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180 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


People vs. Duranan

*
G.R. Nos. 13407475. January 16, 2001.

PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES, plaintiffappellee, vs.


EMILIANO DURANAN, a.k.a. Kalbo, accusedappellant.

Criminal Law Rape Mental Retardates Witnesses The


mother of an offended party in a case of rape, though not a
psychiatrist, if she knows the physical and mental condition of the
party, how she was born, what she is suffering from, and what her
attainments are, is competent to testify on the matter It is
competent for the ordinary witness to give his opinion as to the
sanity or mental condition of a person, provided the witness has
had sufficient opportunity to observe the speech, manner, habits,
and conduct of the person in question.Discussing this provision
of the Rules on Evidence, Sen. Vicente J. Francisco writes in his
treatise: The mother of an offended party in a case of rape, though
not a psychiatrist, if she knows the physical and mental condition
of the party, how she was born, what she is suffering from, and
what her attainments are, is competent to testify on the matter. . .
. . It is competent for the ordinary witness to give his opinion as to
the sanity or mental condition of a person, provided the witness
has had sufficient opportunity to observe the speech, manner,
habits, and conduct of the person in question. Generally, it is
required that the witness details the factors and reasons upon
which he bases his opinion before he can testify as to what it is.
As the Supreme Court of Vermont said: A nonexpert witness
may give his opinion as to the sanity or insanity of another, when
based upon conversations or dealings which he has had with such
person, or upon his appearance, or upon any fact bearing upon his
mental condition, with the witness own knowledge and
observation, he having first testified to such conversations,
dealings, appearance or other observed facts, as the basis for his
opinion.

_______________

* SECOND DIVISION.

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VOL. 349, JANUARY 16, 2001 181

People vs. Duranan

Same Same Same Same Although the complainant may be


a retardate, she is nevertheless competent to testify if she is able to
tell the court what the accused had done to her and to answer the
questions of both the prosecutor and the defense counsel.On the
alternative, accusedappellant argues that indeed, complainant
could not be a competent witness if she is a retardate. Under Rule
130, 20, any person who can perceive and make known his/her
perception is qualified to be a witness. In this case, although
complainant is a retardate, she was nevertheless able to tell the
court what accusedappellant had done to her and to answer the
questions of both the prosecutor and the defense counsel. This is
clear from her testimony.

Same Same Same Same The competency of complainant to


testify should be raised by the defense at the outsetit cannot be
raised for the first time on appeal.At all events, any objection to
the competency of complainant to testify should have been raised
by the defense at the outset. It cannot be raised for the first time
in this appeal. It has been held: A party may waive his objections
to the competency of a witness and permit him to testify . . . . [I]f,
after such incompetency appears, there is failure to make timely
objection, by a party having knowledge of the incompetency, the
objection will be deemed waived, whether it is on the ground of
want of mental capacity or for some other reason. If the objection
could have been taken during the trial, a new trial will be refused
and the objection will not be available on writ of error.

Same Same The presence or absence of injuries is not


essential in proving rape.Accusedappellant contends that the
absence of injury sustained by complainant negates the presence
of any force and intimidation. This contention is likewise without
merit. The presence or absence of injuries is not essential in
proving rape. What is essential is proof that sexual intercourse
with a woman was accomplished without her consent. In this
case, the absence of consent is shown by the fact that complainant
is a mental retardate vulnerable to intimidation by accused
appellant.

APPEAL from a decision of the Regional Trial Court of


Quezon City, Br. 220.

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The facts are stated in the opinion of the Court.


The Solicitor General for plaintiffappellee.
Romeo D. Tagra for accusedappellant.

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182 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


People vs. Duranan

MENDOZA, J.:
1
This is an appeal from the decision of the Regional Trial
Court, Branch 220, Quezon City, finding accusedappellant
Emiliano Duranan, a.k.a. Kalbo, guilty beyond reasonable
doubt of two counts of rape and sentencing him to suffer
the penalty of reclusion perpetua for each count of rape and
to indemnify private complainant Nympha Lozada y de
Lara in the amount of P50,000.00.
The information in Criminal Case No. Q9455711
alleged

That on or about the 8th of March 1994, in Quezon City,


Philippines, said accused with lewd designs and by means of force
and intimidation, to wit, by then and there, willfully, unlawfully
and feloniously taking advantage of undersigned complainant,
Maria Nympha Lozada y de Laras feeblemindedness and
thereafter have carnal knowledge with (sic) the undersigned
complainant against 2
her will and without her consent.
Contrary to law.

