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General description of AN-32 ac: The ac AN-32 is named by the name of its designer
ANTONOV. The AN-32 ac is a multi-purpose medium transport ac, with the pressurized
cabin is intended for transportation, para dropping & landing of troops and cargoes and for
air lift of sick and wounded over control. The ac can be operated under all climatic condition
including hot climate from high level air field day & night and in adverse weather.

The ac crew consists of the four members contain co-pilot, navigator & flight engineers. The
crew are accommodate in a separate compartment.

The pressure and air temperature in the cabin are controllable which ensures comfortable
conditions for the crew and troops. The ac is equipped with stationary oxygen bottles for the
transported person to be used in case of depressurization. The ac carries landing equipment
with a lifting capacity of up to 3000kg.

Aircraft length: 23.68 m


Wing span: 29.2 m
Height: 8.575 m
Area of flap: 15 m
Area of wing: 74.98 m
Area of aileron: 6.12 m
Span of horizontal stabilizer: 10.11m
Length of vertical stabilizer: 5m
Area of fin: 13.82 m
Max mach no: 0.7
Wheel base (M+N): 7.85 m
Wheel track (M+N): 7.9m
Fuel capacity: 5500ltrs/7080 kg
Endurance: 4.30 hrs
Maximum ceiling height: 9.6 km
Max speed: 540 km/hrs
Empty weight: 16.8 tons
Max take off weight: 27 tons
Sweep back angle of vertical stabilizer: 27
Max pay load: 6.7 tons
Sweep back angle of horizontal stabilizer: 20
Propeller ground clearance: 1.72 m
Max range of the ac: 2000 km
Passenger capacity: 46-50
Patient capacity: 24 with two attendances.
Paratroopers: 42
Pressure refueling capacity: 4800 kg
Anhedral angle of wing outer section: -2
Dihedral angle of horizontal stabilizer: +9
Aileron deflection angle: 241
Balance tab deflection angle: Up 9 Down 1430
Trim tab deflection angle up& down: 71
Elevator deflection angle: up: 251, down:201
Elevator trim deflection angle: up: 221, down: 181
Rudder deflection angle both side: 251
Rudder trim tab deflection angle both side: 19
Flap take off angle: 151
Flap landing angle: 38-1
Flap auto retraction from:38 to 252
Max take off speed: 235 km/hrs

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Max landing speed: 210 km/hrs


Taxing ground speed: 30 km/hrs
Tyre operating pressure: Main 5 to 5.5 kg/cm, Nose 4.5 to 5 kg/cm
Main brake pressure: 10010 kg/cm
Emergency brake pressure: 90
Parking brake pressure: 60
Nose wheel scale reading: 90 to 135 mm
Shining portion of main landing gear: 70 to 150 mm
Retraction time of landing gear (By main system): 4 to 5 sec
Extension time of landing gear (By main system): 3.5 to 6 sec
Total system capacity of hydraulic: 65ltrs
Reservoir capacity: 37ltrs
Hydraulic quantity with pressure: 21-22ltrs
Hydraulic quantity without pressure: 27-28ltrs
Working pressure of main hydraulic system: 150
Auxiliary system hydraulic pressure: 160+20 kg/cm
Hydraulic filter by pass valve opening pressure: 92 kg/cm
Safety opening pressure of main hydraulic system: 185 kg/cm
Safety opening pressure of auxiliary hydraulic system: 208 kg/cm
Hydraulic reservoir pressurization pressure: 10.1 kg/m
Total life of hydraulic pump: 1500 flying hrs/6 years
Emergency pump operation time: 30 minutes
Life of rotor & stator: 500 full stop landing
Life of pressure plate & back plate: 750 full stop landing
Life of Brake unit: 1500 full stop landing/7 years
Main wheel life: 1500 full stop landing/7 years
Nose wheel life: 8000 full stop landing/25 years
Main wheel weight: 73+3 kg
Nose wheel weight: 13.2 kg
Life of the tyre main & nose: 10 years
Main tyre weight: 42.52.5 kg
Nose tyre weight: 171 kg
Size of main wheel tyre: 1050390 mm (without tube)
Size of nose wheel tyre: 700250 mm (with tube)
Quality of the auto wears adjuster: 06
Length of auto wears adjuster: 161mm
Wear indicator clearance: 30+0.5 mm
Time of application & releasing the brake: 1.5 to 2 sec
No of rotor of brake assembly: 03
No of stator of brake assembly: 02
Clearance between rotor & stator: 2.35 mm to 6.45 mm
Steering angle of nose wheel:
Taxi mode: 452 (both left & right)
Take off angle: 101
In time of towing: 35
Opening & closing time of emergency hatch by main system: 3 sec
Opening & closing time of emergency hatch by auxiliary system: 10 sec
Duration of pump through: 20 to 25 sec
Leading edge slate spring tension: 50 kg
Maximum length of the runway required for AN-32 aircraft: 760-880 m.
Wiper pressing pressure: 4.5 -5.0 kg/cm
Wiper rotation per minute: 180-200 time (double stroke)
Note: Before opening the emergency exit hatch aircraft need to be jacked up & the clearance
between the aircraft & ground should be more than 120 cm/1.2 m.
Maximum length of the runway required for an-32 aircraft: 760800 m

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Charging pressure of shock strut: main: 31+1 kg/cm, nose: 20+1 kg/cm
Total travel of main shock strut: 3002 mm
Filling capacity of main shock strut: 5960 cc
Nose: 1540 cc
Melting temperature of overheat indicator: 1255c
Melting temperature of fusible plug: 1835c
Length of the cargo compartment: 12.48m
Breathe of the cargo compartment: 2.78 m
Height of the cargo compartment: 1.84m
Maximum landing weight: 26.4 tons
Number of chord of main tyre: 14
Number of chord of nose tyre: 08
Life tyre main & nose: 10 years
Qty of the alcohol: 2.6ltrs
Operation time: 2.5 minutes
Location of the alcohol tank: In the left behind navigation seat.
Alcohol is sprayed by electric driven pump.

