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Growing Green
by Gregory Unruh and Richard Ettenson

S oon after its launch, in 1987, Cloroxs Brita water lter seized a leadership position
among pitcher ltration systems, and by 2002 it controlled 70% of the market. But over
the next ve years, as the market contracted, Britas share declined. Managements
patience with the brand soon wore thin, and in May 2007 Clorox CEO Don Knauss told
shareholders that Brita had two years to improve or it would be sold o. When I got on board,
Knauss remembers, the question was, How quickly can we sell this thing? Then came a
remarkable turn: Brita recovered its momentum within months, achieving double-digit growth
and leading the brand back with a vengeance.

How did its managers do it? By going green, as well detail below.

That strategy wouldnt have been obvious 10 years ago. But thanks to aggressive leadership by
some of the worlds biggest companiesWal-Mart, GE, and DuPont among themgreen growth
has risen to the top of the agenda for many businesses. From 2007 to 2009 eco-friendly product
launches increased by more than 500%. A recent IBM survey found that two-thirds of executives
see sustainability as a revenue driver, and half of them expect green initiatives to confer
competitive advantage. This dramatic shift in corporate mind-set and practices over the past
decade reects a growing awareness that environmental responsibility can be a platform for both
growth and dierentiation.

Nonetheless, the best approach to achieving green growth isnt always clear. This article is for
executives who believe that developing green products makes sense for their organization and
need to determine the best path forward. We will introduce and describe three broad strategies
accentuate, acquire, and architectthat companies can use to align their green goals with their
capabilities. These strategies emerged from 10 in-depth case studies of consumer product and
industrial companies that were moving into the green space; we validated the studies in
discussions with dozens of senior and midlevel sustainability executives. The framework now
plays a central role in the core executive MBA course oerings in sustainable business strategy
and in the executive education programs at Thunderbird School of Global Management.

As well see, green product development brings with it unique cultural, operational, and
execution challenges.

Path #1: Accentuate

An accentuate strategy involves playing up existing or latent green attributes in your current
portfolio. Of the three strategies, its the most straightforward to craft and implement and thus is
a good place to start.

Some companies nd it easy to accentuate. For example, Church & Dwights Arm & Hammer
baking soda has attributes that were just waiting to be leveraged. As green competitors emerged,
and as customers demanded more environmentally friendly choices, Arm & Hammers managers
emphasized its green credentials, positioning the brand as the #1 environmentally sensible
alternative for cleaning and deodorizing and committed to the environment since 1846.

Other companies may have to work harder than

Best Practices: Who Church & Dwight did, but they can still harvest
Accentuates Well? low-hanging green fruit. Consider how Brita
Supply chain: Nike requires that its repositioned its water lters. A decade ago
leather suppliers not source from clear-
Britas sales were siphoned o by the rising
cut Amazon forests.
popularity of bottled water, which exploded into
Manufacturing: Frito-Lay installed solar
a billion-dollar business. But water bottlers
panels on its SunChips factory.
attracted loud critics such as the World Wide
Product: CSX markets rail as the most
environmentally friendly option for Fund for Nature and Corporate Accountability
moving freight. International, which condemned them for
Packaging: Sara Lees modied clogging landlls with plastic and deceptively
packaging for Hillshire Farm has resulted advertising their product as better tasting and
in 900 fewer truck trips a year.
healthier than tap water.
Marketing communications: Stihl points
out that its trimmers and blowers have
emission levels lower than those
required by the EPA. Britas managers were quick to see an
opportunity. Company research showed that
replacing bottled water with Brita systems could
potentially keep millions of bottles a year out of
landlls. To capitalize on this benet, the managers pursued an integrated cross-media
communications strategy to tout Britas green attributes, educate consumers about bottle waste,
and encourage a switch to greener alternatives. As part of this strategy, the company launched
FilterForGood, a website that invites visitors to pledge that they will reduce plastic waste by
switching to reusable bottles. A device on the site graphically updates the tally of bottles saved.
Britas managers ensured that the media picked up on FilterForGoodfor example, by arranging a
partnership with NBCs television show The Bi est Loser. Within a year the companys water
pitcher sales jumped a robust 23%, compared with just 2% for the category overall.

Britas impressive success came in part because it did not overreach in its sustainability claims.
Companies that decide to pursue an accentuate strategy would be wise to follow its lead.
Activists and environmental experts will not hesitate to point out greenwashing or other
undesirable corporate behavior when they see it. Consider the experience of Arm & Hammer.
Promoting the environmentally friendly attributes of the product was easy, but the company
overlooked a major liability: It used animal testing. Activists took to the blogosphere and called
on customers to switch to the cruelty-free and equally green Bobs Red Mill baking soda.
Although such complaints wont necessarily reach or resonate with all your customers,
anticipating and heading o criticism will strengthen your overall greening eorts. Transparency
in claims and authenticity in execution are important elements in the long-term success of any
green strategy.

