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ARGUMENTARE,
C OMUNI CARE,
SI
SOFISME

o perspectiv pragmadiaIectica

Frans H. van Eemeren


Rob Grootendorst

niversitatea din Amsterdai

Tia ice di ii fri eig1eza de ( orina ndoie ca

( 919t1 1Jnver9Ity I ics,

2010
CUPRIN

Prefat Ia editia original


itJulumiri
I{ L ivt h I I tu lue hi ru,
refata I z edqi n hmba rornana
, p J sa
n n It iro, oc l re ogr re, bean &au Nota radi atoa elor
i Fu nor rin urneH ur Icr dotmatoare ale drepturilor

Aboida pragna dialectica


tudi to asp ira a guni r trii
aIat I. niesih Press Componeutole programulni de cercetare
d ( \( I
Postulate pragma-dialectice
t Ti (1 1 HflU Ti C
Priviro de ansamblu asupra strueturii lnerrii
ma 1 IS aid
2 Punt e dc edere i diferente do opinie
Rex Ivarea diftr nelor do opinie
Puncte de vedere pozitive i negative 14
Dispute simple i dispute complexe 13
Ex niple d diput3 ocR patru tipun standard
[ j to i le S irpute multiple
LI 1 1 i to a nix VS d mute mixlo
rgurn utei, muni are i sofisrne o perspectiv Pre7entarea lingvistic a pnnctelor do vedore i a indoielii
T) aginadialcctic FicHe I van lcnicren, Rob (irootendorst Exprimarei punctolo! de edere
I Ji ii \ d n \H( ( ala (a1 iti 0 ilati Fxi ruasri inIoi I i
3 Argumer area a act do vu bire complex
Aspeetul c nnuni ativ i aspectul interaclional
Ido ntificorc a aspoc*elor eomumcativ i interactinnal
cte de vorbire elementare i coniplexe
(Ion in d dent tate i d core titudine ale argum nta c
1 Ac e ie o bi r drseua ritica
Eta pole roiolvrn and dispute
Ditributia actelor de vorbire In cadrul etapelor dialectice
rt ii

Est resivelo
l)ci OrativClf
I) iscursu 1 argument ati cc diseu ie critied
lc de Iirtha rnp1u tie ii rrtdrretc
hti
16 12. Sofi.q,ne lit alegerea mijiocicelor de
aprare 1
In iinhaj nnphc iCe tti d keurul a go mentatil 46 Alegerea mijloacelor do aprare a unni punet
1% it I a a
de vedere I I
in a e c r it iO ii c 51 Apelul Ia ernoi1e auditoriului
nc it cit ci cc a et in d c nil e nd r te 1
58 Etalarea propriilor ealiti
C ( if Probiin cli privire in mijloaele de aparare 138
Ci (X it in tC Ci I U 51 ( g rn t 68 pnntviui e r
< ci itt Ia i i arrnai in i Ia n1 ci in tie 13, Sofime In tratareupremiselor implic
6i ite
i IC CP p fl mt 8 P tii j i d cc 111
tttIC Explicitarea p emiselor neexprimate
r tim in t t nate ice optCmuIul pragmatic 1
67 Exagerarea prenilsel neexprimate
I t I In 1 n pi< ititit in Negarea premiei neexprimate
C 4,)

epii<ntf 70
14
7 Problem v plivixe la pemiele neexprimt
ii
CC CV <PC Ci I C<C CIT UI f It 3)1 mul ttfltitt CC 70 14. Sofisrne In utilizarea pun cteior de
I plecare is
1 i t CI I Despre puneftie cc p1cca.r
Ut in I I ic cx iii it rr p it
it i%plor IcC xprinmatc. 71 Falsa prezentare a unci premise drept puiiet
de plecare eomun 15-7
I, 7 r a ni a I Ii ton nl c Refuzarea unet premise ca punct de pkcare
7 eoirvn
itc ita4ia ntult ipia Probleme cu privue Ia punctele do pleca.re
76 1 Sc
IC O9 1taCtm itt tpun pta i toitrdo at 7 15. ofisme In utilizareo schemeloi argum
It e mc
entati ,e 11
tin it tpi % itt tin rdona Sc Despre schctnele argumentative
H H Ca nit m mkcle ICI
PC CcprHrCaCC 89 Utilizarea unci scheme argumentative nepotrivite
I6
TjtiIj area ii, o ictii a uni cheme argum
P4RTE\aIJa:(iinincaeiofiszne entati adec at Ii
93 Probleme Cu privire la schemele arumentativc
I fit,
16. Sof sir e r tilizarea formelor logue ale argum
<1 tt rtl 41 Cl altiai et, rhaerir,qr,lui argutnentutli t i 7
Despre formele logice ale argunientrii
C C pC Cit it at tt tt ria1ice 7 C
Confuzia di tm eondiii necesare i sufi it ate
1< CC I g Tic. it CV C iitLi it ii ii
C t e 7
Confuzia intro propnietIrilc pArii i ale intregu
iH Ce t, It CS e71 C a e C gelik C r a Cti i lui
Prohieme cu pnivire Ia utillzarea formelor
logice ale argumcntitr I 11
1C
(I 7. Sfcmc n etapa lnchidc,,i dtsculct
lit Ut C pi CitC r tit V C- C Cit ml lii 8<
108 Stahilirea rezultatului discuiei
I C Ct tiC pr a HI a pc o tr it ul 110 I soIutzarea reu,itc. argUflientaiei
15 i nc 1 it
cit a <it 4Cc FHIUPCC Cl
C-
112 Absolutizares eecului argumentaiei
UI t p ta cc a claps enniruntar it
114 I I
Probleuw cci privire Ia eonciuzia discujici ritice
C< (it
a a it fs Cl uF a a! ii or in di et 71a cc ta 1(8 18. Sofnie de uza)
C I Call Cl a miCa in ii i P CIII 8 i ale a- 118 Prezentarea i interpretarea diceursului argumentativ
C C <1 i ii p it It it in it 112
11
Ne In itnlil
itt CC hl pa let dc t in c t n-v xi 122 01
C il,I AmhiguitiIe
CCC C- p IV C C mit ru 8 8 at IC CT It t 205
Prohl tie p v . I w aj
P r ai a- n area nit ii puuirt de rodere 127 19 Con cluzie
CC- I <iICtp CC CCC C C Cit VCCICC 21 1
127 Regui Ic dIsc utici mitt a.
4 ttt P 11 0 CC 7th tIc C CC I V oponentul n 128 Inclilcarile regulilor discuiei entice
C itt p in ICC iii C C CdC me a! pnnentulia 130
I qofismele tradiiona1e en incltleni alt. regulil
U CI C C C C i p c flt CC p 1 0 r or discuiei e 11
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-ii r natn Prefat a editia in limba romn
I L I i i t it I ci In f i t ft. Ii iant xi ofuit Argumentarea oslo un element de bazb. in rozolvare
o do a diferentelor de opinic
ici nftiikci P con tiirr m dotneniul tiintp In mod constructiv, Dc nc cc, cultura argumen
Inr r mane i sociate t in ext i id s c r I
a i f ii ci it xi 1. / cc P ccci Regale )I indoze once s cietate civthrnti, Acesta este i motivul pent
pontru ru care in universithtile
i inti ci it cord it spriinu1 in mopul inRint moderne din intrc age urne studiul argumentiru catig
dru grupulut do u tot a a mu! r
a Ice x Ic r in ilca i aVI regul VIe diecursului nrgu In Judiul de fda am expus, alituri de regre
monta v I t.atul meu r iii g I ii
r i i I t i V aui i P i p n tc ci il ii Vi re Grootendoret, propnia noastri abordare teoreticii

