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Analele Universitii Constantin Brncui din Trgu Jiu, Seria Inginerie, Nr.

1/2011

ASPECTE PRIVIND ASPECTS REGARDING


MONITORIZAREA CALITII SURFACE WATERS QUALITY
APELOR DE SUPRAFA MONITORING

Daniela Crn, Conf.univ.dr., Daniela Crn, Assoc. prof. dr.,


Universitatea Constantin Brncui Constantin Brncui University of
din Tg. Jiu Tg.-Jiu

ABSTRACT: Under the conditions of tumultuous


REZUMAT: n condiiile urbanizrii i a urbanization and industrialization, the contemporary
industrializrii impetuoase, civilizaia contemporan civilization is characterized by an alarming process of
se caracterizeaz printr-un proces ngrijortor de ecologic balance deterioration and water resources
deteriorare a echilibrului ecologic i de poluare a pollution. Water resources management is put in
resurselor de ap. Managementul resurselor de ap difficulty not so much from the point of view of these
este pus n dificultate nu att din punct de vedere al resources quantity but rather from the point of view of
cantitii acestor resurse ct mai ales a calitii lor, their quality, this being more and more affected by
aceasta fiind afectat tot mai mult de diversele forme various forms of pollution. Monitoring allows the
de poluare. Monitorizarea permite realizarea a patru achievement of four main objectives in knowing water
obiective primordiale n cunoaterea strii de calitae quality, namely supervision, forecasting, warning and
a apei i anume, supravegherea, prognozarea, intervention. Water quality monitoring allows to make
avertizarea i intervenia. Prin monitorizarea calitii a systematic assessment of water qualitative features,
apei se realizeaz o evaluare sistematic a which are in permanent dynamics with significant
caracteristicilor caltative ale apei, aflate ntr-o social and economic implications. The paper presents
dinamic permanent i cu implicaii social- the objectives of water quality monitoring, aspects
economice semnificative. n lucrare sunt prezentate related to water monitoring implementation programs,
obiectivele monitorizrii calitii apei, aspecte legate as well as applications of the monitoring system for Jiu
de implementarea programelor de monitorizare a river, on the territory of Gorj county.
apei, precum i aplicaii ale sistemului de monitoring
pentru rul Jiu, pe teritoriul judeului Gorj.

CUVINTE CHEIE: monitorizare, ape de suprafa, KEYWORDS: monitoring, surface waters, quality
indicatori de calitate. indicators.

1. INTRODUCERE 1. INTRODUCTION
Raportat la condiiile de existen ale Related to the existence conditions of
vieii n general i de desfurare a life in general and human activities in
activitilor umane n special, apa prezint o particular, water has a double meaning,
dubl importan i anume: ca factor al namely: environmental factor, generating
mediului nconjurtor, respectiv generatoare ecologic system and raw material for some
de sisteme ecologice i ca materie prim uses: the use as potable water, the use as
pentru anumite folosine: utilizarea ca surs industrial water, the use of water for
de ap potabil, utilizarea ca ap industrial, recreation, pisciculture fish breeding etc. In
folosirea apei pentru agrement, piscicultur both cases, the water has to meet some
etc. n ambele ipostaze apa trebuie s quality requirements, more specifically to be
ndeplineasc anumite condiii de calitate, of adequate quality. According to the
mai precis s fie de calitate corespunztoare. requirements of modern life, water quality
Conform cerinelor vieii moderne, calitatea apei i-a has gradually lost the character of abstract
pierdut treptat caracterul de noiune abstract, notion, becoming, along with quantity, one of
devenind, alturi de cantitate, una din dimensiunile water dimensions that can be measured
apei, care poate fi msurat prin determinarea unui
ansamblu de elemente numite indicatori de calitate.
by determining a group of elements called
quality indicators". For most of these

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Pentru majoritatea acestor indicatori, exprimai n indicators expressed in specific