Before open the pump put the valve open. Hydraulic pump operation light comes on when
the pressure in the system rise to 65 kg/cm with 810 sec & 810% rpm and pumps
operation light goes off when the pressure drops to 45 kg/cm and its bellow.

Position indicating signal light of landing gear:


Landing gear down & locked: Green annunciator.
Intermediate : Unsafe annunciator
Landing gear up & locked: Unsafe light goes off.
Landing gear annunciator will comes on with throttle setting: 25
Throttle setting 90 & more: Annunciator will come on in the over head panel.
Throttle setting 35-Flashing light on nose wheel steering.
Throttle setting above 76-Flap extend light comes on.
Permissible brake pressure difference: 20 kg.
Aircraft speed depends upon the flap position:
Flap divided into two parts: Inboard & outboard.
Inboard flap: Double slotted.
Outboard flap: Triple slotted.

RAMP OPERATION
Ramp can be operated from two places
(1) Cargo cabin (opening & closing)
(2) Navigation panel (sliding).
(3) In emergency on ground, tactic in flight.

Ramp opening time by main system: 37 60 sec


By auxiliary not more than: 100 sec
Ramp closing by main system: 25 40 sec
By auxiliary system: 50 90 sec
Length of ramp: 3.5m
Breathe of ramp: 2.4m
Ramp operation hydraulic pressure: Minimum 80 kg/cm & maximum 80 150 kg/cm

Condition for taxi test:


Aircraft taxi test should not permit for the following cases:
(1) If the temperature is bellow: -60c & above +40c
(2) Day timing 1200 1500 hrs (summer time)
(3) If air bottle is not near at hand.

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(4) If the length of the runway less than 5000 ft.

Construction
Air frame: The air frame is an all metal cantilever high wing monoplane with a single
stabilizer, vertical tail unit consisting of a dorsal fin and two vertical fins.

Fuselage: The fuselage of the ac is all metal semi-monocoque construction with a


longitudinal frame work of stringers and beams, a transversal frame work of 48 frames &
stressed skin.

The fuselage is divided into three sections:


(1)Nose section frame no : 1-11
(2)Centre section frame no : 11-33
(3)Tail section frame no : 33-48
Fuselage detachable frame no : 11&33
Pressurized frame no : 1-40
Non-pressurized frame no : 40-48

Arrangement of the ac as per its frames:


Name: Frames:
Toilet : 7-10
Nose wheel : 1-4 under flight compartment
Cargo door/ramp : 33-40
Pressure door : 40
Fairing door : 45
Vertical stabilizer : 40-43
Cargo compartment : 10-33
Entrance door : 7-9 right side
Ramp : 33-40
Bottom emergency hatch : 7-10
Flight compartment : 1-7
Horizontal stabilizer : 43&45
Wing attachment : 17&20
Cargo handler beam : 29&39
Top emergency hatch : 5-7
Navigation blister : 5-10 left side
Drag middle of side rail, vertical
Fin fairing & vertical fin : 28&48 both side of fuselage
Location:
Centre wing : rib no 1-7
Inner wing : rib no 7-12
Outer wing : rib no 12-23
Frame categories:
Depending on the load factor the frames are three categories:
Heavy frames: 1, 4, 7, 17, 20, 33, 40, 43, 45
Strong frame: 2, 3, 5, 6, 34, 39

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Ordinary frame: Rest of frames is ordinary.


Heavy frame received the load from nose landing gear attachment fitting, nose fairing, wing
& stabilizer. Rest of frames serves to enforce the skin and to attach the different parts.

Wing:
The wing structure shall be made of mainly aluminum alloy and alloy steel. The wing spars,
ribs, upper& lower skin panel, wing leading and trailing edge section bracket and some other
assembly and parts are made of aluminum alloy. Engine attachment fitting, flap track and
some other assembly are made of alloy steel.

Wing divided into ribs no-7&12.The wing has two spars, 09 stringers and 23 rib each side.

Inner wing: The inner wing has three slated out board flap. Out board flap screw jack is
attached rib no 8& 11. The inner wing accommodate 02 metallic fuel tanks each side.

Centre wing: The centre wing has two slated inboard flap. Inboard flap screw jack are
attached to the rear spar of rib no -3. The centre wing accommodate in flexible tank.

Outer wing: The outer wing has two ailerons. Both ailerons are attached to the rib no-13 &
16, 18 & 21.

Both ailerons carry balance tab. Port side aileron contains carry trim tab. This tab is operated
by electric power. Engine access at rib no 5 to 6.The wing is a torsion structure. The torsion
made of spar, stringers, ribs & skin.

Secondary structure of the wing including the wing leading edge, wing trailing edge, fuel tank
container & wing tip.

