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Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170 (2005) 5057

Nonlinear finite element analysis of swaging process

for automobile power steering hose
J.R. Cho , J.I. Song, K.T. Noh, D.H. Jeon
School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Kumjung-Ku, Busan 609-735, South Korea

Received 27 February 2004; received in revised form 15 March 2005; accepted 12 April 2005


The power steering system of automobile is activated by high pressure filled within the power steering hose that is connected between the
oil pump and the steering gear box with the metal fittings. The main function of the steering hose is to circulate oil without any oil leakage,
for which both the hose and the metal fitting are swaged firmly. The swaging job of the steering hose with the metal fittings is performed with
two sets of dies composed of specific jaws, and this job leads to the large deformation of both the rubber hose and the metal fitting. Thus, this
swaging process is characterized by geometry, material and boundary nonlinearities. In this context, the current study intends to investigate
the swaging process characteristics through the nonlinear finite element analysis.
2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Power steering hose; Swaging process; Metal fittings; Rubber and braid layers; Sleeve and nipple; Nonlinear finite element analysis; Fitting strength

1. Introduction metal fittings with nut ends, as depicted in Fig. 1(b). Besides
the oil leakage, the quality of the swaged power steering hose
Recently, almost all automobiles adopt the power steering is characterized by other features such as the fitting strength
system in order to mitigate the drivers handling force [1]. and the rubber fracture. Hence, the design parameters associ-
A hydraulic power steering system is largely composed of ated with the swaging process should be carefully determined
the oil pump, the steering gear box, and the power steering based on the profound investigation of the process [3]. How-
hose (see Fig. 1(a)). While automobile engine is operating, ever, the numerical analysis of the swaging process is not
working oil is circulating through the closed flow path, the so simple because not only the hose is in the complex layer
oil pump-the power steering hose-the steering gear box-the composition but also the process exhibits the highly nonlinear
return hose-the oil pump. Thus, the driver can manipulate behavior. Owing to this difficulty, the swaging process design
the steering handle with smaller handling force, thanks has been traditionally relied on the experimental evaluation
to the oil pressure within the steering gear box. Differing [4].
from the return hose subject to lower internal pressure, In this context, this paper intends to present the finite
a critical problem of the power steering hose is the oil element analysis of the swaging process by fully reflecting
leakage [2]. material, geometry and boundary nonlinearities. The rubber
For the sake of easy installation and replacement as well hose and the metal fitting are modeled respectively as the
as the leakage-proof connection, the power steering hose is strain-hardening elastoplastic material and the Mooney-
assembled with the oil pump and the steering gear box in the Rivlin material model [5]. On the other hand, the large defor-
bolt-nut-assembling manner. In other words, both bolt ends mation field is approximated by the total Lagrangian method,
of the power steering hose are to be swaged firmly with the together with the surface-to-surface contact algorithm [6].
Following the Introduction, the problem description and
numerical formulations are given. As well, the numerical
results presenting the swaging process characteristics are
Corresponding author. Tel.: +82 51 510 2467; fax: +82 51 514 7640.
E-mail address: (J.R. Cho). given.

0924-0136/$ see front matter 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170 (2005) 5057 51

Fig. 3. Schematic view of the swaging process.

Fig. 1. Illustration: (a) layout of the power steering system; (b) the steering phenomenon [7] and the stress relaxation, respectively. But,
hose swaged with the metal fitting. the stress relaxation is not considered in the current study.