concentraii specifice (de exemplu mg/l), valorile concentrations (for instance mg/l), resulting
obinute trebuie interpretate n raport cu situaia
hidrologic corespunztoare momentului de prelevare
values have to be interpreted in accordance
a probelor de ap. with the hydrological situation corresponding
Din punct de vedere statistico-matematic, to the moment of water samples collection.
indicatorii de calitate sunt de natura unor From statistic and mathematic point
variabile continue, adic a unor caracteristici of view, quality indicators are continuous
cantitative care pot lua orice valoare variables, meaning quantitative
numeric, ntre anumite limite. Astfel, apare characteristics that can take any numeric
ideea determinrii unui volum ct mai mare value, within certain ranges. Therefore, there
de analize pentru a estima o mrime apropiat occurs the idea of determining a volume as
de valoarea medie real. n consecin, big as possible of analyses in order to
frecvena recoltrii ntr-o seciune de control estimate a size close to the real average value.
ar trebui s fie foarte mare. Acest deziderat Consequently, the frequency of sampling in a
poate fi realizat prin utilizarea instalaiilor de control section should be very high. This
control automat al calitii apei [1]. desiderate can be achieved by using the
De asemenea, apelor naturale le revine automated control plants of water quality [1].
i funcia de a recepiona apele uzate Also, natural waters have the function
ncrcate cu deeurile sau pierderile care of receiving waste waters loaded with waste
rezult din activitile umane, ceea ce or losses resulted from human activities,
altereaz calitatea iniial a apei. n condiiile which alters the initial quality of water. In the
societii contemporane, caracterizat de contemporary society characterized by an
ritmul accelerat al dezvoltrii social- accelerated rhythm of social and economic
economice, apare tendina unei accenturi development, there is the tendency of a
periculoase a procesului de poluare a dangerous increase of water sources pollution
resurselor de ap, putndu-se ajunge la process, with the possibility of getting into
situaii total necorespunztoare. De aceea, totally inadequate circumstances. This is
innd seama de cele dou caracteristici why, taking into consideration the two main
principale: apa - factor de mediu i apa - characteristics: water environmental factor
materie prim, este necesar s se prevad, and water raw material, it is necessary to
pe perioade corespunztoare dezvoltrii develop an adequate program of measures for
social-economice, un program adecvat de protecting water quality for periods
msuri pentru protecia calitii apelor. Dar corresponding to the social and economic
pentru a se putea ntocmi i aplica n mod development. But, in order to draft and
eficient un astfel de program, n primul rnd efficiently apply such a program, the first
se impune, ca o condiie absolut necesar, necessary condition is to have some accurate
deinerea unor informaii ct mai corecte i and complete information regarding the
mai complete cu privire la gradul de ncrcare loading level (pollution) of natural waters, as
(poluare) al apelor naturale, precum i la well as the potential pollution sources [2].
regimul surselor poteniale de poluare [2]. In this sense, water quality
knowledge is the specific activity that takes
n acest sens cunoaterea calitii
places systematically and periodically in
apelor este activitatea specific care se order to get the fundamental elements for
desfoar sistematic i periodic n appreciating the evolution of waters quality
scopul obinerii elementelor and for drawing-up the decisions in the field
fundamentalepentruapreciereaevoluiei of waters quality management. Designing and
calitii apelor i pentru elaborarea implementing a monitoring program at zonal
and national level is an essential condition for
deciziilor n domeniul gospodririi
knowing water quality and an integrating part
calitiiapelor. Proiectarea i implementarea of environmental integrated monitoring.

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unui program de monitorizare la nivel zonal


i naional reprezint o condiie esenial a
cunoaterii calitii apei i parte intrinsec a
monitoringului integrat al mediului.
2. WATER QUALITY
2. MONITORIZAREA CALITII MONITORING
APEI Water quality monitoring and
Monitorizarea i evaluarea calitii assessment is based on the following
apei se bazeaz pe urmtoarele trsturi fundamental features: physical, chemical,
fundamentale: fizice, chimice, biologice i biologic and microbiologic. It is a process
microbiologice. Este un proces de analiz, of analysis, interpretation and
interpretare i comunicare a acestor communication of these features within
proprieti n cadrul activitilor umane i de human activities and environmental
conservare a mediului natural. Aadar, nu preservation. Therefore, it is not a fixed
este un proces fix, fiind adaptat n funcie de process, being adapted depending on the
nevoile locale, naionale sau internaionale. local, national or international needs. By
Prin proiectarea unui program de designing a monitoring program of water
monitorizare a calitii apei se urmrete ca quality one aims for the information to be
informaiile obinute s fie de folos n luarea useful in making decisions. The information
deciziilor. Informaiile generate din generated by the monitoring program has to
programul de monitorizare trebuie s reflecte reflect the way in which water quality and
n ce mod calitatea i cantitatea apei quantity meet users requirements or
ntrunete cerinele utilizatorilor sau ale standards, to what extent water quality is
standardelor stabilite, n ce msur calitatea influenced by natural processes and in what
apei este influenat de procesele naturale i way water can assimilate a large amount of
n ce mod apa are capacitatea de a asimila o waste without reaching an inacceptable level
cantitate mare de deeuri, fr s ajung of pollution. The monitoring program reflects
la un nivel inacceptabil de poluare. the compatibility and efficiency of control
Programul de monitorizare reflect strategies and management actions in
compatibilitatea i eficiena strategiilor de pollution control, showing the existence of
control i aciunilor de management n tendencies to alter water quality depending on
controlul polurii, arat existena tendinelor the change of anthrop activities in the area
de modificare a calitii apei n funcie de and which are the effects that water quality
schimbarea activitilor antropice din zon i deterioration has on plants and animals, it
care sunt efectele pe care deteriorarea calitii indicates the control measures that have to be
apei le are asupra plantelor i animalelor, taken in order to improve or prevent water
indic msurile de control care trebuie luate quality deterioration etc. By having such
pentru a mbunti sau preveni deteriorarea information, some monitoring programs will
calitii apei etc. Dispunnd de asemenea be designed for long term in order to offer a
informaii, unele programe de monitorizare cumulative amount of information, while
vor fi pe termen lung proiectate astfel nct s others will have only one objective and will
ofere un volum cumulativ de informaii, n be designed for short periods of time [3].
timp ce altele vor avea un singur obiectiv i
se vor ntinde de-a lungul unei perioade de
timp scurte [3].
2.1. Water quality monitoring objectives
2.1. Obiectivele monitorizrii calitii apei Water quality monitoring objectives
Obiectivele monitorizrii calitii apei can be general when monitoring is made
pot fi cu caracter general, atunci cnd without setting the objectives in detail.