fcritP di a argumentarii. Am p it
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fPii, 11 i on Eernexen Faptul ii ice iota Pu rare reprezintii mcii cci pu xct do
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to ne!ransgresare a limitelor ra,ionaitiitil In ci doilea
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cc masura toandoidi In
pnigma dicleitice Ic rairnalitiitii cc set do reguli cc
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5 no isc P tntru
1 it t i tti ass sn I a
n,t t sr atm iis ft ittt,,
( in
nr pt
pro is
1 1
or
ipit
ft or a om mt tar on
no noroaso azitari pentru 0
PARTEA 1: ARGUMENTARE I (OMUNI( A U
a, 5 (i 0 at i t 1 U I p i iii gut ton ativit
(
a
5 terbola eted. hnga isticit.
Pd ar it tat 55 00 a :p
4bordareapragma

<s
a or tu tit fo 111
a a a t a
is it t, ii t P ,ia it doss si to Ia oat nfl at lit a at atonu]ui dacft am or ar
i a
5
t
diale ct,u
his list ti nt ttt P t tat u tiaduciti ira itltwi in limbs francozit an
.1 5* I I a a
P tb a o m p ti pt pa a am at to a is a bind tart, tudiPe a,uI,ra guna5nLrii
5 it a i lit
. itt n ul pet rat
5 1 to in au at am
iminoco r an
Pt i tin It nOtr a is no a a Pp a .ttt att tnt on pi d ill p te cv lot a tn ultimii zoos ani, studiul argumentrii sri contit
uit intrun dana na
tl It o p gsa tdtals Ii dir itli St a it it lit tiflUt (011001 t 11011 notmit utor ii 1 baza aastei evolutii stan eforturi]e 5
engi. interdisciphn a.
at t a .0 1 a tat i sp d deiva tat a pragm i.dialocticti. Iilctsofilor. ale specialitior din domeniul logicii forinale
5. tt t is P 1 ti 0 it a in .a t a en t a (P a a 1 te i non4ormalt, oh
-a Is -I at ida I ltad na.litilor di ct sului i conversatiet, ale ercettori r
t
i ftt*sCEsist pro rtaatu l utlomortt ,stiutstgtque, V. d n 11 It a
so I ns II sott tsar ltt O( 41 1 ma tan at liqtto tie tapproche
tomunicaru procum pi ale reprezentantior multor alter diecipi
,7 -P t
titi [at
St
P
ii 1 i-ti a
P1 i iJ Si h hnct dc liverti Ic p rspectivc. asupri d scu suits erg i sat nt ft
( ft itt a arpurtcn.t
5 /5 a is! it (at p. (1 7 Ps is: Pa ce & art )000 elaborate mai mulle paradigme. Este varha In princip
al dcsprmtouot
Ja etoricli one uta de Chaini Perelman pi I ucic
i il 1 s oP ts in 1 l no r Ito a alt it roumar sat slid (don Olhrceht Pyle . a
it 1 0 ii analitie dezvolt.at de Stephen Toulmin.
problematologia lut Michel Plot
.

at a s sp.s it at Ia srt I a fP rt ahira.]at


-is s -si 5 colt a & t t tti it iii to tnt iii 5
a sa epioternicn oeia1d propued dc Charles Willard logica ron for
( at pi it pit r I a oat na P ls
0 ti. 35 itt 1 slop r
nO i tnt ft dora it putam to ida to titlul acestet de cdtrs Aisihont Blair i Ralph Johnson. abordarea sosrne
ii 5 iii t It its stt 017 17 pa on or mu ta t Jo/iso), on stat Ior do ala
-5
1 1 t I tt John Woods pi Douglas Walton, logica naturald a liii JeainB
5 SI t a st P p at t I t t ( I/i o t icc a lai t Ga i
.o in J ;1 lt dialeclaca f,rmal psopusa dc Else Barth i Erik Kiabbe, ptccus
lii U 0 (5 1
- is t I salts at), it in to it Iictionqrele as pi as sits
( t 5 5 (1 a tat not nit mat Ph t am ft propur ca alte contributia toretice care propun perspective mai malt mu mci
5 sl at a ii P
t
5
put
,
it r itt a it di a r utaaem elal orals asupsa studiulul argumentfsrii,
I & lt Ii I Ii at] hilt pvc ( p a ro not it) alt at i ho no.
In America de Nord, precuin pi In Europa, studiul argum
0 ,Ilt is Ils. I I I i I r t I tin at lot rat ft /ns ( nbc to tat t Ion enad ii a
t (0 5 31 its 0 10 1 i to I j iti ot ma no I pam at
a u at mu I tim do 1 icrir Ic elaborat di Tulmin a e a Ii
at tetmon t ,

