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2017/1/17 InsidetheTOEFLTestReadingProseSummary&FillinaTableQuestions

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InsidetheTOEFLTestReading
ProseSummary&FillinaTable
Questions

Peopleinthisvideo

Michael

Intro
[musicplaying]

Michael:Hi,I'mMichaelfromETS.TodayonInsidetheTOEFLTest,we're
goinginsidetheTOEFLiBTReadingsection.Specifically,theProseSummary
questions.Andwe'llalsolookatasimilarbutlesscommonquestiontype,theFill
inaTablequestions.

Onscreen:
InsidetheTOEFLTestReading
ProseSummary
FillinaTable

Michael:TheProseSummaryquestionsaredesignedtoshowthatyourecognize
themajorideasandtherelativeimportanceofinformationinareadingpassage.

InaProseSummaryquestion,thereare6answerchoices,andyouwillneedto
selectthe3correctchoicesthatexpressthemostimportantideasinthepassage.
Theincorrectanswerchoiceswillmisrepresentinformationinthepassageorwill
discussminorpoints.

Onscreen:ProseSummaryMajorideasandrelativeimportanceofinformation
inareadingpassage
6answerchoices
3correctchoicesexpressthemostimportantideas(greencheckappearsnextto
statement)
3incorrectchoicesmisrepresentinformationordiscussminorpoints(redx
appearsnexttostatement)

Michael:Intherealtest,youwilldraganddropyouranswersintothebox.
ProseSummaryquestionsareworth2pointstowardyourrawscore.Youget2
pointsifyouchooseall3correctanswers.Yougetonepointifyouchoose2
correctanswers.Andyougetzeropointsfor1ornocorrectanswers.

Onscreen:Dragyourchoicestothespaceswheretheybelong.Toreviewthe
passage,clickonViewText.
http://www.ets.org/s/toefl/flash/34228_toefl2016r6_transcript.html 1/7
2017/1/17 InsidetheTOEFLTestReadingProseSummary&FillinaTableQuestions

Scholarshavewonderedaboutthemeaningofthesubjects,locationand
overpaintingofLascauxcaveimages.
[imageofboxwiththreebulletstomoveansweroptionsto]

Sixansweroptions:

1.Thepaintingsmayhaverecordedinformationaboutanimalmigrations,and
mayonlyhavebeenusefulforonemigrationatatime
2.Thehumanfiguresrepresentedinthepaintingsappeartobelesscarefully
shapedthanthoseofanimals.
3.Itispossiblethattheanimalsinthepaintingswereofmythicalsignificance
tothetribe,andthepaintingsreflectedanimportantspiritualpractice.
4.Unlikepaintersoftherecentlydiscoveredpaintings,otherLascauxcave
paintersusuallyprintedonrocksnearcaveentrancesorinopenspaces
outsidethecaves.
5.Somescholarsbelievethatthepaintingsmotivatedhuntersbyallowing
themtopictureasuccessfulhunt.
6.Scientificanalysissuggeststhatpaintingsweresprayedontherockwalls
withtubesmadefromanimalbones.

Scoreupto2points

Points CorrectAnswers
2 3
1 2
0 1or0

Michael:Notethatyouranswersdon'thavetobeinanyparticularorder.Andyou
canchangeyouranswersatanypointduringtheallottedtimeforthereading
section.

Onscreen:[cursorisdragginganswersintothespacesandreorderingtheselected
answers]

Michael:TheFillInATablequestionsaresimilarexceptthatinsteadofchoosing
thethreemostimportantideas,youwillneedtodraganddropyouranswersinto
two(orthree)categories.

Onscreen:Dragyourchoicestothespaceswheretheybelong.Toreviewthe
passage,clickonViewText.
[Boxlists"Opportunists"and4answerspacestodragansweroptionsto]
[Secondboxlists"Competitors"and3answerspacestodragansweroptionsto]

Answeroptions

Varyfrequentlytheamountofenergytheyspendinbodymaintenance
Succeedinlocationswhereotherorganismshavebeenremoved
Investenergyinthegrowthoflarge,strongstructures
Canrarelyfindsuitablesoilforreproduction
Reproduceinlargenumbers
Havemechanismsforprotectingthemselvesfrompredation
Haverelativelyshortlifespans
Havepopulationsthatareunstableinresponsetoclimateconditions
Produceindividualsthatcanwithstandchangesintheenvironmental
conditions

http://www.ets.org/s/toefl/flash/34228_toefl2016r6_transcript.html 2/7
2017/1/17 InsidetheTOEFLTestReadingProseSummary&FillinaTableQuestions

Michael:EachreadingpassagewillhaveoneProseSummaryquestion,oroneFill
InATableQuestion,butnotboth.