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monitorizarea se face fr s se stabileasc Statistic descriptions of objectives are usually


obiective prea detaliat. Descrierile statistice used for types of more advanced monitoring
ale obiectivelor sunt, de obicei utilizate programs. Objectives setting starts from
pentru tipurile de programe de monitorizare problems regarding the place the monitoring
mult mai avansate. Stabilirea obiectivelor will develop, the purpose of monitoring, the
pornete de la probleme legate de locul unde nature of information to be received through
va fi realizat monitorizarea, scopul monitoring (basic information, planning
monitorizrii, natura informaiilor ce urmeaz information, operational or management
a fi obinute prin monitorizare (informaii de information, standards elaboration
baz, informaii pentru planificare, informaii information or management information, for
operaionale sau pentru management, pentru drawing-up standards or for depicting
elaborarea de standarde sau pentru depistarea pollution sources), the nature of variables that
surselor de poluare), natura variabilelor ce have to be measured, human and financial
trebuie msurate, resursele umane i resources for monitoring, the way in which
financiare pentru monitorizare, modul n care the multiple monitoring information will be
vor fi folosite informaiile monitorizrii [4]. used [4].
Obiectivele generale ale monitorizrii The general objectives of water
calitii apei pot fi formulate astfel: quality monitoring can be formulated as
- mbuntirea structurii datelor i follows:
informaiilor n sensul facilitrii unei - improving the structure of data and
caracterizri ct mai complete a strii de information in order to facilitate a complete
calitate a apei; characterization of water quality status;
- obinerea unei baze de date referitoare la - achieving a database regarding the
interdependena strii de calitate a apei de interdependence of water quality status with
ceilali factori de mediu, care s poat fi the other environmental factors, that can be
cuprins ntr-un sistem de monitoring integrat included in an environmental integrated
al mediului; monitoring system;
- dezvoltarea unui suport informaional - developing the data support necessary for
necesar fundamentrii deciziilor n substantiating the decisions in water
gospodrirea apei pe principiile dezvoltrii management based on the principles of
durabile; sustainable development;
- creerea unei baze de date necesare - creating a database necessary for complying
respectrii legislaiei naionale i with the national and international legislation;
internaionale; - informing the population regarding the state
- realizarea unei informri a populaiei n of water masses.
legtur cu starea maselor de ap. Among the typical objectives of water
Dintre obiectivele tipice al quality monitoring, we mention the
monitorizrii calitii apei pot fi menionate following: detecting any sign of water and its
urmtoarele: detectarea oricrui semn de quality deterioration, identifying those water
deteriorare a apei i a calitii acesteia, masses from the ecosystem that fail to meet
identificarea acelor mase de ap, din the pre-established conditions and standards
ecosistem, care nu ntrunesc condiiile i regarding water quality, identifying the
standardele prestabilite, privitoare la calitatea contaminated areas, estimating the load of
apei, identificarea zonelor contaminate, polluting factor taken over by the ecosystem
estimarea ncrcturii de factor poluant or subsystem, determining the extension and
preluat de ecosistem sau de subsistem; the effects of certain waste discharge,
determinarea extinderii i a efectelor evaluating the efficacy of a management
descrcrii anumitor deeuri, evaluarea intervention of water quality.
eficacitii unei intervenii de management al
calitii apei.

