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Sep 03, 2017

Thermal Conductivity 4

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5 (de) vizualizări

Thermal Conductivity 4

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Energy and Thermal Conductivity Measurements

Author

of internal heat energy across a medium due to a

temperature gradient, and direct microscopic V = voltage

collision. Fourier law is the governing equation for

Conduction heat transfer. The use of Fourier law We = electrical power

to determine the heat flux depends on the

knowledge of the manner in which temperature

varies within the medium (the temperature Introduction

distribution).Fourier's law is applicable to both

steady state conditions as well as to transient, Conduction heat transfer is a molecular

multidimensional conduction in complex phenomenon of heat transfer from molecules with

geometry. The aim of the following paper is to higher energy to the adjacent molecules with lower

measure the temperature distribution for steady- energy due to the microscopic interactions between

state conduction of heat energy through uniform the molecules. The vibrations of the molecules in

plane wall and demonstrate the effect of a change their lattice and the energy transport by free electrons

in heat flow. The second objective is to determine cause the molecular energy in solids. The geometry

the thermal conductivity of typical metals and of the conducting medium, material of the medium,

insulators: brass, stainless steel and aluminum thickness, and the temperature gradient across the

with a experimental setup. The observations from medium determine the rate of heat conduction

the experiment are compared with the analytical through a medium. The rate of heat conduction

data. through a surface is directly proportional to the

cross section area and the temperature gradient across

the medium, and is inversely proportional to the

Nomenclature thickness of the medium. Thermal conductivity of the

material, which differs for all materials, is considered

A = cross-section area

as the constant of proportionality. Thermal

conductivity is a material property that determines

hc = thermal contact conductance

the ability to conduct heat. Fourier law equation

relates the rate of heat conduction to the temperature

I = current difference across the layer, the heat transfer area, the

thickness of the layer and the constant of

k = thermal conductivity

proportionality, i.e. thermal conductivity.

L = distance between two thermal couple

Higher the value of thermal conductivity indicates properties, the pressure level and temperature at

a good heat conductor and an insulator or a poor the surface and the type of fluid present in between.

conductor of heat has a comparatively low value of The thermal contact resistance can be minimized by

thermal conductivity. applying thermally conducting liquid called thermal

grease such as silicon oil on the surfaces before they

To measure the thermal conductivity of a are pressed against each other.

material, the material sample is sandwiched between

a heating element and a cooling element made of This experiment is very important when selecting

similar material as shown in Error! Reference material to be applied in section where temperature is

source not found.. very crucial.

Equation

heater and converted to heat is

We VI (1)

. T

Q kA (2)

L

Figure 1 Apparatus to measure thermal

conductivity The thermal conductivity of the sample is

determined to be

The outer surfaces (cylindrical surface) of the

samples are completely insulated making that heat .

QL

transfer is axial direction the samples is one- k (3)

dimensional. At a constant distance L apart AT

thermocouples are embedded into the sample, and the

The heat transfer area is the area along to the

temperature drop, T , along each sample is

direction of heat flow, and for the following

obtained from the differential thermometer. When

experiment it is the cross-sectional area of the

steady operating conditions are reached, the total rate

cylinder:

of heat transfer through the heating brass, samples

and cooling brass becomes equal to the electric

1

power drawn by the heater, which is determined by A d2 (4)

multiplying the electric current by the voltage. 4

A load is applied to press the contact surfaces Equation for the contact resistance,

with one another. The voids are filled with air in

between valleys and the peaks will mesh completely Tint erface

Rc (5)

into the material. Because of the low thermal Q/ A

conductivity, the air trapped in the voids act as

insulation. The interface offers some resistance to

heat transfer, and the resistance offered per unit

interface area is called the thermal contact resistance.

The value of thermal contact resistance depends on

the roughness of the material surface, material

Results: Graph of temperature against axial

diastance of thermal couples

A. Available data 45.0

40.0

Temparature,oC

Samples available 35.0

30.0

Brass, D = 25 mm and L = 30 mm, T4 25.0

and T5 20.0

15.0

Stainless steel, D = 25 mm and L = 30 10.0

5.0

mm, no thermocouples

0.0

0 50 100 150

Aluminum, D = 25 mm and L = 30 mm,

no thermocouples Axial distance, mm

Heat transfer area Figure 2: Plot of temperature vs. axial distance for the

steady state temperature distributions (Brass sample

Calculate the heat transfer area from equation 4.