The information in Criminal Case No. Q9455712 averred


That on or about the 7th of March 1994, in Quezon City,


Philippines, the said accused with lewd designs and by means of
force and intimidation, to wit, did then and there, willfully,
unlawfully and feloniously taking (sic) advantage of the
undersigned (sic) feeblemindedness, and thereafter have carnal
knowledge with (sic) the undersigned complainant against her
will and without her
3
consent.
Contrary to law.

Upon arraignment, accusedappellant pleaded not guilty to


each charge of rape against him, whereupon he was tried.
The prosecution presented three witnesses, namely,
complainant Nympha Lozada y de Lara, complainants
mother Virginia de Lara Lozada, and the attending medico
legal officer at Camp Crame, Dr. Rosalina O. Cosidon.

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_______________

1 Per Judge Prudencio Altre Castillo, Jr.


2 Rollo, pp. 23.
3 Id., pp. 45.

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VOL. 349, JANUARY 16, 2001 183


People vs. Duranan

Complainant Nympha Lozada, who was 25 years old at the


time of the incidents in question, is considered to be
retarded and finished up to the sixth grade only. She is
unemployed and simply does household chores for her
family. Accusedappellant lived with the complainants
family in the same apartment in K6 No. 28 Kamuning St.,
Quezon City where be rented a room that he shared with
several other people.
The4
first rape took place in the afternoon of March 7,
1994. Nympha was standing by the door of her
grandfathers house when accusedappellant suddenly
placed his arm on her 5
neck and dragged her inside the
common bathroom. Complainant said that accused
appellant kissed her and then removed her shorts and
underwear as he held her hands with his other hand. She
did not cry for help because accusedappellant
6
threatened
her that he would get angry if she did. She claimed that
accusedappellant was7 able to rape her while standing up
despite her resistance. After the incident, complainant
8
was
sent out of the bathroom and went directly home.
The second 9 incident occurred in the early morning of
March 8, 1994, according to complainant. She said she was
cleaning the premises of her family residence when
accusedappellant pulled her from her house and took her
to his room. According to complainant, accusedappellant
asked his brother, who was then cooking, to leave the room.
As soon as his brother had left,
10
accusedappellant laid her
on the floor and raped her. Complainant said she was
forced to11 submit to accusedappellants lust because of his
threats. After the incident, accusedappellant sent her
letters professing love for her and telling her how beautiful
she was. Complainant
12
said she tore up the letters after
reading them.

_______________

4 TSN, p. 8, Jan. 30, 1995.

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5 Id., p. 14.
6 TSN, pp. 1112, Jan. 30, 1995.
7 TSN, pp. 910, Sept. 21, 1994.
8 Id., p. 12.
9 TSN, p. 3, Oct. 5, 1994.
10 Id., pp. 67.
11 TSN, p. 18, Feb. 22, 1995.
12 TSN, pp. 910, Oct. 5, 1994.

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184 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


People vs. Duranan

In another incident, on March 12, 1994, accusedappellant


asked complainant to let him use their bathroom. However,
after being given permission, he grabbed complainant by
the hand, pulled her inside the bathroom, and started
kissing her on the lips and neck after closing the door
behind them. He only
13
stopped molesting her when he heard
somebody coming.
Virginia Lozada testified that she saw her daughter
leave the bathroom, quickly followed by accusedappellant.
Virginia noticed that her daughters lower lip was bruised.
When she confronted her daughter about it, the latter
revealed for the first time what had happened to her.
Virginia went to Camp Karingal, together with
complainant and her other children, Teresa and Fernando,
where they filed affidavits and two informations. They14then
took complainant to Camp Crame for examination. Dr.
Rosalina O. Cosidon, who examined complainant,
submitted a report which contained the following findings:

GENERAL AND EXTRAGENITAL:

Fairly developed, fairly nourished and coherent female subject.


Breasts are hemispherical with pale brown areola and nipples
from which no secretions could be pressed out. Abdomen is flat
and soft. There is injury noted at the head
Contusion, mucosa of the lower lip, measuring 1.2 x 0.3 cm,
and 1 cm left of the anterior midline.