Wing leading edge: Accommodate the ice protection, air condition line, fuel line, shock
absorber of slates.

Trailing edge: Accommodate the aileron tabs, push pull rod, fuel line, flap control
mechanism, electrical cable, wing tip mount & navigation light.

The dihedral angle of the wing portion rib no 12 is 0 while anhedral angle of the outer wing
panel is-2 and the rigging angle of the incidence is +3.

Tail unit: Tail unit made of aluminum alloy and alloy steel. The air plane has cantilever
single stabilizer unit. The dihedral angle of horizontal stabilizer is +9.The horizontal
stabilizer has two trim tabs. This tab is operated by control wheel located at the control
pedal.

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(1) The air plane has a cantilever high wing rectangular between ribs no 7 & tapered from rib
no 7 to tip of the wing.
(2) The wing setting angle is +3.
(3) Wing dihedral angle up to the rib no 12 is 0 but outer wing -2.
(4) The wing joints are at the rib no 7 & 12.
(5) The wing centre section mounts two inboard double slotted flaps.
(6) Each inner wing bears an extension triple slotted outboard flap.
(7) Each outer wing mounts two sections of an aileron. The aileron bears balance tabs with
the left aileron mounting also a trim tab.
(8) Each half wing bears two section of a leading edge slat.
(9)The no of total ribs in the wing=23, stringers=09, spar=02.
(10)Sweep back angle of the outer wing=650.

Control surface:

1. Aileron control linkage unit located at wing centre section rear spar.

2. Elevator trim tab control linkage located at fuselage tail section.

3. Elevator trim tab control unit on frame no 17.

4. Flap hydraulic control system.

The following components are employed in the main control mode:

A .Solenoid operated valve

B. Flow restrictor valve

C. Hydraulic lock

D. Hydraulic actuator

E. Shuttle valve (qty-02)

CONTROL SYSTEM
The AN-32 ac equipped with a manual electrical flight control system. The flight control
systems are as follows:

(1) Aileron control system

(2) Elevator control system

(3) Rudder control system

(4) Flap control system

(5) Gust locking system

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The aileron, elevator & rudder control system are installed in the control unit placed in front
of the pilot seat. The flap control is located on the control pedestal. The gust locking liver is
located on the left side of the control pedestal.

AILERON CONTROL SYSTEM: The aileron control system provides the lateral control which
about the lateral axis & against rolling movement. The ailerons are controlled by means of
the control wheel mechanism linkage (push pull rod). The aileron trim tab is controlled by
electrical & remote control. The control wheel can be operated by captain & co-pilot or one of
them.

Deflection angle of aileron: Up: 241 Down: 161.

Balance tab deflection: Up: 9 Down: 1430.

Trim tab: Up & Down: 71.

Left side press: 2-3 seconds.

Right side press: 4-6 seconds.

ELEVATOR CONTROL SYSTEM: The elevator control system provides longitudinal control
which is about the lateral axis against the pitching movement. The elevator controlled by
control column through mechanical linkage. The control column can be operated by two
pilots or one of them. Elevator trim tab are manually controlled by the mechanical linkage.

The elevator deflection angle: Up: 251 Down: 201.

Trim tab deflection angle: Up: 221 Down: 181.

RUDDER CONTROL SYSTEM: The rudder control system provides the directional control
which about the normal axis against yawing movement. The rudder is controlled by foot
pedal through a mechanical linkage. The foot pedal can be operated simultaneously. Rudder
trim tab can be operated by electric power or remote control.

Deflection angle of rudder: 251 (Both side).

Rudder trim tab: 19 (Both side).

FLAP CONTROL SYSTEM: The flap of AN-32 ac is slotted type trailing edge flap which
provides increasing the camber of the wing for increasing the lift and decreasing the landing
and takeoff speed. It is electrically controlled and hydraulically operated. Each flap has
slotted. Inboard flap double slotted & outboard flap triple slotted. Flap extension & retraction
system normally done by main hydraulic system and flap emergency extension system done
by auxiliary hydraulic system.

Flap takeoff angle: 152

Landing angle: 38-1

Auto-retraction: 38252

When the throttle is set to 90-4 at that time flap will automatically come to 252.

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GUST LOCKING SYSTEM: The gust locking system is designed to protect the rudder,
aileron, elevator & all control linkage from damage due to the swing during parking position.
In time of gust locked the elevator & aileron come to its extreme down position. In locked
condition permissible movement of the control surface up to 2 mm.

LANDING GEAR SYSTEM


MAIN LANDING GEAR: The main landing gear is mounted in the inspection compartment of
the engine nacelle. Nose landing gear is arranged under the flight compartment floor. Both
nose & main landing gear are retracted forward direction of the flight. When the landing gear
retracted and extended the door compartment is fully closed. During maintenance the door
can be open manually. The landing gears control from the left console. Centre pedestal from
the flight compartment rudder control pedestal.

Landing gear track: 7.9 m (m to m)

Base: 7.85 m (m to n)

Distance between two main wheels: 510 mm & nose wheel: 400 mm

The landing gear extension & retraction are done by main hydraulic system. Emergency
extension is done by manually. Before operating the landing gear manually first open the
hydraulic return valve. After operating the landing gear hydraulic return valve must be
closed. Location of the hydraulic return valve is in the control pedestal. Emergency extension
lever of main landing is located at the frame no 17.upper right side of the flight compartment.
Nose landing gear emergency extension handle is located at the lower right side of the
control pedestal.