at is -
ii t 1 i is to do i ott itfitrait leotur i Toulmin cdt pi Perolman au lncercat till gllseasdd o aiternativd
a rn at, a nttlt is I 1 in f a
Ia lnCia
s
0 I a no sofi&m a tr a , a 1 vi potrivitd pentru anahza ii curr Ia a p s t a
S 5-( 5 5 st sttt at Into a ttsrttit, ,t l
f
0lpitto oc a anticipt p
ii 5 a s tO 41(0 ohipnuit Ptxnbi an avut ca model tie hard rationament.ul juridic flsojst
i /sS, i it to Os am rcpuli anlot tat ci ittodelul .
5 it ii Ii 5
t S it to 5 5 rs Is a s di ri a naastri t tup ertiltati 1 nit e to. ii i u sail 1 ti I
a in
,
it ii
0 lii t 1. 01s itt t t.l t fi( Pal I Ut Itt dint i totvpI satisfacdlor. Ateasia so datoreazd, ccl putin in parts. preud.
ca,a(ii
sos

to is it I vssI so at t Pita t hail it fl I it It lab i 007 nrc neintemeinte a air cI r uteri, care or
rider ca lopia n a are umic 1 ii ii
analizei nrgumantaict, Idra a so avea in rerlere dezroltarile
ma koran
iii Is logica formald este flit asimiIatll logicii dance do tip nilogistic
-s I I t 1 0 1 a ash
I pa or
t 1 It I s Ps us ft /. 5l lNa,ti slialatttstI, ampl do hira a a i eaphc al in azul disc ursului argutncnta
11 s, 5)
ot r
v t.Iii a. P

a is a tot an ssi Issaa!o p r (P. 1 larttitt
-

S 55-5
tuI u 5 ni dispunt ist iz di
go itt t ropraa rnfr tstruc furs a Ii
resistc tiintauice (Argumentation, Arpumentation and Advocacy, lit formal [apis

da(i (S U 05 a irgu i OT a Pragma s or d Dto u tic Ia /


tat itt
l!ublscsatsons / Mouton tie tdruvtor), soeietitt.i IA,nerican Fnren,c, ,4sses at
r
a-,
Astot/ahon for Itt forn at logic and Critical Thinking, International
do, a

it 11 4, of Argtt, to itatan) p conferir fat (APA S 1A Ia Al a. ST TA, I a at


Logic, Ia Windsor, Canadal ISSA Ia Amsterdam, Olandn),
Cf Perelm a ( lhr Pta P
4 vi (1958 I 963 Poulmin 98 P y
Willard I 1989), Blair pi Johnson (1980), Woods ci Walton (1982a, 1980), (
,
t

PItrOli at
frahh (198),
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Capitoltil I
Abordarea pragma-dialectica
ii i - . i c - - m a 1 nm i 1 ot u-vaIn pu
to -I -- n nodiata
to nI m nut t, dat consider argumentarec en find a pt bi
i i ira ut to ii c y caP P so x mci in m p ecperientm.
-mm mti determma adeziunea auditoriului. Dac idealul do
ito not aic ii maO eat mlii Iliad necocarh a inti epItrunder c rational itate so refera La
lot tin grup eflai into-un anumit bc i intr-un
- i rr ii or Pt 11 p gr cm r - tar i it e ton anumit m me it it ii
u a Ii- -c abordare retorica poate fi caraeterizatb drept antrojn
- me nit mi - . I ml intro h-tuna . relatzv ala
Pontru cercettorii din domeniul dialecticii care
C .0 i C au o pozitie critam,
ratipqljtte T m ctp detorminat numii d nomo a rd tin tnt
t n n it
ii at rebui ca at ii in n r c
p ci lop rid p do norma ,,externfr care mre
ii di legdtur intro abordarea oc unto ant s so ajunga i t c-s air rd
fiolosindu-se o procedurd valid, Deoaroce
OLit U C i 0 dtnn xp i Prblorueip mpkxe oist vito pet P rezolvate aceti cercettori contert
argumeutare en file Ind parte dmtro liseuti criticd
ii o u it cc a ro cu n zater In intro c u r
to pi o ca n a cot uroor UC CU rmde tirinatonroic tomponente: au ca seep rczolvarca unet cliferente do oprnle, uiriteriul
suplimantar di
ii nini rn hi rationalitato propun tine do adeevarea procedurii
uij rio ci ra ici argumentative Ia
atmgcroa aeeatu a op Datoritd Iegturir stahiite
ci ii It hi oo 1 ritior alt ate, porninduse mtr a e 4 u t
a I a ttm. d zv It at ur mode to trot P do artiumentare rationalitate i dosf7ilurarea metodiciu a unei diseutii
iii entice, aberdarpa
P P It p to Li Pt
dialccttc poate ft caractorizat en fund crutic-rationuui.std.
vi iit tt cc it r ehtate
ed no
I a r vol toc roti eercetatorri din domoniul argumen
it, to it i iv air t do apar p oblemc Ii practivil. Apor In p .0 t rc i P
P a on in i ted Patomaft P dtrnc nsiunie riormatrv. ci deseriptiv idealunle de rationalitate propunnd un model specific
a ceia cc
prmupune a ft o conduit rational in discursul orgu
I it C 1( F it i it a v v u ii o d iron no ito v P ct 1
:u oeii oat. it dcal i ropun od furmrezc o imagine adecvatI
din rpactva idealulut do rat tonahtatc adoptat.. as .mpr ccci ici iii
I tilendi argumentativ prin punerea In evident a modurilor
ma
prohIma importance a raportulut dintre di argumertam
a it Ii
I a ri ci c P Ic t di at nr litate
acceptrbil pontru un judector rational, In functft d
ii o at in t c i
to rr p c oF lindainentolo ale itudiul n arzunientrii, In fdoaofi a a rationc htd ii. Se iroeazI astfel un cadru teoroti
in 1 ii C. c cart arc ate mir
a tatcn tori dt i ii an. aul at mc ru cii nu eon cptii d cInd totul so desfilsoard normal functii euristice. analiti
ee -ri riticc in
C C i 1 Ii P 1 a
horda a disc iri Ku argume itativ
P. p ii di in to su )ra r Intr-un model coterie. pornindu-so de Ia cunotinteie
?ii lii ( I; ii mu too me cc utebmta ci Jplniit ham
a mm P anurnit auditoniu. cc prezinth tehnicie do argnm
in icr t it t a mv 17 oP -a ccc re d t entare c ni Ito t -
,1 I ficient Doe- r acceptabilitatca unem argumentatut
, ,., , ,
- - ti - i d (11 - P m pc -rc
- 1 mn,., stc a I p
each-ui do referinta epistemic specific unui anumit public.
areasth aberdrtrt
i-ste numit op stern ico-retoried,
I I i I I it I
r ml I 1

I) I I in e, ci t on di i domcniul dinlocticu cot


..r-ml.tilI- di.. cnpttvo. cmmnctderPnd e a c mmz 1 -ide a i gu in m a
P I, 11,-i a P a ca o compenentl a unci discutii orifice implicite san
I am ti r
-
r r lt ivmsmiuhum etmistemnolaPa
.

