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DIRECTORATE OF DISTANCE LEARNING EDUCATION


G.C UNIVERSITY FAISALABAD

Name : Rafat Shaheer

Roll NO : 141005

Program : B.Tech(Hons) Mechanical Engineering

Course Title : Industrial Energy Management

Report On Industrial Energy Management

Question No: 1

What do you know about Energy Storage & Energy


Optimization?
Answer:
Energy storage:
Energy Storage is the capture of energy produced at one
time for use at a later time. A device that stores energy is sometimes called an
accumulator. Energy comes in multiple forms including radiation, chemical,
gravitational potential, electrical potential, electricity, elevated temperature,
latent heat and kinetic. Energy storage involves converting energy from forms
that are difficult to store to more conveniently or economically storable forms.
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Bulk energy storage is dominated by pumped hydro, which accounts for 99% of
global energy storage.
Some technologies provide short-term energy storage, while others can endure
for much longer. A wind-up clock stores potential energy (in this case
mechanical, in the spring tension), a rechargeable battery stores readily
convertible chemical energy to operate a mobile phone, and a hydroelectric
dam stores energy in a reservoir as gravitational potential energy. Fossil fuels
such as coal and gasoline store ancient energy derived from sunlight by
organisms that later died, became buried and over time were then converted
into these fuels. Food (which is made by the same process as fossil fuels) is a
form of energy stored in chemical form.
Ice storage tanks store ice frozen by cheaper energy at night to meet peak
daytime demand for cooling. The energy isn't stored directly, but the work-
product of consuming energy (pumping away heat) is stored, having the
equivalent effect on daytime consumption.
Since the discovery of electricity, we have sought effective methods to store
that energy for use on demand. Over the last century, the energy storage
industry has continued to evolve and adapt to changing energy requirements
and advances in technology. Energy storage systems provide a wide array of
technological approaches to managing our power supply in order to create a
more resilient energy infrastructure and bring cost savings to utilities and
consumers. To help understand the diverse approaches currently being
deployed around the world, we have divided them into six main categories:

Solid State Batteries :


A range of electrochemical storage solutions,
including advanced chemistry batteries and capacitors.

Flow Batteries :
Batteries where the energy is stored directly in the
electrolyte solution for longer cycle life, and quick response times.

Flywheels :
mechanical devices that harness rotational energy to deliver
instantaneous electricity
Compressed Air Energy Storage - utilizing compressed air to create a
potent energy reserve.

Thermal:
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capturing heat and cold to create energy on demand

Pumped Hydro-Power :
creating large-scale reservoirs of energy with
water
You can learn more about each of these technologies by using our navigation
on the right hand side of this page, and each category includes real-world
examples of how these approaches being deployed in the field.

Energy Optimization:
Definition: Energy optimization is a form of energy
efficiency that can be done without any upfront costs. Energy optimization
practices include operating schedule modifications and lowering building
baseloads.
The EOS reduces kW and kWh consumption using multiple forms of resonance-
free and no-load electrical conditioning. The five key methods are as follows:

PHASE BALANCING (VIA MAGNETICS):


using voltage and
current to reduce waste, demand, friction and heat in loads

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION:


Reduces the demand of non-
productive power currents without creating a load and using resonance
free devices;

HARMONIC FILTRATION:
Reduces the distortion caused by non-linear loads,
such as electronics, VFDs, etc. from taking up electrical system capacity.

TRANSIENT ENERGY CONVERSION:


Absorbing energy above
and below the operational voltage of a facility, re-constituting it, and
returning it to the customer as usable power.

MAGNETIC CHOKES:
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Reducing magnetic field by generating a current


from each phase and injecting it into the adjacent phases as usable
power.
Our technology uses metal oxide varistors (MOV) along with other forms of
surge and spike protection. It has been found that the unique arrangement of
chokes provides substantial reductions in power usage, especially for inductive
loads in an industrial application. The immediate benefit is a verifiable
reduction of electric utility bills. Additionally, equipment life is increased while
maintenance and downtime are reduced. These units are compatible with any
control system, VFDs, and are not custom-built per load(s). However, they will
be strategically placed throughout a facility according to operational demands.
They will help protect against damage from surges, sags and phasing, and are
maintenance-free with an expected life of approximately 15 to 20 years.

Question No: 2
Elaborate Energy Management in Lighting & Power
Supply Sector?