2. Swaging process of the power steering hose 3. Material models

Referring to Fig. 2(a), the rubber hose is composed of sev- Sleeve and nipple of the metal fitting experience the inelas-
eral rubber and braid layers. The layer composition and the tic deformation during the swaging process, so that both
layer number vary with the type of power steering hose, and metallic components are modeled as elastoplastic materials
each rubber layer is usually manufactured with different rub- with strain-hardening. For the current study, we adopt the
ber materials differing from the braid layers manufactured yield surface defined by:
with the same nylon material. The braid layers are inserted to
suppress the excessive radial expansion of rubber layers by t
F (t0 J2 , t k) = t0 J2 (t0 S) t k2 (t p ) (1)
reinforcing the hoop strength. On the other hand, the metal
fitting consists of sleeve and nipple, which are initially sep-
k(t p ) = Y + K(t p ) (2)
arated components but to be assembled before the swaging
process. The outer surface of nipple has grooves with the spe- where Y is the initial yielding stress, t0 S the second
cific shape to improve the oil-sealing performance, and the PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor (see Appendix A), and K and
nipple end is formed with nut thread. m are material-dependent constants determined from exper-
Schematic view of the swaging process is depicted in iments. The effective plastic strain t p is computed through:
Fig. 3, where the nut end of the loosely fitted assembly of t
p = t 0 (3)
sleeve and nipple is firmly fit into the swaging machine. Two
die sets are prepared around the assembly, die 1 for fitting 1
sleeve and nipple and die 2 for swaging the rubber hose with with the effective strain t = 2/3(t ij t ij ) 2 and the effec-
the metal fitting. Each die is composed of eight equal-sized tive strain 0 = Y /E at the initial yielding. Meanwhile,
split jaws, and the configuration of each jaw of die 2 is shown the Green-Lagrange strains and the second PiolaKirchhoff
in Fig. 3. According to the compression of jaw 1, sleeve and stresses are constituted as follows:
nipple are firstly metal-fitted. And then, the metal fitting and {t0 S} = [0 CEP ]{t0 e} (4)
the rubber hose inserted between sleeve and nipple are to be
swaged by jaw 2. The swaging process is completed within a where {0 CEP } denotes the (3 3) elastoplastic tangent
short period of time with the die compression stroke speed of stressstrain matrix referred to the original configuration, and
about 75 mm/s. The rubber hose is held by worker during the which is composed of the elastic part and the plastic part such
swaging process in order to prevent the rubber hose from get- that
ting out of the metal fitting. In reality, the metal fitting and the
rubber hose after the swaging process display the spring-back [0 CEP ] = [0 CE ] + [0 CP ] (5)

Fig. 2. Components: (a) rubber hose; (b) sleeve and nipple of the metal fitting.
52 J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170 (2005) 5057