- . explicite, modem] lot


I 1 Itt 4 it roiint niguli ca e specifiefu micIrilevim care contrib
I u ii d u rtnide u p n di or ft
I I to P P Pi ( 151 II lit su umo rr ahrdmrrmm par ale dis ut ci cimtic, In rozolvaroa difercnto di
i
opmnic Daeii ict I a Firm ii
. 01 -, r cur -mit P-mi - -t miuui or - ihom drir ruormmmitmvu ,t)omenmift verbal meLodic este considerat. din punct do vedere
-.
pragmatic. an r
1 1mm r I 1 a P 1 a rum nteract ur d acto do voibire abordarca pe cart. o prcpur
r lmtoitm m a r ml to - r cm p t
- .
arhi,hi m mm item told 4 P r [ .1. Ar ft
m
t pled a in peaLe ft numita progrnci -dialecticd.
C, O lit - -a .r ft cc n ic tome- it- macPlot fin alt rationa Ftc cI folosim tin model retoric sau until dialectic disoura
litPtii pm
I it Ii
,
I, I mn ma t c 15 (1 tV1 1- 1 1CR
ul argument alit
i -i mm j I in reo
P 1 I- c Ii itt, ii Oh
ii irc
1 h ma cut
ml rum iii ii di no alarl.
t
a lo (Ii ,
-

- intra 1 III
H Ii J p Tecria argumentPrii propusa do Wiharl edo un bun somnplt
ii r a mm 1 mm It m -pu en r I di ib d
_i- Pi Im t or tOm P (to ma ,m P ,itc ft i pistrnieh (1989) Inca d P op Ut I
t itri polog-wa
Argurneuitatror and the Social Grounds of Knowledge [Argurnentat r m
tt ml omit ilmi c ii I ri9 cad me mite recp ,tiv, ia i
m ii tin et a] roi-iale -iii cunoacterii] (1983), Willard a ahondat
-ii lfl mt i. rattamalitatca crc ml I r
it ne r ft i - to a c o -n alit- mrgu rex u

1 tt p4 0 nc slot mm
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ilj 1
aviI
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lIploiponit oufliJu o aundnad o. 4UOW
SI3JOA11 op
oTuido4j44ioao
4
p
ui j 1
4
4 0 43d1
1 1)
( apitolul 2 Piinetedevedereiidi(erudeop;
uw
a (d) r o a in in d lar ca Maria en nu o chpu 15
lr (3), Ma is i .
asIa a berm lepdsitl)
i ii a v e I i a U a c d 1( or xprirnat m Un punct Is vedere poate fi formulat in
i rinto iSl voica pa Jon (it atcopt ib litatea puiictu diverse inoduri, do ii o formula o
[u.i ci de explicit/i ri olara, precum. Panda! man
1 1 1 v n i it I a u ni in atat de probabil, da vedere esfr par I srnpl u
structuraltsrnul esk o teorie depdfitci, pPnP
P - -, Pa nip! i i U liUltatla Mai si, part c cxiqto eel Ia formul/iri nai pr id ii a i ii i
-

putin 0 putun agresive, precurn: Cred cP


I I, 1114 - n foal. xprirn ala, dar can ote do fapt absolut structuralisrnul pc/c o teorsa thpiiatrr
Propoz4ia do care so leagP punctul
II 01 it i I I hi Iii it ii a iia((a iiituriiincare
d vaPors s t it xtir d

perspectiva globald, cain Punetul rn-eu
_

I I fiinii de iedere este cP sfrudurrzlirmu/ sb


o (cone depditci, sau poate avea un dsni
eniu do aplic ifie mai reatranc, is i
I ii a edeni pozit i e i negative cairn est cazul enuntului Punctul nu
c/c tedere este cci onumite 085 1 0
structuralrsrnuluu aunt depd?ite.
a ii i it. a i Pi I, an tnt, p ii md pe
vcirbitor

Reprezentam cole troi tipuri do panels Pc
i V 1011 a iituia is Uti ate I tel ri Ie aita. e peale
I Ii vaPor poabiIa stit 1
I 1. /p: panel de iederepozitlt iii
1 t
not in(ia ai trti a fit di asord cu a aaiti paici
e, at dmlea aP
1egturP en propositiup
I UI I iiIat 2. / a: iund P. odor negahrv n legPturP
-

it ii cnd.A epzilstp)t en propoiitia p


ii. 05 U 5nOltlr lupturs 3 0/ps panel do vdere zero in 1egtura en

propoaitia
in rn (Pal care avanseazii un punct do vodere
U P as d sist I pozitiv asIc actfel arcgajatp
oziti f It--i
do propozitia Ia are so round punctul
S 1 a I r I - i i do vcdeue. asa dupa turn 5 1 111
avansoazit an purict do vedere nega
1 i a Ut a U talilam L e 0 to r 1 tiv eats angajat negc if i P P
prepnr1a Is care so roford punctul do
vedere. (/nnsecinla pragmaticii coreP i
iii faptul ed, in oricar haIrs
t It, islitip itIif idatmemh c cazuni, protagonistul este c P
I1l&/1i
petit idoptate punctul de vedere (pozitiv ran negativ 1
a pi .I( 1:1 (1 icUiral,m 111 oati a leant P pPitii a lrdtura ) dacTi eat-c at scat, aPP P daoa
a ceptab litatea punctului Pc vdere este
1 1 ( 1 Ii i I i i I 1 U ii it p 0 it
pus la indoimV \c a t t P

, I 01 111 existit at Pt limp cdt nu so renuntP Ia punc
in iLma aV tai a- ii p 1; tIlts ib ar a dopta puncte do
tul do vedere, Ccl care aIop P
punct d edere zns an se anga/eaza na-i poatu.

ruier ragatr fat, us


prsporut
m
0 e Denaroce nu oxistit niciun punc
oP
tImti! t( S U out doppitP so ecpriina un0 iiit( III t de vedere, n m x alP a
obligatie Pt a-I sustrno. Evident. eel c-are
a
I i a or Iii u, pr poiitmonal In () a noagP
j! t p .v r nu adoptP mama punet. do aedar
Ut U a -I- i(i ant a i poato ii ala at tocrmai dir a eat noun Ian
ii a P j e xpritr P iii purn t do
acerati ste o r II p a 1 i
a p a a 1.1 aci a,i propozit-ic tn rfarpt in dl, Dispute simple i dispute com
I a fr h I P plexe
1 i I n at r Ut a gal a i a
Pontrl ca 0 disputd sit existo, Urebute
I-C 1111 1lili( l 4r oath 0101 US tI fl(gotbr sit exhale 0 indoiald cu hair- 11 11
piuuit I Pc a clere, adic it
I I II 11 1 aeceptahilitat.oa acestuis an name do In sine. Un
II. t84 I a T1C1UI unit do edate
.