Answer:

Energy Management in Lighting:


Crites Tidey will provide a complete re-light
project, turn the lights on and save. We will make recommendations for a
smooth project that will minimize impact on your daily operations including:
Evaluation of existing lighting system
Calculate current lighting cost and energy savings
Recommend best lighting solutions and strategy to save energy, improve
operations/quality/safety
Research local utility rebates
Proper fixture and lamp selection for specific lighting requirements
Recommendations for Motion Sensors and Controls (on-off control or
dimming in specified areas)
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Working with contractors or maintenance staff on project installation to


satisfy your specific needs.
Federal Energy Saving Tax Incentive assist with EPACT process to
provide proper documentation.

Lighting Controls:
Retrofitting metal halide hi-bay fixtures to fluorescent hi-bay
fixtures can generate energy cost savings of about 50 percent. How does
reducing the resulting energy consumption by another 30+ percent sound
This is made possible by switching to fluorescent technology and incorporating
OCCUPANCY SENSING controls.
Crites Tideys Energy Management department has the solution for:
Full building automation (offices, warehouse, manufacturing space, site
lighting, etc)
Individual fixture or entire area control
Wireless solutions for difficult retrofit or out-of-the-box thinking

In Power Supply Sector:


Much of this information consists of standards
defined by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA).The
power supply is one of the major factors affecting selection, installation,
operation, and maintenance of an electrical motor driven system. Usual service
conditions, defined in NEMA Standard Publication MG1, Motors and
Generators include:
Motors designed for rated voltage, frequency, and number of phases.
The supply voltage must be known to select the proper motor.
Motor nameplate voltage will normally be less then nominal power
system voltage.
Nominal Motor Utilization
Power System (Nameplate) Voltage
Voltage (Volts) Volts

208 200
240 230
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480 460
600 575
2400 2300
4160 4000
6900 6600
13800 13200
Operation within tolerance of 10 percent of the rated voltage.
Operation from a sine wave of voltage source (not
to exceed 10 percent deviation factor).
Operation within a tolerance of 5 percent of rated frequency.
Operation within a voltage unbalance of 1 percent or less.
Operation at other than usual service conditions may result in the consumption
of additional energy.

Question No: 3(i)


Describe Renewable Energy System?
Answer:
The RES Group (Renewable Energy Systems) is a global renewable energy
company which has been active in the renewable energy industry for over 30
years. Its core business is to develop, construct and operate large-scale, grid-
connected renewable energy projects worldwide for commercial, industrial and
utility clients. RES is active in the wind (onshore and offshore wind) and solar
energy sectors and is increasingly focused on the transition to a low-carbon
economy providing transmission, energy storage and demand side
management expertise.
Renewable Energy Systems was started in 1982 as part of the Sir Robert Mc
Alpine group of engineering and construction companies. Its early years were
spent in researching various designs for commercial wind turbines, including
work on a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) model as well as the now more
widely used horizontal axis (HAWT) units. The company built its first
commercial wind farm at Carland Cross in Cornwall in 1992, using 15 Vestas
turbines, each of 400 kW capacities. In December 1998, the first commercial
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1MW wind turbine to be designed and built in the UK was installed by RES at
Slievenahanaghan, Co Antrim.
In 2001 the company built the then-largest wind farm in the world at King
Mountain in Texas, using 214 Bonus turbines of 1.3 MW capacity. In 2005, RES
won a Queen's Award for Enterprise in the Sustainable Development category.
More recently the company has been active in the developing offshore UK wind
power market. It has supported the delivery of both onshore and offshore
engineering works for the Lynn and Inner Dowsing offshore wind farms off the
coast of Lincolnshire in the UK.
The RES Group has now developed and/or constructed over 100 wind farms
worldwide, with more than 10 GW of capacity. In addition, it has projects on its
books totaling several thousand megawatts worldwide, at various stages of
development.
The group will be managing the assets of the Renewables Infrastructure Group,
a company involved in onshore wind and solar energy in Britain, France and
Ireland, that plans a stock market flotation to raise up to GBP 300 million.

Question No: 3(ii)


What are Non Conventional Source of Energy?

Answer:
Energy generated by using wind, tides, solar, geothermal heat, and biomass
including farm and animal waste as well as human excreta is known as non-
conventional energy. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible and do
not cause environmental pollution. More over they do not require heavy
expenditure.

1. Wind Energy:
Wind power is harnessed by setting up a windmill which is
used for pumping water, grinding grain and generating electricity. The
gross wind power potential of India is estimated to be about 20,000 MW,
wind power projects of 970 MW capacities were installed till March.
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1998. Areas with constantly high speed preferably above 20 km per hour
are well-suited for harnessing wind energy.

2. Tidal Energy:
Sea water keeps on rising and falling alternatively twice a
day under the influence of gravitational pull of moon and sun. This
phenomenon is known as tides. It is estimated that India possesses
8000-9000 MW of tidal energy potential. The Gulf of Kuchchh is best
suited for tidal energy.

