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SEMESTER II PART I

UNIT 1

FOCUS A. BASIC VOCABULARY E


B. PHRASES
C. PRACTICE (TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE)
READING
SPEAKING
WRITING

A. BASIC VOCABULARY:

Legal (adj.) = Legal


Ethics (s.) = Etic
Principle (s.) = Principiu
To write (v.) = A scrie
To seek (v.) = A cuta, a cere un sfat
Conduct (s.) = Manifestare
Practice (s.) = Practic
Basic (adj.) = De baz
Assumptions (s.) = Prezumie
Premise (s.) = Premis
Method (s.) = Metod
Within (prep. + Gen. = n
adv.) nuntru
Lawyer (s.) = Avocat
To operate (v.) = A opera, a practica
Justice (s.) = Justiie
Practitioner (s.) = Practician
Criminal (adj.) = Criminal, penal
Litigation (s. ) = Litigiu
Government (s.) = Guvern
Ordinarily (adv.) = Obinuit
Employee (s.) = Angajat
Consequently (adv.) = n consecin
Focus (s.) = Centru
To engage (v.) = A se angaja
Certain (attrib. adj.) = Anumit, oarecare
To divide (v.) = A mpri
Branch (s.) = Creang, ramur a unui domeniu de
activitate

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Incident to (adj.) = Legat de
Division (s.) = Diviziune, mprire
Rule (s.) = Lege, norm
Advice (s.) = Sfat
Trial (s.) = Proces
Case (s.) = Caz
Hence (adv.) = Din acest motiv
To stress (v.) = A sublinia
Chief (adj.) = Principal
To lie (v.) = A consta n
To secure (v.) = A garanta
To increase (v.) = A crete, a mri
Income (s.) = Venit, salariu
To deem (s.) = A crede
To retain (v.) = A pstra
Measure (s.) = Msur, doz
Course (s.) = Cale
To pursue (v.) = A urma
To defeat (v.) = A nfrnge, a distruge
To conflict (v.) = A intra n conflict, a fi divergent
To cross-examine (v.) = A interoga ncruciat
Witness (s.) = Martor
Adverse (adj.) = Opus
To undetermine (v.) = S ncurce
To destroy (v.) = A distruge
Testimony (s.) = mrturie
Actually (adv.) = Chiar
Truth (s.) = Adevr
Evidence (s.) = Prob
To weigh (v.) = A cntri
To be true (v.) = A fi adevrat
Advantage (s.) = Avantaj
Error (s.) = Greeal
Unskilled (adj.) = Novice
Opponent (s.) = Adversar
To demand (v.) = A cere
Jury (s.) = Juriu
Purpose (s.) = Scop
To delay (v.) = A amna
Light (s.) = Lumin
Court (s.) = Tribunal
To assign (v.) = A desemna
Whether (conj.) = Dac

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Quite (adv.) = complet
Aside from (adv.) = n afar de
To forbid (v.) = A interzice
To represent (v.) = A reprezenta
To consent (v.) = A fi de acord
Prohibition (s.) = Interzicerea
Attorney (s.) = Procuror
To further (v.) = A reprezenta
Subsequently (adv.) = Ulterior
To undo (v.) = A distruge
To retain (v.) = A reine
To accomplish (v.) = A ndeplini
Use (s.) = Folosire
Former (adj.) = Fost
Settlement (s.) = nelegere
Defendant (s.) = Acuzat
Prosecution (s.) = Urmrire penal
Inconsistent (adj.) = Nepotrivit
To detract (v.) = A se retrage
Faithful (adj. = Corect
To purchase (v.) = A cumpra
To draw (v.) = A schia
Will (s.) = Testament
Discloser (s.) = dezvluire
Whenever (adv., conj.) = Ori de cte ori
To enlist (v.) = A solicita
To testify (v.) = A depune mrturie
Provision (s.) = Msur
Emphasis (s.) = Importan
To disclose (v.) = A dezvlui
Malpractice (s.) = Incompeten
To advertise (v.) = A face reclam
Long-standing (adj.) = Cunoscut
Claim (s.) = Plngere
Expectation (s.) = Ateptri
To restrain (v.) = A restrnge
Gain (s.) = Ctig
To bare (v.) = A fi scutit
Fee (s.) = Tax
To range (v.) = A varia
Mandatory (adj.) = Obligatoriu
Minutely (adv.) = Amnunit
Solicitor (s.) = Avocat

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To enforce (v.) = A impune
Proceeding (s.) = Proceduri, mod de a aciona
To counsel (v.) = A sftui
To emerge (v.) = A aprea
Insurance (s.) = Asigurare
To be contingent (v.) = A depinde de
To press (v.) = A susine
Stake (s.) = Avantaj
To frown (v.) = A se ncrunta
To converse (v.) = A conversa
Furthermore (adv.) = Mai mult
Nevertheless (adv.) = Totui
Enactment (s.) = Legiferare
To convict (v.) = A condamna
To acquit (v.) = A achita
To exonerate (v.) = A scuti
To mitigate (v.) = A domoli, a mblnzi
To compel (v.) = A obliga
To resort (v.) = A recurge
To perjure (v.) = A mini
B.PHRASES:

To have a focus -
A avea un el
On the one hand,on the other.. -
Pe de o parte, pe de alta
In such a way as -
ntr-un astfel de mod nct..
To take advantage of -
A profita de..
At times -
Cteodat.
To be faced with -
A fi pus fa n fa cu
To prepare an instrument (jur.) -
A instrumenta un caz
To negotiate a settlement (jur.) -
A ajunge la o nelegere
To have a claim against (jur.) -
A depune o plngere contra
cuiva
With respect to - Cu privire la; referitor la
To seem about to - A prea aproape s..
To take the position that. - A lua atitudine
In view of. - Cu privire la
To be guilty beyond any - A fi vinovat fr nici o umbr
reasonable doubt de ndoial
C.PRACTICE ( TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE)
READING

1. Read the following text to find out about:

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PRINCIPLES OF LEGAL ETHICS

Principles of legal ethics, whether written or unwritten, not only seek to


control the conduct of legal practice but also reflect the basic assumptions,
premises and methods of the legal system within which the lawyer operates.
They reflect as well the professions conception of its own role in the
administration of justice. In Western Europe legal systems, the role of the
practitioner in both civil and criminal litigation differs from what it is in Anglo-
American legal systems, and this is reflected in the ethics of their legal
professions. Practitioners in countries having Communist form of government
are ordinarily salaried employees of the government and their ethical obligations
consequently have a focus different from that of the countries where lawyers
engage in independent practice or are employed by private firms. In England
and to a certain extent in France, where the profession is divided into separate
branches, the principles of professional ethics reflect the relationships incident
to that division.
In Western European and Anglo-American countries and others with
similar system of justice, such as Japan and India, in which the lawyer is not an
employee of the state but engages in private practice to serve clients who
employ him, professional ethics are addressed to two basic aspects of the
lawyers status. On the one hand, he is employed to serve and represent their
interests; on the other, he is participating in an important social function the
application of rules of law through advice, trial of cases, preparation of the legal
documents and negotiation with others for his clients. Hence, the principles of
the legal ethics stress that the lawyers chief interest lies in serving his client and
in securing justice not in increasing his own income. He is an agent of his
client but deemed to retain a large measure of independent judgment as to the
proper course to pursue. He represents his client interests but may not engage in
tactics that defeat the fair administration of the justice. The lawyer is involved in
it is said, in a profession and not in a business.
Naturally the interests of the client and society sometimes conflict, and
the principles of legal ethics do not always indicate how these conflicts should
be resolved. Should a lawyer cross-examine an adverse witness in such a way as
to undetermined or destroy his testimony when the lawyer believes the witness
is actually telling the truth? May he invoke rules of evidence to exclude points
that would weigh against his case but that he considers being probably true?
May he take advantage of the errors of an untrained opponent? Should he
demand a jury trial for purposes of delay when a jury trial has no advantage for
his client? These questions may be answered differently in legal systems that
operate on different premises. A system in which a lawyer presents his clients
case in the most favorable light permitted by law and in which the court must
decide the merits of the case may well produce different answers than those

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produced in a system that assigns a higher priority to the lawyers duty to the
state to assure proper administration of justice.
AREAS OF APPLICATION
a. Interests facing one another. A lawyer is at time faced with the question of
whether he may represent two or more clients whose interest conflict. Quite
aside from his ethical obligation, the legal systems of the world generally forbid
a lawyer from representing a client whose interest conflict with those of another,
unless both consent.
In the Anglo-American legal systems the prohibition has three aspects.
First, the attorney is not permitted to concurrently represent two or more clients
if, in order to further the interests of one, he must forego advancing conflicting
interests of another. In short, he cannot be both for and against a client. Second,
he cannot subsequently accept employment from another for the purpose of
undoing what he earlier been retained to accomplish. Third, he may not accept
subsequent employment from another if it involves the use, the appearance or
the possible use of confidential information received from his former client.
Such actions are forbidden by law and by legal ethics.
To illustrate, an attorney may not ordinarily prepare an instrument for both
buyer and seller in which their respective rights are defined. He may not prepare
an instrument or negotiate a settlement for a client and later accept employment
from another to defeat that instrument or settlement. He may not represent both
a driver and his passenger in recovering damages from another party charged
with negligent driving in a collision since the passenger may have a claim
against driver as well. He may not represent two or more defendants in a
criminal prosecution if their respective defenses are inconsistent or, possibly,
even when the case against one is stronger than the case against the other. The
same principles apply with respect to interests of the attorney that may detract
the full and faithful representation of his clients. For example, he may not
purchase property that he has been retained to acquire for his client, nor may he
draw a will in which he is the beneficiary.
These conflicts-of-interest prohibitions are not absolute. The client may
consent to the representation after full discloser of the actual or possible conflict.
But the clients consent may not suffice if public interest is deemed to be
adversely affected.
The practicing lawyer who is also a member of the legislature is
confronted with a conflict of interest whenever his clients enlist his support to
promote or oppose legislation or to secure favorable decisions from
administrative agencies that are dependent on legislative, financial support. The
problem is an important one in the United States where members of the
legislatures frequently maintain private law practices, but it received insufficient
consideration by the U.S. legal profession.
b. Confidential communications. In Anglo-American countries judicial
decisions, legislations and professional ethics forbid lawyers to testify about

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confidential communications between him and his client unless the client
consents. Similar provisions are found in such diverse legal systems as those of
Japan, Germany and Russia. In countries in which the attorneys obligation to
protect state interests is given relatively greater emphasis, there may be a duty to
disclose information when it is deemed to be the states advantage. In Anglo-
American law the obligation does not apply when the client seem about to
commit a crime. An attorney also may disclose his clients communication when
the client sues him for example, for malpractice.
c. Advertising and solicitation. Traditionally, advertising by lawyers is
forbidden almost everywhere. It has been a long-standing principle of the
professional ethics in Anglo-American countries that an attorney must not seek
professional employment through advertising or direct or indirect solicitation.
The reasons commonly given have been that seeking employment through these
means lowers the tone of the profession, that it leads to extravagant claims by
attorneys and to unrealistic expectations on the part of the clients, and that it is
inconsistent with the personal relationship that should exist between attorney
and client. A more basic reason appears to have been the social necessity of
restraining the motive of personal gain and of stressing the objective of service.
Until 1977 the legal profession in all legal countries took the position that, with
some exceptions, the prohibition must be complete. The situation changed in the
United States in 1977 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that lawyers could not
be barred from advertising fees. The American Bar Association subsequently
revised its code of ethics to include provisions and guidelines for advertising and
suggested that lawyers limit their advertising to basic information about services
and fees. Within narrow limits the same trend has made itself felt in England.
d. Fees. Attorneys are ethically enjoyed to keep fees reasonable, neither too
high nor too low. Attempts to control fees range from mandatory fees fixed by
statute in Germany, minutely compensation for legal services of all sorts to
mandatory fees set by courts for solicitors in contentious matters in England and
Wales, to advisory fee schedules by the profession in Canada, France, Spain and
Japan. In the United States local bar associations sometimes enforced minimum
fee schedule through disciplinary proceedings; however, the U.S. Supreme Court
held in 1975 that such practices violated the antitrust laws.
The profession in the Unites States has assumed, in principle, the
obligation to serve poor clients without compensation. The task, however, has
become so enormous, especially in view of the expansion of the constitutional
right to counsel in criminal cases, that ways of providing paid legal services for
the poor have emerged, such as through legal aid societies and public defenders.
The growth of the legal aid has been a significant 20th century development in
many other countries. In Germany legal insurance plans are widespread as well.
Fees that are contingent on the successful outcome of litigation or
settlement are widely used in the United States, particularly in automobile-
accident and other negligence cases, and they are accepted as ethical by the U.S.

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legal profession. The fee is usually an agreed percentage (typically 20 to 40
percent) of the recovery. The justification given is that this arrangement makes
the courts accessible to persons who would otherwise be unable for financial
reasons to press their claims. But contingent fees give the attorney a financial
stake in the outcome of litigation which is ordinarily frowned upon. The
converse consideration may be that in this type of case, where the outcome is
difficult to predict, the lawyer also assumes the risk of loosing his fee.
Furthermore, although fee legal aid has removed the need for a poor person to
enter into such a transaction, legal aid is not available to persons who are not
poor but are not wealthy to engage in the extended litigation. In countries other
than the United States the contingent fees are, nevertheless, generally prohibited.
Nor are they permitted in the United States in criminal or divorce cases, in cases
to secure pardon, or in the enactment of legislation.
e. Criminal cases. Both the prosecution and the defense of criminal cases
raise special ethical issues. The prosecutor represents the state, and the states
concern is not only in convicting the guilty but also in acquitting the innocent.
The prosecutor also has an ethical and, in considerable measure, a legal duty to
disclose to the defense any information known to him and unknown to the
defense that might exonerate the defendant or mitigate the punishment. He must
not employ trial tactics that may lead to unfair convictions, nor should he
prosecute merely to enhance the political prospects.
The defense council has different concerns. Under the Anglo-American
law an accused may compel the state to prove that he is guilty beyond any
reasonable doubt. The defense council, therefore, becomes ethically obliged to
require the state to produce a proof, whether or not the attorney believes his
client to be guilty. His clients guilt is for the tribunal to determine. The attorney
may not, however, deliberately resort to perjured or other false testimony.
Similar principles hold in civil-law countries. When the client, against the
attorneys advice, insists on testifying falsely, the ethical course to be pursued
has not been fully settled. Some maintain that the attorney should withdraw, if
possible, or else merely permit the client to testify without aiding him or
asserting the truth of the testimony given.