Pc vadere oslo pus is indolalit atunci uint I


i tn n a rain aPt 1 a cuspId Un punc.t d odors tars Acat
1 cdnd r u este ir it a c ml
1 n 1111, 1 iridiach cu pta-ire ia acceptabilitatea an.
1 lU it lot cuiet I al trOd a-ri maniac Un anurnit A no exprima indoiata mnseamnP a 1
ovoca a ccl at propur a Un punet (Ic veda
C 1 1 U II 11 5 11)1 1 1 ) P ri it it ITS

U UT anurnit
re ad an atma II
ua riara poatoaniai Irnd 15 T U ate iitaiept ad iriueair oP un anajauwnt do acceptare punc

ihd Prera n a tului do vedere opuc.


t i Ni e I. n ap a I necesar sa existe doua
I I 1
.11 1 1. II a I t il () fl fli am 11
puncto do a dare spun pan
at Pica a disputa, deii in practicit so mtPmpld ades -

ii ai 1 -
5uti , Par am it gatu.rP. c u a/Id
.

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tip no disputit cUe ci-] in ease cmeva avarise
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at IbdrrI,ia(,oj-TIu Ut P 7 runt u loapl ii P
pent U inlelegaris corel-ta a Pitrtii a doua
a cart-u Notatiiie p rmit 0 iler
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1 t I
Punctedevedereidifredeopinie
1 pi o iii S
n i tc t a ii n xa j I c o a tfcl L
I ii ontiio a

maP N o propemtw ae fo1osote punet si viroul


Li 2 / ( ip). 4
a [mu ia Ia culi a iinei dto sop zitii, In timp
rp
a n a N S ac r o i to i 1 ai a at /1 19 separ de ur t I uu s in ipirir a cu 1ap
110 U La Ba nu

L2 - P P

4 Disr fr no tij 11 iixtu


Li N or frrbui so tot opun -

I N u to rd utire
.
1
L Si or trehut 1i so lose in pace unii pe
La Nc ci at r de icad

l.a - Si orinurn no .trve5t Ia nimic dac tot pro toctear

La br namenii serini au luoruri mai hune do Stout


L C vaicrifri t.
La !pi + lpr
/(

Ijt) Ip
Li /p ?/( -I ? !p41
to an puat - /pic /(_.

I(+/pi)

Dispute simple VS dispute multiple


In onuntul F aderdrat cd o at/iodine pozi tiua fatd do folosirea dialcctclor eric
adesoa con-cornitentci cu competenfrloi do utzlizarc
a unui anumit di /ce
pu ictul d dire cfcr9 lo o propciz1ie c e orb mar omple i
propozitja din enuntul Saul Beloit este rcriitor.
Pc lngi o asemerma
co npk xit to rc nor tio isle ,calitativa exist I i o form do on
N to
care punctul do vedoro ac rotc r la mar mu Ito propozitu dilente
. ira arC
complexitato ,,oant.itativa apare, do exernplt, in punctul
do vedoro SNar/c
4(4 a ot nor sira ia pi u rrea reOte In aiul xprImdri flu 1
vedere pot aprea combinaii i mai complexe do propoz
iii, aa corn s
intimpl cnd, 1 r cadrul unei dispute, este pus in discuti
e c cm itat lit to
ureiteori. it anarn lu
In cazurilo do complexit.ate eantitativil disputa multip] poat
fi
to oaun rngrnnt S in usa multo disputo rimjle Ap 1 1
c n d
propozitir poate fi vorificatS roparat pentru a se vdea
dacS punctu d
vedere so poate sustino. Intro disputS en privire
)
Ia pUnctu l do vi or
/0 P p/ ao/ cc spre pt in,tefr politic i, dv iu 1 d9S e / cc
____

(apitolul 2
in i i, H r i Punct
i a ott inorn wt foarte uor do dmon3trat Ca
en
nt atia uiae diiitn. d r flu a ti i rn to depre ntiintele existd puncte do vedere opuse, spre deosebire
reclamantul i apartoru1 adoptll adesea punete r
do rocesul ci 1 P i.
do vedere ojus. air
ii en ut iP
nipkxit ate iop itionnia no onto rnt( tdeauna

clar judedlltorul rllmne pasiv.
dl a hun. irw iii o to pu
t4 s e indiuidua]4 wiu inu1tip1 Do fapt.
aen Foote aft] sll ii reamintim. in lcgaturll cu disputn
4 td t vr i ie mixte i nonnnx a.
o o uph xitnto proponiDonal4 cimtita
tiv%, Cl expresta .a adopta punctul de vedere opus
h C 1 a
poate d naPe a
11 a 411. Ii told Ic in anurnit 1 uutn I do vedere dae neuutclegeri, dcoareco relatific centradictoru i
u P a a i it contratu au,,t a n. a
< P at a il 1w or siderata rn ill pLi. 1)ac4 i mi mult do o confundate, Do exemplu, so considerl adosea el
!liJ wit I dun. ii tnd in 4 sn
punctul do vi dere Fe uteIi
i opt. zitie, auto i dinputa este po/eaza nat 1 no dacdt harhaii (+
lpu) so opune punctulu de acdore Fe 111 4
I a is pi iii tnt 5 or P. (11 a. erneuwti, en doar Ut a thntre iofeazd rnai prost dccdt
propoziii 4
bdrbaii ( + /p), edud, de fapt. punctul dii voda
.1 H .1 in t Ill 0 fit, fii ac t Cs / di put 11 opus estl No onto aderdrat cd femeile ofeao6 mai a