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2.2. Aspecte referitoare la implementarea 2.2. Aspects regarding water monitoring


programelor de monitorizare a apei programs implementation
Pentru un program nou este bine s se In the case of a new program it is
nceap cu un proiect pilot care reprezint o indicated to start with a pilot project which is
oportunitate pentru personal de a ctiga an opportunity for the employees to gain
experien practic i de a confirma dac practical experience and confirm whether the
elementele programului pot fi ndeplinite elements of the program can be fulfilled
conform planului. Poate fi, de asemenea, o according to the plan. It can also be an
oportunitate de a evalua probele i de a da opportunity to evaluate the samples and give
indicaii cu privire la necesitatea recoltrii indications regarding the need to collect an
unui anumit numr de probe adecvat, n adequate number of samples in order to
vederea stabilirii calitii apei. De-a lungul determine water quality. During the pilot
proiectului-pilot sau cercetrilor preliminare, project or the preliminary researches, it is
este important s se ia n calcul studiile important to consider the studies on the
asupra ecosistemelor care vor fi evaluate. Ar ecosystems which are to be evaluated. It
fi potrivit s se ia n considerare variaiile would be suitable to consider the variations
calitii apei n funcie de lrgimea i of water quality depending on its width and
adncimea acesteia, de-a lungul unui ciclu depth, during an annual cycle, in order to
anual, pentru a se confirma numrul de probe confirm the number of necessary samples for
necesare obinerii unor date reprezentative. achieving representative data.
Un element important pentru An important element for the
implementare este descrierea zonei de implementation is the description of the
monitorizare care trebuie s conin: monitoring area which has to consist of:
delimitarea vecintilor zonei, un rezumat al defining the area neighbourhoods, an
condiiilor de mediu i al proceselor (inclusiv overview of environmental conditions and
activitile umane) care ar putea afecta processes (including human activities) that
calitatea apei, informaii meteorologice i could affect water quality, meteorological and
hidrologice, descrierea maselor de ap, un hydrologic information, water masses
rezumat al folosirilor actuale i poteniale description, an overview of current and
ale apelor. possible uses of water. Choosing water
Alegerea punctelor de prelevare a sampling points is an important stage in
probelor de ap reprezint o etap important monitoring. The factors that affect water
n monitorizare. Factorii care afecteaz quality have to be considered when collecting
calitatea apei trebuie luai n consideraie the samples. The exact choice of the
atunci cnd se stabilesc punctele de unde vor sampling point usually depends on two
fi prelevate probele. Alegerea exact a factors:
punctului de prelevare depinde n general de selecting the sampling area (that is
doi factori: defining the position of the cross section
selectarea zonei de prelevare (adic position in the reception basin, river or
fixarea poziiei seciunii transversale de brook);
prelevare n bazinul de recepie, ru sau defining the exact place in the
pru); sampling area.
stabilirea locului exact n zona de Samples collection stations on the
prelevare. rivers usually have to be set in places where
Staiile de prelevare a probelor de water is homogenized in order to require only
pe ruri trebuie, ca regul general, s fie one sample. The lateral and vertical mixture
stabilite n locurile unde apa este bine of an affluent brook of the main river can be
omogenizat astfel nct s nu fie nevoie very slow especially if the river flow is
dect de o singur prob. Amestecul laminar and waters have different
lateral i vertical al unui pru afluent al temperatures. The mixture achievement