Main landing gear & its different parts:

(1) Shock strut

(2) Two main wheels with brake assembly

(3) Folding strut

(4) Actuating cylinder

(5) Landing gear up lock

(6) Landing gear down lock

(7) Door up lock

(8) Door control mechanism

Purpose of landing gear:

(1) It supports the static weight of the aircraft

(2) It absorb the shock of landing

(3) It facilitates the landing taxing towing of the ac.

(4) It provide brake of the wheels

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(5) It provides steering of the ac.

Shock strut of the landing gear is oleo pneumatic type. It consists of:

(1) Inner cylinder

(2)Outer cylinder

(3)Torque link

(4)Inner & outer cylinder is fixed with the help of torque link.

Piston maximum stroke: 300 2mm

Length of the exposed position of the piston with the ac static condition: 70 to 150 mm

Qty of hydraulic fluid: 5960 cm

Initial n pressure: 31 1 kg/cm

Fluid type: Aero shell fluid -31

Nose landing gear consists of:

(1) Shock strut

(2) Nose wheel without brake

(3) Landing gear up lock

(4) Landing gear down lock

(5) Door control mechanism

(6) Actuating cylinder

Piston max stroke: 160 mm

Nose shock strut scale reading: 90 -135 mm

Fluid qty: 1540 cm

N pressure: 20 1 kg/cm

Mode of steering of the nose wheel is two types:

(1) Taxi mode &

(2) Take off mode

(1) Taxi mode: Taxi mode done by the hand wheel located in the LT console. It permits
the wheel rotation through axis452 both side.

(2) Take off mode : Done by the foot pedal through 101

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Towing angle of the wheel 350

How does shock absorber absorbs the shock of landing that are follows:

(1) N: 30%

(2) Fluid passing: 40%

(3) Friction of seal: 7%

(4) Rest of the shock absorbed by the tyre and wheel: 23%

L/G INTERLOCKS CUT OUT: It helps to disconnect the L/G retraction system while the ac
on the ground.
Location: In the front instrument panel under the red cap. Normally the position of the switch
will be off position. In any reason if l/g do not retract then the switch is to be brought to be
on.

PRECAUTION BEFORE RETRACT THE L/G ON THE GROIND:

(1) Jack up the ac


(2) Wheel must be clear off the ground
(3) Connect the external power source
(4) On the all circuit breaker switches
(5) Connect the ground power
(6) set the throttle 252& just above
(7) Build up the pressure up to the work
(8) Hydraulic return valve must be in closed position
(9) Then proceed for l/g retraction

Opening & closing of the emergency escape door:


(1) Nose jack up (clearance from 120 cm or more)
(2) Above process 6&7
(3) Switch position (open then close)

FLAP COMPONENT LOCATION


1. Flow restrictor valve (24-5633-0) On the Hydraulic units panel, under the wing
centre
section rear fillet, the fuselage rear side. Side access panel rear fillet right side.
2. Shuttle valve (24-5623-0)
3. A163T/16 Solenoid operated valve
4. Check valve

5. Hydraulic actuator (24-5615-10) on the wing centre section rear spar web alloys the
centre line. Upper & side access door at the rear fillet right side.

6. A192T Solenoid operated valve on the wing centre section rear fillet left side wall. Top side
access door on the wing centre section rear fillet left side.
Brake: Segmented rotor type (kt.192A.010)
Brake assembly consists of:
(1) Stator qty: 02 life 500 full stop landing
(2) Rotor qty: 03 500
(3) Pressure plate qty: 01 750
(4) Back plate qty: 01 750
(5) Brake unit qty: 01 life 1500 full stop landing/7 years

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Landing life total 3000 landing/14 years


Main wheel life 1500 landing/7 years
Nose wheel life 8000 landing /25 years

Weight of main wheel: 73+3 kg


Tyre: 42.5 2.5 kg
Nose wheel: 13+2kg
Tyre: 17+1 kg

If upper layer damage the cord over a length 100mm & width 25 mm & there is more than
five cuts the tyre should be removed.

ACP
Purpose: The air condition system is intended for creating, controlling& maintaining desirable
temperature & pressure in the flight compartment & cargo compartment. The air condition
system may be operated on the ground or in the flight at all engine rating, except for takeoff
rating.

Name of the components used on the air conditioning:


(1) Bleed valve (mrk-1)
(2) Heat exchanger
(3) Turbine cooler
(4) Mixing valve (mrk-13)
(5) Moister separator
(6) Distributing valve (mrk-5)

Bleed valve: It is located on the left side of the engine front casing near the combustion
chamber. It is used to draw & supply the air. Qty: 02

Heat exchanger: It is located on the bottom cowling of the both side of engine.
Purpose: It is used to cool down the hot air coming from the engine.

Turbine cooler: Two on the left side of the bottom cowling.qty:02(each side)
Purpose: To cool down the temp from 90 to around -12 to 10c temperature different 40c to
75c=10c to 15c rpm: 62500

Mixing valve: qty 01


Location: On the bottom cowling of the engine.
Purpose: It combines the three ported air as per temperature selection & delivers it to the
compartment.

Moisture separator:
Location: At the right side of the bottom cowling of the engine.
Purpose: To separate the moisture from the delivery air. It can absorb the moisture about
55%.