rhuu eonsideratd bine brat xi In P ( Ip I
(I 11 10 t fl s 0 411
H dn. 1u(it Punetul do vedore Fitnreiie nofeazd mob prost decdt hdrbatii +
cc sit ilitatca on Jo all ofeze Ia fol do btno, tar No ( /pd ma lu II
st ado 4 it j I1
pofeazd mai binc decd.t bdrhaii ( !pu) nu o exclude.
In punctul do in lore Mu osto adevdrat ca ferneil
11 C 1 1 1i) twut 4 tuta in ni re nxprrnrel lid(nel
n.t ch
ll i e t foam n i- ir a I
H it a. a 5
pun I
Itorl rwgatin 4 owhura diii e Impute rni o i barhatu (. /pp onto neent punctul de vedere 1 emnerle ofeazd awl hull dm41
r a 1 tt ii pr hi n 4. in pu an. 4 diii niotron do polotz sau do hdrbatii 1 Pu) Ii pr netul d vedert Prneil fofraz ira j i
bdrbcqz.i , + /pi) conpnutul propozi.ional al pttnctului a
,tr 1 1 Ia di
5
. i uloth in mIami 14 en tinevn tam r u onto do do vedore Fn.d
ofemd in, hmo ckedt hdrbait
1 in. in. 1 4 at [a a nina iozo ojIlnIa ii gativ4 prin exprtmaroa ( /pu) onto, ntr un tel P turn I h ti
19 ,1 I Ii ii (.ua P
cc no opunern punctului do vedere Femncuie ofeazd mai
1 1 i tat 4 ci 11001 ento 4 fapi Ut ilo ir opros o hinc deeot Mu/tnt
I Ip mr expnm iroa pun ti Jut do
1
a pan I a

is in natun atunt i Ilisputa devino mixt4. vodore Bdrbatrt 4cf izi I


4 Ia i s femcilo ( + fpP, disputa trebuie consideratd atllt
0 1 1 I P uuc a riP pt alicia ii aceat ear onto multiplll. cdt m ttiPtl
Cl deoaree oxistI dot 4 pr pmiitri diferito in discuti
n. l ott II a i (ii rma flu UI In ru po .vu e La un punt I do
e P legIti.
HO H
prcnupirne cii ambele pfrrti au opinii opunel
1 11(11 it p in (a e mldeio nagativasupra
11 apt un II Ii 1 ii 11 1 du \i mm a UflOt 11
a 4 ito ii atrihuit
t. it a. UC id 1 ei ( it itt 4 poati fi consiulerata La ?(i- Ptt, I 4w

it .ti Ii )1 it. I d Pre7entarea lingvistic a punctelor de vede


01 is a (1 iiiportn 5 P
is40500 In re i a
III I 11 t a t in in ,4 I 41 p1 I ii cuP Ic vodero Indoleli
1
I ,i I it H -S p e xaii it a i I mm dienuta onto
1 In principiu, trebuic sI prctsupunem totdeauna cl forma
1 to 1 0 1 it I I I UI H, i a] rc C ir p area I i lingvPtiri t dl tt 1
1 rnt( nlrilc .clu ir vorboto an u acne In practica it
1 iI t a n 11 I I i r I 10 if I ItO I, lIt i 1, n th (ltVAtiO mai p xisti it e in ii
4 HI problerno legate de exprirnare, Totui, dacb nil putem core
ill I id P tI I d I. 1 dt 1 o vt P ii dicuro 1 ilmuriri tr bull
in iv P a o e boaiia i i tcrp tnron pe f wma lingvisticii aa (11TH ay no
t ii I a ii 0 to Ii tiiie at a a 0[ clam in ur alt tI dam enunuri1or obscure, opaci sau vagi
i 01 mit I
ii it it tin I it I I I all i i a in. i itt I a i 0 Pita intorpretarea care no pot m
dma bn inccntcxt
Uneori onto Par dI vorbitorul nu onto contient do faptul
.1 1 ii9t I 1
i his 10 1 0
lo rn li 4 fl Ii P or to c a puc alt I PVt
1 ccli cci c miut Poate ft vorha do o aMpare, do un Ispous dat o
aI 11 i to 4
e ill Ut txcrnp1u t iteresant i I Ii 40111 fir ni
o chestiune do utilizarc incorcctll a lirnbii. ann earn no intdmp
119 11,11 ma Ii itit C
4 11 HIt H p do 41 r, I ha P 1 )f a lll cu cci care
11 tttt
uvatll e limba sti iin P in tondrnta all folonoascil I
I I I oi a i a 1 1 di I Ia i tim i a 1
do tn or ii I tine nint m iti Ia structuni din limbo matcrnll. Felul do a so oxpnim
5
Is I lI I Hi ih1uFu a i ti tIP 1 tin 15 trid tic, irjtdo dtortl a al unor indivizi ou
I II n.a north n ilc on edo It met an nii

(I Pet run (1)87 IT -I) I


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i Leiil nie indviduaid poate transforma in disput
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locul discurstr text, Deft aceastd 5133-3733.1. 3
ft ii 9 VIpi t I uvinte paste plirea an eneitti in limba romnii
Il 19(1. n il (Vt I iye hr 111 Live It (
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romlina in ci p ii I a
mstilutionai pubhcat n Republica Moldova:
I I
Cadrul europcan eomJn c1 rcftrii
ho hi I ba fore predare rlaIUarC, document elaborat de

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Educatie ,Studierea limbilor ci cetton C mitet iT I) a I


9 1 1 33 9 1 1 ia europeanS. Cansiiul Europei Piviiuna Plni,
II V a a (I uP nt ihc it de Ia bun lingvritice, traduecro din limbs frtncer
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3 1 IIVt I Tcatu! disuureiv prozinti si discutb I nu 1 3. u


iI 111 1137 rutini probleme ci oprnii. Scopul poato Ii de a
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San mai mutte elemente, i-c poati ptt