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rului principal, poate fi foarte lent, mai ales rhythm has to be checked by measuring the
dac, cursul rului este laminar i apele au temperature or other characteristic variables
temperaturi diferite. Ritmul de realizare a in various points along the river width. If
amestecului trebuie verificat prin msurarea there are any waterfalls in the river, the
temperaturii sau alte variabile caracteristice mixture will be hurried and representative
n diverse puncte de-a lungul limii rului. samples can be collected downstream.
Daca exist cascade n ru, amestecul va fi Samples for determining the dissolved
grbit i probele reprezentative pot fi oxygen have to be collected upstream
obinute din aval. Probele pentru because the turbulence makes water saturated
determinarea oxigenului dizolvat trebuie luate with oxygen.
din amonte ntruct turbulena va face ca apa
sa fie saturat cu oxigen.
Mijloacele de monitorizare i Monitoring means and studied
variabilele studiate variables
Sunt trei factori principali care pot fi There are three main factors that can
folosii pentru monitorizarea acvatic: apa, be used for aquatic monitoring: water, matter
materia sub form de particule i organismele under the form of particles and living
vii. Calitatea apei i a materiei sub form de organisms. The quality of water and the
particule este stabilit prin analize chimice i matter under the form of particles is
fizice, pe cnd organismele vii pot fi folosite determined through chemical and physical
ntr-un mare numr de moduri. Comuniti analyses, while living organisms can be used
ntregi de organisme sau de indivizi in a large number of ways. Entire
aparinnd aceluiai grup, pot fi studiai ca communities of organisms or individuals
indicatori ai calitii apei. Fiziologia, belonging to the same group can be studied as
morfologia i comportamentul diverselor indicators of water quality. The physiology,
organisme pot fi folosite pentru a evalua morphology and behaviour of various
toxicitatea cauzat de condiiile potrivnice organisms can be used in order to evaluate
calitii apei [3]- [5]. Organismele i the toxicity caused by the conditions bad for
esuturile lor pot fi folosite i ca mijloace water quality [3]- [5]. Their organisms and
pentru monitorizarea chimic a substanelor tissues can be used as means for chemical
contaminante din mediul acvatic. Cea mai monitoring of contaminated substances from
comun investigaie biologic a probelor the aquatic environment. The most common
prelevate de la suprafaa apelor este biologic investigation of the samples
determinarea pigmenilor clorofilieni collected from waters surface is the
fitoplanctonici, care dau indicaii despre determination of phytoplankton chlorophyll
biomasa de alge Msurrile de clorofil sunt pigments, which provide indications about
folositoare i pentru evaluarea eutrofizrii din the algae biomass. Chlorophyll measurements
lacuri, rezervoare i ruri mari, sau pentru are also useful for assessing eutrophisation in
evaluarea productivitii n majoritatea apelor lakes, tanks and big rivers or for evaluating
de suprafa. Materia sub form de particule, productivity in most of the surface waters.
din ap este folosit, n special, n studiul The matter under the form of particles from
lacurilor, n monitorizarea tendinelor i n the water is especially used in the study of
studiile privind evoluia rurilor. Indicii lakes, in monitoring the tendencies and
biologici bazai pe metodele ecologice sunt studies regarding rivers evolution. Biologic
folosii din ce n ce mai mult pentru indices based on ecologic methods are more
evalurile rurilor i lacurilor, pe termen and more used for long-term evaluation of
lung. Calitatea apei poate fi descris printr-o rivers and lakes. Water quality can be
singur variabil sau prin orice combinaie de described through only one variable or
peste 100 de variabile. Variabilele alese n through any combination of over 100
cadrul unui program de monitorizare vor variables. The variables chosen within a

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depinde de obiectivele programului i de monitoring program will depend on the


utilizrile curente i anticipate ale apei. Cea program objectives and current and
mai simpl combinaie de variabile este anticipated uses of water. The simplest
temperatura, conductivitatea electric, pH, combination of variables is temperature,
oxigenul dizolvat i totalitatea solidelor power conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen
suspendate. Toate acestea ofer un minimum and all the suspended solids. All of them
de informaii pe care se poate baza evaluarea provide a minimum of information on which
calitii apei. Programele mult mai complexe water quality determination is based on. More
pot analiza pn la 100 de variabile, inclusiv complex programs can analyze up to 100
ocurena metalelor i micro-poluanii variables, including metals and organic
organici. n multe programe de monitorizare, micro-polluters occurrence. In many
poluarea apei constituie motivul pentru a monitoring programs, water pollution is the
ncepe analiza variabilelor specifice calitii reason for starting the analysis of water
apei. Cteva exemple de forme de poluare i quality specific variables. Several examples of
variabilele care trebuie studiate sunt pollution as well as variables that have to be
menionate n continuare: studied are mentioned next:
poluarea cu reziduuri organice se organic waste pollution is due to
datoreaz apelor uzate din canalizrile waste waters from town sewerage systems,
municipale, resturile de la abatoare, industria residues from slaughter houses, food industry
alimentar i din agricultur. Variabilele care and agriculture. Variables that have to be
trebuiesc msurate sunt: cerina de oxigen measured are: the need for biochemical
biochimic, cerina de oxigen chimic, azotul oxygen, the need for chemical oxygen,
organic dizolvat, carbonul organic total, dissolved organic nitrogen, total organic
azotul organic, fosforul total i coliformele carbon, organic nitrogen, total phosphorus and
fecale; dejections;
poluarea datorat efluenilor pollution due to industrial effluents
industriali care pot conine substane chimice which may include toxic chemical, organic and
toxice, organice sau anorganice, n funcie de inorganic substances depending on the industrial
procesul industrial. Cteva exemple de process. Several examples of variables that
variabile care trebuie msurate n apele have to be measured in industrial waters are:
industriale sunt: total substane solide totally dissolved solid substances, dissolved
dizolvate, oxigen dizolvat, bioxid de siliciu, oxygen, silica dioxide, iron, copper,
fier, cupru, conductivitate, oxidabilitate, conductivity, oxidability, phenols, benzene,
fenoli, benzen, cianuri, arsenic, cadmiu, cyanides, arsenic, cadmium, chrome,
crom, magneziu, mercur, nichel, seleniu i magnesium, mercury, nickel, selenium
zinc. and zinc.

