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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.

Dr.SabinCorneliuBuraga

FacultateadeInformatic
UniversitateaA.I.CuzaIai,Romnia

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

ingineriadezvoltriijocurilor

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Nevershowfoolsunfinishedwork.

MichaelSchrage

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

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Productivity SoftwareGoals GameGoals


Taskcompletion Entertainment
Eliminateerrors Fun to beatobstacles
External reward Intrinsic reward
Outcomebased rewards Processisitsownreward
Intuitive Newthings to learn
Reduceworkload Increase workload
Assumes technology needs Assumes humans need
to be humanized to be challenged

Lazzaro&Keeker, 2004
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Gamecreativedesign vs. gamesoftwaredesign

cerine,procese,ateptridiferite

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Gamecreativedesign Gamesoftwaredesign
Livrabile:documente privind Livrabile: descrieriale
proiectarea(producerea) etapelor/proceselorde
artefactelorcreative proiectareasoftwareului
alejocului ce va fi dezvoltat detipjoc
Analogplanuluideproducie Specificdezvoltrii de
aunuifilm softwaretradiional
Oferviziuneaartistic Reducecaracteristicilejocului
ajocului launsetdecerinespecifice
Implicdezvoltarea Specificmanierade
softwareului aferent implementareacerinelor
adaptare dup (JohnP.Flynt &OmarSalem,2005)
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Caracter interdisciplinar alcolectivelor dedezvoltatori

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Abordri (MichaelMateas &JimWhitehead,2007):

focalizate pe aspecte tehnologice (computerscience, maths)

interdisciplinare

focalizate pe factori artistici (artisticdesign,visualarts)

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Necesitatea folosirii diverselor studiilor decaz


(usecases)

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

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Recurgerealaaplicaii,APIuri,biblioteci,
instrumente,componenteetc.specializate

implicvariatecunotine
alediverselorariidincomputerscience

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

conformJohnP.Flynt,OmarSalem,SoftwareEngineering
forGameDevelopers,Thomson,2005
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

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Livrabile:
softwarerequirementsspecification(SRS)
+
usecases

traceabilitymatrix
testplan

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Informaiicepotfifolositenstabilireacerinelor:
utilizatoriiintaijocului
experieneleanterioarendezvoltareadejocuri
aspectele privinddesignulgrafic&marketingul
jocurilecepotfimodificate(mods)pentruacreanouljoc
existenaproiectanilorinivelullordecunotine
structuraechipeideprogramatori

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Unaspectimportanteste stilul/genul jocului ce va fi dezvoltat


(Rollings &Morris,2004):
Actionlotsoffranticbuttonpushing
Adventurethe storymatters
Strategynontrivial choices
Simulationoptimization exercises
Puzzlehardanalytic thinking
Toyssoftwareyoujusthavefunwith
Educationallearning by doing

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Celemaibunepracticinspecificareacerinelor:
completitudinea
corectitudinea
considerareadoaracerinelornecesare
fezabilitatea
stabilireaprioritilor
eliminareaambiguitilor
verificarea&validarea
managementul

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Dezvoltareajoculuirecurgelaodocumentaiedeproiectare
gamedesigndocument

sumarul jocului:
gamesummary

naraiunea jocului (sixtysecondsofplay sequence):


playnarrative

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Exemplu desumar alunui joc (JohnRose):


AnkhfollowsthequestforvengeanceundertakenbySekhem,
anEgyptianwarriordeterminedtodestroythosewhodefeatedand
killedhisfather.ThegamefocusesonthebattlesfoughtbySekhem
andhispartyofrebelwarriorsontheirjourneytotheEgyptiancapitalof
Thebes.Theseconflictsescalatefromskirmishestobloodyclashesas
thebandofadventurerscrossthedesertsandsofancientEgypt.
Alongtheway,additionalcharactersjointhebandandnewenemies
attempttostopSekhems advance.Interactioninvolvestacticalcontrol
ofthesmallarmyduringAnkhsmanymles,includingstrategic
maneuvers,handtohandcombat,andspellcasting.
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Exemplu desumar alunui joc (JohnRose):