SPEAKING

2. Make sentences with the following words:


Lawyer, justice, legal ethics, to cross-examine, witness, attorney, legislation,
to testify, prosecutor, to convict, to acquit, defendant, punishment.

3. Complete the following fragment with the missing words:


Principles of, whether written or unwritten, not only seek to
control the conduct of but also reflect the basic assumptions,

10
and methods of the legal system within which the
lawyer.. . They reflect as well the professions conception of its own
role in the .of justice. In Western Europe legal systems, the role of
the ..in both civil and criminal litigation differs from what it is in
legal systems, and this is reflected in the ethics of their legal
professions. Practitioners in countries having Communist form of ..are
ordinarily salaried employees of the government and their ethical obligations
consequently have a different from that of the countries where lawyers
engage in independent practice or are employed by ..firms. In England
and to a certain extent in France, where the .is divided into separate
branches, the principles of professional ethics reflect the .incident to
that division.

4. Translate the following text in Romanian:


Criminal cases. Both the prosecution and the defense of criminal cases raise
special ethical issues. The prosecutor represents the state, and the states concern
is not only in convicting the guilty but also in acquitting the innocent. The
prosecutor also has an ethical and, in considerable measure, a legal duty to
disclose to the defense any information known to him and unknown to the
defense that might exonerate the defendant or mitigate the punishment. He must
not employ trial tactics that may lead to unfair convictions, nor should he
prosecute merely to enhance the political prospects.
The defense council has different concerns. Under the Anglo-American law
an accused may compel the state to prove that he is guilty beyond any
reasonable doubt. The defense council, therefore, becomes ethically obliged to
require the state to produce a proof, whether or not the attorney believes his
client to be guilty. His clients guilt is for the tribunal to determine. The attorney
may not, however, deliberately resort to perjured or other false testimony.
Similar principles hold in civil-law countries. When the client, against the
attorneys advice, insists on testifying falsely, the ethical course to be pursued
has not been fully settled. Some maintain that the attorney should withdraw, if
possible, or else merely permit the client to testify without aiding him or
asserting the truth of the testimony given.

5. Chose the correct variant for the following sentences according to


their meaning:
1. A.. is at time faced with the question of whether he may
represent two or more clients whose interests conflict.
a. lawyer
b. attorney
c. defendant
2. The practicing lawyer who is also a member of the legislature is
confronted with a of interest whenever his clients enlist his support

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to promote or oppose legislation or to secure favorable decisions from
administrative agencies that are dependent on legislative, financial support.

a. war
b. conflict
c. confrontation
3. The defense council has different...

a. problems
b. worries
c. concerns
4. On the other, he is participating in an important social function the
application of rules of .. through advice, trial of cases, preparation of the legal
documents and negotiation with others for his clients.

a. norm
b. law
c. edict
5. In the Anglo-American legal systems the ...has three aspects.

a. interdiction
b. prohibition
c. agreement

WRITING

6. Find the correspondent questions for the underlined words and write
them down:

1.?
1. These questions may be answered differently in legal systems that operate on
different premises.

2..?
2. Hence, the principles of the legal ethics stress that the lawyers chief interest
lies in serving his client and in securing justice not in increasing his own
income.

3.?
3. A lawyer is at time faced with the question of whether he may represent two
or more clients whose interest conflict.

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4.?
4. These conflicts-of-interest prohibitions are not absolute.

5.?
5. In Anglo-American countries judicial decisions, legislations and professional
ethics forbid lawyers to testify about confidential communications between him
and his client unless the client consents.

6..?
6. Traditionally, advertising by lawyers is forbidden almost everywhere.

7.?
7. Until 1977 the legal profession in all legal countries took the position that,
with some exceptions, the prohibition must be complete.

8.?
8. Within narrow limits the same trend has made itself felt in England

9..?
9. In the United States local bar associations sometimes enforced minimum fee
schedule through disciplinary proceedings

10?
10. Fees that are contingent on the successful outcome of litigation or settlement
are widely used in the United States, particularly in automobile-accident and
other negligence cases, and they are accepted as ethical by the U.S. legal
profession

11?
11. The fee is usually an agreed percentage (typically 20 to 40 percent) of the
recovery.

12?
12. The prosecutor also has an ethical and, in considerable measure, a legal duty
to disclose to the defense any information known to him and unknown to the
defense that might exonerate the defendant or mitigate the punishment.

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UNIT 2

FOCUS A. BASIC VOCABULARY


B. PHRASES
C. PRACTICE (TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE)
READING
SPEAKING
WRITING

A. BASIC VOCABULARY

Ancient (adj.) = vechi, strvechi


To plan (v.) = A planifica
To emerge (v.) = A aprea
Inn of Court (s.) = Una dintre cele patru confederaii de
barristers din Londra
To rely (v.) = A se baza pe
Print (part.) = Tiprit
Apprenticeship (s.) = Ucenicie
To lecture (v.) = A ine un curs
To pursue (v.) = A urmri
Emphasis (s.) = Accent, subliniere
Adjudicating (adj.) = nrudit
Body (s.) = Grup, system
Compulsory (adj.) = Obligatoriu
Equipment (s.) = Echipament, pregtire
Nonetheless (adv.) = Totui
To evolve (v.) = A evolua, a se dezvolta
To trace (v.) = A urmri
Formerly (adv.) = nainte
Beyond (adv.) = Dincolo de
Significance (s.) = Importan
Areas (s.) = Domenii
Increasingly (adv.) = Din ce n ce mai mult
Statutory (adj.) = Statutar
To recede (v.) = A reveni
Substantive (adj.) = Independent, real
Basic (adj., adv.) = De baz
To govern (v.) = A guverna, a dirija
To enter into (v.) = Cerute de, solicitate de
Agreement (s.) = nelegere

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Injury (s.) = Rnire
Income (s.) = Venit
Immovable (adj.) = Neclintit
Deterrence (s.) = ndeprtare de la
Prevention (s.) = Prevenire
Offence (s.) = Infraciune, delict
Neatly (adv.) = Simplu
To jumble (v.) = A amesteca, a trunchia
To contend (v.) = A se confrunta
Lifetime (s.) = Existen
To constrict (v.) = A constrnge
Compulsory (adv.) = Obligatoriu
Markedly (adv.) = Semnificativ
To ascertain (v.) = A se asigura de
Staple (adj.) = Important, de baz
To pick up (v.) = A observa
To prevail (v.) = A predomina
Scarcely (adv.) = Cu greu
Backbone (s.) = Coloana vertebral
Scanty (adv.) = Puin, redus

B. PHRASES :

To became acquainted to - Se obinui cu


To settle a dispute - A aplana un conflict
In the sense - n sensul c
The corpus of the law - Coninutul legii
To go back beyond something A trece dincolo de,
A privi din alt perspectiv
To a great extent - n mare msur
To come under regulations - A se ncadra in anumite norme
To be expected from somebody - A se atepta ca cineva s execute
to do something o aciune
To be familiar with something or - A se familiariza cu ceva sau
somebody cineva
To this end - Pn la acest punct, pn acum
To damage a property - A afecta o proprietate
To carry out - A ndeplini
In real life - n viaa de zi cu zi, n realitate
To cut across - A se referi la
To came into existance - A se nfiina, a aprea

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C. PRACTICE ( TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE )

READING

1. Read the following text to find out about:

LEGAL EDUCATION

Schools of law are of comparatively recent origin. The ancient Romans


have schools of rhetoric that provided training useful to someone planning a
career as an advocate, but there was no systematic study of the law. During the
3rd century BC, Tiberius Coruncanius, the first plebeian pontifex maximus (chief
of the priestly officials), gave public legal instructions, and a class of non priests
(jurisprudents) who acted as legal consultants emerged. A student, in addition to
reading a few law books that were available, might attach himself to a particular
jurisprudents and learn the law by attending consultations and by discussing
points with his master. Over the ensuing centuries a body of legal literature
developed, and some jurisprudents set themselves up as regular law teachers. In
the medieval universities of Europe, including England, it was possible to study
canon law and Roman law but not the local or customary legal system. The
study of national laws at universities is in most European countries a
development that began in the 18th century; the study of Swedish law at Uppsala
dates from the early 17th century.
On the continent of Europe the transition to the study of national law was
facilitated by the fact that modern legal systems grew mostly from Roman law.
In England on the other hand, the national law, known as the common law, was
indigenous. In medieval times education in the common law was provided for
legal practitioners by the Inns of the Court through reading and practical
exercises. These methods fell into a decline in the late 16 th century, mainly
because students came to rely on printed books, and after the middle of the 17 th
century there was virtually no organized education in English law until the
introduction of apprenticeship for solicitors in 1729. The famous jurist Sir
William Blackstone lectured on English law at Oxford in the 1750s, but
university teaching of the common law did not develop significantly until the
19th century. The Council of Legal Education for barristers was established in
1852. In the United States systematic legal education began with the founding of
the Harvard Law School in 1817.

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THE AIMS OF LEGAL EDUCATION
Legal education generally has a number of theoretical and practical aims,
not all of which are pursued simultaneously. The emphasis placed on various
objectives differs from period to period, place to place, and even from one
teacher to another. One aim is to make the student familiar with legal concepts
and institutions and with characteristic modes of reasoning. Like most
intellectual disciplines the law has its technical concepts, frequently expressed in
technical terms. All lawyers must become acquainted too with the processes of
making law, settling disputes and regulating the legal profession. They must
study the structure of government and the organization of courts of law,
including the system of appeals and other adjudicating bodies.
Another aim of legal education is the teaching of law in its social,
economic, political, and scientific contexts. While law schools have never
ignored the social context of their subjects, Anglo-American legal education has
always been less interdisciplinary than that of continental Europe. With the
development of a more or less scientific approach the social studies in the 20th
century, however, this is changing. Some law schools appoint economists,
psychologists or sociologists to their staffs while others require or permit their
students to take courses outside the law school as part of their work toward a
degree. This awareness of the other studies is thought to be more advanced in
the United States than in Great Britain. Continental legal education (in both
eastern and western Europe) tends to be highly interdisciplinary with non legal
subjects compulsory for students taking their first degree in law.
Traditionally, legal education included the teaching of legal history which
was once regarded as an essential part of any educated lawyers equipment.
While legal history has lost prestige in the sense that separate courses in the
subject are offered in few law schools and, when optional, are not very popular
among students, much legal history is, nonetheless, taught in the context of other
courses. Since the corpus of the law is a constantly evolving collection of rules
and principles, many teachers consider it necessary to trace the development of
the branch of law they are discussing. In countries where the most parts of the
law are codified (as, for example, in continental Europe, Central and South
Africa, the countries of the Mediterranean basin and in Africa that were formerly
under French influence, Thailand and Japan), it is not generally thought
necessary to go back beyond the codes. On the other hand, in countries having a
common-law system (England, most members of the British Commonwealth
and in most parts of the United States) and, in which few branches of law are
codified, knowledge of the law has traditionally depended to a great extent on
the study of court decisions and statutes out of which common law evolved. This
made the study of legal history of more immediate significance in such
countries. However, as the former case-law areas have increasingly come under
statutory and administrative regulation, the practical importance of the legal
history has receded.

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The graduating law student is not expected to have studied the whole
body of substantive (= with practical importance) law. He is, however, expected
to be familiar with the general principles of the main branches of law. To this
end certain subjects are regarded as basic: constitutional law, governing the
major organs of the state; the law of contract, governing obligations entered into
by agreement; the law of tort, governing compensation for personal injury and
damage to property, income, or reputation; the law of real (or immovable)
property, governing transactions with land: and criminal (or penal) law,
governing punishment, deterrence, rehabilitation and prevention of offences
against the public order. The chief materials are the same everywhere: Codes
(where exist), reports of the court decisions, legislations, government and other
public reports, institutional books (in civil-law countries), textbooks and articles
in learned periodicals. The aim is not so much that the student should remember
the law as that he should understand the basic concepts and methods and
become sufficiently familiar with a law library to carry out the necessary
research of any legal problem that may come his way.
STUDY AND PRACTICE
To some extent all law courses are out of harmony with legal practice, for
in a real life a case is not presented as neatly by a client to his lawyer as it is in a
textbook. The case usually begins as a statement, often jumbled, of facts and
problems that cut across pedagogical categories. A story of a road accident, for
example, may involve the lawyer in considering questions of the civil
responsibility for the cause of the accident; of contract (in relation to insurance);
of criminal law (in relation to a traffic offense); and of other branches of law as
well. It is therefore important, while making divisions of law for convenience of
study and examination, to guard students against the danger of thinking in
compartments.
Lawyers also must contend in practice with branches of law in which they
have received no formal education. More importantly, new social problems
requiring legal attention and new legal structures come into existence during
every lawyers lifetime. His task may be eased if he has learned to look to the
experience of other nations. A good law school produces a graduate who is not
constricted by pedagogy but is trained to adapt himself to and perhaps lead in
bringing about legal changes related to social, economical and political
developments.
The curriculum of the law school also must allow for the great diversity of
careers followed by those who have been trained in the law. In most countries
large numbers of persons with a legal training seek a career outside the
practicing legal profession, commonly in the civil service, in municipal
government service, in legal education and in commerce and industry. Students
requirements and tests differ; most law schools, therefore, offer a choice. It is
common to prescribe a certain number of compulsory subjects which are
regarded as essential to any students education, and leave a freedom of