2.3. Studiu de caz. Monitorizarea calitii 2.3. Case study. Monitoring the quality
rului Jiu pe teritoriul judeului Gorj of Jiu river on the territory of Gorj county
Calitatea apei de suprafa este The quality of surface water is
permanent controlat pe teritoriul judeului permanently controlled on the territory of
Gorj prin prelevarea de probe. Calitatea Gorj county by collecting samples. The
chimic a rului Jiu, principalul curs de ap chemical quality of Jiu river, the main water
care strbate teritoriul judeului Gorj a fost flow that crosses the territory of Gorj county
caracterizat de o serie de indicatori chimici was characterized by a series of general
generali, o parte dintre acetia fiind prezentai chemical indicators, a part of them being
n tab.1. presented in table 1.

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Tabel 1. Indicatori chimici ai rului Jiu.


Indicatori chimici
Locul Data prelevarii Materii n Oxigen CCO-Cr NO2 -
recoltrii
suspensie dizolvat (mg (mg N/l)
(mg/l) (mg O2/l)
O2/l)
Jiu amonte 11.03.2009 27 12,1 17,38 0,049
Confluen Sadu 2009 03.06.2009 88 9,4 14,18 0,123
06.08.2009 99 7,9 13,71 0,156
10.11.2009 43 10,00 8,13 0,115
2010 04.03.2010 29 10,9 10,00 0,012
08.07.2010 30 8,80 10,00 0,075
Jiu aval Acumulare 16.03.2009 25 10,5 14,54 0,057
Tg-Jiu 2009 10.06.2009 28 7,6 14,18 0,090
11.08.2009 23 8,2 13,39 0,082
12.11.2009 37 10,9 8,13 0,156
2010 11.03.2010 23 11,1 10,00 0,057
14.07.2010 37 7,2 10,00 0,060
Jiu - Blteni 16.03.2009 27 8,3 14,54 0,066
2009 09.06.2009 37 6,5 14,18 0,123
11.08.2009 32 6,5 8,93 0,098
09.11.2009 49 9,3 8,13 0,14
2010 15.03.10 30 10,4 10,00 0,059
19.07.10 19 6,9 10,00 0,036

Table 1. The chemical indicators of Jiu river.


Chemical indicators
Sampling place Sampling time Total Dissolved COD-Cr NO2 -
suspension oxygen (mg (mg
matters (mg O2/l) O2/l) N/l)
(mg/l)
11.03.2009 27 12,1 17,38 0,049
Jiu- upstream 2009 03.06.2009 88 9,4 14,18 0,123
confluence with 06.08.2009 99 7,9 13,71 0,156
Sadu 10.11.2009 43 10,00 8,13 0,115
2010 04.03.2010 29 10,9 10,00 0,012
08.07.2010 30 8,80 10,00 0,075
16.03.2009 25 10,5 14,54 0,057
Jiu- downstream 2009 10.06.2009 28 7,6 14,18 0,090
accumulation 11.08.2009 23 8,2 13,39 0,082
Tg. Jiu 12.11.2009 37 10,9 8,13 0,156
2010 11.03.2010 23 11,1 10,00 0,057
14.07.2010 37 7,2 10,00 0,060
16.03.2009 27 8,3 14,54 0,066
Jiu - Blteni 2009 09.06.2009 37 6,5 14,18 0,123
11.08.2009 32 6,5 8,93 0,098
09.11.2009 49 9,3 8,13 0,14
2010 15.03.10 30 10,4 10,00 0,059

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19.07.10 19 6,9 10,00 0,036

Au fost efectuate de asemenea analize Analyses were made also for


pentru determinarea turbiditii, a reziduului determining turbidity, fixed residue, N-NH4+,
fix, N-NH4+, N-NO3-, cloruri, sulfai etc. N-NO3-, chlorides, sulphates etc. The
Metodele de determinare folosite au fost determining methods used were in
conform STAS-urilor n vigoare. n accordance with the relevant STAS. We next
continuare se prezint stadiul actual al describe the current state of the pollution
gradului de poluare a rului Jiu pe level of Jiu river on the parts that cross the
tronsoanele care strbat teritoriul judeului territory of Gorj county:
Gorj: - Jiu- upstream confluence with Sadu,
- Jiu- amonte confluen Sadu, part length- 3 Km, 2nd quality class;
lungime tronson- 3 Km, clasa de - Jiu- Blteni, part length - 56 Km, 2nd
calitate II; quality class;
- Jiu- Blteni, lungime tronson - 56 - Jiu- downstream accumulation Tg.
Km, clasa de calitate II; Jiu, part length - 21 Km, 2nd quality
- Jiu- aval acumulare Tg. Jiu, class.
lungime tronson - 21 Km, clasa de The values of water quality indicators
calitate II; which express the pollution level with TSM
Valorile indicatorilor de calitate a and organic substances (DO, COD-Cr), for
apei, care exprim gradul de poluare cu MTS 2009-2010, are graphically represented in
i substane organice (OD, CCO-Cr), pentru fig.1-3.
perioada 2009-2010, sunt reprezentate grafic
n fig.1-3.
40
120
35 MT S
100 MTS 30
OD
OD 25
CCO-Cr
80
CCO-Cr 20