Theplayerisfacedwithwinningbattleaftergloriousbattle,driving
Sekhem towardhisfinalconfrontationwithUheset,thebloodthirsty
QueenofEgypt.Conflictstakeplaceinrealtime,stressingthetactical
andchaoticaspectofwarfare.Eachlevelpossessesitsownambiance
andstrategy,fromthebarrenplainsofThebestothelushsplendorof
theDashur gardens.ThegraphicsofAnkhillustratethevariedand
stylisharchitectureandlandscapesofancientEgypt.Thegamesmusic
variesfromhauntingchantstobloodquickeningbattledrums.
Allaspectsofthegamesartandsoundimmersetheplayer
intheprimalrageofancientwarfare.
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Deduciiporninddelasumaruljocului:
ununic personaj Sekhem corespunznd utilizatorului

celelalte personaje sunt inamici simulai desoftware(NPCs)

existunvoiajceimpliccreareaunorscene
ncarevoravealocconflictearmate(btlii)

stilul artisticaljocului este unul antic

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Tipul jocului este unRPGdestrategie

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Descriere (Flynt &Salem,2005):

Ankh isasingleplayerturnbasedstrategygame.
Thegameincorporatesfeaturesthatarecommonto
PCgames,butitalsointroducesavarietyofinnovations:
advanced resource management,theuseofmapand
charactereditors,saving/loadingofgamestates.

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Fiecarecomponentestereferitprintermenulstripe
specificndattstructura/tipulcomponenteidinpunctde
vederesoftware e.g.,clase,obiecteCOM,serviciiWeb,,
ctiloculncaredezvoltareacomponenteilocup
ncicluldedezvoltareajocului

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Componentefuncionalepreliminarii,detaliate nseciunea
Functional Requirements ComponentView:

Stripe 1:GameOpening
2a:Tile Map,2b:GUIElements,2c:Map Editor,2d:Save Level,
3:LevelTemplate (modeledon1stlevel),4:Character Editor,
5:GamePhysics,6:Inventory,7:Combat,8:Skills,
9:OutsideWorldManagement,10:Skills Interface,11:AI,
12:Remaining Levels,13:Saving&Loading,14:Options,15:Revisions

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

UserCharacteristics:
joculestedestinatutilizatorilordeoricevrst

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Assumptions&Dependencies:
joculpoatefirulat dup instalare viaprogramul livratpeCD

necesitDirectX 9.cpeunsistemPentiumIVsauechivalent,
placgraficavnd suport pentru Direct3D,
rezoluie:1024x768,TrueColor,
interaciuneviamouse &tastatur

lacererea utilizatorului,potfi efectuate actualizri online

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PrimaryListofFunctionalRequirements (fragment):
<R1>Softwareshallhavethecapabilitytosavethegamestate
<R2>Softwareshallhavethecapabilitytoreturntoasavedstate
byloadingafile
<R5>Softwareshallhaveanautosavefeaturethatautomaticallysaves
thegameconstantly
<R6>Softwareshallhaveatimermechanismthatwillflushmemory
todiskperiodically(every S seconds)
<R7>SoftwareshallprovidetheoptiontosaveaReplayafterabattle
<R11>Softwareshallallowtheplayertoplaybackatvariablespeeds

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Functional Requirements ComponentView (fragment):

Stripe1:Opening requirements 8,1418,38,57


Stripe 2b:GUIObjects requirements 18,52

Stripe 2d:Save Level requirement 4

Stripe 10:Skills requirements 1421
Stripe 11:AI requirements 2426,37

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

DesignConstraints:

constrngeriledeproiectareiauncalcul
disponibilitatea,securitatea,mentenabilitatea jocului