18
selection as to other subjects, stipulating only a number of courses to be studied.
With a few exceptions, there is a little uniformity from law school to law school
within the same country as to which subjects are compulsory, and lists of
optional subjects vary markedly.
The extent to which legal education aims to teach practice and produce
varies from place to place. Attention is always given to the methods of
ascertaining the law from the books but not always to the ways of using this
knowledge of the law in various roles, such as legal adviser or judge. Discussion
of these matters tend to be more widespread in universities in the United States
and in countries where the main qualification to practice the law is a university
degree than it is in England and continental Europe, where professional training
is provided outside the university and after graduation. In recent years clinical
programs, in which students can have real or stimulated experience in law
practice, have become a staple part of the American law school curriculum. On
the Continent such training is typically part of a postgraduate apprenticeship
program.
Courses on the rules and principles of court procedure are typically
compulsory in university law schools. In England, however, few universities
teach these, leaving them to the bar and solicitors examinations, though the law
of evidence (governing what facts may be proved in court, and how) is usually
an optional subject; some knowledge of civil and criminal procedure may be
picked up incidentally during the study of substantive law.
TEACHING METHODS
Methods of legal education are constantly changing, but the requirement
of a university degree has become more or less uniform, coupled in many
countries with the need to pass a qualifying examination organized by the
profession. Apprenticeship, once a usual way of entering the profession in the
common-law countries, has everywhere been increasingly displaced by the
university education, to which it has now become a supplement.
University law schools tend to differ along national lines in their methods
of teaching. In the United States, following pioneer work by Christopher
Columbus Langdell at Harvard in the latter half of the 19 th century, the case
method came to prevail, in which the student reads reported cases and other
materials collected in a casebook and the class answers questions about them
instead of listening to a lecture by the teacher. The casebook method has been
adopted at some institutions in England and other common-law countries but has
found scarcely any adherents elsewhere. Even in the United States most law
schools now use seminars and lectures as well. The case method has the
advantage of emphasizing the characteristic feature of the common-law the
evolution of principles from decisions in the actual cases and thus of focusing
the students attention on the process of analogy and distinction. It has the
disadvantages, first, of being relatively time-consuming in relation to the amount
of knowledge of legal principles that can be imparted and, second, of

19
concentrating on a source of law that has become just one of many in modern
statutory and regulatory legal systems. The traditional teaching techniques in
England universities have been lectures and tutorials (or seminars).
In continental European countries the backbone of legal education is the
formal lecture. Class sizes are typically very large compared with those in the
United States and Britain, and lectures tend to be magisterial performances.
Attendance is frequently voluntary, and those who stay away are usually able to
secure the text of what they have missed. Seminars are given too, particularly
for specialized subjects. Similar methods are used in other countries with a large
number of law students. In Russia, as in Western Europe, the lecture method
supplemented by smaller discussion groups is typical. But in Russia the lectures
are well attended, and participation in seminars is mandatory.
Teaching methods are unrelated to the nature of the legal system. The
methodology of continental legal education has grown out of and perpetuates a
legal tradition heavily influenced by scholars, while the methods in England and
in the United States have emerged from and contribute to the maintenance of the
tradition of judge-made law. Methods were influenced also by the fact that in
England legal education was from early times in the hands of the bar, while on
the Continent from the 12th century on it was the province of the universities.
The fact that in common-law systems principles of law are largely derived by a
process of inductive reasoning from many decisions of higher courts lay behind
the development of the case methods. In Continental Europe the fact that the law
is found mainly in systematic legislation is one of the chief reasons for the
lecture method, in which the subject can be approached through its philosophical
background. A desire to systematically expound a body of principles rather than
approaching facts and problems by the case-to-case method is met better by
formal lectures and text-books than by class discussion. This formal approach is
reinforced in countries where published reports of local court decisions are
scanty.
Much has happened in the recent years, however, to diminish the
contrasts. Law schools everywhere are seeking a better balance between theory
and practice. American law professors increasingly consider the case method
only one of several useful teaching techniques, while Continental law faculties,
particularly since the student unrest of the 1960s have instituted various reforms
designed to prove students with more opportunities for practical exercise and
classroom discussion. The main obstacle faced by continental law faculties
engaged in these efforts, however, is the unfavorable ratio of teachers to
students.

20
SPEAKING

2. Build sentence with the following legal terms:

Pontifex maximus, schools of law, jurisprudents, Inns of Court, the law of tort,
the law of real, criminal law, law, a case, to cross-examine, the attorney,
defendant, process.

3. Find the correspondent questions for the underlined words and


write them down:

1.?
1. In continental European countries the backbone of legal education is the
formal lecture.

2.?2. Class
sizes are typically very large compared with those in the United States and
Britain, and lectures tend to be magisterial performances.

3.?
3. Attendance is frequently voluntary, and those who stay away are usually able
to secure the text of what they have missed.

3..?
3. Seminars are given too, particularly for specialized subjects.

4. ...?
4. Similar methods are used in other countries with a large number of law
students.

5.?
5. In Russia, as in Western Europe, the lecture method supplemented by smaller
discussion groups is typical.

6..?
6. But in Russia the lectures are well attended, and participation in seminars is
mandatory.

7.?
7. Schools of law are of comparatively recent origin.

8.?

21
8. The ancient Romans have schools of rhetoric that provided training useful to
someone planning a career as an advocate, but there was no systematic study of
the law.

9.?
9. During the 3rd century BC, Tiberius Coruncanius, the first plebeian pontifex
maximus (chief of the priestly officials), gave public legal instructions, and a
class of non priests (jurisprudents) who acted as legal consultants emerged.

10?
10. A student, in addition to reading a few law books that were available, might
attach himself to a particular jurisprudentes and learn the law by attending
consultations and by discussing points with his master.

11?
11. Over the ensuing centuries a body of legal literature developed, and some
jurisprudents set themselves up as regular law teachers.

12?
12. In the medieval universities of Europe, including England, it was possible to
study canon law and Roman law but not the local or customary legal system.

4. Complete the empty spaces from this fragment with the


corresponding words:

Methods of legal ..are constantly changing, but the requirement of a


university ..has become more or less uniform, ..in many countries with
the to pass a qualifying .organized by the profession.
Apprenticeship, once a .of entering the profession in the common-
law.., has everywhere been ..displaced by the university education,
to which it has now become a .
University law .tend to differ along national in their
methods of teaching. In the United States, following pioneer work by
at Harvard in the later half of the 19 th century, the case
came to prevail, in which the student reported cases
and other materials collected in a ..and the class answers questions
about them instead of to a lecture by the teacher. The casebook
method has been adopted at some .in England and other
countries but has found scarcely any adherents elsewhere. Even
in the United States most law schools now use as
well. The case method has the advantage of emphasizing the characteristic

22
.of the common-law the evolution of principles from
decisions in the actual cases and thus of focusing the students attention on the
process of analogy and... It has the disadvantages, first, of being
relatively time-consuming in relation to the amount of knowledge of legal
principles that can be ..and, second, of concentrating on a source of
law that has become just one of many in modern .and regulatory legal
systems. The traditional teaching techniques in England universities have been
lectures and tutorials (or seminars).

5. Chose the correct variant for the following sentences according


to their meaning:

1. Which is the backbone of the legal education in the continental European


countries?
a. formal lecture
b. formal education
c. information

2. How are the class sizes and the lectures in comparison with those in the
United Sates and Britain?
a. very large
b. very small
c. intermediate

3. How is attendance at these classes?


a. obligatory
b. voluntary
c. optional

4. What else are given to the students?


a. seminars
b. classes
c. courses

5. Where are used similar methods?


a. in other countries
b. in other continents
c. in our country

6. Who are unrelated to the nature of the legal system?


a. teaching methods
b. the students
c. the courses

23
7. Who has grown out of and perpetuates a legal tradition heavily influenced by
scholars?
a. the methodology
b. the methods
c. the ways of teaching

8. By whom were influenced the methods?


a. the fact that in England legal education was from early times
in the hands of the bar
b. by the English system of learning
c. by the universities

9. What lay behind the development of the case methods?


a. the fact that in common-law systems principles of law are
largely derived by a process of inductive reasoning from many
decisions of higher courts
b. the legislation
c. the govern

F WRITING:

6. Translate the following text in Romanian:

University law schools tend to differ along national lines in their methods
of teaching. In the United States, following pioneer work by Christopher
Columbus Langdell at Harvard in the later half of the 19th century, the case
method came to prevail, in which the student reads reported cases and other
materials collected in a casebook and the class answers questions about them
instead of listening to a lecture by the teacher. The casebook method has been
adopted at some institutions in England and other common-law countries but has
found scarcely any adherents elsewhere. Even in the United States most law
schools now use seminars and lectures as well. The case method has the
advantage of emphasizing the characteristic feature of the common-law the
evolution of principles from decisions in the actual cases and thus of focusing
the students attention on the process of analogy and distinction. It has the
disadvantages, first, of being relatively time-consuming in relation to the amount
of knowledge of legal principles that can be imparted and, second, of
concentrating on a source of law that has become just one of many in modern
statutory and regulatory legal systems. The traditional teaching techniques in
England universities have been lectures and tutorials (or seminars).

24
In continental European countries the backbone of legal education is the
formal lecture. Class sizes are typically very large compared with those in the
United States and Britain, and lectures tend to be magisterial performances.
Attendance is frequently voluntary, and those who stay away are usually able to
secure the text of what they have missed. Seminars are given too, particularly
for specialized subjects. Similar methods are used in other countries with a large
number of law students. In Russia, as in Western Europe, the lecture method
supplemented by smaller discussion groups is typical. But in Russia the lectures
are well attended, and participation in seminars is mandatory.

Begin like this: Facultile de drept au diferite metode de


predare

25
UNIT 3

F FOCUS A. BASIC VOCABULARY


B. PHRASES
C. PRACTICE (TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE)
READING
SPEAKING
WRITING

A. BASIC VOCABULARY

Afterwards (adv.) = Dup aceea


Requirement (s.) = Cerin
Area (s.) = Domeniu
Comprehensive (adj.) = Cuprinztor
To tax (v.) = A solicita
To screen (v.) = A alege
Emphasis (s.) = Accent
Curricula (s.) = Programe
To allow (v.) = A ngdui
To enhance (v.) = A mri
Employment (s.) = Angajare
Review (s.) = Revist
Overseas (adj.) = Exterior
Doubtful (adj.) = ndoielnic
Prerequisite (s.) = Condiie obligatorie
Award (s.) = Premiu
To hold (v.) = A deine
Exemption (s.) = Scutire de
To undergo (v.) = A trece prin
Shortage (s.) = Lips
Clerk (s.) = Funcionar
Requirement (s.) = Cerin
Rank (s.) = Rnd
Bulk (s.) = Grosul
B. PHRASES

To be aware of = a-i da seama de


To some extent = Intr-o oarecare msur
To deal with = A trata cu

26
The former.the latter = Primul.al doilea

C. PRACTICE (TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE)

READING

1. Read the following text to find out about:

EXAMINATION AND QUALIFICATION

The process of selecting members of the legal profession begins in the


universities and law schools and continues afterwards in the form of
professional entrance requirements.
School examinations. In the United States, Great Britain and other
common-law countries students are generally required to pass an examination in
each subject. Four or five subjects are studied simultaneously during the
academic term, and students must take examinations in all of them at the end of
the term or year. In France and Italy, too, students are required to pass a certain
number of examinations in various subject matter areas in order to qualify for a
degree.
In some continental European countries more comprehensive
examinations are the rule. In Germany the course work for the university law
degree normally takes about five years, with a single comprehensive
examination at the end of those five years (the First State Examination).
Students are admitted at this examination if they produce certificates of
satisfactory work in each subject, in a jurisprudence seminar, and in a course of
economics and finance. The Netherlands has an intermediate system: the course
for a first degree in law lasts five years, with an examination at the end of the
second year and another at the end of the fifth. Russia combines the system of
examinations in each course with a comprehensive examination at the end of the
five-year period of study.
The method of subject-by-subject examination is less taxing on the
memory than the system of comprehensive examination. It may well enable the
student to do more detailed work on the problems of each subject. It has the
disadvantage of encouraging him to think in terms of separate subjects, whereas
the comprehensive examination leads him to consider legal problems in all their
aspects. Being aware of the dangers of the compartmentalized thinking, some
law schools in the common-law world have introduced into the curricula
general subjects, such as common law, in place of separate courses in
contract and in tort, or they require the student to write papers about issues that
relate of the subjects studied.
No formal test is satisfactory as a method of screening potential lawyers.
The type used more widely, in which students write answers to questions in an

27
examination hall, has been criticized for placing too much emphasis on memory.
This criticism is met to some extent in many universities by allowing candidates
to consult books and reference materials during the examination thus bringing
the test a little closer to what a lawyer will do when confronted with a real
problem. Another objection is that testing creates a situation of stress, in which a
candidate does not necessarily demonstrate how he has benefited from his legal
education, and also one in which the skill demonstrated in the examination hall
is not all the skill required of a lawyer. In particular, the examination does not
test capacity for patient research or the capacity for oral argument, which
requires theses and oral examination. Examinations to be done outside the
orthodox examination hall have thus been proposed.
Some universities in the United States, Great Britain and the
Commonwealth countries require one or more long essays or short thesis or
research papers as part of the work for the first degree in law (as opposed to the
more substantial dissertation, or thesis, for the postgraduate law degree ). This is
commonly written during the final year with no restriction to the resources
employed. A thesis in the last year of study is required in some civil-law
countries. Credit is also something given for articles or notes published by
students in law reviews. Such student publishing is more common in the United
States than elsewhere, partly because most U.S. law schools have their own
legal journals and partly because American law students are nearly always
college graduates. Such student work enhances prospects of employment,
particularly if the student becomes an editor at the law review.
Oral examinations are the rule in some countries, such as Italy. In the
United States oral examinations are rare. French universities typically use both
written and oral examinations. Some British and overseas Commonwealth
universities hold oral examinations to confirm or resolve doubtful results on
written paper or as a prerequisite to the award of the first class honors. In Italy,
where a law student must present a thesis after passing his other examination,
the thesis must be orally defended before examiners. The German law student,
after passing his written examination, has an oral one. In Japan, for professional
qualification at the Legal Training and Research Institute, there is an oral
examination in each of the compulsory subjects after the written examination
has been passed.
Qualification for practice. Common-law countries. In England and
Wales practicing lawyers must be either barristers (advocates and consultants) or
solicitors (general legal advisers dealing with all kinds of legal business out of
court and advocates in some of the lower courts). The former are organized in
four Inns of Court (Lincolns Inn, Inner Temple, Middle Temple and Grays Inn)
under the discipline of the Senate of the Inns of Court; the latter are under the
jurisdiction of the Law Society. It is not necessary to hold a law degree or any
university degree to qualify for the profession of law, but such a degree is usual.
To become a barrister a candidate must pass a two-part examination in legal