60 15

10
40
5

20 0
09

09

09

09

10

10

0
03

06

08

11

03

07

11 03 09 03 06 09 06 08 09 10 11 09 04 03 10 08 07 10
16

10

11

12

11

14

Data de prelevare Data de prelevare

Fig.1. Variaia indicatorilor de calitate pe Fig.2. Variaia indicatorilor de calitate pe


tronsonul Jiu amonte confluen Sadu tronsonul Jiu aval acumulare Tg-Jiu

Fig.1. Variation on the quality indicators Fig.2. Variation on the quality indicators the
the section Jiu- upstream confluence with section Jiu- downstream accumulation Tg.
Sadu. Jiu

Annals of the Constantin Brncui University of Trgu Jiu, Engineering Series, Issue 1/2011
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60
MTS
50
OD
40
CCO-Cr
30

20

10

09

09

09

09

10

10
03

06

08

11

03

07
16

09

11

09

15

19
Data de prelevare

Fig.3. Variaia indicatorilor de calitate pe Fig.3. Variation on the quality indicators the
tronsonul Jiu Blteni. section Jiu Blteni.

Monitorizarea indicatorilor chimici Monitoring the chemical indicators for


pentru cursul de ap Jiu i raportarea lor la Jiu water flow and relating them to the
valorile maxim admise prevzute n NTPA maximum admitted values provided in the
001/2002, a condus la urmtoarele concluzii: NTPA 001/2002, has resulted in the
- pentru indicatorul materii totale n following conclusions:
suspensie, MTS ( concentraia maxim admis - for total suspension matters
este de 60 mg/l, cls. a-II-a de calitate), indicator, TSM (maximum allowable
frecvena depirilor a fost de 11,11%, cea concentration is 60 mg/l for 2nd quality class),
mai mare depire a fost nregistrat pe the frequency of exceedances was 11,11%,
tronsonul Jiu amonte confluen Sadu, n exceeding the highest was recorded on the
procent de 65% fa de valoarea maxim section upstream of confluence Jiu Sadu, at
admis. the rate of 65% compared to the maximum
- pentru indicatorul consum chimic de permissible .
oxigen, CCO-Cr (concentraia maxim admis Ascultai
este de 25 mg/l, cls. a-II-a de calitate), nu au Citii fonetic
fost nregistrate depiri;
- pentru indicatorul oxigen dizolvat, Dicionar - Afiai dicionarul detaliat
OD, au fost nregistrate trei valori (16,66%)
sub coninutul de OD corespunztor clasei a- 1. adverb
II-a de calitate (O.D.=7 mg/l). 1. also
2. as well
3. too
3. CONCLUZII 4. likewise
n contextul unei dezvoltri durabile, 5. withal
protecia calitii apelor de suprafa ocup
un loc major, inndu-se cont de faptul c - for chemical oxygen deficit indicator,
apa, considerat mult timp ca o resurs COD-Cr (maximum nd
allowable concentration
inepuizabil i regenerabil a devenit i se is 25 mg/l for 2 quality class), there were no
dovedete tot mai evident unul dintre factorii exceedances;
limitativi n dezvoltarea socio-economic. Ca - for dissolved oxygen indicator, DO,
principal factor de mediu i vector major de three values were registered (16,66%) nd
in the
propagare a polurii la nivel local i corresponding DO content of 2 quality
transfrontalier, ca resurs vital a suportului class (DO = 7 mg/l).