Distributing valve:
Location: Inside wing front fillet.
Purpose: It delivers the air as per temp through its lower port & upper port .when delivered
air temp is more than 25c it allows through its lower port and less than 25c then through
the upper port.

Functional check of air condition system with engine running:

(1) Air flow rate port side, air flow rate starboard side selector switches are set to close.

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(2) ADD heat crew cabin selector switch is set to close.


(3) Air condition system cabin selector switch is set to off.
(4) Port side star board side selector switches are set to off.
(5) Temperature air supplied selector switch is set to cargo cabin.
(6) Temperature setter selector switch is set to 20c
(7) The temperature of air supplied to the cargo cabin above 25c the air is supplied through
the holes in the lower ducts & bellow the 25c is feed through the upper ducts only.

Operation: For condition the air, air is bleed from the 10th stage of engine compressor with
the temperature of 273c and at a pressure of 720 kg/hrs. There after one port is directed to
the heat exchanger with temperature 15010c and another to mixing valve. Heat
exchanger cools down the temperature of 50-90c.

After heat exchanger again one port is directed to the mixing valve named as warn port and
other to the turbo cooler. Turbo cooler cools down the temperature from 50-90 c to 0-15c.
Further it cool down to 53c. Then it comes with mixing valve, mixing valve delivered the
conditioning air to the compartment via moisture separator and distributing valve as per the
temperature selector.

FIGURE

PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM

Purpose: The purpose of pressurization system is to maintain the cabin pressure as per the
altitude to its specified value.

(1)The cabin pressure automatically maintain with the variation of the altitude.

(2) The pressure in the cabin from 0 altitude to 2600m should be equal to the atmospheric
pressure i.e. 14.7 psi=1 kg=760 hg.

(3) From the height 2600 m to 5850 m the pressure in the cabin shall be dropped to 567 .
But a constant pressure differential 28 0.015 kg/cm should be maintained.

(4) From the height of 5850 m to 7850 m a constant absolute pressure 567 mm hg should be
kept in the cabin.

(5) Altitude above the 7850 m the absolute pressure shall be dropped but the cabin pressure
should be maintain at constant value of .4 .02 kg/cm up to ceiling height.

The aircraft having automatic pressure control system. The pressure system consists of:

1. Cabin pressure regulator (2077): Location: On the pilot right hand control console.
2. Pressure relief valve (2176 H): The relief valve is designed to limit the negative
pressure differential to a maximum of 3 to 5 times.
3. Location: Under the cargo floor between the frame no-26 & 27, 29& 30, 30& 31.
Negative = -1.
4. Solenoid valve: Location: Near the relief valve. The solenoid valve is controlled by
switch marked.

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Emergency depressurization switch located under a cap on the pilot centre instrument
panel. To protect the pressurized cabin against impermissible pressure differential the
relief valve should be provided with pressure differential unit to operate in case of failure
of the pressure regulator. The cabin should be provided at all altitude even with engine.
The total air of the cabin is changed 20-26 times /hrs.

FIGURE

MAIN DATA
* Absolute pressure in differential compartment set by selection of pressure regulator
(2077) 806 to 577 mm/hg

* Pressure differential maintained by pressure differential selection (unit-6198)


0.2980.2 kg/cm

* Absolute pressure in pressurized compartment maintained by absolute pressure


regulator (1314) 567 mm/hg.

* Pressure differential maintained by pressure differential regulator (2077) 0.4o.2


kg/cm

* Maximum pressure differential limited by outlet valve 2176 in case of failure of


pressure regulator 0.4350.02 kg/cm

* Cabin pressure rate of 0.180.045 mm of hg

* Pressure regulator 2077 selector knob is set to the pressure which is equal or 15 mm
hg below the ambient pressure.

* The Absolute pressure control regulator produces a pneumatic signal equal to the
selected pressure and sends it through pipes to the outlet valves 2176. The outlet
valves are the actuator of the system & depending on the signal received and the cabin
pressure. The valves diaphragms are rises together from the seat & relieve the pressure
to the atmosphere.

*At emergency descent the cabin pressure may drop below the ambient pressure. In this
case the seat of the outlet valve 2176 rises a bit to let the outside air in the cabin &
prevent the negative pressure differential.
Fuel
Purpose: To supply the positive fuel to the engine under all mode of operation. AC fuel
system consists of the following:
1. Fuel storage
2. Fuel consumption system
3. Fuel ventilating system
4. Fuel pressurization system
5. Fuel transferring system
6. Signaling & indicating system.

The ac fuel system comprises two independent system i.e. left wing fuel system and right
wing fuel system. Fuel is feed to the engine through its own system.
No of fuel tank: 14
NO of flexible tank: 10
No of metallic tank: 4

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Categorization of fuel tank as per the group:


Group no-1: 1, 2, 4, 5 & 6 tanks
Group no-2: No-3 tank
Group no-3: No-3a tank

Group no-1:
Tank no-1: Filler neck, defueling valve, refueling valve.
Tank no-2: Fuel quantity transmitter fuel transfer pumps (463 or 463M). The pump
working range is 2000-4000ltrs/hrs at a pressure of .4 to 1.25 kg/cm. When the flow rate
is zero that time pressure is 1.25 kg/cm.
Tank no-4: Vent elbow connection.
Tank no-5: Fuel quantity transmitter.
Tank no-6: Tank drain connection, float valve.