28
subjects, but university graduates may obtain partial or total exemption from the
first part, depending on their degrees. A barristers preparation also includes
practical courses and a period of pupilage administered under the authority of
the Senate of the Inns of Court. A barrister may not practice at all until he has
undergone six months of pupilage in chambers and may not practice
independently until he has been a pupil for a year. Pupilage causes some
difficulty, partly because of the cost but mainly because of the increasing
shortage of places in chambers. To qualify as a solicitor, the normal course is to
serve as an articled clerk for two years and also pass examinations in two parts.
In Scotland and Ireland (both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland)
there are similar requirements, though the arrangements differ in detail.
In the United Sates admission to the Bar qualifies one for all the types of
legal work. The only formal requirements are the passing of state bar
examinations after graduating from a law school; in a few state the law degree is
sufficient.
In both England and the United States, as in many other common-law
countries, becoming a judge or magistrate is a promotion (by appointment or
election) from the ranks of the bar, and there is no special training for the
exercise of judicial functions. But in some other common-law countries,
especially in Africa or Asia, a newly qualified lawyer may enter the government
legal service and find himself appointed in a short time to a junior magistracy.
Even in these countries there is generally no special training for the job as
adjudicating.
Civil-law countries. In continental European countries the qualifications to
practice law typically depend on which of the various branches of the profession
the university law graduate wishes to enter. Some countries place more emphasis
on apprenticeship and others on examination. In France, for example, a legal
practitioner may be an advocate, an avou, a notary or a judge. Each receives a
different training, but all normally have gone through third- and fourth-year law
degrees courses. The advocate (roughly corresponding to the English barrister)
must pass a bar examination and then serve as a probationary lawyer for three
years during which he takes further course work as well as acquiring practical
experience. The avou (something of a cross between a junior barrister and a
senior solicitor) serves a period of articled clerkship and undergoes a
professional examination by practicing lawyers. The notary (who does the non-
contentious work performed in England by a solicitor) need not to be a
university graduate and can be a product of a professional school. His period of
training lasts at least three years in a notarys office. He also takes a professional
examination and if successful must wait for a vacancy since there are a small
number of notary offices established by law.
In Germany the graduate in law who seeks a legal career must embark
upon a period of practical training as a Referendar. This is a uniform program
involving two years of practical work in the courts, in the office of a lawyer in

29
private practice, in the office of a public prosecutor, in the civil service, and
sometimes in the legal department of a commercial concern. Upon its
completion, the graduate must pass a state examination. (Assessorexamen)
A somewhat similar procedure is followed in Japan. Law graduates who
seek careers as judges, public procurators or lawyers in private practice must
(with the exception of summary court magistrates and assistant prosecutors) pass
the National Law Examination For entrance to the Legal Training and Research
Institute. This is an Organ of the Supreme Court. Like his German counterpart,
the Refendar training to become an Assessor the Japanese student at the institute
lasts two years. The bulk of the work consists of practical exercises and
discussions, lectures on legal topics and visits to institutions of concern to
lawyers (such as prisons). The training is uniform, leads to a single examination
and qualifies the graduate for any branch of legal practice.
In some countries, such as France and Spain, there are special schools for
training judges. In others, such as Germany and the Nordic countries, judicial
training is acquired in the post-law-school practical internship period. In
Germany, for example, a law graduate may be appointed to a lower court after
completing the Referendarzeit and passing the Second State Examination. After
serving a three-year probationary period, he becomes eligible for an
appointment for life. In France the first step to become a judge is to pass an
annual competitive examination for which students prepare by taking a special
program in their last year of law studies. Successful candidates then must
undergo 28 months of training consisting of a period of formal study at the
National School of the Judiciary in Bordeaux, followed by a series of short
practical internships in such settings as police departments, law offices, prisons
and the Ministry of Justice in Paris. This training culminates in a judicial
apprenticeship during which the future judge participates on a daily basis in all
the activities of a variety of courts. Upon their completion of their training
period the students are ranked on the basis of their grades and the evaluation of
supervisors and are then assigned to their first positions in the judicial system.
Since the administrative law courts in France are not part of the judiciary but
rather of the administration, most judges for these courts are drawn not from the
lawyers trained in the National School of the Judiciary but from the civil
servants in the National School of Administration.

SPEAKING

2. Built sentence with the following legal terms:

Examination, subjects, oral examination, universities, degree, qualification,


Inns of Court, jurisdiction, barrister, solicitor, clerk, judge, magistrate, notary.

30
3. Find the correspondent questions for the underlined words and
write them down:

1.?
1. In England and Wales practicing lawyers must be either barristers (advocates
and consultants) or solicitors (general legal advisers dealing with all kinds of
legal business out of court and advocates in some of the lower courts).

2?
2. The former are organized in four Inns of Court (Lincolns Inn, Inner Temple,
Middle Temple and the Grays Inn) under the discipline of the Senate of the Inns
of Court.

3..?
3. The latter are under the jurisdiction of the Law Society.

4..?
4. It is not necessary to hold a law degree or any university degree to qualify for
the profession of law, but such a degree is usual.

5.?
5. To become a barrister a candidate must pass a two-part examination in legal
subjects, but university graduates may obtain partial or total exemption from the
first part, depending on their degrees.

6.?
6. A barristers preparation also includes practical courses and a period of
pupilage administered under the authority of the Senate of the Inns of Court.

7.?
7. A barrister may not practice at all until he has undergone six months of
pupilage in chambers and may not practice independently until he has been a
pupil for a year.

8.?
8. Pupilage causes some difficulty, partly because of the cost but mainly
because of the increasing shortage of places in chambers.

9.?
9. To qualify as a solicitor, the normal course is to serve as an articled clerk for
two years and also pass examinations in two parts. In Scotland and Ireland (both

31
the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland) there are similar requirements,
though the arrangements differ in detail.

10?
10. In the United Sates admission to the Bar qualifies one for all the types of
legal work.

11?
11. The only formal requirements are the passing of state bar examinations after
graduating from a law school; in a few state the law degree is sufficient.

12..?
12. In both England and the United States, as in many other common-law
countries, becoming a judge or magistrate is a promotion (by appointment or
election) from the ranks of the bar, and there is no special training for the
exercise of judicial functions.
4. Complete the empty spaces from this fragment with the
corresponding words:

In some., such as France and Spain, there are special schools for
training... In others, such as Germany and the Nordic countries,
.training is acquired in the post-law-school practical
internship... In Germany, for example, a law graduate may be
.a lower court after completing the Referendarzeit and
passing the Second Examination. After serving a three-year
probationary period, he becomes for an appointment for life. In France
the first step to become a .is to pass an annual competitive
for which students prepare by taking a special program in their
last .of law studies. Successful candidates then must .28
months of training consisting of a period of formal study at the National School
of the Judiciary in Bordeaux, followed by ..of short practical
internships in such settings as police departments, , prisons and the
Ministry of Justice in Paris. This training .in a judicial
apprenticeship during which the future participates on a daily basis in
all the activities of a variety of.. Upon their completion of their
training period the students are ..on the basis of their grades and the
evaluation of supervisors and are then assigned to their first positions in the
judicial.. Since the administrative courts in France are not part
of the judiciary but rather of the administration, most judges for these
are drawn not from the lawyers trained in the National School of the Judiciary
but from the civil .in the National School of Administration

32
5. Chose the correct variant for the following sentences according
to their meaning:

1. Where becoming a judge or a magistrate is considered a promotion?

a. in both England and the United States


b. in Romania
c. in Africa

2. On what depend the qualifications to practice law in continental European


countries?

a. which of the various branches of the profession the university law


graduate wishes to enter
b. the level of preparation
c. the student
3. Who place more emphasis on apprenticeship and others on examination?
a. some countries
b. some universities
c. some students

4. Where a legal practitioner may be an advocate, an avou, a notary or a


judge?
a. in France
b. in America
c. in England

5. Who must pass a bar examination and then serve as a probationary lawyer
for three years during which he takes further course work as well as
acquiring practical experience ?

a. the advocate
b. the lawyer
c. the judge

6. What are the special schools used for in France and in Spain?

a. for training judges


b. for training magistrate
c. for training candidates

7. When may a law graduate be appointed to a lower court in Germany and


in Northern countries?

33
a. after completing the Referendarzeit and passing the Second State
Examination
b. after graduation
c. after he finished courses

8. When he becomes eligible for an appointment for life?

a. after serving a three-year probationary period


b. after a while
c. after a certain period of time

9. How many months a successful candidate must undergo?

a. 28 months
b. 18 months
c. 6 weeks

WRITING

6. Translate the following text in Romanian:

The process of selecting members of the legal profession begins in the


universities and law schools and continues afterwards in the form of
professional entrance requirements.
School examinations. In the United States, Great Britain and other
common-law countries students are generally required to pass an examination in
each subject. Four or five subjects are studied simultaneously during the
academic term, and students must take examinations in all of them at the end of
the term or year. In France and Italy, too, students are required to pass a certain
number of examinations in various subject matter areas in order to qualify for a
degree.
In some continental Europeans countries more comprehensive
examinations are the rule. In Germany the course work for the university law
degree normally takes about five years, with a single comprehensive
examination at the end of those five years ( the First State Examination ).
Students are admitted at this examination if they produce certificates of
satisfactory work in each subject, in a jurisprudence seminar, and in a course of
economics and finance. The Netherlands has an intermediate system: the course
for a first degree in law lasts five years, with an examination at the end of the
second year and another at the end of the fifth. Russia combines the system of

34
examinations in each course with a comprehensive examination at the end of the
five-year period of study.

..

..

35
REVISION I (TEM DE CONTROL I PARTEA I)

1. Translate into Romanian the following texts:

Principles of legal ethics, whether written or unwritten, not only seek to


control the conduct of legal practice but also reflect the basic assumptions,
premises and methods of the legal system within which the lawyer operates.
They reflect as well the professions conception of its own role in the
administration of justice. In Western Europe legal systems, the role of the
practitioner in both civil and criminal litigation differs from what it is in Anglo-
American legal systems, and this is reflected in the ethics of their legal
professions. Practitioners in countries having Communist form of government
are ordinarily salaried employees of the government and their ethical obligations
consequently have a focus different from that of the countries where lawyers
engage in independent practice or are employed by private firms. In England
and to a certain extent in France, where the profession is divided into separate
branches, the principles of professional ethics reflect the relationships incident
to that division.
Teaching methods are unrelated to the nature of the legal system. The
methodology of continental legal education has grown out of and perpetuates a
legal tradition heavily influenced by scholars, while the methods in England and
in the United States have emerged from and contribute to the maintenance of the
tradition of judge-made law. Methods were influenced also by the fact that in
England legal education was from early times in the hands of the bar, while on
the Continent from the 12th century on it was the province of the universities.
The fact that in common-law systems principles of law are largely derived by a
process of inductive reasoning from many decisions of higher courts lay behind
the development of the case methods. In Continental Europe the fact that the law
is found mainly in systematic legislation is one of the chief reasons for the
lecture method, in which the subject can be approached through its philosophical
background. A desire to systematically expound a body of principles rather than
approaching facts and problems by the case-to-case method is met better by
formal lectures and text-books than by class discussion
The method of subject-by-subject examination is less taxing on the
memory than the system of comprehensive examination. It may well enable the
student to do more detailed work on the problems of each subject. It has the
disadvantage of encouraging him to think in terms of separate subjects, whereas
the comprehensive examination leads him to consider legal problems in all their
aspects. Being aware of the dangers of the compartmentalized thinking, some
law schools in the common-law world have introduced into the curricula
general subjects, such as common law, in place of separate courses in

36
contract and in tort, or they require the student to write papers about issues that
relate of the subjects studied.

2. Find the questions for these answers:

1?
1. In some continental Europeans countries more comprehensive examinations
are the rule.

2?
2. In Germany the course work for the university law degree normally takes
about five years, with a single comprehensive examination at the end of those
five years (the First State Examination).

3.?
3. Students are admitted at this examination if they produce certificates of
satisfactory work in each subject, in a jurisprudence seminar, and in a course of
economics and finance.

4?
4. The Netherlands has an intermediate system: the course for a first degree in
law lasts five years, with an examination at the end of the second year and
another at the end of the fifth.

5.?5. Russia
combines the system of examinations in each course with a comprehensive
examination at the end of the five-year period of study.

6?
6. The method of subject-by-subject examination is less taxing on the memory
than the system of comprehensive examination.

7.?
7.To some extent all law courses are out of harmony with legal practice, for in a
real life a case is not presented as neatly by a client to his lawyer as it is in a
textbook.

8?

37
8. The case usually begins as a statement, often jumbled, of facts and problems
that cut across pedagogical categories.

9?9. A story
of a road accident, for example, may involve the lawyer in considering questions
of the civil responsibility for the cause of the accident; of contract (in relation to
insurance); of criminal law (in relation to a traffic offense); and of other
branches of law as well.

10?
10. It is therefore important, while making divisions of law for convenience of
study and examination, to guard students against the danger of thinking in
compartments.

11?
11. On the continent of Europe the transition to the study of national law was
facilitated by the fact that modern legal systems grew mostly from Roman law.

12?
12. In England on the other hand, the national law, known as the common law,
was indigenous.

13?
13. In continental European countries the qualifications to practice law typically
depend on which of the various branches of the profession the university law
graduate wishes to enter.

14?
14. Some countries place more emphasis on apprenticeship and others on
examination.

15?
15. In France, for example, a legal practitioner may be an advocate, an avou, a
notary or a judge.

16?
16. Each receives a different training, but all normally have gone through third-
and fourth-year law degrees courses.

17?
17. The advocate (roughly corresponding to the English barrister) must pass a
bar examination and then serve as a probationary lawyer for three years during
which he takes further course work as well as acquiring practical experience.

38
18?
18. The avou (something of a cross between a junior barrister and a senior
solicitor) serves a period of articled clerkship and undergoes a professional
examination by practicing lawyers.

3. Enlarge on:

1. Legal ethics: differences among countries; areas of application


2. Legal education: the aim of legal education; study and practice;
teaching methods
3. Examinations and qualifications

39
SEMESTER II PART II

UNIT 4 GRAMMAR EXPLANATIONS


READING
SPEAKING
WRITING

GRAMMAR EXPLANATIONS PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIV)

1. Ce este diateza?
- Diateza este categoria gramatical care arat relaia ntre subiect
i aciune.
- Exist dou diateze: diateza activ i diateza pasiv.
2.Ce este diateza activ?
- Diateza activ arat c subiectul gramatical face aciunea
exprimat de verb.

e.g. They saw you here.