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English flu (a nurms Issue 15 January, 200-4
11 tp:I/wv it niacmijl Indictionarics
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Revien s Discura ye ic 13 3. 3 3.
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2 Etc pa th ad a] ci in ttapa desohideru, so ic decazi,i & a a
i ci
,

rozolvare a disputci printn-o discutie argumentativd supusi am cc rcg


ii,
Ui a Iirctr rt i,p ,sicina iclul de peal-cigna at. cc a cc oia rn lfl I I
-

pregatita cii isi seiatcna punetul de vedere pram argumentare cealall I


art
0 Ii C
-

ci ccli P II a cc cc vorbjtcjr-uI poate ft 21
ii c Ic-c
F tn all mod ccivclii,it dcc Irccheierc a uriei dispute este stabilirea unni
0 ( I I cit do tc cc ii a cc I cc UI, pi ntm u con cc 111
r( hid Ic cc- e ii 1 an c am m lic.t mat ourand decit rca ilvarca lisput-ci initials, ci ni dl 15
-
Il-Ill I it 1 -, cc or abili aft punct ul cci ci i ecle is in discutie Eat a ccc cc ccc Sc mntlim
- I
- pli in dip loin on 0
cegoc a

apitoIu 4 Aetedevorbcrehidicritw
aii iuld itiia -
1
ii t rcgtiauprov(we ei e a u ii
at innPtul n naul aPteniatic peutru an mod xplicit, cu ait mai pufin In acceagi 1 ord9 ine lfneori una ecu
actn 9iiSi sustin punctul de
nr 1 1 1 a iii It C multe etape son prd ale acestora rarnan implicite. Cu bate
I tla r icfiien, on protagorntnu nec sPan. 11
rE 1111 rdaaI o ad ni ut Pu iii ndr diecurs argumenti tiv plirl care se rezolva o disput poat
upaitca e f r c r stir
n dr rltaflfllrt no ar a1ti sarrin dec discuie cart conlmo toatn etapele rnodeluiui ideal. 30 Dc acce
t pe acea do a ritica a, mocltIiit
a i ii i P r H t ic ii ofera Un instrument euristic util anahzei dialectw
1 fain a P neceas s a diauaulut
a niiot. k n rpriu in ae ada etnpf n Polo argumentativ
1, p1ti tiebute C inetrument euristic. modelul reprezmta un instrument util
ad i p a ii a pniu lpnle Si .regubIe dlrou in li cirac
twI.
iitiei ecwn Cu privire In funefia comumeativa a aetel
7 719 fl I tap9 alculneIltafli,
or do a. rbir itu
protaomntul ii sustine ecind aceasta nu este irnediat evident. Modolul iugeraZ 0)1
I.
a UTlilo (14 ii I
p a (7 (1 1 1 1 relovante pentru rezolvarea disputei in etapa l.a care a ajun
it.
I aolicit i fbi ,
s disculin, natO]
I p
lot siu Ic arta a portant u rezo
lvarea disputiP, moat inalistul are rel palm Un element dupd on e is o ghidc ma
it t a an i a ,adet am a poate credita pe cci caro discutli

diacutie 1ntro cx fund rationali \l ci lii Ic ii


i i i X r r r ( ap n ,t a c avanw izi Indep1ineto do asmeflea. o func[ie criticd El ofer un stand
ap a a i a dan i x inal a dl ur itag iiti trebu
ard duj.di (ia
.

ic in avansoro judecdtorul alional so poate orienta dac. vrea sP determm


1 i r
an eant ion do discurs argumentativ se Inde
parteaza do mc 41111 ab 1 1
I M xlelul specificci actele de vorbire care contribuie Ia rezolvore disp
p H cm
aabulest daca (lisputa a fost
Ii a. in a ctoi :
d rI I i c etapele ix are acstea apar. Aetfel, moaelu
1 P 1 1
1 I I I d 1 1
dere fib ii i EYiflhTk 1.
a ii irc j ii In vednn avan stabiloasca o note de vorbire llp500c din diacurs ci e note de vorh
sat lflhl i<rl, D e menunt4
Ia ir lint
C i , a a tIn it avoatea antagoniitului, cole care exist4 sunt inutie sau au chiar efect pert urhator.
laill;fluliii daca In practica, discursul argumentativ nu ode totdeauna an 114
Ill tai tritlati if a rugnostulu I
a natnl rnnuntCi in punctol scu ste punt ca avarid drept unic SCO pe acela do a remolva dusputa
do r edimn, ol poate FxiaPa di.
1 r I d I obicei o alt-a dimensiune a discursului argumentativ legat do ohtia
i a a a xprimat initial; dar nu o src,t
vp Pat at Pa npotiIi 1 p ate d i aderiunii an litoriului u privire in pozitia vorhitcirulu Pen r t a
i n i at nun say
I i, i i it ls t aici ina nil son peale acest aspect persuasiv. cole mat potrivitd analiza ret.oricli.
adopto on piinrt do vedero zero.
I 4 I a a. I I a i a in traditia clasied, retori a cole t-c.oria care se referd in vorb
a i bun ii Ida
1 ,I- r u ac epIc
ia ci unur auditoriu, o teor c a discursului jul lie mci nuna
t do a i 1 ii
-

I m,. I it ozoP at a. partwlpantu in dalel


.

itin pot rncep o


a: 1 & ii I I U <1 IC Reconstrul47ia norm
-

ip t f V I it ( 1 (7 veran no ativa necesard In anoliza diacursulsu 1


tar
iin0fl1c1
c Iti,
a l1IIni,at 1 nc1cati daputo In vnnut d& vilore p agma dialt die coristtuie n-i insdsi o obk i P1 1 I
areasta nou p
1.1 i a a 4 ci a t an ,ra On iini, Iici tP at i p ebb me vs van Ecmcrcn. Grootond
oist. Jacknn & -11,
In macare dmtre i-,

t 1 1 1393),
i
1 Fxita ncemin.dri importante intro abcirdaica neastrd normativc
a p I i Tn inii t
& 1 4 1 1
Ilul I il ci n it r Ii a
ducursu]ui atidian i analiza deecriptivd a lxii Edmondson (1981) 1,1 fli ci 1 U, .L
niirnr niaaon diatiyui arpitnantot Edmondsor. oven rn a tels discursive unt privo i nlir ii de ate ci
7
obirtuit deinaz totdeauna bi
7 1 1 I I I I! r1 7 ciati (l.iija In a dxci c arent dopit ci do structura
interactlonala 11 evenimentulut diu-llr1s
thrcutwi entice in
MiciriIc, a sc at exit Idil xltpraelIonal& Is 179/i, so ml inli i i r
unitati inn irnab d 1 lIt ractiune cociald; q&himburile insole so coin
1 1
hnn in ii
1 1 1 s i 4
son eape sare ormnzd un eveniment disuilsis ot Ic nat In I
i
a cia 19911 evonimentaim cliscursiv iil care nu o conversatie mation
ala inn it a
ii flit ci uiatrurnc fi airistiC flt i en standard
is Ii I i ci I I C iii 0)
ann mitt ft etc intlractiona]e realiP1 ad anumite note comunical,ivc doentiorc
1 na rci I (111101 Unel djeutti H Tcrmenul ,re eric u
I niml uii it rI 11 irs ii t In ntr n eat fol sit ala i i sensul siu Ian i at
nmp in 4 itru a use 4w i Ira litiet clasice reterice. vezi Kennedy (1963 1u172, I 977(fl bi
isa.I Iiti
-