GENITAL

There is an abundant growth of pubic hair. Labia minora are


full, convex and gaping with the pinkish brown and congested
labia minor presenting in between. On separating, the same is
disclosed an abraded posterior fourchette and an elastic, fleshy
type hymen with shallow healing laceration at 5 oclock position.
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External vaginal orifice offers strong resistance to the


introduction of the examining index finger and the virginsized
vaginal speculum. Vaginal canal is narrow with prominent
rugosities.

CONCLUSION

Cervix is normal in size, color and consistency.

_______________

13 Id., pp. 1013.


14 TSN, pp. 2225, Aug. 3, 1994.

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VOL. 349, JANUARY 16, 2001 185


People vs. Duranan

Findings are compatible with recent loss of virginity.


Barring unforeseen complications, it is estimated that the
above injury will resolve in 7 to 9 days

REMARKS

Vaginal and penurethral smears 15are negative for gram


negative diplococci and for spermatozoa.

Dr. Cosidon explained that the term congested used in


reference to the labia minora meant that there was some
inflammation that16
could have been caused by friction due
to intercourse. Taken together with the presence of a
shallow hymenal laceration, this finding indicates the
possibility of intercourse that caused
17
complainants loss of
virginity within the last five days.
Accusedappellant filed a demurrer to the evidence, but 18
the trial court denied it in its November 17, 1995 order.
The defense thereafter presented its witnesses, namely,
accusedappellant Emiliano Duranan, accusedappellants
alleged roommates, Rico Bariquit and Carlito Catubig, and
his wife Carlita Duranan.
With respect to the first incident of rape, which allegedly
took place in the afternoon of March 7, 1994, it is
contended that accusedappellant could not have
committed such, because his daily schedule was such that
he was not at home at that time. He said that because of
his work, he used to leave the house at 3 a.m., arrive home
at 1 p.m., and leave19
for work again at 3 p.m. and arrive
home at 6:30 p.m. He also alleged that on March 7, 1994
20
he left and was with Rico Bariquit throughout
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20
he left and was with Rico Bariquit throughout the day. As
to the second incident of rape, accusedappellant contends
that it was impossible for him to commit rape in his room
because there were at least six other people there at the 21
time (i.e., morning of March 8, 1994) of the alleged rape.
He charged that the complaints were filed

_______________

15 Exhibit A records, p. 66.


16 TSN, p. 9. Aug. 3, 1994.
17 Id., pp. 1415.
18 Records, p. 80.
19 TSN, pp. 913, Feb. 28, 1996.
20 Id., p. 10.
21 Id., pp. 1315.

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186 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


People vs. Duranan

against him because complainants family22 wanted to evict


him and his housemates from their house.
Rico Bariquit and23 Carlito Catubig confirmed accused
appellants schedule. Bariquit claimed that he was always
with accusedappellant and knew where he was all the
time. Both witnesses said rape could not have been
committed 24
in a room where at least five other people were
sleeping.
Virginia Lozada and complainant denied seeing Rico
Bariquit
25
and Carlito Catubig before the two testified in
court.
Based on the evidence of the parties, the trial court
rendered a decision on April 22, 1998, finding the accused
appellant guilty of two counts26
of rape. The dispositive
portion of its decision reads:

WHEREFORE, in view of all the foregoing, the Court finds the


accused guilty beyond reasonable doubt as principal for two (2)
counts of rape punishable under Article 335 of the Revised Penal
Code, as amended by Section 11 of R. A. 7659, and sentences him
to suffer the penally of imprisonment of two (2) counts of reclusion
perpetua with all its accessory penalties and to indemnify the
private complainant the amount of FIFTY THOUSAND PESOS
(P50,000.00).
SO ORDERED.

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Hence this appeal.


Accusedappellant assigns two errors as having been
allegedly committed by the trial court:

I. THE TRIAL COURT GRAVELY ERRED IN


HOLDING THAT THE PRIVATE OFFENDED
PARTY IS DEPRIVED OF REASON DESPITE
THE ABSENCE OF TESTIMONY BY A
COMPETENT MEDICAL EXPERT TO THAT
EFFECT AND DESPITE STRONG EVIDENCE ON
THE RECORD TO THE CONTRARY.