3. Ce este diateza pasiv?


- Diateza pasiv arat c subiectul propoziiei (subiectul
grammatical) nu este cel care face aciunea. El sufer aciunea
fcut de subiectul logic (complementul direct al verbului
tranzitiv), care devine complement de agent.

e.g. You were seen by them.


-Ordinea cuvintelor este urmtoarea:
Subject + Active verb + Direct object + (Indirect object) + (Adverb) + Agent

4. Verbele care accept diateza pasiv sunt transitive: to resemble, to possess, to


have, to hold, etc.; sau verbe cu prepoziie: to look at, to send for, to speak to, to
account for, to attend to, to look after, to look for to put up with.

5. Timpurile la diateza pasiv sunt construite dup urmtorul model:


- timpul respectiv al auxiliarului to be + participial trecut al
verbului de conjugat.
- timpurile continui la diateza pasiv sunt alctuite din timpul
respectiv al auxiliarului + being + participial trecut al
verbului de conjugat (present simple, past
simple,subjunctive)

40
- Present Simple I am asked
- Present Continuous I am being asked
- Present Perfect I have been asked
- Past Simple I was asked
- Past Continuous I was being asked
- Past Perfect I had been asked
- Future Simple I shall be asked
- Future in the Past I should be asked

- Dac folosim sau nu diateza pasiv rmne la alegerea vorbitorului, dac


dorete s pun accent pe subiect sau pe complement.
e.g. She found the solution. Or
The solution was found by her.

- Complementul de agent este adesea omis din propoziiile pasive din diferite
motive:
a. complementul de agent este necunoscut.
e.g. My flat was burgled yesterday.

b. complementul de agent nu este important.


e.g. The bridge was built in 1876.

c. complementul de agent este subneles.


e.g. He was fined 100 for speeding.

Tipuri de transformri din diateza activ n cea pasiv

1. verb tranzitiv +complement direct


e.g. John took the book.
The book was taken by John.

2. verb + 2 complemente directe


e.g. George asks the children questions.
The children are asked questions by George.
Questions are asked the children by George.

3. verb + complement direct + complement indirect


e.g. I gave him records.
Records were given to him by me.
He was given records by me.

41
4. verb prepoziional
e.g. You sent for the doctor.
The doctor was sent for.

5. verb tranzitiv + complement direct + verb prepoziional


e.g. Maggie sliced the bread with a knife.
The bread was sliced with a knife.

6. verb tranzitiv + element predicativ suplimentar


e.g. They elected him chairman of the board.
He was elected chairman of the board by them.

F READING

Pre-reading task
1. Think of as many places as you can where computers are used to store and
find information.
e.g. banks/ hotels/ government offices/ medical practices

2. Does the thought that such places might have records about you?
a. worry you?
b. make you feel secure?
c. not bother you at all?
3. Read the article. How would the writer answer question 2?

SOMEONESOMEWHERE HAS YOU TAPED

An American computer expert was approached recently by a British


magazine, asking her to track down details of all Lady Diana Spencers credit
card spending in the period before the royal engagement. Though the magazine
would not meet her asking fee, she said that technically the request was
perfectly possible.
The contents of a file kept about you could stop you getting a job, a
home, a loan. They could be unfair, or just plain inaccurate. But youll never
know, until something goes wrong in your life you get turned down for a job, a
mortgage, you are refused a credit card, and cant understand why and only
then, if you are lucky. Technology has made it possible to collect, store and
retrieve almost limitless amounts of personal information about every aspect of
your lives.

42
If you were ever in trouble at college or school; ever at the wrong end
of a sacking (even if you knew it was an unfair one) or dealing with the police;
ever failed to pay off a hire purchase agreement (even if it was because the
goods were faulty); or have ever seen a psychiatrist - all this information is
likely to be on record somewhere. On record, and, in our increasingly
technological times, more accessible than ever to third parties who may use it as
evidence against you.

But Ive got nothing to hide

The fact that youve nothing to hide doesnt mean youve got nothing
to worry about, because the information on record about you could simply be
wrong. As it was about Jan Martin, a young woman film-market turned down for
a job after wrong information on a police computer was disclosed to a would-be
employer. She and her husband had been traveling innocently in Holland shortly
after the time of a Baader-Meinhoff terrorist incident, when someone wrongly
identified him as a member of the gang and reported their car, registered in her
name. When her terrorist links were disclosed to her prospective employers,
they understandably shied away. It was only because her father was a former
senior policeman that was able to discover the reason.

Whose file is it anyway?

Apart from the files of credit reference agencies, you have no legal
right to see files kept about you. Even when you have strong reason to believe a
file contains wrong information, you have no right to check it.
Employers, often hiring private detectives, seem to find it
extraordinarily easy to discover almost all they need to know about you. Helena
Kennedy explains, Policeman who leave the force often becomes private
detectives but still have friends in the force who can get them information. The
Observer newspaper recently showed how easy it is, given a suitable story and a
smattering of jargon, to obtain information by bluff from the police computers.
Computer freaks, whose hobby is breaking into official systems, dont even need
to use the phone.
Computers do not alter the fundamental issues. But they do multiply
the risks. They allow more data to be collected on more aspects of our lives, and
increase both its rapid retrievability and the likelihood of its unauthorized
transfer from one agency, which might have a legitimate interest in it, to another,
which does not. Modern computer capabilities also raise the issue of what is
known in the jargon as total data linkage the ability, by pressing a few
buttons and waiting as little as a minute, to collate all the information about us
held on all the major government and business computers into an instant dossier
on any aspect of our lives.

43
Machine-readable passports

A recent New Scientist article reported that within five years most
Western countries would be issuing their citizens with a machine-readable
passport that would carry with it the threat of global surveillance of innocent
travelers. Says journalist Steve Connor, The new passport could mean that
anyone (crossing a border) can be stopped and checked until a computer
statement of No trace allows them to go on about their business. The
computerized passport allows the list of people who for various reasons, are
labeled as suspicious, to expand almost without limit.

VOCABULARY
plain = pur i simplu
to track sb., sth. down = a da de urma cuiva
(though the magazine ) would not meet her asking fee = nu-i va satisface
cererea de onorariu
to retrieve = a gsi sau extrage informaii stocate n calculator
sacking = concediere
hire purchase agreement = a cumpra n rate (regular payments)
contract de cumprare
to disclose = a fi fcut cunoscut
would-be =spernd s fie, aa-zisul
understandably = din motive uor de neles
shy away = a arunca
senior (policeman) = superior
prospective = potenial
smattering = puine cunotine
bluff = ameninare
freak = mptimit
likelihood = posibilitate
legitimate = legal, rezonabil
to collate = a aduna
instant = imediat
as little as = nu mai puin

Comprehension check
1.What did the magazine want to know about Lady Diana?
1

2. When according to paragraph 2, will you find out about your life?

44
2

3.What sort of information might be on your file?


3.

4. What happened to Jan Martin?


4

5. Why cant you check the information on you file?


5..

6. What did The Observer do?


6.

7. What is total data linkage?


7.

8. What is the threat that the writer sees in machine-readable passport?


8..

F SPEAKING
The role of computers

- Did you know that there will soon be computers that can in a
few seconds exchange more words than have ever been spoken
in the whole history of mankind?
- Did you know that the age of the average computer programmer
is 12?
- Did you know that if the car industry had developed at the same
rate as the computer over the past few years, a Rolls-Royce
would know cost 50p?

F WRITING
Linking words
Fill the gaps of this informal letter with the following words or phrases:
fortunately, so, which, in my opinion, anyway, as, actually, but, at the moment,
personally.
Dear Pam,

45
Thank you for your letter. I was astonished to hear about Sheila and David. I
thought they were very happy together. (1)..when I last saw them they
were talking about having another baby, (2).quite surprised me (3)
theyre already got four. I feel very sorry for Sheila, but (4)
..I never liked David too much of an intellectual. (5)...,
youll be pleased to hear that Joey passed her driving test first time. (6)
, she shouldnt be allowed on the road at all shes far too careless
and easily distracted. Were having the living room decorated (7).,
so the whole house is in a mess. (8)..itll be finished before the
weekend, because weve got Peter parents coming to stay, (9) Ill be
busy cleaning and cooking as usual. Theyre no trouble, (10)it
would be nice to have a quiet weekend for a change.
Well, I must end now. Say hello to the family. Write again soon,
Angela

PRACTICE (TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE)

1.Compare these sentences.

People speak English all over the world.


English is spoken all over the world.

In the passive, the agent (in this sentence people) is often unnecessary. Put
these sentences into the passive. By + agent is not necessary.

a. The postman delivers the letters at 8.00.


..

b. Someone built this hotel two years ago.


..

c. They use a lot of preservatives in food these days.


.

d. Has anyone answered your question?

e. Somebody found your keys on top of the photocopier.

f. People should not take reference books out of the library.

46
..

g. They have increased the rate of taxation to forty per cent.

h. A scientist discovered penicillin in 1928.

2. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form, active or passive voice, and
also in the correct tense.

Last night a man was arrested (arrest) outside Buckingham Palace.


Police saw (see) him climbing the walls.

A. Have you heard the news today?


B. No, why?
A.Well, the police (a)..(arrest) Ronald Bloggs.
B. Whos he?
A.He was one of the men who (b).(rob) a train in Britain about
thirty years ago.
B. Good Lord! I remember that. It was one of the biggest robberies ever. How
much money (steal)?
A.Millions. And it (d) (never find). Bloggs (e) .
(send) to prison but he (f) (escape). Anyway, he (g) ..
(arrested) yesterday. He (h).(live) in Brazil for the past fifteen years,
and the British police have been trying al this time to bring him back, but they
cant, because Britain doesnt have an extradition treaty with Brazil.
B. So who (i) .(arrest) him, the British police or the Brazilian
police?
A.The Brazilian police. Apparently he (j)(catch) shoplifting. He
put something in his pocket, and he didnt know that a store detective (k)
.(watch) him.
B. But why is this in all the press? Its not very important, is it?
A.Because now he will have a criminal record, and under Brazilian law he could
(l)..(send) back to Britain. If that happened, he would (m)
.(imprison) here to finish his sentence.
3.In this exercise you have to read a sentence and then write another
sentence with the same meaning. Begin each of them
as shown.

e.g. Somebody stole my bag in the shop.


My bag was stolen in the shop.

47
The police have arrested three men.
Three men have been arrested by the police.

1.The bill includes service.


Service.

2. People dont use this road very often.


This road..

3. They cancelled all flights because of fog.


All flights

4. Somebody accused me of stealing the money.


I

5. They are building a new ring- road round the city.


A new ring- road

6. I didnt realize that someone was recording our conversation.


I didnt realize that our conversation..

7. They have changed the date of the meeting.


The date of the meeting.

8. Brian told me that somebody had attacked and robbed him in the street.
Brian told me that he..

4. Complete these sentences with the correct form of the following verbs:
arrest, wake, knock, check, translate, find, drive, make, spend, hear, carry.

e.g. The music at the party was very loud and could be heard from far away.

1. A decision will notuntil the next meeting.


2. That building is dangerous. It ought todown before it falls
down.
3. When you go through customs, your luggage may..by a
customs officer.
4. I told the hotel receptionist that I wanted to..up at
6.30.
5. Her new book will probablyinto a number of
foreign languages.
6. If you kicked a policeman, youd

48
7. Police are looking for the missing boy. He cantanywhere.
8.Do you think that less money shouldon arms?
9. The injured man couldnt walk and had to..
10. I dont mind driving but I prefer to...

5. In this exercise you have to read a sentence and then write a new sentence
with same meaning. Begin the way shown in the model.

e.g. They didnt offer Ann the job. Ann wasnt offered the job.

1. They dont pay Jim very much. Jim


2. They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview.
You.
3. Nobody told me that George was ill.
I..
4. His colleagues gave him a present when he retired.
He ..
5. We will send you your examination results as soon as they are ready.
You
6. They didnt ask me my name. I...
7. I think they should have offered Tom the job.
I think Tom..

6. In this exercise you have to read a sentence and then write another
sentence with the same meaning.

e.g. It is believed that the wanted man is living in New York.


The wanted man is believed to be living in New York.

1. It is said that many people are homeless after the floods.


Many people are said.

2. It is known that the Prime Minister is in favour of the new law.


The Prime Minister .

3. It is expected that the government will lose the election.


The government..

4. It is thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall.


The prisoner.

49
5. It is believed that the thieves got in through the kitchen window.
The thieves

6. It is alleged that he drove through the town at 90 miles an hour.


He.

7. It is reported that the two people were seriously injured in the accident.
Two people..

8. It is said that three men were arrested after the explosion.


Three men..

7. This time you have to complete the words in brackets.

e.g. We are having the house painted (the house/ paint) at the moment.
Did you have your cut (you/ your hair/ cut) last week?

1.Your hair is too long. I think you should(it/ cut).


2.How often.(you/ your car/ service)?
3.The engine in Toms car couldnt be repaired, so he had to
.(a new engine/ fit).
4. .(you/ your newspaper/ deliver) or do you
go to the shop yourself to buy it?
5. A. What are these workmen doing in your garden?
B. Oh, I.(a swimming pool/ build)
6. A. Can I see these those holiday photographs you took?
B. Im afraid not. I(not/ the film/ developed) yet.
7. Is it true that many years ago he (his portrait/ paint)
by a famous artist?

50
UNIT 5 GRAMMAR EXPLANATIONS
READING
SPEAKING
WRITING

F GRAMMAR EXPLANATIONS CONDITIONAL


SENTENCES

- Conditional Sentences (Propoziiile Condiionale) sunt alctuite


dintr-o propoziie condiional, introdus prin if (dac) i o
propoziie principal, a crei realizare este condiionat de
realizarea condiiei din propoziia secundar.

- Conjunciile care introduc propoziiile condiionale sunt: if,


unless(= dac nu), suppose, supposing, provided (that),

51
providing, on condition that (cu condiia ca), in case, as/ so
long as.

e.g. If he invites me, I shall go.


He will fail unless he works harder.
I would go providing (provide that) my requirements were met.
Suppose (supposing) he didnt answer, what would you do?
They promised to give me some money on condition that I did what they
told me/ in case I needed it.