The broader your brand portfolio, of course, the more exposed you may be to activist and
consumer backlash. Most companies lack a green heritage; their products were developed before
sustainability was a concern. So they must carefully gauge how the rest of their portfolio will look
by comparison with the accentuated product. Touting the green attributes of some products
inevitably prompts the response Great! But what about the rest of your oerings? A big gulf
between your green and nongreen products can undermine your legitimate sustainability claims.

Consider BPs troubled Beyond Petroleum rebranding eort. The companys Helios logo and
the prominent solar panels on its service stations could not hide the fact that more than 90% of
its revenues came from oil. Fortune highlighted the disparity when it wrote, Heres a novel
advertising strategypitch your least important product and ignore your most important one. To
avoid negative commentary like this, make sure your strategy aligns with customers

Brita did that well. Its managers were careful in their initial communications not to claim that
their brand was a green product made by a green company. They recognized that Brita lter
cartridges had to be replaced every few months and were not being recycled. Because the
FilterForGood campaign was predicated on eliminating that kind of waste, the managers realized
that they needed a recycling solution for the cartridges. They forged an approach in collaboration
with Preserve, which manufactures products using recycled plastic, and with Whole Foods
Market to provide a solution that was simple for customers and highly visible.

The lter recycling program builds on the success of Britas FilterForGood campaign, the
company announcedand went on to share credit with its customers: Now Brita users are
making another positive impact by recycling Brita pitcher lters. By accentuating the products
green attributes and eliminating or mitigating its nongreen elements, Brita enhanced the
credibility of its sustainability eorts.

Path #2: Acquire

If your portfolio has no obvious candidates for accentuation, a good alternative is to buy someone
elses green brand. Many high-prole green acquisitions have been made since 2000, including
The Body Shop by LOral, Ben & Jerrys by Unilever, and Toms of Maine by Colgate-Palmolive. In
such deals the buyers channel and distribution capabilities are often expected to substantially
broaden the green brands customer base. Within a year after Unilever acquired Ben & Jerrys, for
example, sales had increased by 70% and Ben & Jerrys had displaced Hagen Dazs as the leading
premium ice cream brand.

The prospect of such robust growth is of course

Best Practices: Who Acquires appealing, but managers who seek another
Well? companys green assets should be mindful of
Negotiations: Colgate approached Toms two considerations: Culture clash and strategic
of Maine with trust and respect, viewing
t. Any merger or acquisition can stumble when
the deal as a partnership rather than a
takeover. company cultures collide. In green acquisitions
that have idealistic, iconoclastic founders and
countercultural workforces, the problem is
Company independence: Unilever exacerbated. Consider Groupe Danones
agreed to keep Ben & Jerrys separate
takeover of Stonyeld Farm. When shareholders
from its U.S. ice cream business, with an
independent board of directors. forced Stonyelds founder, Gary Hirshberg, to
sell, he spent two years compiling a list of
Internal communications: Toms of
Maine assured employees that the conditionsincluding rules about worker
acquisition would help Colgate innovate protection and environmental restrictions on
around sustainability principles.
business operationsto ensure that the
External communications: A joint press companys social mission would be preserved. It
release from Danone and Stonyeld
took another two years to close the deal. By
highlighted the benets to both
companies of two-way knowledge and contrast, Unilever got around some but not all of
talent transfer. the founder challenges at Ben & Jerrys by
completing what was in eect a hostile buyout
of the brand. This approach caused many
activists to cry foul and deprived Unilever of the
wholehearted support of the ice cream makers founders. Ben Cohen said, Most of what had
been the soul of Ben & Jerrys is not gonna be around anymore.

All acquisitions present myriad management challenges, so the problems of integrating an

idiosyncratic green business may not seem like a big deal. But scrutiny by the green community
may undermine the otherwise solid business benets of the acquisition. Even if product sales go
well, sharp questions will most likely arise about the new parents green credentials. If the
acquisition goes badly and sales tumble, not only is the value of the new asset diminished but
potentially even more damagingthe acquirer risks being accused of deliberately destroying a
green competitor. Coke faced such criticism after it bought Planet Java coee drinks and Mad
River Traders teas and juices and then phased them out two years later.

An acquiring companys actions may have an adverse eect on the carefully crafted brand image
of the acquisition. For example, when Danones agreement with Stonyeld about employee
protection ended, Danone sent out pink slips and met with hostile reactions in the press. Such
criticism may have limited impact on the bottom line, but it can diminish the credibility of a
companys green eorts.