Onscreen:
Prosesummary
FillinaTable

SampleQuestionsProseSummary

Michael:Let'slookatasampleProseSummaryquestion.Thistypeofquestion
coversthewholereadingpassage,notjustasinglesentenceorparagraph.Here's
thepassageaboutmeteoritesanddinosaurextinction.

Onscreen:MeteoriteImpactandDinosaurExtinction

Thereisincreasingevidencethattheimpactsofmeteoriteshavehadimportant
effectsonEarth,particularlyinthefieldofbiologicalevolution.Suchimpacts
continuetoposeanaturalhazardtolifeonEarth.Twiceinthetwentiethcentury,
largemeteoriteobjectsareknowntohavecollidedwithEarth.

Ifanimpactislargeenough,itcandisturbtheenvironmentoftheentireEarthand
causeanecologicalcatastrophe.Thebestdocumentedsuchimpacttookplace65
millionyearsagoattheendoftheCretaceousperiodofgeologicalhistory.This
breakinEarth'shistoryismarkedbyamassextinction,whenasmanyashalfthe
speciesontheplanetbecameextinct.Whilethereareadozenormoremass
extinctionsinthegeologicalrecord,theCretaceousmassextinctionhasalways
intriguedpaleontologistsbecauseitmarkstheendoftheageofthedinosaurs.For
tensofmillionsofyears,thosegreatcreatureshadflourished.Then,suddenly,
theydisappeared.

ThebodythatimpactedEarthattheendoftheCretaceousperiodwasameteorite
withamassofmorethanatrilliontonsandadiameterofatleast10kilometers.
Scientistsfirstidentifiedthisimpactin1980fromtheworldwidelayerof
sedimentdepositedfromthedustcloudthatenvelopedtheplanetaftertheimpact.
Thissedimentlayerisenrichedintheraremetaliridiumandotherelementsthat
arerelativelyabundantinameteoritebutveryrareinthecrustofEarth.Even
dilutedbytheterrestrialmaterialexcavatedfromthecrater,thiscomponentof
meteoritesiseasilyidentified.By1990geologistshadlocatedtheimpactsite
itselfintheYucatnregionofMexico.Thecrater,nowdeeplyburiedinsediment,
wasoriginallyabout200kilometersindiameter.

Thisimpactreleasedanenormousamountofenergy,excavatingacraterabout
twiceaslargeasthelunarcraterTycho.Theexplosionliftedabout100trillion
tonsofdustintotheatmosphere,ascanbedeterminedbymeasuringthethickness
ofthesedimentlayerformedwhenthisdustsettledtothesurface.Suchaquantity
ofmaterialwouldhaveblockedthesunlightcompletelyfromreachingthe
surface,plungingEarthintoaperiodofcoldanddarknessthatlastedatleast
severalmonths.Theexplosionisalsocalculatedtohaveproducedvastquantities
ofnitricacidandmeltedrockthatsprayedoutovermuchofEarth,starting
widespreadfiresthatmusthaveconsumedmostterrestrialforestsandgrassland.
Presumably,thoseenvironmentaldisasterscouldhavebeenresponsibleforthe
massextinction,includingthedeathofthedinosaurs.Severalothermass
extinctionsinthegeologicalrecordhavebeententativelyidentifiedwithlarge
impacts,butnoneissodramaticastheCretaceousevent.Butevenwithoutsuch
specificdocumentation,itisclearthatimpactsofthissizedooccurandthattheir
resultscanbecatastrophic.Whatisacatastropheforonegroupoflivingthings,
however,maycreateopportunitiesforanothergroup.Followingeachmass
extinction,thereisasuddenevolutionaryburstasnewspeciesdeveloptofillthe
ecologicalnichesopenedbytheevent.
http://www.ets.org/s/toefl/flash/34228_toefl2016r6_transcript.html 3/7
2017/1/17 InsidetheTOEFLTestReadingProseSummary&FillinaTableQuestions

Impactsbymeteoritesrepresentonemechanismthatcouldcauseglobal
catastrophesandseriouslyinfluencetheevolutionoflifeallovertheplanet.
Accordingtosomeestimates,themajorityofallextinctionsofspeciesmaybedue
tosuchimpacts.Suchaperspectivefundamentallychangesourviewofbiological
evolution.Thestandardcriterionforthesurvivalofaspeciesisitssuccessin
competingwithotherspeciesandadaptingtoslowlychangingenvironments.Yet
anequallyimportantcriterionistheabilityofaspeciestosurviverandomglobal
ecologicalcatastrophesduetoimpacts.