of nipple is fixed while the right ends of both sleeve and the
rubber hose are supported by springs with ks = 1.0 kgf/mm
and kh = 0.1 kgf/mm. We apply the frictionless surface-to-
surface contact to the interface between nipple and sleeve
and the frictional contact to the interface between the rubber
hose and the metal fitting with the friction coefficient of 0.5.
To construct nipple and sleeve meshes, we use four-node
axisymmetric elements in which each node has two dis-
placement DOFs. On the other hand, rubber hose mesh is
Fig. 4. Double-row nylon braid with the specific helix angle and pitch. generated with five-node quadrilateral elements for the dis-
placement/pressure approximation (four vertex nodes for the
The reader may refer to [8,1012] for the details on the displacement and one internal node for the pressure). We note
derivation of [0 CP ] for strain-hardening elastoplastic materi- that the rubber hose mesh is composed of five layers of rub-
als. We note that 0 Cijkl in Eqs. (A11) and (A24) in Appendix ber and nylon braid and those share common nodes at the
A should be replaced with (0 CEP )ijkl for the metal fittings. layer interfaces. In the vicinity of the nipple grooves and the
On the other hand, the rubber layers in the power steering jaw contact regions, we generate fine meshes to effectively
hose are modeled according to the five-term Mooney-Rivlin capture the stress singularity. The total node number in the
model with the strain energy density functional t0 Wd [5]: whole FEM mesh reaches 20,255.
= C10 (t0 I1 3) + C01 (t0 I2 3) Two rigid jaws are initially positioned slightly above the
0 Wd
sleeve without contact, but both jaws are to be forced to
+C11 (t0 I1 3)(t0 I2 3) + C20 (t0 I1 3) perform a sequence of compressions and release with the
stroke speed of 75 mm/s. First, jaw 1 compresses the sleeve
+C30 (t0 I3 3) (6) by 2 mm and returns for the metal-fitting of sleeve and nipple.
After that, jaw 2 performs a compression stroke of 3.6 mm
Here, t0 Ii are the invariants of Green-Lagrange strain tensor
te to swage the rubber hose with the metal fitting. For the time-
0 and five constants Cij are determined from experiments.
incremental large deformation analysis, forward and back-
Then, the material constant matrix [0 Cd ] can be explicitly
d = 2t W /t e t e [13]. ward strokes of two jaws are divided respectively into 50 and
derived from the relation 0 Cijkl 0 d 0 ij 0 kl 200 uniform sub-strokes.
Referring to Fig. 4, each braid layer is in the double-row
Major geometry dimensions are recorded in Table 1.
structure of nylon cords twisted with the specific helix angle.
The centers of two nipple grooves with the width of 4 mm
Three cords consist a bundle and there exist twelve bundles
and the depth of 1 mm are positioned, respectively, at 12
within a pitch. In general, nylon cords are modeled as a hypoe-
and 24 mm from the nipple right end. On the other hand,
lastic material so that
two nylon braids have the equal thickness of 0.85 mm.
d 0 Sij = 0 Cijkl d 0 ekl (7) Sleeve is manufactured by SWCH10A and its material
properties are as follows: E = 8384 kgf/mm2 , v = 0.3 and
with the strain-invariant material constants 0 Cijkl depending Y = 38.6 kgf/mm2 . On the other hand, nipple is prepared by
only on the Youngs modulus E and the Poissons ratio v thermal-treated SWCH18A with E = 5104 kgf/mm2 , v = 0.3
of nylon cords. The detailed geometry of the nylon braid is and Y = 21.4 kgf/mm2 . Fig. 6 represents the stressstrain
modeled using the ABAQUS rebar element [6]. curves of both materials that were obtained from independent
uni-axial tension experiments. Referring to Eq. (2) defining
the strain-hardening material model, the material-dependent
4. Numerical experiment constants calculated from two stressstrain curves are as fol-
lows: K = 12.853 kgf/mm2 and m = 0.3484 for sleeve, and
4.1. Analysis model K = 59.579 kgf/mm2 and m = 0.6461 for nipple.
Material constants included in the Mooney-Rivlin rubber
Fig. 5 shows a two-dimensional axisymmetric FEM model model (6) for three rubber layers are given in Table 2. Those
generated for the swaging process analysis, where the left end
Table 1
Dimensions of major geometric parameters (unit: mm)
Components Inner diameter Outer diameter Length
Sleeve 21.3 25.3 33.3
Nipple 5.2 10.0 42.0
Nipple end nut 11.9 16.0 8.0
Inner rubber layer 10.0 13.5
Middle rubber layer 15.2 16.3
Outer rubber layer 18.0 20.4
Fig. 5. Axisymmetric finite element model.
J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170 (2005) 5057 53

Fig. 6. Stressstrain curves with strain-hardening: (a) sleeve; (b) nipple.

Table 2 properties of nylon cord are as follows: E = 4 kgf/mm2 and

Material properties of three rubber layers
v = 0.3.
Coefficients Outer rubber Middle rubber Inner rubber
C10 0.116422 0.123492 0.216193 4.2. Numerical results
C01 0.042809 0.019592 0.111783
C11 0.003753 0.009044 0.028584
C20 0.000635 0.010382 0.009430 Fig. 7(a) represents the deformed configuration of nipple
C30 0.000038 0.000208 0.000479 and sleeve when jaw 1 reaches its maximum compression
Effective strain at fracture 1.29 1.80 1.69
stroke. Nipple shows the remarkable cave-in and stress con-
centration at the nipple-sleeve interface. From the detailed
numerical data, the peak cave-in depth and effective stress
constants were determined using the least square interpo- (indicated by circle) occurred at the nipple region interfac-
lation of the stressstrain curves obtained by independent ing with sleeve are 0.93 mm and 52.4 kgf/mm2 , respectively.
experiments and the relation between potential energy func- Comparing with the initial yield stress confirms that nipple
tion and stress [13]. Meanwhile, the bulk modulus treated as experiences the excessive inelastic deformation. On the other
a penalty parameter in the incompressible numerical analysis hand, sleeve shows almost uniform stress distribution in the
is set by = 1 109 kgf/mm2 . On the other hand, the material region between jaw1 and the nipple-sleeve interface.

