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# Fundamental Waveguide

Theory
UCF
Types of Waveguides

## 1. TEM and quasi-TEM waveguides

2. Metallic waveguides (TE and TM modes)
3. Dielectric waveguides (TE, TM, TEM or
hybrid modes)
UCF
TEM and Quasi-TEM Waveguides

TEM:

## Coaxial Strip Line Rectangular Coaxial

Quasi TEM:

r r r
Microstrip Line Slot Line Coplanar Line
UCF Metallic Waveguides
Rectangular waveguide

Circular waveguide
UCF Dielectric Waveguides

r1
r r1
r2
r2

## Planar dielectric Fiber Ridge waveguide

waveguide
UCF Modes in Waveguides (1)

## Modes: certain field patterns that can

propagate independently

## TEM mode: Transverse Electromagnetic

mode. All the fields are in the cross
section or there are no Ez and Hz
components
UCF Modes in Waveguides (2)
TE modes: transverse electric modes
Electric fields are in the cross section (or
no Ez component).
Only Hz component in the longitudinal
direction. Also called H modes

## TM modes: transverse magnetic modes

Magnetic fields are in the cross section (or
no Hz component).
Only Ez component in the longitudinal
direction. Also called E modes
Conditions for the Existence of
UCF TEM Modes
At least two perfect electric conductors
Dielectric distribution in the cross
section is homogeneous

Yes Yes
No

## Note: TEM line can have higher order

No TE and TM modes
UCF
Quasi-TEM Line
Some planar waveguide structure with
inhomogeneous dielectric distribution.
Ez 0 , H z 0 But E z Et , H z H t

r r r
Microstrip Line Slot Line Coplanar Line
UCF Basic Waveguide Theory (1)

Equivalent

E Et a z E z
H Ht a z H z

## with Et etm ( x, y )Vm ( z ) Generalized

m
Fourier Transform
H t h tm ( x, y )I m ( z )
m
UCF Basic Waveguide Theory (2)

dVm ( z )
jk zm Z 0 m I m ( z )
dz
dI m ( z )
jk zmY0 mVm ( z )
dz

1
Z0m isthecharacteristicimpedanceofthemth mode
Y0 m

k zm isthepropagationconstantofthemth mode
UCF
Basic Waveguide Theory (3)
jk zm z
Vm ( z ) Ame Bme jk zm z

Forward Backward
Wave Wave
EffectiveRelativeDielectricConstantofthemth mode
k zm 2
eff ( ) k zm k0 eff
2 2

k0

eff
Themodewiththelargestiscalledthedominantmode.
UCF
TEM Mode (1)
Maxwells Equations

E j H TEM mode
Ez 0
E t j H t
H j E H j E
H z 0 t t

E 0 E t 0
H 0 H t 0

Let a x ay az
x y z

t z
UCF TEM Mode (2)
( t z ) E t j H t t E t 0

E t
(a z ) E t j H t a z ( ) j H t
z z
( t z ) H t j E t t H t 0

H t
(a z ) H t j E t az ( ) j E t
z z
t Et 0
t Ht 0
UCF TEM Mode (3)
From
t Et 0
t Et 0
t Ht 0
t Ht 0

## The fields in the cross-section are similar to

2-D electrostatic & 2-D magnetostatic fields
for TEM mode even if actual operating
frequency can be very high.
UCF TEM Mode (4)
Let E t t

t 0
2
Laplace Equation

2
V12
1
E d l Forvoltage

I H dl Forcurrent
UCF TEM Mode (5)
E t 1 E t
az ( ) j H t Ht az ( )
z j z

H t 1 E t
az ( ) j E t a z (a z ) j E t
z j z z
2Et
a z (a z ) 2
E t
z 2

Et
2
Et
2 2Et
a z (a z ) (a a ) 2
E t where a z (a z )0
z 2
z 2 z z z 2

2 Et
k 2
Et 0 where k 2 2
z 2

2Ht
Likewise k 2
Ht 0
z 2
UCF TEM Mode (6)
For +z direction propagation mode, we have
E t e t ( x , y ) e jk z z
jk z
z
H t h t ( x , y ) e jk z z

2E t
Et 0 ( k 2 k z )e t 0
2 2
From k
z 2

k 2 kz
2
Since e t 0 For TEM mode

kc k 2 k z 0
2 2
Or:

kc k x k y
2 2 2
where
UCF TEM Mode (7)
For +z direction propagating TEM mode: E e ( x , y ) e jkz
H h ( x , y ) e jkz
t V 0
2

e tV

1 E t
From: H t az ( ) jk
j z z

jk az e
H az E h
j

## wave impedance of the media

k inside the TEM waveguide
UCF TE, TM and Hybrid Modes (1)
From
E j H
H j E
2 E k 2 E 0
2
E 0
H k 2
H 0
H 0
2 E z k 2 E z 0
For z component:
2
H z k H z 0
2

t2 E z k c2 E z 0
or 2
t H z k c2 H z 0
2
since k 2
, k 2
k 2
k 2

z 2 z c z
UCF
TE, TM and Hybrid Modes (2)