Earthisatargetinacosmicshootinggallery,subjecttorandomviolenteventsthat
wereunsuspectedafewdecadesago.In1991theUnitedStatesCongressasked
NASAtoinvestigatethehazardposedtodaybylargeimpactsonEarth.Thegroup
conductingthestudyconcludedfromadetailedanalysisthatimpactsfrom
meteoritescanindeedbehazardous.Althoughthereisalwayssomeriskthata
largeimpactcouldoccur,carefulstudyshowsthatthisriskisquitesmall.

Michael:Andhere'sthequestion.

Onscreen:Anintroductorysentenceforabriefsummaryofthepassageis
providedbelow.CompletethesummarybyselectingtheTHREE(3)answer
choicesthatexpressthemostimportantideasinthepassage.Somesentencesdo
notbelonginthesummarybecausetheyexpressideasthatarenotpresentedinthe
passageorareminorideasinthepassage.Thisquestionisworth2points.

ScientistshavelinkedthemassextinctionattheendoftheCretaceouswitha
meteoriteimpactonEarth.



Answerchoices

1.Scientistshadbelievedforcenturiesthatmeteoriteactivityinfluenced
evolutiononEarth.
2.ThesiteofthelargemeteoriteimpactattheendoftheCretaceousperiod
wasidentifiedin1990.
3.TherehavealsobeenlargemeteoriteimpactsonthesurfaceoftheMoon,
leavingcraterslikeTycho.
4.AniridiumenrichedsedimentlayerandalargeimpactcraterintheYucatn
provideevidencethatalargemeteoritestruckEarthabout65millionyears
ago.
5.Largemeteoriteimpacts,suchasoneattheendoftheCretaceousperiod,
canseriouslyaffectclimate,ecologicalniches,plants,andanimals.
6.Meteoriteimpactscanbeadvantageousforsomespecies,whichthrive,and
disastrousforotherspecies,whichbecomeextinct.

Michael:Nowlet'slookateachoftheanswerchoicestoseewhichthreeare
correct.
Answer#1isn'tsupportedbyanyoftheinformationinthepassage,soweknow
thatthisoneisnotcorrect.

Onscreen:[firstansweroptionishighlighted]Scientistshadbelievedfor
centuriesthatmeteoriteactivityinfluencedevolutiononEarth.[redxappearsnext
toansweroption]
Michael:Answer#2isafactuallycorrectstatement,butidentifyingthespecific
datewhensomethinghappenedgenerallydoesn'tqualifyasoneofthemost
importantideas.Sothisoneisprobablynotcorrect,butlet'slookattheothersto
makesure.

http://www.ets.org/s/toefl/flash/34228_toefl2016r6_transcript.html 4/7
2017/1/17 InsidetheTOEFLTestReadingProseSummary&FillinaTableQuestions

Onscreen:[secondansweroptionishighlighted]Thesiteofthelargemeteorite
impactattheendoftheCretaceousperiodwasidentifiedin1990.[fadedredx
appearsnexttoansweroption]
Michael:Foranswer#3,thereferencetothecraterTychoisusedtogiveasense
ofthesizeofthecraterthatstrucktheYucatn.However,thetopicofmeteorite
activityonthemoonisnotafocusofthispassage.

Onscreen:[thirdansweroptionishighlighted]Therehavealsobeenlarge
meteoriteimpactsonthesurfaceoftheMoon,leavingcraterslikeTycho.[redx
appearsnexttoansweroption]
Michael:Answer#4combinesseveralfactsthattogetherprovideasummaryof
animportantideafromthepassage.Thisissupportedbyinformationgivenin
paragraphs2and3.