Group no-2:
Tank no-3: Fuel quantity transmitter, defueling valve, fuel transfer pump. The working
range of the pump is 4000ltrs/hrs (eshan-14) at a pressure of .6 to .8 kg/cm. At zero flow
rate pressure is 1.09 kg/cm.

Group no-3:
Tank no-3a: Filler neck, defueling valve, refueling valve, fuel quantity transmitter, booster
pump (qty-02), float valve.

Fuel capacity as per the group:


Top refueling: Pressure refueling:
Group 1: 1650 2=3300ltrs 1420 2=2840ltrs
Group 2: 1200 2=2400ltrs 1050 2=2100ltrs
Group 3: 690 2=1380lyrs 580 2=1160ltrs
Total: =7080ltrs/5500kg = 6100ltrs/4800kg
Note: 1kg=1.28ltrs

Fuel consumption sequence:


Each engine is fed with the fuel by two booster pump installed in the 3a tank
(service tank). Different installation of the pump ensures continue fuel supply to the
engine at all modes.

Fuel from the first group and second group is transferred into the 3rd group by two
transfer pump. One is in the tank no 2 and other one is in the tank no 3.

The pumps of the 3a tanks are always switch on manually and keep running
through the flight.

The automatic fuel usage control is keep fuel consumption in auto position. The 2nd
rd
and 3 tanks filled to its capacity. Fuel is automatically consumed first from these tanks.

Till the float valve open fuel will be supplied from the service tank. There after fuel
is consumed from the 1st group.

The fuel in the 1st group consumed around 35050ltrs. The fuel transfer pump of
nd
the 2 group will be come for operating and two turn green light will be on.

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When the fuel in the 2nd group will be left 95030ltrs per wing then 1st group fuel
tanks will be emptied & pump will be in operated and two green lights goes off.

As the fuel in the 2nd group reduces to 220ltrs per wing, then fuel from service tank
will start feeding with the cut out signal sent by the 2nd pump to the quantity gauge
transmitter of 3rd group fuel tanks.

When the fuel in the service tank (3a tank) reduces to 490 ltrs, Then 2nd group
will be emptied and the respective group empty light goes off.

When remaining fuel in one of the 3rd group 37514ltrs or total fuel in all tanks is
580 kg then fuel 580 kg amber enunciator will come on.

With the fuel booster pump de-energized keep the transfer valve switch in the
emergency position. In that case fuel flow from all tanks to the engine by the gravity due
to suction created by the engine booster pump.

AIRCRAFT FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

Purpose: The ac fire protection system is designed to extinguish the fire in engine
nacelle, compartments, wing section as well as in the engine inner space and airplane
compartment.

Fire protection system consists of stationary fire protection and hand fire extinguishing
system. The stationary fire protection system consists of a fire detection system and
extinguishing system. The Fire protection system is controlled & checked for proper
operation from flight compartment. The agent of fire extinguishing system is khalladon or
ferron.

Total number of fire bottle is 08.


1. 4 is for ac fire located in the special platform in the aft of left engine nacelle.
2. 2 is for engine fire located one for each engine.
3. 2 hand fire bottle located in the cargo compartment.

Aircraft fire bottle are inter connected.


Front two first short is automatic. Rear two 2ndshort is manually operated. Engine fire
bottle manually operated. Hand fire bottle manually operated.

Fire protection system controlled by the control panel located at the pilot over head
panel. The number of total fire sensor is 72 located between the 4 compartments. Each
compartment has 18 sensors. Again 18 sensors are divided into 6 sections and 6
sections again divided into 3 sub section.
1 to 18 sensors located in the left wing.
1 to 18 sensors located in the left engine nacelle.
1 to 18 sensors located in the right wing.
1 to 9 sensors located in the right engine nacelle.
1 to 9 sensors located in theT-16 M turbo generator.

The time when it will be operated:


The temperature in the particular region rises to 2 to 4c/sec or 180c to 400c at a time
EMF will sent to the signal to the control unit and control unit will give a command for
lighting and signal to the captain where fire has been occurred. The bottle for first short
will be operated automatically
.

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Charging pressure of the bottle is 1005 kg/cm at a temperature of 25c5c. Capacity


of the bottle is 8ltrs. Operating range is -60c to 80c. Operating timing is 12 to 30 sec. In
case the ac landed with landing gear retracted position the limit switch at frame no 11 &
21 come in contact and operated first short automatically.

Name of bottle capacity


1. Engine fire bottler (1-4-1) 4ltrs each
2. Aircraft fire bottle (2-8-1) 8ltrs each
3. Hand fire bottle (op1-2) 3.6ltrs each

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
There are two type of hydraulic system arranged in the AN-32 aircraft. They are main
hydraulic system, auxiliary hydraulic system.

Main hydraulic system: The following components are operated by main hydraulic
system:
(a) Nose wheel steering.
(b) Wind shield wiper drive control.
(c) Lower emergency escape door opening & closing.
(d) Flap lowering & rising.
(e) Emergency engine shut down & propeller feathering.
(f) Main landing gear wheel braking.
(g) Landing gear extension & retraction.
(h) Cargo door opening & closing with ram sliding.