_______________

22 Id., p. 18.
23 TSN (Rico Bariquit), pp. 1314, March 11, 1996 TSN (Carlito
Catubig), p. 6, June 5, 1996.
24 Id., p. 16 id., p. 8.
25 TSN (Virginia Lozada), p. 5, Jan. 29, 1997 TSN (Maria Nympha
Lozada), p. 22, Jan. 29, 1997.
26 RTC Decision, p. 10 Records, p. 183.

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VOL. 349, JANUARY 16, 2001 187


People vs. Duranan

II. THE TRIAL COURT GRAVELY ERRED IN


ALTERNATIVELY HOLDING THAT THE
ACCUSED IS GUILTY OF RAPING THE
PRIVATE OFFENDED WOMAN THROUGH
FORCE AND INTIMIDATION.

First. Accusedappellant contends that he cannot be


convicted of rape since the victims mental age was not
proven. He argues that under Art. 335(2) of the Revised
Penal Code, an essential element for the prosecution for
rape of a mental retardate is a psychiatric evaluation of the
complainants27mental age to determine if her mental age is
under twelve. He further claims that only in cases where
the retardation is apparent due to the presence of physical
deformities symptomatic of mental retardation can the
mental evaluation be waived.
The contention has no merit.
Rule 130, 50 of the Revised Rules on Evidence provides:

Opinion of Ordinary witnesses.The opinion of a witness for


which proper basis is given may be received in evidence regarding

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(a) the identity of a person about whom he has adequate


knowledge
(b) a handwriting with which he has sufficient familiarity
and
(c) the mental sanity of a person with whom he is sufficiently
acquainted.

Discussing this provision of the Rules on Evidence, Sen.


Vicente J. Francisco writes in his treatise:

The mother of an offended party in a case of rape, though not a


psychiatrist, if she knows the physical and mental condition of the
party, how she was born, what she is suffering from, and what her
attainments are, is competent to testify on the matter.
....
It is competent for the ordinary witness to give his opinion as
to the sanity or mental condition of a person, provided the witness
has had sufficient opportunity to observe the speech, manner,
habits, and conduct of the person in question. Generally, it is
required that the witness details

_______________

27 Appellants Brief, pp. 47.

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188 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


People vs. Duranan

the factors and reasons upon which he bases his opinion before he
can testify as to what it is. As the Supreme Court of Vermont
said: A nonexpert witness may give his opinion as to the sanity
or insanity of another, when based upon conversations or dealings
which he has had with such person, or upon his appearance, or
upon any fact bearing upon his mental condition, with the
witness own knowledge and observation, he having first testified
to such conversations, dealings,28 appearance or other observed
facts, as the basis for his opinion.

In the case at bar, Virginia Lozada testified on the mental


condition of her daughter, thus:

Q: How would you described your daughter? (sic)


A: When she was still a child while walking she
accidentally bumped her head and then on she acted

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quite not normal from then on we noticed changes


because she acted like a child.
Q: How old is (sic) Nympha Lozada when this happened?
A: 3 to 4 years old.
Q: At the age of 25, how would you described? (sic)
A: She still thinks like a child but from her narration or
statement we can see that her declaration are (sic) true
or believable.
Q: You mean to say that she could be intelligent.
A: Yes, maam. She finished her elementary and I can say
she is quite intelligent.
Q: So she can somewhat understand what is happening
around us?
A: Yes, she can understand things around as along as she
would be provided some basis and some reference
inorder (sic) to establish time, places and incident (sic).
Q: At your house do you still assigned (sic) household
chores(?)
A: Yes, maam.
Q: Could she relied (sic) upon madam witness?
29
A: Yes maam.

_______________

28 7 V.J. FRANCISCO,THE REVISED RULES OF COURT OF THE


PHILIPPINES 735736 (1997).
29 TSN, pp. 1819, Aug. 3, 1995.