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

exemplu de usecase
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Usecaseurile potfi folosite pentru afacilita


descrierea scopului jocului,conformdescrierii narative

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

SoftwareDesignSpecification:
ipostazele jocului (sistemului)sunt prezentate viaviewuri
desemnate dediagrame UMLori deliste

requirements
conceptual
behavioral
logical
component

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Delaunscenariudescrisdeunuse case
lainteraciuniinterobiecte

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Documentaiadespecificareadesignului jocului arestructura


unui documentdetipSDD(SoftwareDesignDocument):

1. Introduction:purpose,scope,definitions&acronyms
2. References
3. Conceptualview:usecase,diagram,
4. Behavioralview:objectdiagrams
5. Logicalview:classdiagrams
6. Componentview:diagrams
7. Deploymentview
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conceptualview exemplificare
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componentview componenteleimplicate
naciuneadedeplasareaunuipersonajdejoc
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

componentview exemplificare lanivel destripe


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Aspecte deconsiderat laredactarea documentului dedesign:

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Structurageneral aunui game designdocument (Rouse,05)


TableofContents
Introduction/Overview
GameMechanics
ArtificialIntelligence
GameElements
StoryOverview
GameProgression
SystemMenus

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

abloanecomunecepotfiaplicateladezvoltareadejocuri:
Singleton
Composite
ChainofResponsibility
State
Strategy
Observer
Faade
Memento
Command
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Recurgerea laStrategy patternpentruasimplificaschimbrile


deatitudinelapersonajele detipNPC:

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Command patternpentruimplementarea comenzilor:

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Proiectarea iterativ (iterativedesign)

uzual,areloclanivel defiecare stripe

delastabilireacerinelorlacomponente

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activitilerealizatelaoiteraielaniveldestripe
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Exemplu deproiectare vizual astripeului LevelTemplate

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Exemplu deproiectare apersonajelor

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Reguli deproiectare ajocurilor puzzle (Rollings &Morris,04)

Dont betoo cute


Avoid seriousviolence
Keepitabstract,butnottooabstract
Give rewards forprogress

exemplu desucces:Lemmings

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Componente (subsisteme)primare (Rollings &Morris,04):


User interface
Bidirectional eventhandler
Dataengine (graphics,level,miscellaneous data)
Dynamicssystem (collisions and generalphysics)
Logicengine (the heart ofthe game)
Graphics engine
Soundengine
Hardwareabstraction layers
(interfaces with graphics,sound,and controller hardware)
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Subsisteme secundare:
Gameconfigurationsystem
Menuing system
Onlineinstructionsandhelpsystem
Musicsystem

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Criterii dereutilizare acomponentelor/bibliotecilor existente:


disponibilitate
corectitudine
actualitate
utilizareimediat

mentenabilitate
liceniere
compatibilitate

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Softwareengineeringrisk assessment

prevenirea,reducerea,managementul (controlul)
problemelor critice

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Risc extern Risc intern


Problemelegale Timpulalocatdezvoltriijocului
(copyright,licentiere,)
Preuljocului Structuracolectivelor
implicatendezvoltare
Drepturi(royalties)acordate Graduldeinovare tehnic
dezvoltatorilor& altora
Costul puneriiladispoziia Graduldecreativitateartistic
consumatorului
Timp alocatmarketingului Tipultehnologiilorimplicate
Suportulorganizaional Maniera denelegereacerinelor
Atingereastadiului dematuritate Metodologiadedezvoltare
dorit adoptata
Susintoriiproiectului Altetipuri derisc
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Aspecte deinteres privind riscurile externe:


finanarea
suportullaniveldeorganizaie
resursele disponibile e.g.,transport
suportulacordatclienilor(customer support)
creativitatea e.g.,artitigrafici,suportmuzical&vocal,

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Aspecte deinteres privind riscurile interne:


echipamentele (logistica)
membrii echipelor dedezvoltatori
tehnologia e.g.,cea deultim or
inspiraia (creativeinput)
durata dedezvoltare aprodusului