3. Solar Energy:
Sun is the source of all energy on the earth. It is most
abundant, inexhaustible and universal source of energy. AH other
sources of energy draw their strength from the sun. India is blessed with
plenty of solar energy because most parts of the country receive bright
sunshine throughout the year except a brief monsoon period. India has
developed technology to use solar energy for cooking, water heating,
water dissimilation, space heating, crop drying etc.

4. Geo-Thermal Energy:
Geo-thermal energy is the heat of the earth's
interior. This energy is manifested in the hot springs. India is not very rich
in this source.

5. Energy from Biomass:


Biomass refers to all plant material and animal
excreta when considered as an energy source. Some important kinds of
biomass are inferior wood, urban waste, bagasse, farm animal and
human waste.

Importance of non-conventional sources of energy:


The non-conventional sources of energy are abundant in nature.
According to energy experts the non-conventional energy potential of
India is estimated at about 95,000 MW.
These are renewable resources. The non-conventional sources of energy
can be renewed with minimum effort and money.
Non-conventional sources of energy are pollution-free and eco-friendly

Question No: 4
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Describe Energy Alternatives & Green Buildings?


Answer:
Alternative energy sources can be implemented for houses, for cars, factories
and any other facility you can imagine. Scientists around the world are
researching on developing and discovering new Alternative Energy Sources so
that the growing energy needs of human population can be met more easily,
safely and efficiently. Here is a list of Alternative Energy Sources which will help
us maintain the balance of nature without causing it much harm as compared
to the conventional energy sources.

Hydroelectric Energy:
The potential energy stored in the water held in dams
by is made to drive a water turbine and generator which in turn produces
electric power. This form of energy generation is called hydroelectric power.
Out of all the alternative energy sources, this one has been most commonly
adopted in the current time.

Advantages of hydroelectric power generation:


The source of hydroelectric power generation i.e., water is free of
cost.
Dams can provide virtually continuous electricity generation.
The water used for power generation can be put to use again.
There is no chemical process involved in the power production
process, therefore, the power generated is clean and does not
harm the environment.

Solar Energy:
This is the energy which the earth receives from the Sun. This is
one of the most promising alternative energy sources, which will be available
to the mankind for centuries to come. The only challenge remains to tap the
solar energy in the most efficient way. The solar power generation is done by
using a series of photovoltaic cells where the solar rays are converted into
electricity. Apart from electricity production solar energy is also being used for
heating water, cooking food etc.

Advantages of solar energy:


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The source of energy is absolutely free.


Solar power which is generated in the day time can be stored to be
made available in the night time as well.
Solar power generators can be used to generate power in rural
and remote areas where there is no reach of the conventional
form of energy.
Solar power generation is quite and absolutely clean.
Solar energy is a renewable form of energy will not deplete until
thousands of years.

Wind Energy:
The power of the wind is harnessed to propel the blades of
wind turbine attached to an electric generator to generate wind energy. Wind
energy is an effective alternative source of energy in areas where the velocity
of wind flow is high.

Advantages of wind energy:


Wind energy is a clean form of energy.
The source of power generation i.e., wind is free of cost.
Wind energy is a renewable source of energy.

Biomass Energy:
This is the energy developed from the wastes of various
human and animal activities like the by-products and wastes from timber
industry, agricultural yields, municipal solid waste etc. Out of the many
alternative sources of energy this is the one which takes into account the
utilization of waste material to develop energy thereby disposing them off in a
profitable and effective way.

Advantages of biomass energy:


It is an environmental friendly way of energy production in which
biological mass is recycled and re-used.
The biomass will keep generating and decomposing as part of the
natural biological cycle. Therefore, biomass energy is considered
as a renewable source of energy.
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Geothermal Energy:
This is the energy tapped from the heat inside the
earth. Hot rocks residing in the core of earth heat water which emits the
surface of the earth with pressure and as steam. This pressurized steam can be
used to run steam turbines to generate electricity.

Advantages of geothermal energy:


Similar to other alternative energy sources, geothermal energy
source is free of cost.
With a proper power generation system in place, no harmful by-
products are produced.

Tidal Power:
The surface of earth is 71.11% covered by water bodies especially
oceans. The tides in water rise and fall due to the gravity of sun and moon.
Since we know about how the position of moon changes we can predict the
rise and fall of tides. This rise and fall of tides can be utilized by setting up small
dams and passing water through the turbines to generate power.

Advantages of tidal energy:


The source of power generation is free and renewable.
The power generated is clean and does not cause any pollution.