It should be noted all sample are of similar

dimensions. That is diameter d, =25mm

1

A d2

4

1

0.025

2

4

Graph of temperature against axial

4.904 104 m2 45.0

diastance of thermal couples

40.0

Temparature,oC

generated during the steady state temperature 30.0

distributions. From the Zeroth law, the steady state 25.0

20.0

condition or equilibrium is achieved if the heating

15.0

element, the cooling element and the sample under 10.0

consideration conduct heat at the same rate equal to 5.0

the heat generated by the resistance heater. To 0.0

determine the thermal conductivity of the heating 0 50 100 150

Axial distance, mm

element and the cooling element, they must conduct

heat at the same time as produced by the resistive

heater.

Figure 3: Plot of temperature vs. axial distance for

the steady state temperature distributions (Aluminum

Steady state condition is defined as the Condition

sample)

when the temperature gradient between the

temperature of the heating element and the cooling

element becomes small or equals zero.

B. Thermal conductivity

the help of equation 3. The results are shown in the

.

table. This shows both the values determined

QL

experimentally and the theoretical data. k

AT

Experimental Theoretical

Thermal Thermal The contact resistances will be1.325e-4m2oC/W

Conductivity, k Conductivity, k and 8.843e-5m2oC/W between the hot and insert and

between the cold and insert sections respectively.

W/moC W/moC

temperature distribution is linear. Under the steady-

state conditions the temperature distribution can be

C. Contact resistance

considered to be linear. The temperature drop at the

The contact resistance was determined using interfaces of the surfaces is observed from the

equation 6. The thermal contact conductance used in experiment. The temperature drop is caused by the

equation 6 was determined using equation 5 contact resistance. All the graphs look similar to what

was determined as follows. was expected. The negative gradient in the graphs is

according to the Fourier Law.

The temperature vs. axial relationship is linear as brass is very close to the theoretical value. The steady

seen from the graph. From the following equation, state condition is considered to be approached but in

determine the temperature at any given point along real case it can be never be approached. Due to this, a

the axis of the sample deviation occurs between the experimental value and

theoretical value. This applies to Aluminum. For

= + ( 6) aluminum, the deviation from the experimental value

and the theoretical value of thermal conductivity is

Consider the experiment performed on the brass large. In both cases, the total heat supplied by the

sample with a gradient, for the heating element resistance heater is considered to be conducted

equal to 0.28/ from the equation. The gradient entirely. Due to the hysteresis loss, and the heat

for the sample and the cooling element are calculated transfer losses to the other parts, the entire heat

to be 0.273/ and 0.27 respectively. The cannot be conducted.

temperatures at the interface are, 33 &

17.725for the heating element end and cooling

element interface end respectively. Similarly the

temperature of the sample interface ends faces are

20.56 and 4.25. Therefore the temperature

difference at heating interface and the cooling

interface will be 4.25 and 2.835 respectively.

Conclusion References

dimensional conduction of heat with temperature 1) F. Kreith and M. S. Bohn., Principles of

distribution can be assumed to be linear with Heat Transfer, 6th ed., Pacific Grove,

minimum error. To obtain the thermal conductivity CA: Brooks/Cole, 2001,

nearer to the theoretical value without much

deviation, the state of all the constituents must be 2) A. F. Mills. Basic Heat and Mass

nearer to the steady state. The thermal conductivity of Transfer. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River,

the material considered in the following experiment NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1999.

has magnitude much greater than the thermal contact 3) E. Fried. Thermal Conduction

resistance of the materials. The influence of the Contribution to Heat Transfer at

thermal contact resistance must be considered only Contacts. Thermal Conductivity, vol. 2,

for the materials with high thermal conductivity. Ed .R. P. Tye. London: Academic Press,

1969

4) Y. A. engel and Robert H. Turner.,

Fundamental of thermal-fluid science,

2nd ed., Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole,

2001

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