Auxiliary hydraulic system: The following components are operated by auxiliary hydraulic
system:
(a) Only opening of lower emergency escape door.
(b) Stand by flap extension.
(c) Emergency wheel braking of main landing gear.
(d) Pumping of main hydraulic pump suction pipes.
(e) Hydraulic reservoir replenishing.
(f) Emergency cargo door opening & closing with ram sliding.
(g)

There are five hydraulic transmitters:


(1) One is for main hydraulic system located under flight engineers seat.
(2) One for accumulator located inside the nose wheel well.
(3) One for auxiliary hydraulic system located left wing root near the HC-14 pump.
(4) Two for main brake system located at each landing upper side when pressure above
65 kg/cm at that time shows the pressure in the gauge.

MAIN TECHNICAL DATA:


1. Operating pressure of main hydraulic system150 kg/cm
For auxiliary system16020 kg/cm
Hand pump hydraulic pressure160 to 167 kg/cm
2. Hydraulic system capacity65ltrs
3. Hydraulic system tank capacity37ltrs
4. Hydraulic tank pressurization pressure1.1kg/cm
5. without pressure hydraulic qty of reservoir is27+1ltrs
6. with pressure hydraulic qty of reservoir is21+1ltrs
7. Pressure of main hydraulic accumulator1005 kg/cm
8. Pressure of brake accumulator 603 kg/cm
9. Pressure in feathering line655 kg/cm
10. Opening & closing time of emergency bottom hatch by main hydraulic system3 sec

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11. by auxiliary system10 sec


12. Time for braking & releasing 1.5 to 2 sec
13. Pressure in the main brake system10010 g/cm
14. Emergency brake pressure90 kg/cm
15. Parking brake pressure 60 kg/cm
16. Flap extension & retraction by main system12 to 17 sec & auxiliary20 to 30 sec
17. Ramp opening by main system37 to 60 sec & auxiliary not more than 100 sec.
18. Ramp closing by main system25 to 40 sec & auxiliary50 to 90 sec.
19. Hydraulic pump melted temperature170 to 200c.

Hydraulic pipe lines:


Clearance should have less than 3 mm between the pipes, less than 5mm between a
pipe & a fixed structure and less than 10 mm between a pipe & a moveable structure.
When hydraulic pipe line on dents and scratches allowable 0.1 mm deep (corrective
action: clean & paint, covered with abrasive cloth) and more than 0.1 mm is not allowed.

Hydraulic system:
Suction pipes pumping line: The pumping line consists of solenoid valve (37), safety
valve (31, 36) and check valves (32, 35). When pushing the pump through switch to the
left or right position the pump unit on annunciator is illuminated. At the moment of pump
unit switching on, solenoid valve is actuated connecting the pressure line of pump unit
(59) with the suction line of the pump (28, 43). The air accumulated in the pipe line
passes through a separate pipe from non-spill valve (29, 39) to hydraulic reservoir (13).
Check valves 32& 35 prevents the fluid from flowing directly into the reservoir. Beside the
check valves prevent the fluid of the located above portions of the suction pipeline from
draining into hydraulic reservoir.

When switching on the pump through switch, the pump unit is switched off (The pump
unit on annunciator goes out) and solenoid valve (37) is actuated closing the pressure
line & interconnecting the pumping lines. Safety valves (31, 36) are installed to protect
the suction lines from excessive pressure rise when pumping.

Roller equipment:
Purpose: Roller equipments are installed for loading & unloading the cargos.
Construction:
(1) Base (2) Roller extension
(3) Guide (4) Roller pitch
(5) Seal roller for para dropping.
Data: Length: 1075 mm, height: 55 mm, weight: 285 kg.

Removal of engine from aircraft:


1. To remove all the fire extinguisher line.
2. Disconnect the air condition line and remove the bleed connection.
3. Disconnect the anti-icing line and remove the bleed valve.
4. Disconnect the air intake & IGV line.
5. Disconnect the hydraulic pump pressure line, return line and breather line.
6. After placing the engine to the ground remove the pump.
After installed the engine the same job should be done in the reverse order.

Aircraft jack up operation:


For up: Nose jack:
(1) Ensure the hydraulic fluid.
(2) Upper thread should be out than in 2 or 3 threads.
(3) Brake release.

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(4) Nose jack cross feed valve closed


(5) Need nose wheel steering jack (if required)
(6) After jack up ensure tail support
(7) Main wheel supported by chalk front & rear.
(8) Foot step removed from the aircraft.

Down:
(1) Unlock the lock nut and pin.
(2) Valve open then aircraft down.

Bottle jack:
(1) Ensure hydraulic fluid and upper thread fully out and 03 threads in.
(2) Cross feed valve open position and when aircrafts wheel clear off the ground then
must be closed.

Down: Knob neutral and valve open.

Main jack: (up)


(1) Cross feed valve open position and upper thread fully out than 03 threads in.
(2) Knob 1 middle position.
(3) Knob 2 up position.
(4) Valve closed position.

Down:
(1) Knob 1 middle and knob 2 middle position.
(2) Then valve open and
(3) Knob 2 down handle then jack down. Towing pins in.

Note: Knob 1 position to wheel (up).


Knob 2 position to unjacking(middle).
Safety first and visual checks.