Clorox had not only growth but also

knowledge transfer in mind when it acquired
Burts Bees.
Successful green brands are attractive targets because they have loyal customer bases and
because they come with specialized knowledge about eco-friendly innovation and
manufacturing, sustainable supply chain management, and green market development. Bill
Morrissey, the vice president of environmental sustainability for Clorox, told us that Clorox had
not only growth but also knowledge transfer in mind when it acquired Burts Bees, which had
two decades of leadership in the green product space.

Path #3: Architect

For companies with a history of innovation and substantial new-product-development assets,
architecting green oeringsbuilding them from scratchbecomes a possibility. Although
architecting can be slower and more costly than accentuating or acquiring, it may be the best
strategy for some companies, because it forces them to build valuable competencies. Toyota took
this route when it developed the Prius. Although the company is currently addressing a raft of
quality problems, the lessons of its architect strategy still stand. The Prius was not the rst hybrid
introduced in the U.S. market (the Honda Insight was), but it now dominates the fast-growing
market for more-fuel-ecient cars. Toyotas bold move to create a green brand has paid
handsome dividends. The Prius towers over the Insight, its closest competitor, in market share.
Its dominance has so distracted consumers from rival brands that some Honda dealers complain
of customers who walk into their showrooms and request a test-drive in the Honda Prius.
Toyota has also successfully transferred its hybrid expertise and green know-how to other brands
in its portfolio. In 2005 the company became the rst to establish green credentials in the luxury-
car space when it produced a hybrid version of the Lexus. Over time, Toyotas luxury competitors
were forced to follow suit. Mercedes-Benz and BMW recently introduced hybrid models to meet
growing consumer demand and to establish their green credentials and capabilities, and Audi
and Porsche will soon do the same.

Clorox, too, in developing its Green Works

Best Practices: Who cleaning products, shows how companies with
Architects Well? limited green expertise but substantial product
New-product development: Toyota development capabilities can architect a green
directed its engineers to develop a new
brand. Green Works has received a lot of press,
fuel-efcient and environmentally
friendly vehicle within three years. but the details of Cloroxs strategywhich we

New production methods: Patagonia studied from inside the companyare less well

created a line of products using a closed- known. The line of household cleaners emerged
loop production system it calls from a small skunkworks in the Clorox Technical
Skunkworks: Clorox provided the Center led by a handful of independent and
resources for a separate Green Works
dedicated scientists. In less than a year company
business unit.
researchers established the benchmark
denition and best practices for a natural
cleaning product and proceeded to design a line
of oerings that would deliver the ecacy customers demand. The big surprise came when the
marketing team shopped the original ve Green Works products (glass, surface, all-purpose,
bathroom, and toilet-bowl cleaners) to major distributors, including Wal-Mart and Safeway.
According to a Green Works manager, The realistic part of our expectations was Hey, if we get
three or four SKUs, well be pretty happy. To the teams delight, Wal-Mart wanted all ve.
Distributors across the board asked for the entire Green Works line and requested that the brand
be extended into other categories.

The development of Green Works induced Clorox to accumulate a range of new competencies,
including specialized knowledge about eco-conscious consumers preferences and expertise in
the supply chain for natural-product sourcing and procurement. Through its deepened
relationships with Wal-Mart and other distributors, Clorox quickly doubled the size of the green
clean market. Even niche brands such as Seventh Generation and Method beneted from its
market development.

Making Green Growth Happen

With an understanding of the three paths to green growth, managers can begin to craft a strategy
that suits their objectives and their business context. They should begin by evaluating each
option: Is it feasible? Is it desirable? How would it be implemented?

Analyzing Growth Options In this step companies take stock of their assets

To evaluate the t of a given green along two dimensions: greenable attributes of

product strategy, ask the following their existing products and brands, and
questions: organizational green product and brand
Accentuate development capabilities. The rst requires a

First steps careful review of opportunities to promote

Whats our strategic goal? brands green benets. Of course, each product

To leverage latent assets? will have its own category-specic attributes,

ranging from recyclability to energy eciency to
Revitalize existing brands?
Broaden appeal to green customers? reduced toxicity. The Global Reporting
Initiatives list of more than 70 sustainability
Gain green credibility? performance indicators is an excellent resource
for managers. It can help them to identify less
Are there potential green brands in our
obvious green features and benets that are
suited to an accentuate approach or to frame
Do we have the resources and
capabilities needed for this initiative? strategies and gauge capabilities required for an
architect approach.
Your portfolio
How will this initiative affect the
positioning of and resources for our The second dimension involves appraising the
existing brands?
companys green resources and capabilities.
Should our greened brand be a stand-
This may include a broad review of the
alone or a strategic brand that puts a
green halo on the business as a whole? processes and priorities for innovation and new-
product development, supply chain
Your customers
Which consumers in the category are management, the coordination of and
looking for greener products? collaboration among distributors, and even