- conjuncia if poate fi omis din propoziiile condiionale ce


exprim o condiie ireal, este alctuit cu ajutorul verbelor to
be, to have sau a verbelor auxiliare modale; aceast omisiune
duce la o inversiune ntre subiect i verbul auxiliar.

e.g. Were I tired, I would take a nap.


Had he money, he would feel more secure.
Had he taken a nap, he would feel better now.
Could I solve this situation, I would be happy.
Should he drop by, they would invite him to stay.

- n limba englez exist patru feluri de condiii:

1. Condiia 0 (Zero Conditional) se refer la un fapt real, ntotdeauna adevrat,


cu rezultate obinuite, universal valabil.

e.g. If you heat ice, it melts.


Flowers die if you dont water them.
2. Condiia 1 (First Conditional) se refer tot la un fapt real, fie n viitor, fie n
prezent. n propoziia principal se pot folosi timpul prezent, viitor sau modul
imperativ. Iar n propoziia secundar putem avea prezent, atunci cnd aciunea
din secundar este simultan cu cea din principal sau present perfect dac
aciunea din secundar este anterioar celei din principal, dar niciodat
viitorul.

e.g. I usually work in the garden if the weather is fine.


We shall go on a trip if I have time.
If you meet him, remind him to be on time.
I shall get very angry if you have lost it.
If you have finished, let me tell you one or two words.
If you have done your homework by seven, you will be allowed to watch TV.

52
- dac will apare n propoziia secundar, el nu este folosit
temporal, ci exprim intenia, voina, hotrrea.

e.g. If you will do the dishes, I will make you some coffee.
If she will not accept my proposal, our plan will not work.

3.Condiia 2 (Second Conditional), condiie improbabil, se refer la:


aciuni prezente sau viitoare, care nu contrazic realitatea i care e probabil s
se ntmple cndva; n propoziia principal se folosete present conditional,
iar n secundar, subjunctive (subjonctivul) past tense.

- Ce este subjonctivul?
- Modul subjonctiv exprim o stare sau aciune posibil.
- Forma de subjunctive- past simple este identic cu forma de
trecut.
- Pentru verbul to be forma este were pentru toate persoanele.
- Ce este condiionalul?
- Modul condiional - optativ exprim o dorin.
Present Conditional: should/ would ask
Past Conditional: should/ would have asked

e.g. She would learn it by heart if you asked her.


If he misbehaved, he would be scolded by his parents.
She wouldnt be talking so much if you stopped asking her so many
questions.

4. Condiia 3 (Third Conditional), condiie imposibil, se refer la o aciune


trecut, al crei rezultat nu mai poate fi schimbat. n propoziia principal
folosim past conditional, iar n propoziia secundar, past perfect subjunctive,
identic ca i form cu past perfect.

e.g. If I had known, I would have told you.


He would have been pleased if you had congratulated him.

F READING
Pre-reading task
You will read an article written to newspaper about the health hazards of
modern-day life.
The following words and phrases are contained in the article. Check them in a
dictionary.
to dice with death

53
fraught with danger
lead (n) /led/
gums
liver.
an early grave
a vein.
to pant
to throb...
to inhale..
a stroke
rash..

Dicing with Death (and living with statistics)


By Ruth Jemmet

Every day is fraught with danger. You wake in the morning, rush to
the window and take a deep breath. Dont! Hasnt anyone told you about the air
being polluted with lead from petrol? Next you go to the bathroom. After
touching the lavatory handle, your innocent-looking hands are covered in
bacteria, which even a good wash wont entirely remove. You sigh, and get
dressed. God heavens! Didnt you realize that all that nylon wont let you skin
breathe?

With a rush beginning to appear on you skin, you make your way to
the kitchen for breakfast. Eating must be good for you mustnt it? Of course it
is, provided you dont have tea or coffee, which are bad for your heart, or a good
old-fashioned English fry-up, which will fill your stomach with cholesterol-
building fat.
Depressed not to mention hungry you go to clean your teeth. Put
down that nylon toothbrush at once! It will ruin your gums. Do you have the
courage to weigh yourself? Horrors! Youre at least half a stone overweight,
which is sure to help send you to an early grave.

Hesitating, you make your way to the car, knowing that (according to
statistics) theres a good chance that either you or one of you nearest and dearest
will be involved in an accident sometime during your life. After a heart-
thumping journey, you reach work.

54
Filled with relief you get into the lift. Get out at once and race up
those stairs, unless you want a heart attack tomorrow.

Panting, you reach the office, where you collapse into a chair. The
cleaner has just left, leaving an aerosols delightful aroma floating in the air. You
inhale deeply, enjoying the sweet fragrance. Danger! Breathing in the substance
will ruin your lungs (not to mention our atmosphere, if we are to believe the
experts.)

With trembling hands you light a cigarette to calm you nerves. A


what? How dare you? In comes your colleague, Ms. Smith, all ready for a busy
day, blonde hair and make-up in place. Do you think shes heard about the
cancer scare concerning hair dyes and eye- liners?

At last lunch- time comes. You join your mates in the local for a
sandwich. White bread, eh? A low- fibre diet is no good at all. You have just
one more drink, which helps you on your way to liver failure, and your return
to the office. You spend the afternoon fighting a battle with high pressure and
chronic indigestion (or is it your heart at last?) and give a sigh of relief as 5.30
arrives.

What a jam on the by-pass tonight. It gets your fingers taping on the
steering wheel, doesnt it? You look in the driving mirror and see a large vein
throbbing up and down on your forehead. It throbs even faster as you suddenly
remember that article you were reading about strokes.

A nervous wreck, you reach home. You crawl up the path and fall into
your wifes protective arms. She wont last much longer, of course. Shes
inhaled a large amount of washing powder, quite a few asbestos particles from
her hair drier and a great number of chemicals from aerosol spray.

But do not fear, civilization is here. Are we really that much happier in
our modern technological world with all its new- found knowledge than our
ancestors who knew nothing of this things? Is it any surprise that there were no
analysts or psychiatrist in any century before ours? Im sure they didnt need
any.

VOCABULARY
fraught with danger = plin de pericol
lead = plumb
to sigh = a ofta

55
rash = erupie
fry-up = unc cu ou
gums = gingii
to weigh = a se cntri
half of stone = msur de greutate echivalent cu 6,33 kg
early grave = a muri de tnr
heart- thumping journey = cltorie cu bti de inim
to pant = a gfi
to inhale = a inhala
fragrance = arom
lungs = plmni
liver = ficat
by-pass = osea de centur
steering-wheel = volan
driving mirror = oglinda retrovizoare
throbbing = zbtndu-se
a nervous wreck = pachet de nervi

Comprehension check

1.According to the writer, what dangers are attached to the fresh air, drinking
and smoking?
2. Why isnt nylon a good material for the skin?
3 .How many kilos overweight is the businessman?
4. Who are your nearest and dearest?
5. Why should you use the stairs and not the lift?
6. What does his colleague need to be careful of?
7. What effect does the traffic jam have on him?
8. What dangers has his wife faced all day?

SPEAKING E
How do you feel today?

1.What dishes is your country famous for?


What kind of food is eaten a lot?
What is a balanced diet?
How does diet affect your health?
Have you changed you diet recently?

56
2.Answer the questions and add up your scores to see if you have a balanced
diet?

THE BALANCED DIET


FAT

Which do you usually eat?


Butter..3
Margarine2
Nothing ...0

Which do you usually use for cooking?


Meat fat, butter, margarine.3
Vegetable oil...2
Corn, sunflower, olive oil1

How many times a week do you eat chips?


Five or more3
Two to four..2
Once 1
Occasionally/ never..0

How often do eat ice- cream or cream?


Every day3
Several times a week..2
About once a week..1
Less than once a week.0

Which type of milk do you drink?


Full fat.3
Semi-skimmed.1
Skimmed/ none0

What types of cheese do you eat meat?


High- fat (Cheddar, Stilton)..4
Medium- fat (Camembert, Edam, Brie) 3
Low- fat (cottage)..2
Variety ..3

How many times a week do you eat high or medium-fat cheese?


Five or more3

57
Three to five2
Once or twice a week..1
Occasionally/ never.0

How many times a week do you eat chocolate?


Six or more..3
Three to five2
Once or twice..1
Occasionally/ never.0

How often do you eat meat?


Twice a day..4
Once a day2
Most days.1
Never0

How many times a week do you eat sausages/ meat pies/ burgers?
Six or more3
Three to five..2
Once or twice.1
Occasionally/ never0

If you have a choice of how to cook meat, how do you cook it?
Fry..3
Grill with added oil2
Grill without added oil1

How many times a week do you eat cake, biscuits, or desserts?


Six or more..3
Three to five.2
Once or twice1
Occasionally/ never..0

FIBRE

What kind of bread do you eat?


Whole-meal3
White..1
Mixture...2

How many slices of bread do you eat a day?


Six or more..4

58
Three to five3
One or two...1
None0

How many times a week do you eat cereal?


Six or more..4
Three to five3
Once or twice..2
Occasionally/ never.0

How many times a week do you eat rice or pasta?


Six or more..4
Three to five3
Once or twice..2
Occasionally/ never.0

How many times a week do you eat boiled, mashed or jacket potatoes?
Six or more.5
Three to five...3
Once or twice.2
Occasionally/ never0

WRITING E
1. This is the description of a house. Read it.

The house is situated at the bottom of the Chess valley next to the
River Chess. Its about 20 miles from London and just outside the village of
Chorleywood. Its a really splendid period property. The oldest parts are
Elizabethan, but there were some additions in the 1820s.

It seems typically English to me. There are long corridors and huge
oak- paneled rooms, and you can imagine all sorts of scenes from history taking
place here.

As you come in through the front door, you find yourself in a large
hall with an open fireplace, which is unusual. One of the doors on the right of
the hall leads into the living room. This room faces south, so its very sunny, and
it has a lovely view of the whole valley. The furniture has been chosen to match
the style of the house, so theres a lot of leather and dark, heavy wood. Next to
this room theres the dinning room, which has French leading onto a small patio.

59
Also on the ground floor there is a study, kitchen and utility room. A
wide staircase takes you to the first floor, where there are five bedrooms. The
largest is about 25 x 20, a really vast room which looks out onto the garden.

The house is in 2.5 acres of land, and there is a green house, a shed, a
swimming pool and a tennis court.

Its a beautiful place to be at any time of the year. In winter its warm
and cosy and in summer theres so much to do outside.

2. Now write a description of the house or a flat. Include the following:


- facts and physical description
- your impressions and opinions
- a description of some of the rooms.

PRACTICE (TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE)

1.Answer the following questions using the conditional sentences of type 1.

e.g. 1.What happens if it doesnt rain for month?


If it doesnt rain for months, everything will get dry.

1. What must a driver do if he sees a zebra crossing?


2. What presents will you buy if you go there?


.

4.What do you plan to visit if you go to see Bucharest?


.

5.Who do you call if you fall ill?


6. What grade do you expect to get if you write a good paper?


...

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7. What do you need if you want to mail a letter?
..

8. What will happen if you eat too much?


..

9. What will he do if you ring the bell?


..

10. What will you drink if you are thirsty?


2. The expression What if is used when the speaker wants to present a


problem. Answer the following What if questions using the cues provided.

e.g. What if it rains Saturday?


( we..the beach on Saturday)
If it rains Saturday, well go to the beach on Sunday.

1.What it we fail the exam?


(weit again in June)
..

2. What if he has an accident?


(we.him to the hospital)
.

3.What if they run out of gas?


(theyto the nearest gas station)

4.What if they cancel our flight?


(weby train)
..

5.What if the restaurant is closed?


(I.somewhere else)

6. What if they raise the price of gas?


(we a smaller car next year)
...

61
7. What if he doesnt like liver?
(he.a steak)
..

8. What if they dont come in time?


(we ..to the theatre without them)
..

9.What if the dress doesnt fit her?


(she..another one)
..

10. What if he doesnt hear his alarm clock?


(he..late for the work)
.

3. Supply the correct tense of the verb in brackets.

e.g. If you (leave) it in the house, a burglar might steal it.


If you left it in the house, a burglar might steal it.

1. If that tree (to fall) down, it would hit the house.


2. Describe how you (to feel) if this happened to you.
3.If the police picked him up, he(not to have) a leg to stand on.
4.It would be risky if you.(to drive) this old car to Spain.
5.If I did it, I.(to put) myself on exactly their level; I
(to turn) into the very sort of person I hate.
6. If more governments.(to wake) up to what is happening,
perhaps we would be able to avoid the disaster.
7.I would take the day off if (to have) a stomach -ache.
8. I (to stop) working if I won a lot of money.
9. If you.(to join) a club of some sort, you wouldnt be so lonely
and bored.

4. Complete the following sentences. Depending on the cues given, each


clause may be either negative or affirmative.

e.g. A poor man says: Ifa lot of money, Iaround the world.
If I had a lot of money, Id travel around the world.

62
A light sleeper says: If I in such a noisy neighbourhood, Ibetter
at night.
If I didnt live in such a noisy neighbourhood, Id sleep
better at night.

1. A fat man says: If .so much, I..so fat.


2. A busy woman says: If Imore time, Ithe movies.
3.A bad student says: If.more, Ibetter grades.
4.An ugly girl says: If prettier, I..as a model.
5.A tired woman says: If more rest, I.better.
6. A chain smoker says: If.so much, Ibad cough.
7. A short man says: If..so short, I.basketball.
8. A lonely man says: If.a girlfriend, I..so lonely.
9. A fat man says: If.more exercise, I.so fat.
10. A coffee drinker says: Ifso much coffee, I
trouble -sleeping.

5. Supply the correct tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. He told the judge that he. (to rob) the bank if he hadnt been
threatened by the authorities.
2. If they(to change) more money, they could have stayed in a
hotel.
3.If they had not thought us how to shoot a gun, I..(not know)
how to use one.
4.If you.(to be) the shop- assistant, what would you have done?
5.The optician..(to recommend) her to get contact lenses if the
patients eyes had been equally bad.
6. Perhaps dad wouldnt have been so surprised if he.. (to hear)
the boys talking about it.
7. If it.(not to be) for him, Id have gone mad at that school.
8. If he hadnt been in a hurry, he.(not to drive) so fast.
9. Even if I had run as fast as I could, I..(to miss) the bus.
10. I would never have won the prize, if I(to have) your support.

