for Cars(Vcar) 80 km/hr
Design Speed for Trucks(Vtrucks) 70 km/hr
Longitudinal Deceleration Coefficient for Cars 0.36
(dcars)
Longitudinal Deceleration Coefficient for Trucks 0.29
(dtrucks)
Longitudinal Grade (a) -3.316 %
Stopping Sight Distance for Cars (SSDcars) 121.537 m
Stopping Sight Distance for Trucks (SSDtrucks) 114 m

Appendix H: SSD Calculations


2
= +
3.6 254 ( + 0.01 )

Where
= ()
= ()

= ( )

= (%)

Cars:

2
= +
3.6 254 ( + 0.01 )

The values for the parameters and the resulting SSD value are shown in Table G in Appendix G.

Trucks:

2
= +
3.6 254 ( + 0.01 )

The values for the parameters and the resulting SISD value are shown in Table I in Appendix I.

20
Appendix I: Table I SISD Summary
Parameter Selection
Decision Time (DT) 5.0 seconds
Design Speed for Cars(Vcar) 80 km/hr
Design Speed for Trucks(Vtrucks) 70 km/hr
Longitudinal Deceleration Coefficient for Cars (dcars) 0.36
Longitudinal Deceleration Coefficient for Trucks 0.29
(dtrucks)
Longitudinal Grade (a) -3.316 %
Safe Intersection Sight Distance for Cars (SISDcars) 188.203 m
Safe Intersection Sight Distance for Trucks (SSDtrucks) 172.333 m

Appendix J: SISD Calculations


2
= +
3.6 254 ( + 0.01 )

Where

= ()
= ()

= ( )

= (%)
Cars:

2
= +
3.6 254 ( + 0.01 )

The values for the parameters and the resulting SISD value are shown in Table J in Appendix J.

Trucks:

2
= +
3.6 254 ( + 0.01 )

The values for the parameters and the resulting SISD value are shown in Table J in Appendix J.

21
Appendix K: Calculations for Horizontal Alignment
Horizontal Curves
Minimum horizontal curve value taken from table 7.5 based upon; fmax = 0.16 (cars desirable), V =
80km/hr, emax = 5%, therefore Minimum radii of curve = 240m.

The Rmin on the max grade of 3.316% was calculated using equation 7 from AGRD Section 7.6.1:
( 3) 3.316 3
= (1 + ) = 240 (1 + ) = 247.58
10 10

Desirable maximum side friction taken as 0.16 for cars, 0.14 for trucks.

22
Curve Transitions and Widening
No curve widening required as 440 and 450m radius were used for horizontal curves.

No curve widening required for the design radius.

23
Superelevation
Maximum superelevation for the urban road taken as 5%.

Superelevation Development Length


Superelevation development length taken as 53m from table 7.9 and then rounded up to 55m.

1
( ) = ( )
1 + 2
Where:
e1 = normal crossfall = 3%, e2 = full superelevation crossfall = 3%, Le = 55m
3
= 55 55 ( ) = 27.5, = = 27.5
(3 + 3)

60% of Tro located within curve, therefore 11m of Tro out

24
Appendix L: Calculations for Vertical Alignment
Vertical Curves
Based upon a design speed of 80km/hr and a Rt of 2 seconds, the desirable minimum K-value was
found to be 29.3 for a vertical crest curve.

The minimum sag K-value of 17 was taken for an urban road with street lighting.

25
Grading Considerations
Based upon table 8.2, minimal heavy vehicle performance loss will occur due to the maximum
grade of 3.316%.

All vertical grades are below the maximum values taken from table 8.3.

The maximum grade length is well under 1800m , and the road will provide a suitable vertical
alignment for all road users.

26
Appendix M: Areas of Moderate and High Ecological Significance

27
Appendix N: Vertical Controls
Bacton Rd Intersections:

CWTC Intersection:

28
Property Accesses:

Proposed Bridge Location:

29
Appendix X1: Intersection Drawings AUTOCAD

30
Appendix X2: Kerb and Channel Detail

31
Appendix Y1: Table of Contributions

Executive Summary Chris, Ricky, Raj


Introduction Raj
Location of Project, Scope of Project, Assumptions, Restrictions / Constraints
Planning Considerations Ricky
Sub Title (as required)
Design Traffic Raj
Sub Title (as required)
Design Speed Raj
Sub Title (as required)
Type Cross Section Ricky & Chris
Sub Title (as required)
Sight Distance Raj
Sub Title (as required)
Alignment Development and Coordination Chris
Sub Title (as required)
Intersection & Connections Chris
Sub Title (as required)
Road Drainage Raj
Sub Title (as required)
Structural Elements Chris
Sub Title (as required)
Resumptions Chris
Sub Title (as required)
Conclusions and Recommendations Chris, Ricky, Raj
Title Page, Notation, Editing Chris, Ricky, Raj
12D Ricky, Chris
List of Tables, List of Figures, References , Appendices, Formatting Raj

32
Appendix Y2: Meeting Minutes

33
1
www.qut.edu.au
QUT Library

TEAM WORK MEETING AGENDA


The chairperson fills out this form before a meeting to organise tasks to be discussed.

Meeting details
Chairperson: Ricky Minutes: 45 mins Date & Time: Location: GP
15/04/2016

Item Notes
What will be discussed at the next What details are important for
meeting? attendees?
1 Relevant AGRD parts on Design Speed, Cross Download AGRD sections which Mike has
Sectional Elements. mentioned for speed and cross-section.
2 Review project overview in slides combined with Note down where the bridge, start and end
project brief. chainage, so we know extent of project
3
4
5
6
7

Meeting Agenda & Minutes


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TEAM WORK MEETING MINUTES


Fill out this form during a meeting to allocate tasks to each team member to complete in time for the next meeting.