FOR ENGINE REMOVAL & INSTALLATION (781 A) ACTION


Discrepancy Corrective action
1. All the fire lines of right engine nacelle are
removed for right engine removal. fitted after right engine installation.
2. Both bleed valve of air condition & anti-icing
system are removed for right engine removal. fitted after right engine
installation.
3. Air intake & IGV anti-icing line are disconnected
for right engine removal. fitted after right engine
installation.
4. Emergency engine shut down & propeller feathering
line is disconnected for right engine removal. fitted after right engine
installation.
5. Hydraulic pump inlet and outlet are disconnected hydraulic pump inlet & outlet
are for hydraulic pump removal during right engine connected for hydraulic
pump removal. Fitted back after right
engine installation.

(1) Quality shakes down due after right engine replacement. Quality shake down carried out
(AFR, ENG, ELEC /INST)
(2) Power on check is due. Power on check is carried out by all trade sign.

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(3) Retraction & extension test is required for idleness. Retraction & extension test is carried
out in main & auxiliary hydraulic system.
(4) Aircraft is prepared for ground run after right engine replacement. Aircraft is prepared by.
(5) Pre-flight inspection due. Pre-flight inspection is carried out by all trade sign.
(6) FCF due after aircraft idleness & right engine replacement.

Hydraulic system operation & description:


Pressure in the main hydraulic system is created by two hydraulic pumps installed in the
aircraft engine. The pump is provided with a regulator which changes fluid delivery versus
pressure in the system. At a pressure of 150 kg/cm in the system the pump delivery is zero.
At a pressure in the system 130 kg/cm the pump delivery is not less than 28 L/M. To protect
the system from excessive pressure rise, the system is provided with safety valve (30)
adjusted for opening pressure of 1855 kg/cm. The operating mode of the pumps with
safety valve opened creates maximum load on the pumps, overheats the operating fluid and
thus this mode is not allowed to be continuous. To protect the pumps from overheating
during operation with zero delivery & to be stabilized the temperature of the operating fluid,
the system is provided with fuel/fluid heat exchanger (22, 46). The operating fluid at a high
temperature flows from the pumps pressure line through flow restrictor with filter (25), (44)
which pass the fluid at a low rate. Then the fluid flows into the heat exchanger which cools
the fluid having a temperature 50c10c. The fluid is cooled by the fuel flowing through the
heat exchanger from the aircraft fuel system.
The fluid at a temperature of 0c -10c flows to the hydraulic reservoir by passing the heat
exchanger. Thermal valves (23), (48) installed upstream of the heat exchanger (22), (46) are
flow distributors depending on the fluid temperature.
Snubber: Snubber 27 & 45 are installed at the pump outlets to damp pressure variations the
pressure line.

Non-spill valve: Non-spill valves 29&39 in the suction line & check valves 26, 47 the
pressure line permits disconnecting this line without draining the fluid from hydraulic system
when replacing the pump in operation. The fluid supply connection of the main system is
located in the hydraulic reservoir above the connection of the auxiliary system. This provides
a fluid reserve approximately 08ltrs in the reservoir for operation of the consumers of the
auxiliary system when the fluid in the main system is lost.
Fluid supplied in the pressure line of the main system is cleaned by filter. Hydraulic
accumulator (19) of the brake system is charged through check valve (21) if the pressure in
the system is higher than that in the hydraulic accumulator. The hydraulic accumulator can
be discharged into the system only through by-pass valve (20). The pressure in the hydraulic
accumulator (19) is higher than 117 kg/cm. To the pressure decreasing by-pass valve
closes the hydraulic accumulator common system line. Further discharging the accumulator
is possible only into the line lower emergency escape door control, engine shut down &
propeller feathering, landing gear braking. Such connection of the hydraulic accumulator (19)
provides operation of the consumers even in the case of pressure drop in the main system.
Volume of the n chambers of hydraulic accumulators 51&53 is increased the bottles 54 & 55
connected to them. It increases the travel of the accumulator piston when charging the
hydraulic chambers, thus increasing the effective volume of these chambers.
Hydraulic accumulators 51 & 53 are connected to the system so that their discharging into
the system is possible when the pressure in the system is lower than the pressure in the
hydraulic accumulators. The hydraulic accumulators are charged when the pressure in the
system is higher than that in the accumulators, except for the period of the landing gear
retraction.

Retracting the landing gear by the pressure built in the landing gear retraction valves (36)
actuated closing the fluid supply for the charging the hydraulic accumulator thus the fluid
from hydraulic accumulators 51&53 and from pumps (25) is used for the landing gear
retraction to reduce the time of retraction.

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Initial pressure in the accumulator n chambers charging is selected so as to the maximum


reduction of the landing gear retraction time.
Hydraulic accumulators 19, 51, 53 are charged with n through charging 15 & 50. The
operating fluid after the actuation of the cylinders & hydraulic motors of the consumer returns
into hydraulic reservoir (13) through the line & filter (16) cleans the fluid off course the
foreign particles of hydraulic fluid foaming in the hydraulic reservoir.

VVIP SEAT PLANE:


Left side:
(1) Frame no-(12-13) VVIP table - 20 kg
(2) Frame no-(14-15) VVIP seat- 52 kg
(3) Frame no-(16-17) VIP seat no 1- 22 kg
(4) Frame no-(18-19) VIP seat no 2
(5) Frame no-(21-22) VIP seat no 3
(6) Frame no-(23-24) VIP seat no 4

Right side:
(1) Toilet
(2) Water pot.
VVIP carpet 110 kg.
VIP carpet red 70 kg.
VIP carpet green 60 kg.

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