Does our candidate brand have partnerships with environmental organizations.

permission to enter the green space?
Can we enhance the value of green in the Desirability.
category? In this step, managers assess the strategic t of
Your competitors each option with the companys objectives and
Are our competitors greening their
the resources they can bring to bear on the green
existing products?
initiative. They need to consider speed to
Can we differentiate our brand?
market and the investments, reputation, and
How can we exploit our competitors
competencies that the initiative will require. For
green weaknesses?
example, an acquire strategy will deliver high
How can we capture a share of voice in
speed to market for a company setting out with
the category?
low green credentials and low to medium green
Red ags
Do we have environmental skeletons in capabilitiesbut it involves signicant
our current portfolio or business model? investment. A company choosing an architect

Will our green claims be credibleor are strategy must have high green capabilities and
we vulnerable to accusations of medium to high green credentialsand be
prepared for a low speed to market. Companies
Acquire unwilling or unable to allocate major resources
First steps for green initiatives will nd accentuation the
Whats our strategic goal? most attractive way to enter green markets. For
To capture customers? others, green growth may be part of an
enterprisewide sustainability initiative to retool
Bring in new green capabilities? operations, shift the culture, and, ultimately,
reposition the organization.
Broaden access to mainstream
Gain green credibility? This third step involves acting on all the factors
that aect successful execution. As outlined in
Which companies would make attractive the exhibit Analyzing Growth Options,
green acquisitions? companies must align their green strategy with
Do we have the resources and their existing product portfolio and devote or
capabilities needed for this initiative?
develop the resources and capabilities needed to
Your portfolio achieve their strategic goals. They must ensure
How will this initiative affect the
that the strategy satises customers
positioning of and resources for our
existing brands? expectations and, when possible, takes

Will the initiative provide new abilities advantage of competitors green weaknesses.
that can be applied to other brands? Finally, they must address red ag issues that

Should our acquired brand be a stand- could undermine implementation.

alone or a strategic brand that puts a
green halo on the business as a whole?

Your customers
Can we sell the green brand to our
Whatever path you chooseaccentuate, acquire,
current customers?
or architectactivists, customers, and the public
Will acquired customers view us as a
credible steward of the brand? wont see your green initiatives as independent

Your competitors of your other activities and oerings. Rather,

Is this the prototypical brand in the they will view your eorts as part of the
green niche? organizations overall approach. That means the
How can we exploit our competitors companies that ultimately succeed in growing
green weaknesses? green will be distinguished by their
How can we prevent competitors from commitment to corporatewide sustainability as
poaching our newly acquired customers?
well as the performance of their green products.
Can we add green attributes to the new
brand or emphasize existing attributes to
A version of this article appeared in the June 2010 issue of
increase competitiveness? Harvard Business Review.
Red ags
Do we have environmental skeletons in
our current portfolio or business model?
Will our green claims be credibleor are
we vulnerable to accusations of
Does the proposed acquisition have an
iconic founder, a countercultural
workforce, or some other aspect that
might create culture clash?
Can we preserve the integritythe
magicof the acquired brand?
First steps
Whats our strategic goal?
To create new green solutions?

Develop unique competencies?

Respond to new market needs?

Gain green credibility?

Will an independent business unit be

Do we have the resources and
capabilities needed for this initiative?
Your portfolio
How will this initiative affect the
positioning of and resources for our
existing brands?
Will the initiative provide new abilities
that can be applied to other brands?
What will be the relationship between
the parent and the new line?
Your customers
What innovations are consumers looking
for in a greener alternative?
Does our parent brand have permission
to enter the green space?
Will this initiative require us to develop a
new brand?
Will we need to educate and develop the
market and bring new customers into the
Your competitors
Are we creating a new green category?
Can we differentiate our brand?
How can we exploit our competitors
green weaknesses?
Does the category already have
entrenched competitors?
Red ags
Do we have environmental skeletons in
our current portfolio or business model?
Will our green claims be credibleor are
we vulnerable to accusations of

Gregory Unruh is the Arison Professor at George Mason University. He is coauthor, with Cabrera, of the
upcoming book, Being Global: How to Think, Act, and Lead in a Transformed World.

Richard Ettenson is Professor and Keickhefer Fellow in Global Marketing and Brand Strategy, The Thunderbird
School of Global Management, Arizona State University.

This article is about COMPETITIVE STRATEGY



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