Fig. 7. Deformed configurations and effective-stress distributions at the maximum compression stroke: (a) in the metal-fitting process; (b) in the rubber hose
swaging process.
54 J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170 (2005) 5057

Fig. 8. Effective strain distributions in the rubber hose: (a) when jaw 2 reaches the maximum compression stroke; (b) after jaw 2 is released.

The deformed configuration of the rubber hose and metal rubber layer, and which is because the inner rubber layer
fitting at the time of the maximum compression of jaw 2 is subject to the lateral movement constraint by two nipple
is represented in Fig. 7(b). Almost uniform stress distribu- grooves. And, the peak strain equal to 1.652 occurs in the
tion is observed throughout the sleeve region deformed by inner rubber region contacting with the right corner of the
jaw 2, and the peak effective stress 48.0 kgf/mm2 occurs at right nipple groove.
the left concave indicated by circle. Comparing with the ini- The effective strain distribution in the rubber hose after
tial yield stress, sleeve experiences the remarkable inelastic jaw 2 is released is represented in Fig. 8(b). The global strain
deformation during the metal-fitting and the rubber swag- distribution is almost similar to Fig. 8(a) at the maximum
ing processes. From numerical data, we found that sleeve compression stroke of jaw 2, but the peak strain levels
experiences the noticeable spring-back phenomenon with the are lower as a whole. This is owing to the spring-back
peak value 0.1 mm at the sleeve right end after jaw 2 is phenomenon of sleeve and rubber after jaw 2 is released. The
released. rubber hose is expected to experience further strain and stress
Fig. 8(a) represents the effective strain distribution in the relaxation with the lapse of time, even though it is not taken
rubber hose when jaw 2 reaches its maximum compression into consideration in the current study. Despite of the locally
stroke. Relatively high strain concentrations are observed in high effective strains near nipple grooves, the rubber fracture
three distinct rubber regions, the left upper corner and two is not judged to occur during the swaging process from the
regions between jaw 2 and two nipple grooves. The inner rub- comparison with the material properties of rubber layers in
ber layer shows higher strain level compared with the upper Table 2.

Fig. 9. Effective stress distributions: (a) when jaw 2 reaches the maximum compression stroke; (b) after jaw 2 is released.
J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170 (2005) 5057 55

Fig. 10. (a) Contact pressure distributions when jaw 2 is released; (b) time history of jaw loads.