6. Complete the sentences using one of these phrases.

- make a mistake
- make a progress
- do someone a favour

63
- make a speech
- do my homework
- do ones best
- make money
- make a complaint
- make up my mind to
- do nothing
- make sense
- make a mess
- do the housework
- make a will
- make friends with
- do business with
- make a noise
- make a phone call
- make sure that
- do an exam

a. Could you.? Could you give me a lift to the station?


b. At first I found English difficult, but now Im beginning
c. Customer to waiter: I think you..My bill should be 5 not
15.
d. I.a lot of.with the Chinese,,,. They are
good customers of mine.
e. Can you understand these instructions? Theyto me.
f. It took me a long time to decide, but I have finally.to accept
the job.
g. Sh! Dont The babys asleep.
h. Hello. Id like..Theres no hot waster in my room.
i. Before going on holiday you should.all windows and
doors are shut and locked.
j. A: You must try harder.
B: Im
A: Well, its not good enough.
k. Yesterday the Prime Minister..in the House of Commons.
l. It took me hours to clean your room. If you.again, you can
clean it up yourself.
m. Is there a public call box near here? I need to

64
UNIT 6 GRAMMAR EXPLANATIONS
READING
SPEAKING
WRITING

F GRAMMAR EXPLANATIONS INDIRECT SPEECH

Vorbirea Direct (Direct Speech) se refer la reproducerea exact a


spuselor cuiva.
n Vorbirea Indirect (Indirect Speech) o a treia persoan reproduce
coninutul spuselor cuiva.

Atunci cnd vorbirea direct se transform n vorbire indirect, n


propoziia subordonat au loc o serie de schimbri n ceea ce privete timpul
folosit, pronumele, dar i adverbele de timp i loc.

- n ceea ce privete timpurile folosite aceasta se face avnd n


vedere concordana timpurilor (sequence of tenses), atunci cnd
spusele cuiva sunt introduse printr-un verb la trecut. Astfel au loc
urmtoarele schimbri:

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH


PRESENTPAST
PRESENT CONTINUOUS.PAST CONT.
PRESENT PERFECT..PAST PERFECT
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS...PAST PERF.

65
CONTINUOUS
PASTPAST PERFECT
PAST CONTINUOUS.PAST PERF.
CONTINUOUS
FUTURE..FUTURE IN THE
PAST
FUTURE CONTINUOUS...FUTURE IN THE
PAST CONT.
FUTURE PERFECT.FUTURE
PERFECT
IN THE PAST
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS...FUTURE
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
IN THE PAST

- PAST PERFECT i PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS rmn


neschimbate; CONDIIONAL i SUBJONCTIV rmn , de
asemenea, neschimbate dac locul i timpul de referin sunt
aceleai.
e.g. - I feel dizzy, she said.
She said that she felt dizzy.

- Im making a cake.
She informed him that she was making a cake.

- I have already answered the letters!, she exclaimed.


She exclaimed that she had already answered those letters.

- I have been reading all day, she complained.


She complained that she had been reading all day.

- I talked to him yesterday, she answered.


She answered that she had talked to him the day before.

- What were you doing there?, she asked.


She asked me what I had been doing there.

- I will do it, I promise.


She promised that she would do it.

- Ill be cleaning the house when you arrive.

66
She told me that she would be cleaning the house when I arrived.

- I will have finished dusting the place by then.


She hoped that she would have finished dusting the place by then.

- By the end of next academic year, I shall have been teaching for thirty
years.
She informed us that by the end of the following academic year she
would have been teaching for thirty years.

- I had taken the money by then.


She told us that she had taken the money by then.

- I wish you were here with me.


I said I wished you were here with me.

- If he had time, he would do it now.


She said that if he had time, he would do it now.

- dar aceste reguli nu se aplic n anumite cazuri, i anume:


- dac ceea ce urmeaz a fi transformat din vorbirea direct n cea
indirect conine un adevr universal valabil sau un fapt
permanent.

e.g. -English is an analytic language.


The teacher told them that English is an analytic language.

- nu se produce nici o schimbare a timpului trecut dac timpul


propoziiei principale este fixat de o subordonat de timp.

e.g. -I was at home when the news started.


She insisted that she was at home when the TV news started.

- Would, should, ought (to), used (to), must (mai ales cu sensul
de interzis), nu se schimb.

e.g. -She would get up early in the morning.


I warned them that she would get up early in the morning.

- You should be more careful.


I advised her that she should be more careful.

67
- I ought to know.
She said she ought to know.

-You mustnt smoke in the classroom.


He told us that we mustnt smoke in the classroom.

- urmtoarele pronume se schimb la trecerea de la vorbirea


direct n cea indirect: personal, reflexiv, de ntrire, posesiv
(att pronominal ct i adjectival), demonstrativ (att
pronominal ct i adjectival); transformarea se refer la pers. I,
respectiv II n pers, III;
- dar rmn neschimbate atunci cnd vorbitorul i reproduce
propriile cuvinte.

e.g. -I think I like it!


She said she thought she liked it.

- You say that you dont know.


She pointed out that he said he didnt know.

- You have absented yourself from class again.


The teacher mentioned that he absented himself from class again.

- I have done it myself!


She explained that she had done it herself.

- These are not mine/ my keys, but yours/ your keys.


She remarked that those were not hers/ her keys, but his.

- adverbele sau locuiunile adverbiale de timp i de loc se


schimb, de asemenea;

here.there
in this placein that place
nowthen
todaythat day
yesterday..the previous day
the day before
last night/ evening/ week..the previous night/ evening/ week
tomorrownext day/ the following day
next day/ week.the following day/ week
the day after tomorrow.two days later, after two days

68
agobefore
this week/ monththat week/ month

- dac propoziia trecut din vorbire direct n vorbirea indirect


este legat de prezent sau dac vorbitorul i reproduce cuvintele
din acelai loc, adverbele i locuiunile adverbiale rmn
neschimbate;

e.g. I am sure that you can come now.


She said that she was sure I could come her

- Im having a dinner party this week.


She told me that she was having a dinner party this week.

- alte verbe folosite pentru transformarea n vorbirea indirect sunt: to explain,


to admit, to interrupt, to complain, to warn.

- referitor la transformarea ntrebrilor din vorbirea direct n


vorbirea indirect, ordinea cuvintelor este aceeai ca i n cazul
propoziiilor, deoarece inversiunea dintre subiect i auxiliar
nu se mai produce. Propoziiile astfel obinute sunt introduse
prin if sau whether, cu excepia ntrebrilor speciale care sunt
introduse de who, what, how, when, which, where, etc.

e.g. Does she always wear hats?


He asked if/ whether she always wore hats.

- Shall I invite her?


I asked if/ whether I should invite her.

- What are you doing here?


He wondered what I was doing there.

- pentru transformarea propoziiilor interogative n vorbirea


indirect se mai folosesc urmtoarele verbe: to ask, to wonder, to want to
know.

- modul imperativ din propoziiile directe devine infinitiv n


propoziiile indirecte, pentru comenzi, ordine, etc.

e.g. - Shut the door after you!

69
She asked/ ordered me to shut the door after me.

- Dont marry him!


My parents told me not to marry him.

- pentru a transforma propoziiile imperative din vorbirea direct


n vorbire indirect, mai putem folosi urmtoarele verbe; to order, to ask, to
beg, to request.

F READING
Comparing newspaper styles
1. The Kennedy family is one of Americas most famous families. Briefly
discuss what you know about them.
2. This how three different newspapers treated the same story in April, 1984.
The newspapers are The Guardian, The Daily Mirror and The Sun.
The Guardian is considered to be a quality newspaper, and reports the stories
quite factually.
The Daily Mirror and The Sun are popular papers, and tend to report stories
dramatically with colourful language.
3. Read the articles carefully and compare them. Consider the following:
- Length of the article
- Visual presentation
- Information included
- The order of the information
- Language style

THE GUARDIAN
KENNEDY SON DIES
From Alex Brummer in Washington

David Kennedy, aged 28, the fourth son of the late Robert Kennedy
was yesterday found dead in a hotel room in Palm Beach, Florida, where he had
been visiting his ailing grandmother, Mrs. Rose Kennedy.
The latest tragedy to strike the Kennedy family came to its most
vulnerable member. In a recent biography, David Kennedy, who had a long
history of drug problems, was described as the most self- destructive child of the
two assassinated Kennedy brothers.
The death was announced in a statement from the officers of Senator
Edward Kennedy on Capitol Hill.

70
The West Palm Beach police chief offered no immediate comment on
whether the death was drug related.

THE SUN
KENNEDY BOY DRUGS DEATH
Bobbys tragic son is found in hotel room
From Martin Dunn in New York

Murdered Senator Bobby Kennedys son David was found dead


last night after years of drug abuse.
David, 28-year-old nephew of assassinated President John F. Kennedy,
was discovered in a hotel room in Floridas fashionable Palm Beach resort.
Police alerted by hotel receptionist, Betty Barnett, rushed to the scene
and immediately cordoned off the building.
Mrs. Burnett made the horrific find in room 107 after Davids worried
mother Ethel called the hotel from Boston.
Mrs. Kennedy was alarmed because she had been unable to contact
her son for more than 24 hours.
She had been expecting fair-haired David to fly home early yesterday.
Davids death is the latest tragedy in the history of Americas first
family.
In November, 1963, President John was assassinated in Dallas.
In June, 1968, Davids father Bobby was gunned down in Los
Angeles.
In 1973, Senator Edwards son Teddy had a leg amputated because of
bone cancer.
Davids uncle Edward, whose own career crashed when he was
accused of letting a girl drown in a car crash, said last night: With trust in God,
we all pray that David has finally found the peace that he did not find in life.

DAILY MIRROR
BOBBY KENNEDYS SON FOUND DEAD
From David Bradbury in New York

Rachel was the love of his life. British actress Rachel Ward
befriended David Kennedy after meeting him in a nightclub.
Later David described the Thorn Birds actress as the most beautiful
girl in the world.
According to a recent article in Playboy magazine, Rachel and David
had an affair.
David told his friends she had no idea he used drugs.

71
I was back on smack (heroin), he said. She had no idea of what I
was up to.
I dont know what she thought of all those little marks when I was
naked, I guess she thought they were some odd Kennedy rash.
Rachel once went to South America with him, and she said afterwards
he gave no sign of being on drugs.
After they split, she started going out with folk singer, Art Garfunkel.
She married Australian actor Bryan Brown, who played her husband
in the Thorn Birds, last year.
David Kennedy, who turned to drugs after his father Robert was
assassinated, was found dead yesterday on the floor of his hotel room.
His body was discovered by a hotel receptionist alerted by his mother,
who was waiting by the phone for news of him.
David, the 28-year-old third son of Robert and Ethel Kennedy, had
been having treatment for drugs problems and had suffered from a heart disease,
which may have been brought on by drugs.
But police refused to say last night whether drugs had caused his
death.
Difficult. We have no evidence at this time of any drug use, said
Joseph Terlizzese, police chief of Palm Beach, the Florida resort where David
died.
Davids uncle, senator Edward Kennedy, was last night on his way to
Florida from Washington to find out details of his death.
In a statement, Senator Kennedy said:
This is a very difficult time for all the members of our family,
including Davids mother, Ethel, and his brothers and sisters who t5ried to help
him.
All of us loved him very much. With trust in God, we all pray that
David has found the peace that he did not find in life.
David checked into the 80 pounds-a-night luxury hotel last Friday.
Receptionist Betty Barnett found him dead after his mother phoned
from Boston.
Miss Barnett said last night: Mrs. Kennedy told me that David had
not been seen for the past 24 hours, that she had not heard from him and that he
was due to fly to Boston today.
She asked whether I would check the room and see if his clothes had
been packed.
I went in and was shocked to find David lying dead on his bed.
She then went back to the phone to say her that David was just lying
there and that the ambulance men had been called. Mrs. Kennedy asked to be
phoned back with further news.

72
The ambulance men arrived and tried to revive David with electric
shock treatment. But a few minutes later, hotel manager Dennis Heffernan
phoned Mrs. Kennedy to tell her that her son was dead.

VOCABULARY
ailing = suferind
self-destruction = sinucidere
fashionable = la mod
to cordon off = a bloca
to gun down = a fi mpucat
to pray = a se ruga
to befriend = a se mprieteni
to split = a se despri
to check in = a nregistra
to be due to = a urma s

F SPEAKING
Think of a story that is currently in the news. It could be about politics,
sport, personalities, anything. Try to tell this story to the class.

F WRITING
Presenting both sides of an argument
Read this text about the advantages and disadvantages of sharing a flat. Try to
analyse each paragraph.

Sharing a flat certainly has some advantages. To begin with, it should be


cheaper, and if you are sharing with people that you get on well with, it is nice
to have some company at home rather than being all on your own. Also the
household chores (=corvoad) are shared, and that is very important.
Particularly when you are younger, and you are living apart from your parents
for the first time, it can be very enjoyable to live with people of your own age,
whose interests and life- style you share.

However, sharing a flat does have some distinct disadvantages, and the main
one is that the flat is not your own. So you cannot do what you want in it. What
happens if you want to go to bed but your flat-mate wants to play music? To a
certain extent you have to be unselfish. What is more, there can be little privacy.

73
I would say that as you get older, it is probably better to live on your own.
Having had my own flat for a few years, I would not like to have to share again.

PRACTICE (TEST DE AUTOEVALUARE)

1.Yesterday you met a friend of yours, Charlie. Charlie told you a lot of
things. Here are some of the things he said to you. Later that day you tell
another friend what Charlie said. Use indirect speech.

e.g. Im thinking of going to live in Canada.


Charlie said that he was thinking of going to live in Canada.

1. My father is in hospital.
...

2. Nora and Jim are getting married next month.

3. I havent seen Bill for a while.


.

4. Ive been playing tennis for hours.

5.Mary has had a baby.


...

6. I dont know what Fred is doing.


..

7. I hardly go out these days.


.

8. I work 14 hours a day.


.

9. Ill tell Jim I saw you.

10. You can come and stay with me if you are ever in London.
.

11. Tom had an accident last week but he wasnt injured.

74

12. I saw Jack at a party a few months ago and he seemed fine.
.

2. In this exercise someone says something to you, which is the opposite of


what they said before. You have to answer I thought you said

e.g. That restaurant is expensive.


I thought you said it wasnt expensive.

1.Ann is coming to the party.


I thought you said she.

2. Bill passed his examination.


I thought you said

3.Ann likes Bill.


I thought you said

4.Ive got many friends.