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vieii, monitoringul calitii apei a cunoscut o


serie de etape din punct de vedere al 3. CONCLUSIONS
organizrii i implementrii. Principala Within the context of sustainable
dimensiune a apei este calitatea, care development, surface waters quality
constituie n prezent un obiectiv major n protection has a major place, taking into
gospodrirea apelor, la care activitatea de consideration that water, considered for a
monitoring are un rol determinant, long time an inexhaustible and renewable
reprezentnd instrumentul de baz n source proves more and more to be one of the
dezvoltarea politicilor de ap i asigurarea limiting factors in the social and economical
managementului aferent. Reprezentnd o development. As the main environmental
activitate de baz n gospodrirea integrat a factor and major pollution spreading vector at
apelor, monitoringul calitii acestora a local and cross border level, as a vital
devenit n prezent un instrument resource of life support, water quality
indispensabil evalurilor spaio-temporare monitoring has known a series of stages from
privitoare la tendinele de evoluie a the point of view of organization and
concentraiilor i ncrcrilor de poluani, implementation. The main dimension of
precum i a celor legate de ncadrarea n water is quality which is currently a major
criteriile i obiectivele de calitate cerute de objective of water management, where the
legislaia in vigoare. n vederea asigurrii monitoring activity has a determining role,
unei caliti corespunztoare i a proteciei being the main instrument in water policies
apelor, ct i pentru verificarea respectrii development and related management. Being
reglementrilor de protecie este strict necesar a basic activity in water integrated
s se realizeze o baz de date ct mai management, their quality monitoring has
complet asupra stadiului de ncrcare cu become an indispensable instrument of
poluani al acestora. Realizarea unei eficiente spatial and temporal evaluations regarding
protecii a calitii apei nu este de conceput concentrations evolution trends and polluters
fr organizarea unui sistem de supraveghere loading, as well as compliance with the
i control. n prezent, eficiena unor astfel de quality criteria and objectives provided by the
sisteme de supraveghere la nivel naional este relevant legislation. In order to provide an
strns legat de aparatura de control automat adequate quality and water protection, as well
al calitii apei. as to check the compliance of protection
Prevenirea polurii apei poate fi regulations, it is necessary to achieve a
asigurat pornind de la un sistem de complete database on their polluters loading
supraveghere i control riguros, urmat de level. Achieving an efficient protection of
implementarea unor msuri de reducere a water quality cannot be conceived without
polurii apei precum: introducerea pe scar organizing a surveillance and control system.
larg a unor tehnologii nepoluante n At present, the efficiency of such surveillance
procesele industriale, reducerea cantitilor systems at national level is very connected to
de ape uzate evacuate n ruri prin the automated control devices of water
introducerea practicii recirculrii apei, quality.
recuperarea materialelor utile din apele uzate, Water pollution prevention can be
avnd astfel avantajul asigurrii unor provided starting from a rough surveillance
adevrate surse de materii prime, and control system, followed by the
mbuntirea randamentului de epurare prin implementation of water pollution measures
perfecionarea tehnologiilor, instalaiilor i like: large scale introduction of non-polluting
exploatrii acestora. technologies in industrial processes, reducing
Protecia calitii apei este o aciune cu the amounts of waste waters discharged in
caracter permanent, n care fiecare membru al rivers by introducing water recirculation
societii trebuie s-i aduc contribuia, un practice, recovering useful materials from
aport contient i responsabil. n acest scop, waste waters therefore having the advantage

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prin toate mijloacele de informare sau de of providing a real source of raw materials ,
educare, este necesar s se dezbat improving the treatment output by improving
importana social, economic, ecologic a technologies, plants and operating them.
problemelor i aciunilor de prevenire i Water quality protection is a permanent
combatere a polurii resurselor de ap. action, in which every member of the society
has to make a contribution, a conscious and
BIBLIOGRAFIE responsible contribution. For this purposes,
[1] Apostol, T., Badea, A., Mrculescu, C., using every information or educational
Managementul sistemelor de mediu, Ed. means, it is necessary to debate the social,
Politehnica Press, Bucureti, 2005. economic, ecologic importance of problems
[2] Bbeanu, N. Ecologie i protecia regarding water resources pollution
mediului, Ed. Dominor, Bucureti, 2008. prevention and control.
[3] Gavrilescu, E., Olteanu, I. Calitatea
mediului (II). Monitorizarea calitii apei, REFERENCES
Ed. Universitaria, Craiova, 2004. [1] Apostol, T., Badea, A., Mrculescu, C. -
[4] Negulescu, M., Ianculescu, S. - Protecia Environmental systems management,
mediului nconjurtor, Ed. Tehnic, Politehnica Press Publ., Bucharest, 2005.
Bucureti, 1995. [2] Bbeanu, N. Ecology and
[5] Ptroescu,C., Gnescu, I., Papa, I. - environmental protection, Dominor Publ.,
Analiza apelor, Editura Sitech, Craiova 2000. Bucharest, 2008.
[3] Gavrilescu, E., Olteanu, I.
Environmental Quality (II). Monitoring water
quality, Universitaria Publ., Craiova, 2004.
[4] Negulescu, M., Ianculescu, S. -
Environmental protection, Technical Publ.,
Bucharest, 1995.
[5] Ptroescu,C., Gnescu, I., Papa, I. - Water
Analysis, Sitech Publ., Craiova 2000.

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