Distributions of the effective stress in the rubber hose are for the same total contact force, the more uniform the contact-
shown respectively in Fig. 9(a) at the maximum compression pressure distribution is the higher the oil sealing performance
stroke of jaw 2 and Fig. 9(b) after jaw 2 is released. Where, becomes.
the lateral coordinate denotes the horizontal distance from the Time histories of jaw loads per unit circumferential length
left end of rubber hose. In order to plot the stress distributions, are represented in Fig. 10(b). Since the metal-fitting process
we took the inner line of the inner rubber layer, the outer line gives rise to a pure metallic deformation of nipple and sleeve
of the outer rubber layer and the mid-line of the middle rub- in a bulk state, jaw 1 shows a clear and typical load curve
ber layer, respectively. In accordance with the effective strain which is consistent with the stressstrain curves of strain-
distribution shown in Fig. 8, two regions between the nipple hardening materials shown in Fig. 6. On the other hand, the
grooves and the sleeve concave parts show high stress lev- load exerted on jaw 2 is shown to be influenced by the rubber
els. And, the inner rubber layer produces considerable stress deformation after the sleeve inelastic deformation.
concentrations at four corners of nipple grooves.
Among three rubber layers, the inner one shows the high-
est stress level and the outer one does the lowest peak level. 5. Conclusion
This is due mainly to the existence of nipple grooves that are
devised to improve the oil sealing performance and the fitting A nonlinear finite element analysis of swaging process of
strength between the hose and the metal fitting. The compar- power steering hose composed of metals and rubbers has
ison of Fig. 9(a) with Fig. 9(b) shows the remarkable stress been addressed. The metal fitting and rubber layers were
relaxation in the outer rubber after jaw 2 is released, but this modeled respectively by strain-hardening inelastic material
stress reduction is smaller in the middle and outer rubbers. It and Mooney-Rivlin model, while nylon braids were treated
informs that strain and stress levels in the inner rubber is most with rebar elements. According to the incremental total
sensitive to the spring-back of sleeve, and which is because Lagrangain scheme, an axisymmetric model of the swaging
the inner rubber parts squeezed within nipple grooves become process was numerically analyzed. The metal-fitting process
significantly relaxed by the sleeve spring-back. In practical by jaw 1 produced the considerable stress concentration at
point of view, the swaging shape that minimizes the spring- the nipple-sleeve interface and the remarkable cave-in of
back amount is desirable in order to prevent the remarkable nipple. On the other hand, the swaging process by jaw 2
strain and stress relaxation after the swaging process. produced the strain and stress concentrations in three dis-
Fig. 10(a) shows the distributions of the contact pres- tinct rubber regions, the left upper corner and two regions
sure normal to the sleeve inner surface and the nipple outer between the nipple grooves and the nipple concave parts. As
surface after jaw 2 is released. Differing from the contact well, the noticeable spring-back phenomenon occurred and
pressure by the inner rubber, the outer rubber produces zero which caused the strain and stress relaxation in the rubber
contact pressure at several regions because of the existence hose after jaw 2 is released.
of non-contact regions between the outer rubber layer and
sleeve. The total normal contact forces per unit circumferen- Acknowledgement
tial length are as follows: 7.353 kgf at the nipple outer surface
and 6.742 kgf at the sleeve inner surface. Not only the total The financial support for this study by Korea Industrial
normal contact force but also the contact-pressure distribution Technology Foundation (June 2003April 2006) is gratefully
influences the fitting strength and the oil sealing. In general, acknowledged.
56 J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170 (2005) 5057