Onscreen:[fourthansweroptionishighlighted]Aniridiumenrichedsediment
layerandalargeimpactcraterintheYucatnprovideevidencethatalarge
meteoritestruckEarthabout65millionyearsago.[greencheckappearsnextto
answeroption]

[passageexcerptcomesonscreenwithhighlightedtext]
Ifanimpactislargeenough,itcandisturbtheenvironmentoftheentireEarthand
causeanecologicalcatastrophe.Thebestdocumentedsuchimpacttookplace65
millionyearsagoattheendoftheCretaceousperiodofgeologicalhistory.This
breakinEarth'shistoryismarkedbyamassextinction,whenasmanyashalfthe
speciesontheplanetbecameextinct.Whilethereareadozenormoremass
extinctionsinthegeologicalrecord,theCretaceousmassextinctionhasalways
intriguedpaleontologistsbecauseitmarkstheendoftheageofthedinosaurs.For
tensofmillionsofyears,thosegreatcreatureshadflourished.Then,suddenly,
theydisappeared.

ThebodythatimpactedEarthattheendoftheCretaceousperiodwasameteorite
withamassofmorethanatrilliontonsandadiameterofatleast10kilometers.
Scientistsfirstidentifiedthisimpactin1980fromtheworldwidelayerof
sedimentdepositedfromthedustcloudthatenvelopedtheplanetaftertheimpact.
Thissedimentlayerisenrichedintheraremetaliridiumandotherelementsthat
arerelativelyabundantinameteoritebutveryrareinthecrustofEarth.Even
dilutedbytheterrestrialmaterialexcavatedfromthecrater,thiscomponentof
meteoritesiseasilyidentified.By1990geologistshadlocatedtheimpactsite
itselfintheYucatnregionofMexico.Thecrater,nowdeeplyburiedinsediment,
wasoriginallyabout200kilometersindiameter.
Michael:Answer#5isabouttheeffectsofmeteoriteimpacts,whichisan
importantideaofthepassage.Wecanseethisinparagraph4,whereittalksabout
themassdestructionfromthecold,darknessandfires.Andinparagraph5where
ittalksaboutthecatastrophicresults.

Onscreen:[fifthansweroptionishighlighted]Largemeteoriteimpacts,suchas
oneattheendoftheCretaceousperiod,canseriouslyaffectclimate,ecological
niches,plants,andanimals.[greencheckappearsnexttoansweroption]

[passageexcerptcomesonscreenwithhighlightedtext]
Thisimpactreleasedanenormousamountofenergy,excavatingacraterabout
twiceaslargeasthelunarcraterTycho.Theexplosionliftedabout100trillion
tonsofdustintotheatmosphere,ascanbedeterminedbymeasuringthethickness
ofthesedimentlayerformedwhenthisdustsettledtothesurface.Suchaquantity
ofmaterialwouldhaveblockedthesunlightcompletelyfromreachingthe
surface,plungingEarthintoaperiodofcoldanddarknessthatlastedatleast
severalmonths.Theexplosionisalsocalculatedtohaveproducedvastquantities
ofnitricacidandmeltedrockthatsprayedoutovermuchofEarth,starting

http://www.ets.org/s/toefl/flash/34228_toefl2016r6_transcript.html 5/7
2017/1/17 InsidetheTOEFLTestReadingProseSummary&FillinaTableQuestions

widespreadfiresthatmusthaveconsumedmostterrestrialforestsandgrassland.
Presumably,thoseenvironmentaldisasterscouldhavebeenresponsibleforthe
massextinction,includingthedeathofthedinosaurs.Severalothermass
extinctionsinthegeologicalrecordhavebeententativelyidentifiedwithlarge
impacts,butnoneissodramaticastheCretaceousevent.Butevenwithoutsuch
specificdocumentation,itisclearthatimpactsofthissizedooccurandthattheir
resultscanbecatastrophic.Whatisacatastropheforonegroupoflivingthings,
however,maycreateopportunitiesforanothergroup.Followingeachmass
extinction,thereisasuddenevolutionaryburstasnewspeciesdeveloptofillthe
ecologicalnichesopenedbytheevent.