ii a a .
(1 puhliiut incr&dul care scurtd introduocre in rotorica elasied ci modernb gsc t a sai o
(ix ide idorst si Kin gs r (1987. of i Meyer, 198(Th)
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Cat to1 1 4
Acte de vorbire In discutia critic

r u ii hi 1c C m rezoivarea dioputei Ce flu joacft fliciUn r 1 In disc ii crltrm B i ft


ii ordin Ic,
am nl rFcnp eoniumcative pm
upf a P ds aceasta nu rnroainna cit ole nu pot afecta In majun fcC procesul lie czc it a
care vorbitomul
p ma cmn m amulttomui s a disputei. Tin oftat al ant.agonistului care nu este multumit de argumentaic
fhc c n a c te Pxprimat in
C Pt p i 1 ii vo ii arotagonistului reprezintd un comentariu motiona1 car
at cpjtn C cc
n a a et luirt). i t 1 4
mhititafc nqiderii cat vorbitorut dorete atentia de is argumentr iii do in faptul oft protagonistul me supune Ca faj
en I
11 1 lI Cl 1 1)1 1 tuturor regulilor atabilite in comun. Pe do altft parte. expresiveir pcC ci
a ace ane r x cui aj an aPt nula un schi b de idei in r I a n
Pt ml a vi am ii
at tiigen
Ia veilere tetapa eonfruntrii)
si aper punt tul comunn
are.

ar p fevarc i punctutui
rpnmU

Ia xed me etapa
pu

atu

1 1 fl 1 a l I i I adam v
g i it ft on I ci facft
I n c. Ia Crt. II CUUPfltp in spilJInui
punctuiir u Ca vodere, \cteie Ce vorbiro declarative, precum desehiderea unei edrnte, dprISIUi rm
cc cc n aunt par
j flu i
ainiph I pun 1111 Ca ed me unni euplu sot si rotie concedierea uuui angajat s nit act C vi 011
11 1
a acnaat initirl
1 1 U t it c ii imu ucativc
cc ma 1
t i itiu a caima in care iocut,orul orceazll dam ap d I mu i puT a t
U
C
1 p cp:ate dcmagraahIc
pentru al mu altii, contmnutui propozitional.
Do ohicci, deelaratvele sunt realizate In cmtexte ma mult a i 1111 il
insuitut
1 ma ,aut it sftlie do iribunai ititfthi
Punt
ri P In a

mac
an pr pnic,lllnea, meeptul, acordul, aunt rehgioaso. In toate cazurile ffind clan cine are autontatea do a oft-clan an
P1cc Ii 111 i it it ii
inumit ict do vorbire declarativ 0 exccptie inportanta. itt 1. UI

am wa cc
I 1 11 nI
I a ad thai Ia orbirt (can d nu tin .uI nc id in lcclarat oak & uzaj, curn ar ft explicatiilo. clarificc r Jo it i hIm i
I U U

lc II. c I ri i cc ndctwi Ia deftnitiile, ca in enuntul Termenul refonic este folosit nici In


epoiisa biljt.ite s considerh ed It
Utencc,,

C UTI r
U

cm ii p1 di 1 c a ii ft I ii con vingdtor Scopul icr este de a facili a san de a cieitt gr di 4


ci c it iCc Pit m i nAtIt moluri
r n in, inteic gin a altor nate d vorbira indiClnd cum trehuja into prc it In ii.
mtr-o dieutie
tar normal, realizarea unui declarativ de uzaj nii implied a anumitt autoritatc.
U

tntt 111 )fl a mchdemn pot ft fo1oite U

p pentru a
cii a Pt n at a C Ia at a e Cc ii a ri Tocma pa itru cii deelarativele, cu excepma cleclamativolor do ma di at
I 1 V < It iii 1 1 1 t eila e.
r
d autonita a vcrbitmruiui Inttun inunut contex is Cut t at a
lap Pci l( ci decide pafitru
a

declaratule care nu apartin categoniei declarativelor cia uzaj nit contnibiut in


Ii lId iaa ii ian in privuita ciist.ributieipm
UI

i Ii at li iti at icC ii
rolurilor
a is Ii I
mod dirmt is mzuivarea disputei In ccl mai hum car, it on it I
m g nei ftr
it

P a 1

1 ipla mar m d p it C u is rezolvarea cu U ac ma It m iii


P Ii folosite i.
p1 1(1
U
pa in .aturle
U.
discutis critic ft U

Doc,lar flu Ic Ce ansi j ot nm in ol important ii to Ito tapc le itt cc


a
rita t ii at pa conS untdria pot sconte in iveala lispu .eic in e, i
U

c P l ii c p rapi,
deschiderii, pot clarifies confuziile pnivitoare In punctele de piecare man
( U

f1
icitirilp npndo elintoic ex rim ire
1 1
7 1
gulik die utii, in atapa irgumentlirft. pot impiedica at ml ii
p U Ut It remat i i
II, I cr11. ic acccap Cl
vc
Pu pi iCC do w done man neacceptarea a estuia; r
ict
c p
P cm II
centimentde fats da
I1 axprnha

Irichidenii, pot impiedica rezolvftrile ambigui. Do accea, intno discutia cni1 nit.
fl1fl1a111 tat Ic
un

api UI
at Ca 1w tup Cnfo m Oflditi
in

1 11 1 ii I U UT h t id
1 In U
Ia It Ill tap. ( onlorm canditiej
Sc I I

vP P It
dut responsahiljtate, ire
cairn directivele aCe acte de vorbmnci carp
,Unepermlse
fcic
r
pP in iii huh ex iCm ito
nu pra
mcci, UUPUI1

a actul 1ev rhi integrante Cm chscutia critieft, exprasivele pot ft uneoni acti oihiri ada a Ta
1 c Ce

e a
iC ili
xp
a

oat iter tin


a
an care pm red cte de vorbua ,,prim
c.
ire chtarj ad Ui
tare
ir i
1 ( U

I I P 0 (iinpi nisponsabjJitftt emitted. In astfei de cazuri actele expresive mthrecte ar


care at aih mpo ftmctie In mod
trebui, nucc rrna,

ftc luato In considcrarc In analiza dialecticd Ipf spIt-la do torture ir{ir 1


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