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Depinde descopuri
exemple tipice:
reducelost productivity
increaseproductivity
increaseopportunitiesforaestheticexpression
increaseopportunitiesfortechnicalinnovation
createasaferenvironmentforexperimentation
reducethenumberoferrorsthegamehaswhenitships
addtothequalityofthedevelopmentexperience
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Paradigma clasic (RobertN.Charette,1989)

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

conformAndrewRollings &Dave Morris,


GameArchitectureandDesign:ANewEdition,NewRiders,2004
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Poatefidivizatnactivitideverificare,validare &explorare

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Planificareafazelortestriijocului(Flynt &Salem,2005)
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Planificarea dezvoltriiunuijoc
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Juctorulpoateavealadispoziieunghiddeutilizare

strategyguide
ofer descriereainteraciuniicujocul,
inclusivregulile&manieradejucat

aspecte ce trebuie menionate:


skills,keycombinations,options,characters,character
powers,effects,spells,healing,mapsoflevels,help etc.

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

modelarealanivelnalt a unor jocuri


creareaunuijocsimpludetipMMORPG
dezvoltareaunuijocsportivdesimulare pentruvrstnici
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Modelarea jocurilor Pong &PacMan

problem:cumpotfi modelate entitile unui joc?

A.Rollings &D.Morris,GameArchitectureandDesign:
ANewEdition,NewRiders,2004

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Orice jocinteracioneazcumcar1juctoruman

Toate jocurileprezintelementediscrete numite tokens


manipulate(in)directdejuctor

Tokenurile sunt gestionate interndesoftware

Conceptual,unjoc poate fi descris


ntermenidejuctori+tokenuri

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Tokenurile potfi clasificatespecificarea unei ierarhii

cazul Pong

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Potexistadiverseinteraciunintretokenuri e.g.,coliziuni
cesuntspecificateuzualviatoken interaction matrix
interaciunisimetriceversus interaciuniasimetrice
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Anumiteinteraciunipotconducelaproducerea
unorevenimente cevorfitratatelaniveldecod

Interaciuniledintrediversetokenuri potfisimplificate
dacserecurgelatokenuri intermediare
(e.g.,nsilumeajocului,agenicuroldebrokerietc.)

Comportamentul tokenurilor poate fi descris viaautomate

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modelarea comportamentului NPCurilor detipghost


laPacMan
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automatulspecifictokenului
reprezentndlumeajocului(world game)
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Crearea unui joc simplu detipMMORPG

ilustreaznvareaconceptelordebazededate
viagamedevelopment

dupoprezentaredeGreg Wadley &Jason Sobell,


TheUniversityofMelbourne,Australia
ncadrulAcademicDays 2007

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

UnMMORPGeste unsistem softwareinformaional

stareajoculuisestocheazcentral(peunserver)
datelesuntpersistente
accesulladateesteconcurent
utilizatoriiposedidentiti,trebuindsfieautentificai
interaciuneaserealizeazlaclientviaointerfautilizator

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Mediul(lumea)joculuipoatefimodelat()
printromatricedelocaii,fiecareavnddiversecaracteristici

juctorii umanisaugeneraidecalculator sepotdeplasa


ncadrulcaroiajului,putndconcuraunulcucellalt

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

99 100

Y,1to10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

X,1to10
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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Folosind oimaginedefundal,poate fi realizat designul vizual

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Locaiacurent ajuctoruluivatrebuiredat diferit

Etichetelespecificsntatea&punctajulcurent

Viadiversemijloacedeinteraciune,vorfiafiateobiectele
aflatenposesiafiecruijuctor+mesajelejocului

Seoferiposibilitateadeaobserva/interaciona
cualijuctori

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

proiectare &implementare minimal ainterfeei jocului


(aplicaiaclientlanivel de desktop)
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modelarea datelor viatabele