Appendix A. Total Lagrangian formulation and FE in the original undeformed configuration 0 with the bound-
approximation ary 0 . In which, u is the displacement increment satisfying
t+t u = t u + u and C
0 ijkl the incremental stressstrain tensor
The swaging process is a highly nonlinear problem in at time t referred to the original configuration.
which geometry, material and boundary nonlinearities are Differing from the metal fittings and nylon braids, the rub-
mixed up. Neglecting the body force, the equilibrium of the ber layers display almost incompressible deformation during
body at time t + t is governed by: the swaging process. In order to reflect the incompressibil-
ity we adopt the displacement/pressure (u/p) formulation
ij,j = 0 in t+t
for the rubber layers by introducing the potential functional
with boundary conditions: given by t0 W = t0 Wd (t pd t p)2 /2 with the bulk mod-
ulus . One of pressures t p is interpolated independently
ui = t+t ui on t+t
D (A2) while the other t pd is computed from the displacement:
t p = t e
ij t+t
nj = t+t
ti on t+t
N (A3) d 0 mm . Here, the subscript d stands for the quan-
tities computed only from the displacement. Then, the total
In which, t+t nj are the components of the outward unit second PiolaKirchhoff stress and the total stressstrain ten-
vector normal to the boundary t+t . According to the vir- sors are computed through:
tual work principle we have the variational form: Find t+t u
such that 1 t pd
  0 Sij =0 Sij
t t d
(t pd t p) t (A12)
0 eij
ij (v)t+t ij (t+t u) dV = vi t+t t ds
t+t t+t
1 2t pd 1 t pd t pd
for every admissible displacement field v. 0 Cijkl = 0 Cijkl
(t pd t p) t
We denote the deformation gradient by t+t X= 0 eij t0 ekl t0 eij t0 ekl
 t+t 0
xm /0 xi and the inverse deformation gradient by (A13)
t+t X = xm /
0 t+t x between the original configuration
0 x and the current one t+t x. Then, Cauchy strains t+t with t0 Sijd = t0 Wd /t0 eij and 0 Cijkl
d = 2t W /t e t e .
0 d 0 ij 0 kl
On the other hand, the variation of the potential term
and stresses t+t ij are related to the Green-Lagrange strains
t+t stemming from the incompressibility, at time t + t, becomes
0 eij and the second PiolaKirchhoff stresses t+t
0 Sij : (t+t p = p)
mn = 0t+t xm,i 0t+t xn,j t+t
0 eij (A5)
1 t+t 1 1
t+t ( pd t+t p)p = (t pd t p)p + (pd (u) p)p
mn = det (0t+t X)0 xm,i 0t+t xn,j t+t
0 Sij (A6)
Here, t+t
0 Sij and t+t
0 eij can be rewritten according to the
incremental decomposition [8]: by denoting pd and p be the pressure increments. Rewriting
t+t t+t p as the test pressure q and applying the Taylor series
0 Sij = t0 Sij + 0 Sij (A7) expansion to pd , we obtain the linearized form of Eq. (A14):
0 eij = t0 eij + 0 eij (A8)
1 t+t
( pd t+t p)q
where the incremental GreenLagrange strains 0 eij referred
to the original configuration 0 x are composed of linear parts 1 1 t pd L 1
0 eij and nonlinear parts 0 eij such that = (t pd t p)q + 0 e (u)q pq (A15)
t0 ers rs
+ 0 uj,i + t0 uk,i 0 uk,j + 0 uk,i t0 uk,j
0 ui,j
0 eij = (A9)
2 Adding the variation of the incompressibility potential
0 uk,i0 uk,j to Eq. (A11) leads to the linearized displacement/pressure
0 eij =
2 mixed formulation [9] for rubber layers: Find u and p such
Eqs. (A5)(A8) and neglecting the nonlinear effect in the that
deformation increment during the small time interval t, 
together with the symmetry of Sij and the mass conservation, 0 Cijkl0 ekl (u)0 eij (v) dV
lead to the linearized form of Eq. (A4):  
  1 t pd L
+ t
0 Sij 0 uk,i0 vk,j dV + p 0 e (v) dV
0 Cijkl0 ekl (u)0 eij (v) dV + t0 eij ij
L L t
0 Sij 0 uk,i0 vk,j dV 0 0
0 0
= t+t
ti vi ds t L
0 Sij 0 eij (v) dV (A16)
= t+t
ti vi ds t L
0 Sij 0 eij (v) dV (A11) 0
0 0
J.R. Cho et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170 (2005) 5057 57

1 t pd L 1
t e
0 ij (u)q dV pq dV
KUP = 0 BL 1
dV (A25)
0 eij 0 0
1 t 1 T
= ( pd t p)q dV (A17)
Kpp = dV (A26)
0 0
for every admissible displacement v and pressure q.  
For the sake of more general description, while restricting t+t
R + tF U = T t+t t ds 0 BL {0 S} dV
T t
0 0
to a two-dimensional problem, we consider the displace- N
ment/pressure formulation case. Using finite element basis
functions {k }N
k=1 and {k }k=1 , the increments u and p are

interpolated such that = (x, y) 

1 t
FP = ( pd t p) T dV (A28)

M 0
u = k uk , p= k pk (A18)
k=1 k=1
with t KPU = t KTUP and the (4 4) matrix [t0 S] =
diag[t0 S, t0 S]. We note that Eq. (A23) for the metal fittings
Here, the basis functions k are one-order lower than k . and the nylon braids reduces to t KUU u = t+t R + t F U .
By adopting the (3 2N) matrix 0 BL containing the deriva-
tives of k [8], we have:
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