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People vs. Duranan

To rebut this, accusedappellant points to the mothers


statement that complainant is quite intelligent. The
statement that complainant is quite intelligent must be
read in the context of Virginia Lozadas previous statement
that complainant thinks like a child but from her
narration or statement we can see that her declaration are
(sic) true or believable. Thus, what complainants mother
meant was that complainant, although she thought like a
child, nevertheless could tell others what happened to her.
Indeed, even the trial court admonished the defense
counsel not to use inculpatory questions because
30
complainant might give inculpatory answers. At another
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complainant might give inculpatory answers. At another
stage of the trial, the trial court reminded counsel, The
witness [complainant] is not very intelligent.
31
I think the
witness cannot even distinguish dates.
Thus, the trial court itself found in dealing with
complainant that she was mentally deficient. The rule that
findings of fact of the trial court should not be disturbed
since the trial court
32
is in the best position to determine the
findings of fact cannot be more apt than in this case.
Accusedappellant cites the medicolegal report which
describes complainant as coherent and contends that this
is an evaluation of the mental state of complainant. This
contention is totally without basis. The medicolegal report
categorically states that the purpose of the medical
examination is limited to determining 33
whether the
complainant had been sexually abused. In other words,
the purpose of the examination was to determine her
physical, not her mental, state.
Second. On the alternative, accusedappellant argues
that indeed, complainant could not be a competent witness
if she is a retardate. Under Rule 130, 20, any person who
can perceive and make known his/her perception is
qualified to be a witness. In this case, although
complainant is a retardate, she was nevertheless able to
tell the court what accusedappellant had done to her and
to

_______________

30 TSN, p. 8. Feb. 22, 1995.


31 Id., p. 10.
32 People v. Atop, 286 SCRA 157 (1998).
33 Exhibit A Records, p. 66.

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190 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


People vs. Duranan

answer the questions of both the prosecutor and the


defense counsel. This is clear from her testimony, thus:

Q Now, you said that you were raped by Emiliano


Duranan. Where did this happen?
A In the bathroom of my Tiya Ineng.
Q Where is this bathroom of your Tiya Ineng?
A
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This bathroom is located at an alley, a pasillo towards


our house.
Q Where is your house, Miss Witness?
A Our house is located at No. 28, K6, Kamuning, Quezon
City.
Q: You said that you were raped inside the bathroom of
your Tiya Ineng. How were you able to get inside that
bathroom of your Tiya Ineng?
A: I was able to get inside the bathroom of Tiya Ineng
because Emiliano Duranan pulled me inside.
Q How did Emiliano Duranan pulled you? (sic)
A He pulled me inside the bathroom by holding his arm
against my neck, pulling me towards the bathroom.
....
Q When Emiliano Duranan pulled you inside the
bathroom, what happened after that?
A He kissed me.
(Witness is gesturing his (sic) hands towards her neck)
And he had my panty removed.
Q Now, you said that when you were inside the bathroom
of your Tiya Ineng, Emiliano Duranan kissed you in
(sic) your lips?
A Yes, maam.
Q Aside from kissing you, what did Emiliano do, if any?
A Aside from kissing me on my lips and my neck, he
removed my underwear, my panty and he inserted his
sex organ into my sex organ.
Q When Kalbo inserted his sex organ in your sex organ,
what position were you then?
A We were standing.
Q Inside the bathroom?
A Yes, maam.
Q Nympha, do you know how to tell the days of the week?
A No, maam.

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Q How about the dates?


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A No, maam.
Q Do you know what day is today?
A Wednesday.
Q How about yesterday, what date was that?
A Tuesday.
Q Do you know what date is today?
COURT:
She knows that today34 is Wednesday but she doesnt
know the exact date.
....
Q You also testified before that you were rape (sic) by
Kalbo twice, is that correct?
A Yes, Maam.
Q When was the second time?
A The second time at their house that was Tuesday.
Q Is that the next day? After the incident in the bathroom?
A Yes, Maam.
Q So you said that you were laid down by Kalbo on the
floor and then Kalbo kissed you, where did Kalbo kiss
you?
A From (sic) my lips.
Q After that what did Kalbo do if any?
A Proceeded to removed
35
(sic) my panty and inserted his
organ to mine.

At all events, any objection to the competency of


complainant to testify should have been raised by the
defense at the outset. It cannot be raised for the first time
in this appeal. It has been held:

A party may waive his objections to the competency of a witness


and permit him to testify . . . . [I]f, after such incompetency
appears, there is failure to make timely objection, by a party
having knowledge of the incompetency, the objection will be
deemed waived, whether it is on the ground of want of mental
capacity or for some other reason. If the objec

_______________

34 TSN, pp. 611, Sept. 21, 1994.


35 TSN, pp. 27, Oct. 5, 1994.

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People vs. Duranan

tion could have been taken during the trial, a new trial will36 be
refused and the objection will not be available on writ of error.