Attendees: Ricky, Raj, Chris Absent: Date & Time: Location: GP


15/04/2016
Minutes: Raj Chairperson: Ricky
Who is filling out this Who is organising the meeting?
form?
Item Action Who Duration
What has to be done by the next What action is required to get it done? Who is How long will it take to
meeting? responsible? complete?
1 Have a table of delegated sections for each Make a table in a word document with rows labeling, All Varied
member executive summary, introduction and all relevant
heading from the guidance provided.
2
3
4
5
Next Meeting:
Chairperson: Raj Minutes:45 mins Date & Time: 22/04/2016 Location:GP

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www.qut.edu.au
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TEAM WORK MEETING AGENDA


The chairperson fills out this form before a meeting to organise tasks to be discussed.

Meeting details
Chairperson: Raj Minutes: 45 mins Date & Time: Location:GP
22/04/2016

Item Notes
What will be discussed at the next What details are important for
meeting? attendees?
1 Relevant AGRD parts on Horizontal Alignment Download AGRD sections which Mike has
mentioned for Horizontal Alignment
2 12D tute on super alignment Get most of the tute done

3
4
5
6
7

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Attendees: Chris, Ricky, Raj Absent: Date & Time: Location: GP


22/04/2016
Minutes: Chris Chairperson: Raj
Who is filling out this Who is organising the meeting?
form?
Item Action Who Duration
What has to be done by the next What action is required to get it done? Who is How long will it take to
meeting? responsible? complete?
1 12D tute on super alignment Use of 12d and follow tutes Raj Depends
2
3
4
5
Next Meeting:
Chairperson: Ricky Minutes:45 mins Date & Time:29/04/2016 Location:GP

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TEAM WORK MEETING AGENDA


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Meeting details
Chairperson: Ricky Minutes:45 mins Date & Location:GP
Time:29/04/2016

Item Notes
What will be discussed at the next What details are important for
meeting? attendees?
1 Relevant AGRD parts on Sight Distance and Download AGRD sections which Mike has
Vertical Alignment mentioned for Sight Distance and Vertical Alignment
2 12D tute on templates Get most of the tute done

3
4
5
6
7

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Who is filling out this Who is organising the meeting?
form?
Item Action Who Duration
What has to be done by the next What action is required to get it done? Who is How long will it take to
meeting? responsible? complete?
1 12D tute on templates Get as much done Ricky & Chris 2 hours
2 Calculation for SSD, SISD & horizontal curve Follow AGRD and lecture notes. Try and create an Raj Not sure
perception parameters (at least, how to excel file with automated formula
determine)
3 Calculation for design speed and limting curve Follow AGRD and lecture notes. Try and create an Raj Not sure
speed excel file with automated formula

4
5
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Chairperson: Raj Minutes:2 hours Date & Time:6/05/2016 Location:GP

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Meeting details
Chairperson:Raj Minutes: 2 hrs Date & Location:GP
Time:6/05/2016

Item Notes
What will be discussed at the next What details are important for
meeting? attendees?
1 Relevant AGRD parts on Alignment Download AGRD sections which Mike has
Coordination. Also, go over slides on structural mentioned for Sight Distance and Vertical Alignment
elements.

2 12D tute on templates Must get all done prior to meeting

3
4
5
6
7

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form?
Item Action Who Duration
What has to be done by the next What action is required to get it done? Who is How long will it take to
meeting? responsible? complete?
1 12D tute on modifiers Get as much done Ricky & Chris 2 hours

2 Summarise all vertical and horizontal alignment Follow AGRD and lecture notes. May have to further Chris Varied
theory, formulas and relevant research research
3

4
5
Next Meeting:
Chairperson: Chris Minutes:1hr 25 min Date & Time: 20/05/2016 Location:GP

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Meeting details
Chairperson: Chris Minutes: 1hr 25 mins Date & Location: GP
Time:20/05/2016

Item Notes
What will be discussed at the next What details are important for
meeting? attendees?
1 Finish all tutes upto modifiers Must get done

2 Show what parts have been done so far in report Individual report writing

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form?
Item Action Who Duration
What has to be done by the next What action is required to get it done? Who is How long will it take to
meeting? responsible? complete?
1 Start on 12D tute for plotting 12D must be used Chris 2 hours
2
3
4
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Item Notes
What will be discussed at the next What details are important for
meeting? attendees?
1 12 D tute on plotting Must be done

2 More Report writing parts done We should have most of the report or at least a
draft with not stringent values of it done.
3
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form?
Item Action Who Duration
What has to be done by the next What action is required to get it done? Who is How long will it take to
meeting? responsible? complete?
1 All 12 D tutes done. Use S601 for means of lab access and 12D Ricky, Chris Varied
2 Very close to finishing report We need to buckle and get sections finalised Raj, Ricky, Chris Varied

3 AUTOCAD drawing and 12D drawing outputs as Use of AutoCAD Ricky, Raj Varied
per guidance sheet (type cross-section, working
plans, intersections)
4
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Chairperson:Ricky Minutes: 30 Date & Location:GP
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Item Notes
What will be discussed at the next What details are important for
meeting? attendees?
1 All parts of report, in conjunction with 12D We were have to work though report and aim to
have it done by Thursday 5pm.
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3
4
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Item Action Who Duration
What has to be done by the next What action is required to get it done? Who is How long will it take to
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1 All parts of report Everyone needs to finish their part Chris, Ricky, Raj Varied
2 12D Relevant checks (e.g. from SSD reports) with design Chris, Ricky Varied
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