Green Buildings:
This day and age, you hear everyone talking about going
green. Whether you want to admit it or not, at some point everyone will have
to follow with the green movement. This is because at the rate we are going,
the earth is simply not sustainable. That means that over the years, we will
begin to run out of certain natural resources that are needed in order for us to
survive. That is alarming to some people, which is why there are so many
people that focus on green building. But, what exactly is green building? Lets
take a closer look at what it is, why you should consider it, and what the goals
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of a green building are. You are sure to find that it is something that you should
take part in.

Defining a Green Building:


First, we will take a look at what a green building
is. Some people may think of a green, or sustainable building as just a building
that doesnt really have as bad of an impact on the environment as another
average building. Other people may find it to be the type of building, and the
actual surroundings of the building.
The ideal green building would be a building project that would allow you to
preserve most of the natural environment around the project site, while still
being able to produce a building that is going to serve a purpose. The
construction and operation will promote a healthy environment for all
involved, and it will not disrupt the land, water, resources and energy in and
around the building. This is the actual definition of a green building.
The U.S. EPA says Green building is the practice of creating structures and
using processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient
throughout a buildings life-cycle from siting to design, construction, operation,
maintenance, renovation and deconstruction. This practice expands and
complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility,
durability, and comfort. Green building is also known as a sustainable or high
performance building.

Benefits of Green Building:


With new technologies constantly being developed to
complement current practices in creating greener structures, the benefits of
green building can range from environmental to economic to social. By
adopting greener practices, we can take maximum advantage of environmental
and economic performance. Green construction methods when integrated
while design and construction provide most significant benefits. Benefits of
green building include:
Environmental Benefits:
Reduce wastage of water
Conserve natural resources
Improve air and water quality
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Protect biodiversity and ecosystems


Economic Benefits:
Reduce operating costs
Improve occupant productivity
Create market for green product and services

Social Benefits:
Improve quality of life
Minimize strain on local infrastructure
Improve occupant health and comfort

Question No: 5

What do you know about Energy Saving /Management


Analysis?
Answer:
Energy saving:
In the world of modern technology energy plays an important
role in every sphere of life. Electricity, heat energy and other forms of energy
are integral parts of our existence. Nowadays energy has a great influence on
our lives in the form of many applications and technologies, so it is very
important to save the energy and make it useful for the future.
Many of the high-energy-use items of equipment are used across a range of
industries. For example, motors and drives, refrigerators, lighting and air
compressors. It is interesting that many industries use the majority of their
energy directly to manufacture a product, as opposed to heating or lighting. In
spite of growing energy efficiency in the industrial sector over the last years,
the total energy consumption by industry increased by 61% between 1971 and
2005.Taking into account such speed of energy utilization it is very difficult to
say about the usage of energy in the future.
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Problem of energy saving in the industrial sector:


It is noteworthy to
mention that saving the energy in the field of industry is the most important
issue today, as industry takes a complete responsibility of economic issues.
Moreover, it is known that the industrial sector uses more energy than any
other sectors and every year it consumes about 37% of the world's total
delivered energy.Also it should be mentioned that energy prices have increased
at an alarming rate. Many organizations are looking for the ways to save
energy, reduce carbon emissions, and save on overall utility costs. What is
more, improved energy efficiency contributes positively to energy security and
environmental protection and helps to achieve more sustainable economic
development.

Energy saving opportunities in the industry:


There are lots of energy saving tips
developed by the science to reduce the consumption of the energy in industrial
use and also save the energy from wastage and increase the efficiency of the
yield. The first and the very important step to save the energy in the industrial
sector is to insulate the whole building in order to prevent the heat loss.
Replacing the lights with the fluorescent bulbs is also an important step to save
energy in the industry.
Fluorescent bulbs are more efficient and reliable in comparison with the
commonly used bulbs in the industry and they could reduce the electricity up
to 80%. Another way how to save energy in the industrial sector is to change
machineries or motors to the eco friendly technologies in order to change the
fuel type which is used for consumption or different types of processes carried
out in the industrial plants. Some kinds of distributed technologies are also use
to reduce the need and the waste of the energy such as use of micro turbines,
use of different types of fuel cells and photovoltaic cells etc. So, industrial
energy efficiency is one of the most important issues today, as the industrial
sector needs more than third of the total energy delivered in the world.
Whereas energy prices have been increasing over the last years, many
manufacturers are looking for different ways to save energy, reduce carbon
emissions and replace their machinery, lighting etc. to the environmental
technologies such as bio fuel, fluorescent bulbs and so on.
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