I thought..

5.Jack and Jill are going to get married.


..

6. Tony works very hard.


.

7. I want to be rich and famous.


.

8. Ill be here next week.

9. I can afford a holiday this year.

3.Now you have to complete these sentences with said, told or talked.

e.g. Tom said that he didnt like Brian.

75
1. Jackme that he was enjoying his new job.
2. Tomit was a nice restaurant but I didnt like it much.
3.The doctor..that I should have to rest for at least a week.
4.Mrs. Taylorus she wouldnt be able to come to the next
meeting.
5.Ann.Tom that she was going away.
6. George couldnt help me. He..to ask Jack.
7. At the meeting the chairman.about the problems facing the
company.
8. Jill..us all about her holiday in Australia.

4.Now you have to read a sentence and write a new sentence with the same
meaning.

e.g. Listen carefully, he said to us.


He told us to listen carefully.

Dont wait for me if Im late, Ann said.


Ann said not to wait for her if she was late.

1.Eat more fruit and vegetables, the doctor said.


The doctor said...

2. Read the instructions before you switch on the machine, he said to me.
He told me..

3.Shut the door but dont lock it, she said to me.
She told me.

4.Can you speak more slowly? I cant understand, he said to me.


He asked mebecause..

5.Dont come before 6 oclock, I said to him.


I told..

5.Change the following questions into indirect speech. Remember to use the
correct word order, and begin each sentence with He /She asked me

e.g. Wheres the nearest post office? she asked.

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She asked me where the nearest post office was.

1.How old is your teacher? he asked.


He asked me

2. Whats your brothers address? she asked.


She asked me...

3.How much are the brown leather boots? she asked.


She asked

4.What time is it? he asked.


He asked.

5.What are your qualifications for the job? he asked.


He asked.

6. How old are your children? she asked.


She asked

7. Whats your phone number? he asked.


He asked.

8. What time is the next train to Boston? she asked.


She asked.

9. Wheres our alarm clock? he asked.


He asked.

10. Where are the other students? she asked.


She asked..

6. The following sentences in direct speech are composed of two parts.


Change them to indirect speech, using the example as a model.

e.g. Im a language teacher, but Ive never taught French before.


She said that she was a language teacher, but that she had never taught
French before.

1.Im going to the post office, but Ill be back in a few minutes.
.

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2. Ive been working hard, and Im ready for a vacation.!
.
3.I was born in Canada, but I havent lived there for years.
..

4.I dont really understand what you problem is, but Ill try to help you
anyway.

5. I usually sleep about eight hours every night, but I still feel tired when I get
up in the morning.

7.Change the following to indirect speech. Use the examples as models.

e.g. The radio is too loud! Turn it down!


She said thatand told me
She said that the radio was too loud and told me to turn it down.

I dont want to be late for work. Will you call me a taxi?


He said thatand asked me
He said that he didnt want to be late for work and asked me if I would call
him a taxi.

1. I can hear the police coming! Hide the money!


He said thatand told me

2. I dont know where the children are. Do you?


She said that...and asked me.

3. Ill give you twenty dollars. Dont spend it all!


She said that.and told me..

4. Mrs. Jones isnt at home. Can you call a little later?


She said thatand asked me

5.Ive been waiting for two hours. Will you get me a cup of coffee?
He said that...and asked me..

8. Report these words and thoughts using the verb suggested.

1. Im going to Paris soon.

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She said

2. Its time to start revising for the exam, the teacher said.
The teacher told..

3. The film will be interesting.


I thought.

4.I cant help you because I have too much to do.


She said..

5. Ann has bought the tickets.

6. It took me three hours to get here because the roads are flooded.
He told me

7. I think its a crazy idea. It wont work.


She said

8. Breakfast is served between 7.00 and 9.00.


The receptionist explained

9. Put one of the following verbs in its correct form into each gap.
say tell explain speak talk reply

I met Mr. Brown in the street the other day, and we stopped and (a)
.for a while. He (b)me that his wife had been taken into
hospital. When I asked him how she was, he (c)...that she was
getting better. He wondered why I hadnt been to the tennis club for a few
months, so I (d)that Id been very busy lately and just hadnt had
time. Theres something you must (e).me, he said. How many
languages can your son (f).? Four, I Why?
I know your son has some very funny stories to (h)about
learning languages and living abroad. Were having a meeting of the Travellers
Club next week, and Id like him to (i)at it. I (j)I
would (k).to my son about it, and promised to get back in
touch. Then we (l).goodbye and went our separate ways.

79
REVISION II (TEM DE CONTROL PARTEA II)

1. In the passive, the agent (in this sentence people) is often unnecessary.
Put these sentences into the passive. By + agent is not necessary.

a. The postman delivers the letters at 8.00.


..

b. Someone built this hotel two years ago.


..

c. They use a lot of preservatives in food these days.


.

d. Has anyone answered your question?

e. Somebody found your keys on top of the photocopier.

f. People should not take reference books out of the library.


..

g. They have increased the rate of taxation to forty per cent.

h. A scientist discovered penicillin in 1928.

2. In this exercise you have to read a sentence and then write a new sentence
with same meaning. Begin the way shown in the model.

e.g. They didnt offer Ann the job. Ann wasnt offered the job.

1. They dont pay Jim very much. Jim


2. They will ask you a lot of questions at the interview.
You.
3. Nobody told me that George was ill. I
4. His colleagues gave him a present when he retired. He

80
5. We will send you your examination results as soon as they are ready. You.
..
6. They didnt ask me my name.
I..
7. I think they should have offered Tom the job. I think
Tom.
8. Brian told me that somebody had attacked and robbed him in the street.
Brian told me that he.

3. In this exercise you have to read a sentence and then write another
sentence with the same meaning.

e.g. It is believed that the wanted man is living in New York.


The wanted man is believed to be living in New York.

1. It is said that many people are homeless after the floods.


Many people are said.

2. It is known that the Prime Minister is in favour of the new law.


The Prime Minister .

3. It is expected that the government will lose the election.


The government..

4. It is thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the wall.


The prisoner.

5. It is believed that the thieves got in through the kitchen window.


The thieves

6. It is alleged that he drove through the town at 90 miles an hour.


He.

7. It is reported that the two people were seriously injured in the accident.
Two people

8. It is said that three men were arrested after the explosion.


Three men..

4. This time you have to complete the words in brackets.

81
e.g. We are having the house painted (the house/ paint) at the moment.
Did you have your cut (you/ your hair/ cut) last week?

1.Your hair is too long. I think you should(it/ cut).


2.How often.(you/ your car/ service)?
3.The engine in Toms car couldnt be repaired, so he had to(a new
engine/ fit).
4. .(you/ your newspaper/ deliver) or do you
go to the shop yourself to buy it?
5. A. What are these workmen doing in your garden?
B. Oh, I.(a swimming pool/ build)
6. A. Can I see these those holiday photographs you took?
B. Im afraid not. I(not/ the film/ developed) yet.
7. Is it true that many years ago he (his portrait/ paint)
by a famous artist?

5. Now write a description of the house or a flat. Include the following:


- facts and physical description
- your impressions and opinions
- a description of some of the rooms.

6. Supply the correct tense of the verb in brackets.

e.g. If you (leave) it in the house, a burglar might steal it.


If you left it in the house, a burglar might steal it.

1. If that tree (to fall) down, it would hit the house.


2. Describe how you (to feel) if this happened to you.
3.If the police picked him up, he(not to have) a leg to stand on.
4.It would be risky if you.(to drive) this old car to Spain.
5.If I did it, I.(to put) myself on exactly their level; I
(to turn) into the very sort of person I hate.
6. If more governments.(to wake) up to what is happening,
perhaps we would be able to avoid the disaster.
7.I would take the day off if (to have) a stomach -ache.
8. I (to stop) working if I won a lot of money.
9. If you.(to join) a club of some sort, you wouldnt be so lonely
and bored.

82
7. Complete the following sentences. Depending on the cues given, each
clause may be either negative or affirmative.

e.g. A poor man says: Ifa lot of money, Iaround the world.
If I had a lot of money, Id travel around the world.

A light sleeper says: If I in such a noisy neighbourhood, Ibetter


at night.
If I didnt live in such a noisy neighbourhood, Id sleep
better at night.

1. A fat man says: If .so much, I..so fat.


2. A busy woman says: If Imore time, Ithe movies.
3.A bad student says: If.more, Ibetter grades.
4.An ugly girl says: If prettier, I..as a model.
5.A tired woman says: If more rest, I.better.
6. A chain smoker says: If.so much, Ibad cough.
7. A short man says: If..so short, I.basketball.
8. A lonely man says: If.a girlfriend, I..so lonely.
9. A fat man says: If.more exercise, I.so fat.
10. A coffee drinker says: Ifso much coffee, I
trouble -sleeping.

8. Supply the correct tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. He told the judge that he. (to rob) the bank if he hadnt been
threatened by the authorities.
2. If they(to change) more money, they could have stayed in a
hotel.
3.If they had not thought us how to shoot a gun, I..(not know)
how to use one.
4.If you.(to be) the shop- assistant, what would you have done?
5.The optician..(to recommend) her to get contact lenses if the
patients eyes had been equally bad.
6. Perhaps dad wouldnt have been so surprised if he.. (to hear)
the boys talking about it.
7. If it.(not to be) for him, Id have gone mad at that school.
8. If he hadnt been in a hurry, he.(not to drive) so fast.
9. Even if I had run as fast as I could, I..(to miss) the bus.
10. I would never have won the prize, if I(to have) your support.

9. Complete the sentences using one of these phrases.

83
- make a mistake
- make a progress
- do someone a favour
- make a speech
- do my homework
- do ones best
- make money
- make a complaint
- make up my mind to
- do nothing
- make sense
- make a mess
- do the housework
- make a will
- make friends with
- do business with
- make a noise
- make a phone call
- make sure that
- do an exam

a. Could you.? Could you give me a lift to the station?


b. At first I found English difficult, but now Im beginning
c. Customer to waiter: I think you..My bill should be 5 not
15.
d. I.a lot of.with the Chinese,,,. They are
good customers of mine.
e. Can you understand these instructions? Theyto me.
f. It took me a long time to decide, but I have finally.to accept
the job.
g. Sh! Dont The babys asleep.
h. Hello. Id like..Theres no hot waster in my room.
i. Before going on holiday you should.all windows and
doors are shut and locked.
j. A: You must try harder.
B: Im
A: Well, its not good enough.
k. Yesterday the Prime Minister..in the House of Commons.
l. It took me hours to clean your room. If you.again, you can
clean it up yourself.

84
10. In this exercise someone says something to you, which is the opposite of
what they said before. You have to answer I thought you said

e.g. That restaurant is expensive.


I thought you said it wasnt expensive.

1.Ann is coming to the party.


I thought you said she.

2. Bill passed his examination.


I thought you said

3.Ann likes Bill.


I thought you said

4.Ive got many friends.


I thought..

5.Jack and Jill are going to get married.


..

6. Tony works very hard.


.

7. I want to be rich and famous.


.

8. Ill be here next week.

9. I can afford a holiday this year.

11. Now you have to read a sentence and write a new sentence with the same
meaning.

e.g. Listen carefully, he said to us.


He told us to listen carefully.

Dont wait for me if Im late, Ann said.


Ann said not to wait for her if she was late.

85
1.Eat more fruit and vegetables, the doctor said.
The doctor said...

2. Read the instructions before you switch on the machine, he said to me.
He told me..

3.Shut the door but dont lock it, she said to me.
She told me.

4.Can you speak more slowly? I cant understand, he said to me.


He asked mebecause..

5.Dont come before 6 oclock, I said to him.


I told

12.Change the following questions into indirect speech. Remember to use


the correct word order, and begin each sentence with He /She asked me

e.g. Wheres the nearest post office? she asked.


She asked me where the nearest post office was.

1.How old is your teacher? he asked.


He asked me

2. Whats your brothers address? she asked.


She asked me...

3.How much are the brown leather boots? she asked.


She asked

4.What time is it? he asked.


He asked.

5.What are your qualifications for the job? he asked.


He asked.

6. How old are your children? she asked.


She asked

7. Whats your phone number? he asked.


He asked.

8. What time is the next train to Boston? she asked.

86
She asked.

9. Wheres our alarm clock? he asked.


He asked.

10. Where are the other students? she asked.


She asked..

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

1. *** Encyclopaedia Britannica, International Ltd.,


Londra, 1978
The Profession and Practice of Law, p.843-853

2. *** Dicionar Englez - Romn, Editura Academiei,


1974

3.Hanga Vladimir Dicionar Juridic Romn - Englez


Calciu Rodica Editura Lumina Lex, Bucureti, 1995

4. Hanga Vladimir Dicionar Juridic Englez Romn


Calciu Rodica Editura Lumina Lex, bucureti, 1994

5. *** Dicionar Frazeologic Englez - Romn,


Editura tiinific i Enciclopedic, Bucureti,

87
1982

6. *** Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, Oxford


University Press, 1998

7. *** Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary,


Incorporated
Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 1993

8. Mark, Foley
Diane, Hall Longman Advanced Learners Grammar, Pearson
Education Limited, Edinburgh, 2003

9. Raymond, Murphy English Grammar in Use, Cambridge


University Press, 1985
10. Paula, Fassman
Suzanne Seymour Tavares Gallery, Oxford University Press,
1982

11. John and Liz Soars Headway, intermediate- students book,


Oxford University Press, 1993

12. John and Liz Soars Headway, intermediate- workbook,


Oxford University Press, 1993

13. John and Liz Soars Headway, upper intermediate,


Students Book, 1987

CUPRINS
Cuvnt nainte .3
Simboluri explicative...4
Semester I Part I
Unit 1.5
Unit 220
Unit 3 ...33
Revision I (Tem de control Partea I)....41
Semester I Part II

88
Unit 4 ...45
Unit 5....57
Unit 6. ..64
Unit 7. ..71
Revision II (Tem de control Partea II).81

Semester II Part I

Unit 1 Principles of Legal Ethics87

Unit 2 Legal Education..99

Unit 3 Examination and Qualification112

Revision I (Tem de control Partea I).123

Semester II Part II

Unit 4 Passive Voice127

Unit 5 Conditional Sentences.139

Unit 6 Indirect Speech153

Revision II (Tem de control Partea II)168

Bibliografie.176

Cuprins177

89
90