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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Parteadeprocesareeimplementat deproceduristocate

faciliteazaccesulladate
(concurenaeste rezolvat pe baza tranzaciilor)

descriucomportamentulfiecruicontroldeinterfa

pot fiapelateperiodicviauntimerexistentlaclient

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Procedure Inputs Outputs


spLogin PlayerName,Password 1rowfromPlayertable
spMovePlayerTo PlayerId,X,Y Success=1or0
spGetPlayer PlayerId Playerandroomdetails
spGetItems RoomId listfromItemtable
spGetPlayers PlayerId,RoomId listfromPlayertable
spGetInventory PlayerId listfromItemtable
spPickUpItem PlayerId,ItemId (none)
spDropItem PlayerId,ItemId (none)
spAttack PlayerId,VictimId,ItemId Messageaboutdamage
spGetAllPlayers (none) listofPlayerId,PlayerName
spAddChat Text,PlayerId1,PlayerId2 (none)
spGetChat PlayerId listofPlayerName,ChatText
spAddEvent PlayerId,EventDetail (none)
spLogout PlayerId (none)
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spMovePlayerTo (@PlayerID integer, @NewX integer, @NewY integer)

IF EXISTS (SELECT * FROM Room WHERE X=@NewX AND Y=@NewY)


BEGIN
UPDATE Player SET RoomID =
(SELECT RoomID FROM Room WHERE X=@NewX AND Y=@NewY)
WHERE PlayerID = @PlayerID
SELECT 1 As 'Success'
END
ELSE
SELECT 0 As 'Success'

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Interaciuneomcalculator 2.0

Fiecareaciuneaunuijuctorafecteazvizualizareadatelor
dectreceilaliutilizatori

Stareajoculuipoatefispecificat viamodelesimplededate:
juctori,obiecte,evenimente,

Recurgndlaunsistemdebazededate,
sepoatesimplificaproblema accesului concurent

Separarea clar aprezentrii deprocesare &stocare adatelor


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Aceastabordareestefolositidejocurilecomerciale

AlmostnothingaboutanyobjectinAgeofEmpiresishardcoded
intotheprogram.Hugetablesofinformationdescribe
everycharacteristicofeveryobjectthatappearsinthegame.
Thegamedesignersusedasystemofover40Paradoxdatabasetables
tocontrolandshapethegame.Asaresult,theywereabletoconstantly
updateandtweakthegame,andthentesttheirchanges
withouthavingtoinvolveaprogrammer.

GameDeveloperMagazine,martie 1998
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Dezvoltareaunuijocdesimulare
dedicatpersoanelorvrstnice Pentanque

procesul deproiectare este controlat deutilizatorii finali:


humandrivendesignprocess

VeroVandenAbeeleetal.,
ASoftApproachtoComputerScience:Designing&Developing
ComputerGamesforandwithSeniorCitizens,2006
Dr.SabinCorneliu Buraga www.purl.org/net/busaco
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1.Ethnographic
Observations 5.Evaluation

2.Participatory 4.Development
Design

3.Presentation ofConcepts
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Specificarea caracteristicilor jocului:


sportssimulation
2players
intuitive,consistentcontrols
notcompetitive,butfeelgood
practiceandplaymodes
visualandauditoryexplanations
composeateamofuniquecharacterswithindividualskills
consistent2Dand3D,withmatchingsound

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Instrumentdedezvoltare:Virtools (DassaultSystems)

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Prototipizaretimpurie
nvedereatestriidectreutilizatoriifinali
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Stadiul actualalindustriei jocurilor (Rollings &Morris)


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Posibil modelviitor (Rollings &Morris)


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Untotmai mareaccentpuspe jocuri sociale


disponibile lanivel deWeb&dedispozitive mobile

socialgamecomputing

Dr.SabinCorneliu Buraga www.purl.org/net/busaco


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gamecomputing
aspecte privind ingineria dezvoltrii dejocuri
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Dr.SabinCorneliu Buraga www.purl.org/net/busaco