[passageexcerptcomesonscreenwithhighlightedtext]
Impactsbymeteoritesrepresentonemechanismthatcouldcauseglobal
catastrophesandseriouslyinfluencetheevolutionoflifeallovertheplanet.
Accordingtosomeestimates,themajorityofallextinctionsofspeciesmaybedue
tosuchimpacts.Suchaperspectivefundamentallychangesourviewofbiological
evolution.Thestandardcriterionforthesurvivalofaspeciesisitssuccessin
competingwithotherspeciesandadaptingtoslowlychangingenvironments.Yet
anequallyimportantcriterionistheabilityofaspeciestosurviverandomglobal
ecologicalcatastrophesduetoimpacts.
Michael:Answer#6isanotherimportantideathatisstatedinasimilarsentence
inparagraph5:Whatisacatastropheforonegroupoflivingthings,however,
maycreateopportunitiesforanothergroup."

Onscreen:[sixthansweroptionishighlighted]Meteoriteimpactscanbe
advantageousforsomespecies,whichthrive,anddisastrousforotherspecies,
whichbecomeextinct.[greencheckappearsnexttoansweroption]

[passageexcerptcomesonscreenwithhighlightedtext]
Thisimpactreleasedanenormousamountofenergy,excavatingacraterabout
twiceaslargeasthelunarcraterTycho.Theexplosionliftedabout100trillion
tonsofdustintotheatmosphere,ascanbedeterminedbymeasuringthethickness
ofthesedimentlayerformedwhenthisdustsettledtothesurface.Suchaquantity
ofmaterialwouldhaveblockedthesunlightcompletelyfromreachingthe
surface,plungingEarthintoaperiodofcoldanddarknessthatlastedatleast
severalmonths.Theexplosionisalsocalculatedtohaveproducedvastquantities
ofnitricacidandmeltedrockthatsprayedoutovermuchofEarth,starting
widespreadfiresthatmusthaveconsumedmostterrestrialforestsandgrassland.
Presumably,thoseenvironmentaldisasterscouldhavebeenresponsibleforthe
massextinction,includingthedeathofthedinosaurs.Severalothermass
extinctionsinthegeologicalrecordhavebeententativelyidentifiedwithlarge
impacts,butnoneissodramaticastheCretaceousevent.Butevenwithoutsuch
specificdocumentation,itisclearthatimpactsofthissizedooccurandthattheir
resultscanbecatastrophic.Whatisacatastropheforonegroupoflivingthings,
however,maycreateopportunitiesforanothergroup.Followingeachmass
extinction,thereisasuddenevolutionaryburstasnewspeciesdeveloptofillthe
ecologicalnichesopenedbytheevent.

Michael:Soforthisquestion,answers4,5and6arethecorrectthreechoices.

Onscreen:[answeroptions4,5and6movetotheselectedbulletedspots]

SkillbuildingtipsCreatingOutlines

Michael:Youcanworktoimproveyourreadingskillsbycreatingyourown
outlinesorchartswhenyoureadapassage.Pickachartformatthatishelpfulfor
you,likeoneofthese

http://www.ets.org/s/toefl/flash/34228_toefl2016r6_transcript.html 6/7
2017/1/17 InsidetheTOEFLTestReadingProseSummary&FillinaTableQuestions

andasyouread,identifythemainideasandsupportingdetails.Asyoupractice
more,youwillbeabletotakefewernotestooutlinethepoints.

Onscreen:[displaysdifferentoutlineforms]
Chart1:Spidermap
Idea
Example
Example
Example
Example

Chart2:BasicOutlineForm

I.MainIdea
A.SubsidiaryorsupportingideatoI
B.SubsidiaryorsupportingideatoI
1.SubsidiaryideatoB
2.SubsidiaryideatoB
a.Subsidiaryideato2
b.Subsidiaryideato2
II.MainIdea
A.SubsidiaryorsupportingideatoII
B.SubsidiaryorsupportingideatoII
C.SubsidiaryorsupportingideatoII
III.MainIdea

Chart3:GraphicOrganizerMainideachart
Topic
MainIdea
SupportingDetail
SupportingDetail
SupportingDetail
SupportingDetail

Michael:TherearelotsofwaystoimproveyourEnglishskills.Whateveryoudo,
keeppracticing.AndgoodluckonyourTOEFLtest.

Onscreen:FormoreinformationabouttheTOEFLtestandtoregister,visitthe
TOEFLwebsiteatwww.toeflgoanywhere.org
[END]

Totallengthofvideo:4:37

Copyright2016byEducationalTestingService.Allrightsreserved.
ETS,theETSlogo,TOEFLandTOEFLIBTareregisteredtrademarksofEducationalTestingService(ETS)
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http://www.ets.org/s/toefl/flash/34228_toefl2016r6_transcript.html 7/7