For a mode propagating in +z direction: jk z
z
From E j H H j E

E z H z
y jk z E y j H x y jk z H y j E x

E z H z
jk z E x j H jk z H x j E y
x
y
x
E y E x H y H x
j H z j E z
x y x y
UCF
TE, TM and Hybrid Modes (3)
jk E z j H z
E z

x y
x
k c2 k c2
jk E z j H z
E z

y x
y
k c2 k c2
j E z jk H z
H z

y x
x
k c2 k c2
j E z jk H z
H z

x y
y
k c2 k c2
Or jk j
Et z
tEz a z t H z
k c2 kc2

j jk
H t a z t E z z
tH z
k c2 k c2
UCF
Auxiliary Potential Approach
In Balaniss book: E k Az 1 Fz
z

x y
x

k z Az 1 Fz
E
y x
y

1 Az k z Fz
H
y x
x

1 Az k z Fz
H
x y
y

k c2 k c2
Actually: Ez j Az , H j Fz

z

t2 A z k c2 A z 0 , t2 F z k c2 F z 0
Balaniss is my k .
UCF
TE Modes (1)
j H z 1 Fz
Ex E
y
x
k c2 y
j H z 1 Fz
Ey E
x
y
k c2 x
jk z H z k z Fz
H
H x
x
x
x
k c2
k z Fz
jk z H z H
H y
y
y
y
k c2
E 0
Ez 0 z
2
k
H 2
k H 2
0 H j c
A

t z c z z z

j 2
F k 2
F 0
Et 2
a z t H z
t z c z
kc

a z H t
kz
jk
H t z
tH z
k c2
UCF
TE Modes (2)
For a mode propagating t2 h z k c2 h z 0 + Boundary Conditions
in +z direction: j h z
ex
k c2 y
E e ( x , y ) e jk z z
j h z
H h ( x, y )e jk z z ey
k c2 x
jk h z
hx z

k c2 x
jk h z
hy z

k c2 y
jk
ht z
thz
k c2

et a z h t Z TE a z h t
kz
characteristic impedance
Z TE
kz of TE modes
UCF
TM Modes (1)
jk E z k Az
Ex z E z

x
x
k c2 x
jk E z k Az
E z
E z y
y
y
y
k c2
1 Az
j E z H
y
x
H
k c2 y
x
1 Az
j E z H
x
y
H
x
y
k c2 H z 0
H z 0 k 2
E j c
A
Ez k Ez 0
2 2 z z
t c

jk z 2
t A z k c
2
A z 0
Et tEz
k c2
j
Ht 2
a z t E z
kc

a z E t
kz
UCF
TM Modes (2)
For a mode propagating t2 e z k c2 e z 0 + Boundary Conditions
in +z direction: jk e z
ex z

k c2 x
E e ( x , y ) e jk z z
jk e z
H h ( x, y )e jk z z ey z

k c2 y
j e z
hx
k c2 y
j e z
hy
k c2 x
jk z
et 2
tez
kc
1
ht a z E t a z E t
kz Z TM

kz characteristic impedance
Z TM
of TM modes
UCF
Hybrid Modes
t2 e z k c2 e z 0
For a mode propagating 2 + Boundary Conditions

t z h k c hz 0
2
in +z direction:
E e ( x , y ) e jk z z jk z e z j h z
ex
H h ( x , y ) e jk z z kc2
x k c2 y
jk z e z j h z
ey
k c2 y k c2 x
j e z jk z h z
hx
k c y
2
k c2 x
j e z jk z h z
hy
k c2 x k c2 y

jk z j
et 2
e
t z 2
a z t h z
kc kc
j jk
ht a z e
t z z
thz
k c2 k c2
UCF
Phase Velocity and Group Velocity (1)

jk z z
For a single frequency: e

cos( t k z z )
Phase velocity: the velocity of constant phase plane (t-kzz=const)

vp
kz
UCF
Phase Velocity and Group Velocity (2)

Waveguide
jk z z
f (t ) cos( 0 t ) Ae s (t )

Re f (t )e j0t
S ( ) F ( 0 ) Ae jk z z
F ( 0 )
Re S ( )e jt d

1
s (t )
F f (t ) F ( ) 2
1 0 m
Re[ S ( )e jt d ]
F ( ) 2 0 m

1 0 m
Re[ AF ( 0 )e j (t k z z ) d ]
2 0 m

m m
UCF
Phase Velocity and Group Velocity (3)
1 0 m
s (t ) Re[ AF ( 0 )e j (t k z z ) d ]
2 0 m

dk z
Expand k z ( ) k z ( 0 ) 0 ( 0 )
d
dk z
k z ( 0 ) 0 ( 0 )
d
Let k z 0 k z ( 0 )
dk z
k 'z0 0
d

k z ( ) k z 0 k z' 0 ( 0 )
UCF
Phase Velocity and Group Velocity (4)

jt j k z 0 k z' 0 ( 0 ) z
1 0 m
s (t ) Re[ AF ( 0 )e e d ]
2 0 m

p 0 A
j ( 0 t k z 0 z ) m j t k z' 0 z p

2
Re[e m
F ( p )e dp ]

A Re f (t k z' 0 z )e j (0t k z 0 z )
Af (t k z' 0 z ) cos( 0 t k z 0 z )

## Information with group velocity Carrier with phase velocity

k z 0 k z ( 0 )
0
1 1 vp
vg k z0
k ' z 0 dk z
0
d
UCF
Phase Velocity and Group Velocity (5)

f (t k z' 0 z ) cos( 0 t k z 0 z )

t z
Cutoff Frequency in
UCF Metallic Waveguide
jk z z
For e
When k 0,
2
z the mode is an evanescent mode.
Find cutoff frequency
k z2 k 2 k c2 0

k c is cutoff wavenumber.

From k c 2f c
,
kc
cutoff frequency f c
2
UCF
Degenerate Modes

## If two or more modes have the same eigenvalue

(propagation constant kz) but different
eigenvectors (field patterns), they are called
degenerate modes.