Third. Accusedappellant contends that the absence of


injury sustained by complainant negates the presence of
any force and intimidation. This contention is likewise
without merit. The presence or absence of injuries is not
essential in proving rape. What is essentia is proof that
sexual intercourse with a woman was accomplished
without her consent. In this case, the absence of consent is
shown by the fact that complainant is a mental retardate
vulnerable to intimidation by accusedappellant.
Indeed, the degree of force or intimidation required for
the act to constitute rape is relative, and must be viewed in
the light of the complainants perception 37and judgment at
the time of the commission of the offense. What is vital is
that such force or intimidation be sufficient to consummate
38
the purpose that accusedappellant had in mind. In this
case, due to the complainants mental retardation, the force
or intimidation required is not very great since it does not
take much to force a child into submission. Indeed,
complainant said she submitted to accusedappellants
demands because she was afraid he would 39
get angry at her
if she refused them. In People v. Rosare, it was held that,
in the instances where the victim is so weak in intellect
that she is incapable of rational consent, the force applied
may be constructive.
In sum, the mental retardation of the 40
complainant is
proven by the testimony of her mother, the trial courts
observations during 41the trial of her demeanor, behavior,
and her intelligence, while the fact of sexual intercourse is
proven by the medicolegal certifi

_______________

36 WHARTONS CRIMINAL EVIDENCE 1149, p. 1988, cited in People


v. Francisco, 78 Phil. 694, 706 (1947). See also People v. Cruz, 208 SCRA
326 (1992).
37 People v. Corea, 336$hil. 72 269 SCRA 76 (1997) People v. Edualino,
337 Phil. 639 271 SCRA 189 (1997).
38 People vs. Antonio, 233 SCRA 283 (1994).
39 332 Phil. 435 264 SCRA 398 (1996).
40 TSN, p. 19, Aug. 3, 1994.
41 TSN, p. 8, Feb. 22, 1995.

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42
cate. In addition, the prosecution proved the presence of 43
force and intimidation, and the court appreciated such.
The intimidation, in this case, is constituted by the44 threats
that accusedappellant made to the complainant, not to
mention the force employed by accusedappellant
45
in placing
his arm on the complainants
46
neck and holding her hands
while undressing her.
However, the award of P50,000.00 as civil indemnity
should be doubled because there are two counts of rape. In
addition, complainant should also be awarded P50,000.00
as moral damages for each count of rape, 47
or a total of
P100,000.00 in accordance with our rulings.
WHEREFORE, the decision of the Regional Trial Court,
Branch 220, Quezon City, finding accusedappellant guilty
beyond reasonable doubt of the crime of rape is
AFFIRMED, with the modification that the award of
P50,000.00 as civil indemnity is increased to P100,000.00
and, in addition, accusedappellant is ordered to pay
complainant Nympha Lozada y de Lara the further sum of
P100,000.00 as moral damages.
SO ORDERED.

Bellosillo (Chairman), Quisumbing, Buena and De


Leon, Jr., JJ., concur.

Judgment affirmed with modification.

Notes.A mental retardate having the mentality of a 6


to 7yearold child, could not validly give her consent to or
oppose the sexual act. (People vs. Antonio, 233 SCRA 283
[1994])

_______________

42 Exhibit A Records, p. 66.


43 RTC Decision p. 10, Records, p. 183.
44 TSN, p. 11, Sept. 21, 1994 TSN, p. 15, Feb. 22, 1995.
45 TSN, p. 14, Jan. 30, 1995.
46 TSN, p. 6, Oct. 5, 1994.
47 E.g., People v. Ramos, G.R. No. 136398, November 23, 2000, 345
SCRA 685 People v. Napiot 311 SCRA 772 (1999) People v. Gementiza,
285 SCRA 478 (1998).

194

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8/21/2016 SUPREMECOURTREPORTSANNOTATEDVOLUME349

194 SUPREME COURT REPORTS ANNOTATED


Villaflor vs. Vivar

Mentally deficient persons generally share certain social


behavior characteristics that undermine their ability to
give statements voluntarily, knowingly and intelligently
they may be vulnerable to exploitation by others. (People
vs. Cartuano, Jr., 255 SCRA 403 [1996])
Other evidence aside from a psychiatric evaluation can
prove mental retardation or abnormality. (People vs.
Almacin, 303 SCRA 399 [1999])

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